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# HES5320 Solid Mechanics

Topic 3:
Stress and Strain

Content

coordinates

## Strain in terms of displacement: Cartesian and

Cylindrical coordinates

## Compatibility equations: Cartesian and Cylindrical

coordinates

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## Stress and strain

Conceptually, a stress is defined as the intensity of the
internal force acting on a specific plane (area) passing
through a point.
Stress, in general, cannot be measured directly
It is calculated from the knowledge of the strain

## A strain can be defined as an average elongation,

shortening, deformation, or distortion due to applied

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## Stress: Normal Stress

Consider the axially loaded member in Fig 3.1(a). It
should be understood that the arrows (of the force)
simply represent force resultants on the faces of the
member. That is, it should not be seen as a force solely
applied along the line of the arrow. This is also true for
the internal force

## Fig 3.1. An axially loaded

member

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## The intensity of the internal force (Fig 3.2b)

acting normal to the area is called normal
stress .

## A normal stress is produced by a normal strain

The limit of the above expression, as the
area becomes small is:

= lim
=
0

## Stress: Shear Stress

b
Fig 3.2. A transversely

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## Consider the transversely loaded member in Fig 3.2(a).

From early lessons, we conclude that internal forces must
exist in the plane of the section as shown in Fig 3.2b.
These internal forces, in the case of a transversely loaded
members lead to another type of stress called shear
forces.
The intensity of the shear force divided by the
cross-sectional area on which it acts is called a
shear stress (Greek symbol tau).
=

()

## Variation of stress and strain

In slide page 4, the load-carrying member is subjected purely to a 1D normal
stress. In slide page 5, the transversely loaded member is also subjected to a 1D
shear stress. However, in most practical situations, a member is subjected to

It is therefore necessary to examine the variation of stress between adjacent points and derive suitable
expressions for this variation
Relationships for stresses may be found by considering the equilibrium of a small element of material

The equilibrium equations are obtained from the relationship between the internal forces and the area on
which these forces are acting
The solution of these equations of equilibrium must satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem as defined
by the forces
However, for statically indeterminate problem, it is not possible to obtain the individual components of stress
directly from equilibrium equations alone
In such cases, it is necessary to consider the elastic deformations of the material such that, in a continuous strain

## field, the displacements are compatible with stress distribution

These relationships are termed the equations of compatibility

Equations of equilibrium and compatibility are general and can be derived in terms of various co-ordinate
systems

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## Fig 3.3a Elements within a plane

Fig 3.3b Stresses on an element
The naming convention for the stress on each plane follows this:
is the normal stress, in and on plane
is the shear stress, on plane whose normal is , acting in

where is the body force that acts on the entire volume (e.g. gravity, inertia).

## Equilibrium Equations: Cartesian Coordinates

Divide through by the volume to get:

+
+=

In the limit as 0, 0:

+
+=

## Also, in the limit as 0, 0, we have:

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+=

## Equilibrium Equations: Cartesian

Coordinates
If the body forces ( ) are negligible, then the
equilibrium equations for a 2D problem in a Cartesian
coordinate reduce to:

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Eq. (2)

## Equilibrium Equations: Cylindrical

Coordinates
The cylindrical coordinate is ideal for analyzing the stresses in structures/members
that have curved members e.g. cylindrical tanks, pressure vessels, spherical gas tanks
and discs.

## Spherical gas tank

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Cylindrical vessels
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## Equilibrium Equations: Cylindrical

Coordinates
Consider the equilibrium of the element of a curved body in cylindrical coordinates:

## is the circumferential stress

and are both shear stresses
is the angle subtended by the curved surface

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## As , sin and cos 1 and by neglecting the

second and higher-order terms and dividing by , we have
OR

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## Cylindrical Coordinates: Resolve the forces in

tangential direction

## Follow the same steps as in previous slide to obtain

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## Cylindrical Coordinates: Equilibrium equations

The two equilibrium equations, in cylindrical coordinate, for a 2D problem are now:

Eq.(3)
Eq.(4)

Axial Symmetry
In certain cases, such as a ring, disc or cylinder, the body is symmetrical about
central axis through . In this instance
at any particular radius is constant
Stress component depend on only
The shear stress component must vanish
These conditions, arising from axial symmetry, lead to the elimination of
Eq.(4) and reduces Eq. (3) to:

Eq.(5)
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## Strain in terms of displacement: Cartesian Coordinates

Now that we have our equilibrium equations in terms of stress (equations 1-4). What can we do with it?
Remember that we cannot measure stress directly, we have to measure it through strain.
Strain, in turn, depends on displacement or deformation. Our next move is now to relate both
strain and displacement, which will then help us to relate stress and strain. Get the idea?

## Here, we consider, the strain

field in a Cartesian coordinate
for a 2D problem. The strain
components are as defined
below

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## Strain in terms of displacement: Cylindrical Coordinates

Here, we consider the strain field in a cylindrical coordinate for a 2D
problem defined by the following components:

Axial Symmetry
Again, for the body that is symmetrical about a central axis, through
-There is no tangential displacement,
- does not vary with
-Shear strain is equal to zero, therefore is zero

This then lead to a reduced displacement field with just two components:

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COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS:
CARTESIAN COORDINATES
Compatibility equations: the relations between
strains and stresses in a 2-dimensional plane
In the strain-displacement relationships, there are six
strain measures but only three independent
displacements (for a 3D problem). That is, there are 6
unknowns for only 3 independent variables. As a
result, there exists 3 constraint, or compatibility
equations.
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COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS:
CARTESIAN COORDINATES
The three strains in 2D are expressed in terms of two displacement as follows.

## Notice now that we have three strain equations with 2 unknowns (, ).

There must be a relationship between three strains.

## This may be obtained by differentiating the expressions of

strains with respect to , or , or both and .

## Eliminating and between these 3 equations provides the relationship below:

Compatibility equation
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## Compatibility equations in terms of stresses

To obtain the compatibility equation in terms of stress, we need to recall the expression for the
Generalized Hookes law. Hookes law relates stress and strain through the constant of
proportionality called the Youngs modulus.
We will consider the case of a plane stress under which z= 0 and , and are related

x =
y =

xy =

xy
G

x y
E

y x

2 xy (1 + )
E

## Substituting the above equations in the following equation

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7
8
Eqns. 7&8 are the previously derived equilibrium equations. Differentiating eqn. 7 with
respect to and eqn. 8 with respect to and add to get

## Eliminate between eqns. 6 and 9

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## Summary of compatibility equations in

Cartesian coordinates
In terms of strains:

10

In terms of stresses:

11

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## Summary of compatibility equations in

Cylindrical coordinates
In terms of strains:

12

In terms of stresses:

13

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## Summary of compatibility equations

under axial symmetry
Remember in the case of axial symmetry, there is no dependence on
Therefore, the compatibility equation in terms of stresses, for an axially
symmetrical body reduces to:

d2 1 d
2 +
( r + ) = 0
r dr
dr
Multiplying out:

d 2 r 1 d r d 2 1 d
+
+
+
=0
2
2
dr
r dr
dr
r dr

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(14)

## Differentiate the above equation:

= r

d r
+ r
dr

d d r
d 2 r d r
=
+r
+
2
dr
dr
dr
dr

and

3
2
d 2 d 2r d 2r
d 3r d 2r
d

d
r
r
=
+
+
r
+
=3
+r
2
dr 2
dr 2
dr 2
dr 3
dr 2
dr
dr 3

Substituting Eqns. (15) and (16) for in Eqn. (14) and gathering terms
together gives:

d 3 r
d 2 r 3 d r
r
+5
+
=0
2
3
dr
dr
r dr

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(15)

(16)

d 3 r
d 2 r 3 d r
r
+5
+
=0
2
3
dr
dr
r dr

17

## For an axially symmetrical system with no body force,

Eqn. 17 is a third-order ordinary differential equation in terms of

## One particular solution of this equation is :

18

19
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Example 3.1
Derive compatibility equations from the following straindisplacement relationships:

Solution:
Differentiate first equation with respect to
respect to z

z w
=
z
2

z 1 2 w
=
r z
z

## Thus the compatibility equation is :

z
z
=r

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## and the second equation with

Example 3.2
Derive compatibility equations from the following
strain-displacement relationships:

Solution:
Differentiate first equation with respect to z, the second equation with
respect to y , and the third equation with respect to x

xy

2u
2v
=
+
z
yz xz

xz 2u
=
y
zy

## Therefore the compatibility equation is :

xy

xz yz
=
+
z
y
x

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yz

2v
=
x
zx