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Effective speech and oral communication

2. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION Communication is the blood-line of society.
Communication is basic to success. Communication is important.
3. COMMUNICATION DEFINED A process by which we assign and convey meaning
in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast
repertoire of skills: a. intrapersonal and interpersonal processing b. listening c.
observing d. speaking e. questioning f. analyzing g. evaluating
4. COMMUNICATION DEFINED It can be seen as processes of information
transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules. 1. Syntactic 2. Pragmatic 3.
Semantic It is therefore a social interaction where at least two interacting agents
share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules.
7. PART 2
8. EFFECTIVE LISTENING Expressing our wants, feelings, thoughts and opinions
clearly and effectively is only half of the communication process needed for
interpersonal effectiveness. The other half is listening and understanding.
There is a real distinction between merely hearing the words and really listening to
the message.
9. SOUND The impact of vibrations make on the human ear the reception of
sound waves (Psychologist and speech teachers) Sound is characterized by three
features: pitch, loudness, and quality Human speech adds a fourth feature rate
or timing.
10. RECEIVING SOUNDS Sound (Vibration)
11. THREE BASIC LISTENING MODES Competitive or Combative Listening
Interested in promoting own stance than understanding someone elses. Passive
or Attentive Listening Interested in hearing and understanding others stance .
Active or Reflective Listening Active in checking understanding before responding
with message.
12. SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY BY THE SPEAKER 1. Voice volume is too low to be
heard. 2. Message is too complex. 3. Speaker is getting lost. 4. Body language or
nonverbal elements are contradicting or interfering with the verbal message. 5.
Paying too much attention on how the other person is taking the message. 6. Using
a very unique code or unconventional method for delivering message.
13. SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY BY THE LISTENER 1. Listener is preoccupied. 2. More
interested in what he has to say that he listens mainly to find an opening to get the
floor. 3. He is formulating and listening to his own rebuttal than to what the speaker
is saying. 4. He is listening to his own personal beliefs about what is being said. 5.

He is evaluating and making judgment about the speaker or the message. 6. He is

not asking for clarification when he knows that he does not understand.
14. LISTENING TIPS Usually, it is important to paraphrase and use your own words
in verbalizing your understanding of the message. Depending on the purpose of
interaction and your understanding of what is relevant, you could reflect on the
other persons: a. account of the facts b. thoughts and beliefs c. feelings and
emotions d. wants, needs or motivation e. hopes and expectations
15. LISTENING TIPS Dont respond to just the meaning of the words; look for
feelings or intent beyond the words. Inhibit from immediately answering
questions. Know when to quit using active listening. If you are confused and
know that you do not understand , ask the speaker to say it another way. When
the speaker is emotionally disturbed, use active listening as a response to him.
Use eye contact and listening body language. Be emphatic and not judgmental.
Become a more effective listener.
16. PART 3
17. LANGUAGE Instrument of communication Oral or written Verbal and Nonverbal Organized system of signals Sounds Intonation Gesture Written
symbols A system of symbols (lexemes) and rules (grammar)
18. LANGUAGE Oral Communication Spoken language Production of sound
representation of language Voice is the primary tool
19. VOICE Voice and Speech Voice is the production of sound Speech is the
combination of sounds Becomes symbols that represent meanings Has
elements which reflect mood Quality Pitch Force Rate
20. VOICE QUALITY Quality Description Purpose Normal voice Speaker speaks
naturally Normal Conversation Breathy voice Aspirate quality Whispering Full voice
Deep quality of voice Orotund Speaking in Formal and Dignified Occasion Chesty
voice Deep hollow voice Give Horror Effect Thin voice High-pitched Falsetto Extreme
Fatigue and Excitement
21. VOICE LEVELS Pitch shows emotion High (e.g. angry lose control of their
emotion) Medium (unemotional) Low (sadness, contempt, indifference or
disappointment )
22. VOICE INTENSITY It refers to the effect of a sound on the ear. Its loudness
or softness The force when one speaks varies in degree and form. Degree
refers to the amount of force applied High degree (e.g. shouting) Low degree
(e.g. whispering)
23. RATE OF SPEECH It refers to the variations of speed. Slow speech projects
calmness, acceptance, and formality. Too slow depicts dullness, listlessness,
apathy, laziness, and lack of intelligence. Rapid speech shows animation,
enthusiasm, excitement, and informality. Too fast suggests nervousness, tension,
and anxiety.


muscles which are responsible for the regulation, expulsion and control of air
Vibrator Vocal bands or cords to produce sound waves through vibration of the air
Resonators Nose, mouth, and throat. Modulate sound waves Articulators
Lips, teeth, tongue, upper gums, lower jaw, hard palate, and ovula. Give definite
shape and character of sounds as air passes through the mouth or nose.
30. BREATHING AND FLEXIBILITY Inhale deeply but relax. Maintain a steady
pressure of air as you speak. Maintain an adequate breath reserve.
32. CONSONANTS The sounds of all languages fall into two classes: consonants
and vowels. Consonants are produced with some restriction or closure in the
vocal tract that impedes the flow of air from the lungs. In phonetics, the terms
consonant and vowel refer to types of sounds, not to the letters that represent
them. We classify consonants according to where in the vocal tract the airflow
restriction occurs, called the place of articulation.
34. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Bilabials [p] [b] [m]
bringing both lips together Labiodentals [f] [v] touching the bottom lip to the upper
teeth Interdentals [] [] think [k] these [iz] inserting the tip of the tongue
between the teeth
35. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Alveolars [t] [d] [n]
[s] [z] [l] [r] tongue raised in various ways to the alveolar ridge [t,d,n] the tongue tip
is raised and touches the ridge, or slightly in front of it [s,z] the sides of the front of
the tongue are raised, but the tip is lowered so that air escapes over it
36. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Alveolars [l] the
tongue tip is raised while the rest of the tongue remains down, permitting air to
escape over its sides [r] speakers either curl the tip of the tongue back behind the
alveolar ridge, or bunch up the top of the tongue behind the ridge
37. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Palatals [] [] [t]
[d] [j] mission [mn] measure [mr] cheap [tip] judge [dd] yoyo [jojo] the
constriction occurs by raising the front part of the tongue to the palate Velars [k] [g]
[] kick [kk] gig [gg] back [bk] bag [bg] bang [b] raising the back of the
tongue to the soft palate or velum

38. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Uvulars [] [q] []

raising the back of the tongue to the uvula, the fleshy protuberance that hangs
down in the back of our throats The r in French is often a uvular trill symbolized by
[]. The uvular sounds [q] and [] occur in Arabic. These sounds do not ordinarily
occur in English.
39. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Glottals [h] [] The
sound of [h] is from the flow of air through the open glottis, and past the tongue and
lips as they prepare to pronounce a vowel sound, which always follows [h]. uh-oh
[o] If the air is stopped completely at the glottis by tightly closed vocal cords, the
sound upon release of the cords is a glottal stop []
41. MANNER OF ARTICULATION Speech sounds also vary in the way the airstream
is affected as it flows from the lungs up and out of the mouth and nose. It may be
blocked or partially blocked; the vocal cords may vibrate or not vibrate. We refer
to this as the manner of articulation.
42. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS Sounds are voiceless when the vocal cords
are apart so that air flows freely through the glottis into the oral cavity. [p] and [s]
in super [supr] are two of the several voiceless sounds of English. If the vocal
cords are together, the airstream forces its way through and causes them to vibrate.
Such sounds are voiced. [b] and [z] in buzz [bz] are two of the many voiced sounds
of English.
43. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS Voiceless Voiced rope [rop] robe [rob] fate
[fet] fade [fed] rack [rk] rag [rg] wreath [ri] wreathe [ri]
44. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS Voiceless Voiced fine [fan] vine [van] seal
[sil] zeal [zil] choke [tok] joke [dok] peat [pit] beat [bit] tote [tot] dote [dot] kale
[kel] gale [gel]
45. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS Voiceless aspirated Voiceless unaspirated pool
[pul] spool [spul] tale [tel] stale [stel] kale [kel] scale [skel]
49. STOPS Stops Examples Production bilabial stops [p], [b], [m] airstream stopped
at the mouth by the complete closure of the lips alveolar stops [t], [d], [n] the
airstream is stopped by the tongue, making a complete closure at the alveolar ridge
velar stops [k], [g], [] with the complete closure at the velum palatal affricates [t],
[d] with complete stop closures glottal stop [] the air is completely stopped at the
50. FRICATIVES Fricatives [f] [v] [] [] [s] [z] [] [] [x] [] [h] In the
production of some continuants, the airflow is so severely obstructed that it causes
friction, and the sounds are therefore called fricatives.

51. FRICATIVES Fricatives Examples Production labiodental fricatives [f], [v] the
friction is created at the lips and teeth, where a narrow passage permits the air to
escape interdental fricatives [], [] the friction occurs at the opening between the
tongue and teeth alveolar fricatives [s], [z] the friction created at the alveolar ridge
52. FRICATIVES Fricatives Examples Production palatal fricatives [], [] mission
[mn] measure [mr] friction created as the air passes between the tongue and
the part of the palate behind the alveolar ridge In English, the voiced palatal
fricative never begins words except for foreign words such as genre. The voiceless
palatal fricative begins the words shoe [u] and sure [ur] and ends the words rush
[r] and push [p]. glottal fricative [h] its relatively weak sound comes from air
passing through the open glottis and pharynx
53. AFFRICATES [t] [d] These sounds are produced by a stop closure followed
immediately by a gradual release of the closure that produces an effect
characteristic of a fricative. The palatal sounds that begin and end the words
church and judge are voiceless and voiced affricates, respectively. Affricates are
not continuants because of the initial stop closure.
54. GLIDES [j] [w] The sounds [j] and [w], the initial sounds of you [ju] and we
[wi], are produced with little obstruction of the airstream. They are always
followed directly by a vowel and do not occur at the end of words. After
articulating [j] or [w], the tongue glides quickly into place for pronouncing the next
vowel, hence the term glide.
55. VOWELS Vowels are produced with little restriction of the airflow from the
lungs out the mouth and/or the nose. Vowel sounds carry pitch and loudness.
We classify vowels according to three questions: 1. How high or low in the mouth is
the tongue? 2. How forward or backward in the mouth is the tongue? 3. Are the lips
rounded (pursed) or spread?
57. TONGUE POSITION Types of Vowels Examples Production high front vowels [i] he
[hi] the tongue is high in the mouth and the front part is raised high back vowel [u]
who [hu] the tongue is high in the mouth and back part of the tongue is raised low
back vowel [a] hah [ha] the back of the tongue is low in the mouth [] and [] hit
[ht], heat [hit] put [pt], hoot [hut] slightly lowered tongue positions
58. TONGUE POSITION Types of Vowels Examples Production low front vowel []
hack [hk] produced with the front part of the tongue low in the mouth, similar to
the low vowel [a], but with the front rather than the back part of the tongue lowered
front mid vowels [e] and [] bait [bet] bet [bt] raising the front of the tongue to a
position midway between the high and low vowels back mid vowels [o] and [] boat
[bot] bore [br] raising back of the tongue to a position midway between the high
and low vowels
59. TONGUE POSITION Types of Vowels Examples Production lower mid central
vowel [] butt [bt] the tongue is not strictly high nor low, front nor back schwa
vowel [] about [bat] sofa [sof] articulated with the tongue in a more or less

neutral position between the extremes of high/low, front/back the schwa is used
mostly to represent unstressed vowels
60. LIP ROUNDING Types of Vowels Examples Production rounded vowels [u] boot []
put [o] boat [] bore produced with pursed or rounded lips Unrounded vowel [i]
cheese [a] bar, bah, aha with the lips in the shape of a smile
62. DIPHTHONGS A diphthong is a sequence of two vowel sounds. Diphthongs
are present in the phonetic inventory of many languages, including English. The
vowels we have studied so far are simple vowels, called monophthongs.
63. DIPHTHONGS Diphthongs Sound Sequence Examples [a] [a] father followed
rapidly by the [] sound of fit bite [bat] [a] [a] followed by the [] sound of put
bout [bat] [] [] of bore followed by [] boy [b]
64. NASALIZATION OF VOWELS Vowels can be produced with a raised velum that
prevents the air from escaping through the nose, or with a lowered velum that
permits air to pass through the nasal passage. Nasal vowels occur for the most
part before nasal consonants in the same syllable, and oral vowels occur in all other
places. The words bean, bone, bingo, boom, bam, and bang are examples of
words that contain nasalized vowels. To show the nasalization of a vowel in a
narrow phonetic transcription, an extra mark called a diacriticthe symbol ~ (tilde)
placed over the vowel, as in bean [bn] and bone [bn].
69. RULES ON WORD STRESS 1. Two-Syllable nouns and adjectives In most two
syllable nouns and adjectives, the first syllable takes on the stress. Examples:
SAM-ples CAR-ton Col-or-ful RAI-ny 2. Two-Syllable verbs and prepositions In
most two syllable verbs and prepositions, the stress is on the second syllable.
Examples: re-LAX, re-CEIVE, di-RECT, a-MONG Verbs and prepositions usually get
stress placed on the second syllable, but there are exceptions to this too. a-SIDE
70. RULES ON WORD STRESS 3. Three-Syllable words For three syllable words,
look at the word ending (the suffix), using the following as your guide. 4. Words
ending in er, or, ly For words ending with the suffixes er, or, or ly, the stress is
placed on the first syllable. Examples: DI-Rect/DI-rec-tor, OR-der/OR-der-ly, MAnage/MA-nag-er
71. RULES ON WORD STRESS 5. Words ending in consonants and in y If there
is a word that ends in a consonant or in a y, then the first syllable gets the stress.
Examples: RA-ri-ty OP-ti-mal GRA-di-ent CON-tain-er

72. RULES ON WORD STRESS 6. Words with various endings Take a good look
at the list of suffixes below (suffixes are word endings). Your stress is going to come
on the syllable right before the suffix. This applies to words of all syllable lengths.
able: ADDable, ARable, DURable ary: PRIMary, DIary, liBRary cial: juDIcial,
nonSOcial cian: muSIcian, phySIcian, cliNICian ery: BAkery, SCENery graphy:
calLIgraphy, bibliOgraphy, stenOgraphy
73. RULES ON WORD STRESS ial: celesTIal, iniTIal, juDICial ian: coMEdian,
ciVILian, techNIcian ible: viSIble, terRIble, reSIstible ic: arCHAic, plaTOnic,
synTHEtic ical: MAgical, LOgical, CRItical ics: diaBEtics, paediAtrics
74. RULES ON WORD STRESS ion: classifiCAtion, repoSItion, vegeTAtion ity:
imMUnity, GRAvity, VAnity ium: HElium, ALUminum, PREmium imum:
MInimum, MAXimum, OPtimum logy: BIology, CARdiology, RAdiology tal:
caPItal, biCOAstal, reCItal
75. RULES ON WORD STRESS 7. Words ending in ee, ese, ique, ette Words that
use the suffix ee, ese, eer, ique or ette, have the primary stress actually placed on
the suffix. This applies to words of all syllable lengths. Examples: ee: agrEE,
jamborEE, guarantEE eer: sightsEER, puppetEER ese: SiamESE, JapanESE,
cheESE ette: cassETTE, CorvETTE, towelETTE ique: unIQUE, physIQUE
76. RULES ON WORD STRESS 8. Prefixes Usually, prefixes do not take the
stress of a word. There are a few exceptions to this rule, however, like: un, in, pre,
ex and mis, which are all stressed in their prefix. Examples: ex: e-XAM-ple, expla-NAtion, e-XAM-ine in: IN-side, IN-efficient, IN-terest mis: MIS-spoke, MIstake, MIS-spelled pre: PRE-cede, PRE-ar-range, PRE-li-min-ary
77. RULES ON WORD STRESS 9. Stress on the second from the end syllable
You put stress on the second syllable from the end of the word, with words ending
in ic, sion and tion. Examples: i-CON-ic Hy-per-TEN-sion Nu-TRI-tion
78. RULES ON WORD STRESS 10. Stress on the third from end syllable You put
stress on the third from end syllable with words that end in cy, ty, phy, gy and al.
Examples: de-mo-CRA-cy TREA-ty Ge-O-graphy AL-ler-gy NAU-ti-cal
79. RULES ON WORD STRESS C. Compound verbs A compound verb is when a
subject has two or more verbs. The stress is on the second or on the last part.
Examples: Matilda loves bread but de-TESTS butter. Sarah baked cookies and
ATE them up. Dogs love to eat bones and love DRIN-king water. D. Noun +
compound nouns Noun + compound Nouns are two word compound nouns. In
noun + compound noun, the stress is on the first word. Examples: AIR-plane
mechanic PRO-ject manager BOARD-room member
80. RULES ON WORD STRESS B. Compound adjectives A compound adjective is
an adjective composed of at least two words. Often, hyphens are used in compound
adjectives. In compound adjectives, the stress is placed within the second word.
Examples: ten-ME-ter rock-SO-lid Fif-teen-MI-nute

81. RULES ON WORD STRESS 11. Word stress for compound words A.
Compound noun A compound noun is a noun made out of two nouns in order to
form one word. In a compound noun, the first word usually takes on the stress.
Examples: SEA-food ICE-land TOOTH-paste
82. RULES ON WORD STRESS 12. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are words made
from a verb and preposition. In phrasal verbs, the second word gets the stress
(the preposition). Examples: Black OUT break DOWN look OUT 13. Proper
nouns Proper nouns are specific names of people, places or things. For example:
Jeniffer, Spain, Google. The second word is always the one that takes the stress
83. RULES ON WORD STRESS 14. Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns show
that the action affects the person who performs the action. For example: I hit
myself. The second syllable usually takes the stress. Examples: my-SELF
Them-SELVES Our-SELVES 15. Numbers If the number is a multiple of ten,
the stress is placed on the first syllable. Examples: TEN FIF-ty ONE-hundred
85. INTONATION The falling tone
86. INTONATION The low rising tone
87. INTONATION The high rising tone
88. INTONATION The fall-rise tone
89. PART 4
90. INTRODUCTION Humans ability to communicate using formalized systems of
language sets us apart from other living creatures on the Earth. The ironic
feature of public speaking is that while we recognize that it is an important skill to
have, many of us do not like or want to give speeches. Anyone can learn to give
effective presentations.
91. BENEFITS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Public Professional Personal allow you to
participate in democracy at its most basic level is required at any professions
enhances chance of securing employment and advancing in career fulfills
essential roles in family and community builds self-confidence
94. THREE TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 1. Speeches that inform Explain
Report Describe Clarify Define
95. THREE TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 2. Speeches that persuade Designed to
convince or influence beliefs or attitudes 3. Speeches that entertain Use humor
to influence an audience Goal: to warm audience up

96. SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES A special occasion speech includes one of

several kinds that celebrate an occasion. More specifically, it might introduce a
speaker, entertain an audience, or inspire people. Another term for special
occasion speech is ceremonial speech.
97. PURPOSE OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES Magnification It means giving
benefit to the audience, amplifying emotion, and exceeding expectations.
Identification It involves creating familiarity and closeness.
98. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES Speech of Introduction Toast and
Roast Speech to Present an Award Acceptance Speech Keynote Address
Commencement Speech Commemorative Speeches and Tributes After-Dinner
99. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES Speech of Introduction A speech
of introduction is a brief presentation used to introduce the main speaker of an
event and to inspire the audience to listen to that speaker. The introductory
speech usually has three components: 1. provide a brief backdrop or background of
the main speaker 2. introduce the speakers topic 3. an invitation from the audience
to warmly welcome the speaker
100. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES Toast A toast is a brief tribute to
a person or event. Roast A roast is a variation of the toast in which the speaker
pays tribute to a person by poking fun at her or him in a friendly way.
101. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES Presentational Speech Also
called a speech to present an award, the presentational speech serves to highlight
the merits of the award recipient and to point out the purpose and significance of
the award being given. Acceptance Speech Also called the speech to accept an
award, the acceptance speech gives the recipient an opportunity to express
appreciation for the award as well as humility and grace.
102. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES Keynote Address The keynote
address represents the keynote of a larger idea taking place at a conference or
exposition usually organized around a central theme.
commencement speech is given by a well-known person of local, national, or
international acclaim to mark a university or secondary school graduation
104. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES Commemorative or Tribute Speech
A commemorative or tribute speech is one that pays special accolades to an
occasion, extraordinary person, event, idea, or monument. Such a speech is
intended to reflect the emotions of the audience.
105. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES After-dinner Speech During the
after-dinner speech, audiences expect to be entertained by a speech that informs
them about a particular issue. This speech sometimes uses humor to make a
serious point.

106. IDENTIFYING YOUR SPEAKING STYLE Cool presenter Hot presenter Dull
107. SPEAKING COMPETENCIES Useful Topic Engaging Introduction Clear
Organization Well-Supported Ideas Closure in Conclusion Clear and Vivid
Language Suitable Vocal Expression Corresponding Nonverbals Adapted to
the Audience Adept Use of Visual Aids Convincing Persuasion
108. DELIVERING YOUR PRESENTATION Methods of Speech Delivery Effective
Verbal Delivery Effective Nonverbal Delivery Final Tips for Rehearsing and
109. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY Manuscript Speaking Rarely done well
enough to be interesting Guidelines 1. Type your manuscript in short, easy-toscan phrases 2. Use appropriate nonverbal messages 3. Do not read the speech too
quickly 4. Vary the rhythm, inflections, and pace of your delivery 5. Use gestures
and movement to add nonverbal interest
110. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY Memorized Speaking Guidelines 1. Do
not deliver your memorized speech too rapidly 2. Avoid patterns of vocal inflection
that make the presentation sound recited 3. Use gestures and movement to add
interest and emphasis to your message
111. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY Impromptu Speaking off the cuff
Guidelines 1. Consider your audience 2. Be brief 3. Organize 4. Draw upon your
personal experience and knowledge 5. Use gestures and movement that arise
naturally from what you are saying 6. Be aware of the potential impact of your
112. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY Extemporaneous Speaking Method of
delivery preferred by most audiences Guidelines 1. Use a full-content preparation
outline when you begin to rehearse your presentation 2. Prepare an abbreviated
delivery outline and speaking notes 3. Do not try to memorize your message word
for word 4. As you deliver your presentation, adapt it to your audience
113. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY RECAP Methods of Delivery Manuscript
Reading a speech from written text Memorized Giving a speech word for word from
memory without using notes Impromptu Delivering a presentation without advance
preparation Extemporaneous Speaking from a written or memorized outline without
having memorized the exact wording of the presentation
114. KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE Make up of Audience Superiors Peers Team
members Special interest groups Mixed groups
115. TIME TO OUTLINE Gather materials Examples Statistics Testimony
116. PREPARING THE OUTLINE I. Introduction II. Body A. Main point B. Main point 1.
Sub-point 2. Sub-point a. Sub sub-point b. Sub sub-point III. Conclusion
117. BUILDING THE BODY Begin developing your speech by working on the
middle first, or the body. The body covers everything you want to say during your

speech. The body should have three to five main points for a 20 minute to half
hour presentation. And if you want your audience to remember those points, the
most effective approach is point development. Once your speech is over, the
audience is going to remember main points only.
118. MAKING AN EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION Get the attention of the audience.
You can get attention and interest by relating the topic to the audience. People pay
attention to things that affect them directly. Startle the audience with an
arresting or intriguing statement. Almost one year ago today, a perfect stranger
saved my best friends life. Arouse Curiosity. Give an arresting synopsis of
what you will explore. Or you may question your audience. This draws the audience
in immediately.
119. PREPARING THE CONCLUSION Two Purposes 1. Let the audience know you
are ending 2. Reinforce central idea
120. EFFECTIVE VERBAL DELIVERY Using words well Crafting memorable word
121. USING WORDS WELL Specific, Concrete Words Refers to an object or action
in the most specific way possible Unbiased Words Do not offend any sexual,
racial, cultural, or religious group Vivid Words Add color and interest to your
language Simple Words Immediately understandable Correct Words
Grammatical and usage errors communicate a lack of preparation
Metaphors (implied comparisons) Similes (over comparisons) Personification
(attribution of human qualities to non-human things or ideas)
123. CRAFTING MEMORABLE WORD STRUCTURES Drama Omission (strip a phrase
or sentence of nonessential words that the audience expects) Do you believe that
he can cope ? Inversion (invert the usual subject-verb- object sentence pattern)
Him the crowd adores. Suspension (saving a key word or phrase for the end of a
sentence) They tried, they fought, they did their best.
124. CRAFTING MEMORABLE WORD STRUCTURES Cadence Parallelism (two or
more clauses have the same grammatical pattern) Antithesis (the two structures
contrast) From rags to riches, from beans to beef, from water to wine. Repetition
(repeat key word or phrase) The game was lost. The game was finished before it
began. The game was a farce of sportsmanship. Alliteration (repetition of an initial
consonant sound several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence) They have bribed
us with promise, blackmailed us with threats, and bled us with
125. EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY Eye contact Physical delivery Gestures
Movement Posture Facial expression
126. EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY Vocal Delivery Volume Pitch Rate
Articulation Appearance
127. EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY RECAP Characteristics of Nonverbal Delivery
Gestures should be relaxed, definite, varied, and appropriate. Movement should be

purposeful Posture should feel natural and be appropriate to your topic, audience,
and occasion Eye Contact should be established before you say anything and
sustained throughout your presentation Facial Expression should be alert, friendly,
and appropriate Volume should be loud enough to be heard and varied Pitch should
be varied to sustain audience interest Rate should be neither too fast or too slow
Articulation should be clear and distinct Appearance should conform to what the
audience expects
outline several days before you must deliver the presentation Practice, Practice,
Practice Practice good delivery skills while rehearsing If possible, practice your
presentation for someone else Tape record or videotape your presentation
situation in your final rehearsals Get plenty of rest the night before you speak
Arrive early After you have delivered your presentation, seek feedback from
members of your audience.