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The actual social reality

In a recent article dealing with the sociological vocabulary, Professor Hayes raises some
fundamental methodological questions. (1) All sociologists should use technical terms in
the same sense. Terms are to be judged by their serviceability, which is measured in part
by disjunctiveness, inclusiveness, and fewness of the concepts proposed. Methodology
should tend to lead to fresh discoveries. (2) The process of competition is the physical
aspect of the social reality; it Know Thyself by Na’Im Akbar
What distinguishes human life from all other animals on earth is the ability to acquire 
knowledge. Knowledge is the capacity to know oneself, and have the ability to 
communicate that knowledge to others. Consciousness th fundamental methodological
questions. (1) All sociologists should use technical terms in the same sense. Terms are to
be judged by their serviceability, which is measured in part by disjunctiveness,
inclusiveness, and fewness of the concepts proposed. Methodology should tend to lead to
fresh discoveries. (2) The process of competition is the physical aspect of the social
reality; it Know Thyself by Na’Im Akbar
e internal manifestation of knowledge is a valued human asset and people should 
seek always to enhance their self­knowledge.
Education that comes from the Latin verb educare, which means to bring forth is 
more than a process of teaching or imposing some habits or ideas. Education in its 
inception was understood as a process of harnessing the inner potential that was yet 
unexpressed and brining it out into consciousness. The concept of equipping human 
being with the consciousness of their true nature was an essential task every society 
provided. Education first function is to provide identity.  Identity is the consciousness of 
our true nature, and human being posses an intrinsic nature that unless it is educed people
can actually not develop their human identity. 
European­American education is a system that was established to provide a true 
education for anyone but Americans of European descent who were intended to remain 
the holders and developers of this society. Miseducation begins at the level where a 
person is taught an alien identity and nothing about their true identity. They learn to see 
themselves as a player in someone else story and not learn they own story. The ones who 
learn in spite of the miseducational process often become the willing slaves of their 
teachers. This miseducation maintains the enslavement of people.  When they read of the 
accomplishments of Newton, Shakespeare, Euclid, Joan of Arc, Galileo, Mozart, Queen 
Victoria or Michaelangelo, they are being invited to share in the legacy of their great 
predecessors. The objective is that the children of European descent comes to know their 
potential for similar greatness.  

determines the spatial and economic organization of human society, and affords a
starting-point for the study of other social processes. (3) Conflict and accommodation are

They will be equally well agreed. competition. and that as such they are to be evaluated and selected. but the concept of becoming. Conflict arises out of conflicting claims. in every case. rejected. however. of the relations to which he would apply them. and in this one is constrained to agree with him. certain features of Hayes's suggestions involve. in addition to the questions of terminology. The issues raised by his paper have therefore a twofold significance." Others he has obviously and admittedly taken from previous literature. Professor E. The question of the meanings to be attached to such terms as "social process" and "social relations" is not an altogether trivial one. revealed to him by "flashes of insight. (5) The concepts proposed here are intended to make possible somewhat complete accounts of reactions evoked by social contact. accommodation. (4) Conflict. that not too great stress should be placed on questions of vocabulary.[1] using as a text for his remarks passages from certain chapters in the Park and Burgess sociology.processes which involve the "personal" type of interaction. and accommodation is the process in which an equilibration of conflict through redefinition of claims is established. and assimilation. is not serviceable for scientific purposes. accommodation. In a recent article. (6) The actual social reality may be abstracted in substantive or in active terms. unless broken up into small units connected with types of social interaction. that we need to establish a universe of discourse. of course. and (2) that the term "social process" be reserved for reference to the evolution or "becoming" of human society." These are important questions. and assimilation are processes in which control is established. Hayes of the University of Illinois raises some interesting questions concerning the grammar of social science. and that other aspects of the social reality which have been called "social processes" be referred to as "social relations.[2] He has essentially two suggestions to offer: (1) that thirteen terms which he proposes[3] be used in place of the four. Nor does he offer descriptions. Some of them are apparently original with him. His article gives one the impression that he does not consider either of these methods of deriving terms to be necessarily discreditable. All sociologists will agree. The immediate reduction of the social reality to description in more ultimate terms tends to obscure some of its features. C. Furthermore. conflict. fundamental methodological questions. well worth investigation and discussion. Assimilation is the process in which persons develop sympathetic responsiveness to one another's claims. the terms which we use as technical should always have the same meaning. or revised with regard to their utility for the purposes of research or explanation. The discussion of Professor Hayes's criticisms and suggestions is rendered more difficult than it would otherwise be by the fact that he does not state what meanings he proposes to assign to some of the thirteen concepts which he names. The reality is in fact a process of becoming. Vaihinger has rendered a service to the students of fundamental methods in his statement that concepts are intellectual tools. not with regard to the procedures by which they were derived: .

The materials with which this trial and selection proceeds are naturally the data The concepts gathered from such sources are of course subjected to a deductive procedure of checking up and reconciliation. however. however. however. which run counter to ordinary procedure in a more or less paradoxical way. one has resort to trial and selection. .[5] In other words. and is subjectively seen as the only real meanin. In part. As is well known g of the one drawn with crayon or ink. on the other hand." The artifices. When. additions are made to the conceptual equipment of the sociologist. Thought also has such artifices. and can be brought within the range of purposive control. he insists that methods cannot be explicitly prescribed in advance: The mathematician can assume that the concept of an ideal geometric figure is known. it was his most fundamental thesis that it is the function of apart from their content. they are the concepts which previous theoretic writers have . in a discussion of the methodological problems of sociology.[4] Simmel. the separation of that which is really pure socialization from the complex total appearance cannot be logically enforced. by no procedure which lends itself to rigid prescription in terms of a formal logical method. they are strikingly purposive expressions of the organic function of thought. either deductive or inductive. he takes up the question of procedure. Deduction is in fact the term we give to the process of reasoning by which we determine which one has sought to explain. both these methods are united in the endeavor to solve difficulties which can only be overcome indirectly. One is forced to take upon himself here the odium of speaking of intuitive procedure— however different it may be from the geometric-metaphysical concept of intuition—of a particular limitation of the glance with which this separation is accomplished and to which. Here (in sociological inquiries). In other functions also this distinction is of value. and where on the other hand they approach the complicated phenomena of social life. until it is later developed in conceptually expressible methods. "rules of thinking. has made essentially the same paint. that is to say. it can be guided only through a survey of concrete cases. We make a distinction between rules and artifices of thought. It is here that methods begin which represent a higher synthesis of deduction and induction. the rules are the totality of all those those of induction. or the practical problems with which one has tried to deal. the insufficiency of purely inductive methods is clearly manifest. . of an almost mysterious character. In the development of a methodology with the aid of which a certain order of phenomena can be made more intelligible. where. . the corresponding assumption cannot be made. in the present stage of development of the science.Just at the point where the empirical method of natural science converges on the methods of exact mechanics and abstract physics. are those operations.

progress is achieved by experimenting with existing terms. On the one hand. like other scientists. so that the illusion is created that no more can be said on the subject in hand. and no part of the material is capable of inclusion under more than one of them. particularly those of disjunctiveness and inclusiveness. the terms which we use are satisfactory. sociologists. not in the measure of their capacity for parceling out neatly and exhaustively the materials in which we are interested.[6] It is to be emphasized. Only gradually can a precise scientific vocabulary be established and perfected by the consensus of the sociological guild. but in the . that the purpose of scientific method. This logical fitness and serviceability can be measured in part by very simple criteria. must express their concepts in terms of the vocabulary which is already in existence. but the conquest of fields of inquiry which have as yet escaped explanation and control. that the total number of concepts in a particular system should be as small as practicable. whether our concepts as we have tentatively defined them can be made to conform to the logical necessities imposed by the nature of our thought. this is even more necessary for sociologists than for other scientists. In fact. Perhaps a third criterion should be stated. and raw material from which scientific concepts can be extracted is available in the published records of previous attempts to solve practical problems. however. in sociology or in any other field. is not finality. the terms proposed for use in some particular type of analysis should be such that any possible case of the general kind in question can be brought under some one of the headings. since the material in which they are interested is inextricably embodied in the vernacular speech. That is. On the other hand. Meanwhile.defined. and cannot be intelligibly designated in any other terms.