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You are on page 1of 27

Topic 3:

Stress and Strain

Content

coordinates

Cylindrical coordinates

coordinates

2

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Conceptually, a stress is defined as the intensity of the

internal force acting on a specific plane (area) passing

through a point.

Stress, in general, cannot be measured directly

It is calculated from the knowledge of the strain

shortening, deformation, or distortion due to applied

forces or loadings.

3

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Consider the axially loaded member in Fig 3.1(a). It

should be understood that the arrows (of the force)

simply represent force resultants on the faces of the

member. That is, it should not be seen as a force solely

applied along the line of the arrow. This is also true for

the internal force

member

4

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

acting normal to the area is called normal

stress .

The limit of the above expression, as the

area becomes small is:

= lim

=

0

b

Fig 3.2. A transversely

loaded member

5

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

From early lessons, we conclude that internal forces must

exist in the plane of the section as shown in Fig 3.2b.

These internal forces, in the case of a transversely loaded

or tangentially loaded members or torsionally loaded

members lead to another type of stress called shear

forces.

The intensity of the shear force divided by the

cross-sectional area on which it acts is called a

shear stress (Greek symbol tau).

=

()

In slide page 4, the load-carrying member is subjected purely to a 1D normal

stress. In slide page 5, the transversely loaded member is also subjected to a 1D

shear stress. However, in most practical situations, a member is subjected to

combined loads that lead to a more complex stress state.

It is therefore necessary to examine the variation of stress between adjacent points and derive suitable

expressions for this variation

Relationships for stresses may be found by considering the equilibrium of a small element of material

The equilibrium equations are obtained from the relationship between the internal forces and the area on

which these forces are acting

The solution of these equations of equilibrium must satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem as defined

by the forces

However, for statically indeterminate problem, it is not possible to obtain the individual components of stress

directly from equilibrium equations alone

In such cases, it is necessary to consider the elastic deformations of the material such that, in a continuous strain

These relationships are termed the equations of compatibility

Equations of equilibrium and compatibility are general and can be derived in terms of various co-ordinate

systems

6

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Fig 3.3b Stresses on an element

The naming convention for the stress on each plane follows this:

is the normal stress, in and on plane

is the shear stress, on plane whose normal is , acting in

where is the body force that acts on the entire volume (e.g. gravity, inertia).

Divide through by the volume to get:

+

+=

In the limit as 0, 0:

+

+=

8

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

+=

Coordinates

If the body forces ( ) are negligible, then the

equilibrium equations for a 2D problem in a Cartesian

coordinate reduce to:

9

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Eq. (2)

Coordinates

The cylindrical coordinate is ideal for analyzing the stresses in structures/members

that have curved members e.g. cylindrical tanks, pressure vessels, spherical gas tanks

and discs.

10

Cylindrical vessels

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Coordinates

Consider the equilibrium of the element of a curved body in cylindrical coordinates:

and are both shear stresses

is the angle subtended by the curved surface

is the radial body force

11

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

radial direction

second and higher-order terms and dividing by , we have

OR

12

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

tangential direction

13

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

The two equilibrium equations, in cylindrical coordinate, for a 2D problem are now:

Eq.(3)

Eq.(4)

Axial Symmetry

In certain cases, such as a ring, disc or cylinder, the body is symmetrical about

central axis through . In this instance

at any particular radius is constant

Stress component depend on only

The shear stress component must vanish

These conditions, arising from axial symmetry, lead to the elimination of

Eq.(4) and reduces Eq. (3) to:

Eq.(5)

14

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Now that we have our equilibrium equations in terms of stress (equations 1-4). What can we do with it?

Remember that we cannot measure stress directly, we have to measure it through strain.

Strain, in turn, depends on displacement or deformation. Our next move is now to relate both

strain and displacement, which will then help us to relate stress and strain. Get the idea?

field in a Cartesian coordinate

for a 2D problem. The strain

components are as defined

below

15

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Here, we consider the strain field in a cylindrical coordinate for a 2D

problem defined by the following components:

Axial Symmetry

Again, for the body that is symmetrical about a central axis, through

-There is no tangential displacement,

- does not vary with

-Shear strain is equal to zero, therefore is zero

This then lead to a reduced displacement field with just two components:

16

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS:

CARTESIAN COORDINATES

Compatibility equations: the relations between

strains and stresses in a 2-dimensional plane

In the strain-displacement relationships, there are six

strain measures but only three independent

displacements (for a 3D problem). That is, there are 6

unknowns for only 3 independent variables. As a

result, there exists 3 constraint, or compatibility

equations.

17

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS:

CARTESIAN COORDINATES

The three strains in 2D are expressed in terms of two displacement as follows.

There must be a relationship between three strains.

strains with respect to , or , or both and .

Compatibility equation

18

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

To obtain the compatibility equation in terms of stress, we need to recall the expression for the

Generalized Hookes law. Hookes law relates stress and strain through the constant of

proportionality called the Youngs modulus.

We will consider the case of a plane stress under which z= 0 and , and are related

x =

y =

xy =

xy

G

x y

E

y x

2 xy (1 + )

E

19

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

7

8

Eqns. 7&8 are the previously derived equilibrium equations. Differentiating eqn. 7 with

respect to and eqn. 8 with respect to and add to get

20

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Cartesian coordinates

In terms of strains:

10

In terms of stresses:

11

21

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Cylindrical coordinates

In terms of strains:

12

In terms of stresses:

13

22

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

under axial symmetry

Remember in the case of axial symmetry, there is no dependence on

Therefore, the compatibility equation in terms of stresses, for an axially

symmetrical body reduces to:

d2 1 d

2 +

( r + ) = 0

r dr

dr

Multiplying out:

d 2 r 1 d r d 2 1 d

+

+

+

=0

2

2

dr

r dr

dr

r dr

23

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

(14)

= r

d r

+ r

dr

d d r

d 2 r d r

=

+r

+

2

dr

dr

dr

dr

and

3

2

d 2 d 2r d 2r

d 3r d 2r

d

d

r

r

=

+

+

r

+

=3

+r

2

dr 2

dr 2

dr 2

dr 3

dr 2

dr

dr 3

Substituting Eqns. (15) and (16) for in Eqn. (14) and gathering terms

together gives:

d 3 r

d 2 r 3 d r

r

+5

+

=0

2

3

dr

dr

r dr

24

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

(15)

(16)

d 3 r

d 2 r 3 d r

r

+5

+

=0

2

3

dr

dr

r dr

17

Eqn. 17 is a third-order ordinary differential equation in terms of

18

19

25

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Example 3.1

Derive compatibility equations from the following straindisplacement relationships:

Solution:

Differentiate first equation with respect to

respect to z

z w

=

z

2

z 1 2 w

=

r z

z

z

z

=r

26

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Example 3.2

Derive compatibility equations from the following

strain-displacement relationships:

Solution:

Differentiate first equation with respect to z, the second equation with

respect to y , and the third equation with respect to x

xy

2u

2v

=

+

z

yz xz

xz 2u

=

y

zy

xy

xz yz

=

+

z

y

x

27

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

yz

2v

=

x

zx

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