You are on page 1of 27

HES5320 Solid Mechanics

Topic 3:
Stress and Strain

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Content

Equilibrium equations: Cartesian and Cylindrical


coordinates

Strain in terms of displacement: Cartesian and


Cylindrical coordinates

Compatibility equations: Cartesian and Cylindrical


coordinates

2
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Stress and strain


Conceptually, a stress is defined as the intensity of the
internal force acting on a specific plane (area) passing
through a point.
Stress, in general, cannot be measured directly
It is calculated from the knowledge of the strain

A strain can be defined as an average elongation,


shortening, deformation, or distortion due to applied
forces or loadings.

3
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Stress: Normal Stress


Consider the axially loaded member in Fig 3.1(a). It
should be understood that the arrows (of the force)
simply represent force resultants on the faces of the
member. That is, it should not be seen as a force solely
applied along the line of the arrow. This is also true for
the internal force

Fig 3.1. An axially loaded


member

4
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

The intensity of the internal force (Fig 3.2b)


acting normal to the area is called normal
stress .

A normal stress is produced by a normal strain


The limit of the above expression, as the
area becomes small is:

= lim
=
0

Stress: Shear Stress

b
Fig 3.2. A transversely
loaded member

5
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Consider the transversely loaded member in Fig 3.2(a).


From early lessons, we conclude that internal forces must
exist in the plane of the section as shown in Fig 3.2b.
These internal forces, in the case of a transversely loaded
or tangentially loaded members or torsionally loaded
members lead to another type of stress called shear
forces.
The intensity of the shear force divided by the
cross-sectional area on which it acts is called a
shear stress (Greek symbol tau).
=

()

A shear stress is produced by a shear strain

Variation of stress and strain


In slide page 4, the load-carrying member is subjected purely to a 1D normal
stress. In slide page 5, the transversely loaded member is also subjected to a 1D
shear stress. However, in most practical situations, a member is subjected to
combined loads that lead to a more complex stress state.

It is therefore necessary to examine the variation of stress between adjacent points and derive suitable
expressions for this variation
Relationships for stresses may be found by considering the equilibrium of a small element of material

The equilibrium equations are obtained from the relationship between the internal forces and the area on
which these forces are acting
The solution of these equations of equilibrium must satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem as defined
by the forces
However, for statically indeterminate problem, it is not possible to obtain the individual components of stress
directly from equilibrium equations alone
In such cases, it is necessary to consider the elastic deformations of the material such that, in a continuous strain

field, the displacements are compatible with stress distribution


These relationships are termed the equations of compatibility

Equations of equilibrium and compatibility are general and can be derived in terms of various co-ordinate
systems

6
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Equilibrium Equations: Cartesian Coordinates

Fig 3.3a Elements within a plane


Fig 3.3b Stresses on an element
The naming convention for the stress on each plane follows this:
is the normal stress, in and on plane
is the shear stress, on plane whose normal is , acting in

where is the body force that acts on the entire volume (e.g. gravity, inertia).

SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Equilibrium Equations: Cartesian Coordinates


Divide through by the volume to get:


+
+=

In the limit as 0, 0:

Again, is a body force. Divide through by the volume to get:



+
+=

Also, in the limit as 0, 0, we have:

8
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

+=

Equilibrium Equations: Cartesian


Coordinates
If the body forces ( ) are negligible, then the
equilibrium equations for a 2D problem in a Cartesian
coordinate reduce to:

9
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Eq. (2)

Equilibrium Equations: Cylindrical


Coordinates
The cylindrical coordinate is ideal for analyzing the stresses in structures/members
that have curved members e.g. cylindrical tanks, pressure vessels, spherical gas tanks
and discs.

Spherical gas tank


10

Cylindrical vessels
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Equilibrium Equations: Cylindrical


Coordinates
Consider the equilibrium of the element of a curved body in cylindrical coordinates:

is the circumferential stress


and are both shear stresses
is the angle subtended by the curved surface
is the radial body force

11
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Cylindrical Coordinates: Resolve the forces in


radial direction

As , sin and cos 1 and by neglecting the


second and higher-order terms and dividing by , we have
OR

12
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Cylindrical Coordinates: Resolve the forces in


tangential direction

Follow the same steps as in previous slide to obtain

13
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Cylindrical Coordinates: Equilibrium equations


The two equilibrium equations, in cylindrical coordinate, for a 2D problem are now:

Eq.(3)
Eq.(4)

Axial Symmetry
In certain cases, such as a ring, disc or cylinder, the body is symmetrical about
central axis through . In this instance
at any particular radius is constant
Stress component depend on only
The shear stress component must vanish
These conditions, arising from axial symmetry, lead to the elimination of
Eq.(4) and reduces Eq. (3) to:

Eq.(5)
14
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Strain in terms of displacement: Cartesian Coordinates


Now that we have our equilibrium equations in terms of stress (equations 1-4). What can we do with it?
Remember that we cannot measure stress directly, we have to measure it through strain.
Strain, in turn, depends on displacement or deformation. Our next move is now to relate both
strain and displacement, which will then help us to relate stress and strain. Get the idea?

Here, we consider, the strain


field in a Cartesian coordinate
for a 2D problem. The strain
components are as defined
below

15
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Strain in terms of displacement: Cylindrical Coordinates


Here, we consider the strain field in a cylindrical coordinate for a 2D
problem defined by the following components:

Axial Symmetry
Again, for the body that is symmetrical about a central axis, through
-There is no tangential displacement,
- does not vary with
-Shear strain is equal to zero, therefore is zero

This then lead to a reduced displacement field with just two components:

16
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS:
CARTESIAN COORDINATES
Compatibility equations: the relations between
strains and stresses in a 2-dimensional plane
In the strain-displacement relationships, there are six
strain measures but only three independent
displacements (for a 3D problem). That is, there are 6
unknowns for only 3 independent variables. As a
result, there exists 3 constraint, or compatibility
equations.
17
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS:
CARTESIAN COORDINATES
The three strains in 2D are expressed in terms of two displacement as follows.

Notice now that we have three strain equations with 2 unknowns (, ).


There must be a relationship between three strains.

This may be obtained by differentiating the expressions of


strains with respect to , or , or both and .

Eliminating and between these 3 equations provides the relationship below:


Compatibility equation
18
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Compatibility equations in terms of stresses


To obtain the compatibility equation in terms of stress, we need to recall the expression for the
Generalized Hookes law. Hookes law relates stress and strain through the constant of
proportionality called the Youngs modulus.
We will consider the case of a plane stress under which z= 0 and , and are related

to the stresses as:

x =
y =

xy =

xy
G

x y
E

y x

2 xy (1 + )
E

Substituting the above equations in the following equation

19
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

7
8
Eqns. 7&8 are the previously derived equilibrium equations. Differentiating eqn. 7 with
respect to and eqn. 8 with respect to and add to get

Eliminate between eqns. 6 and 9

20
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Summary of compatibility equations in


Cartesian coordinates
In terms of strains:

10

In terms of stresses:

11

21
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Summary of compatibility equations in


Cylindrical coordinates
In terms of strains:

12

In terms of stresses:

13

22
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Summary of compatibility equations


under axial symmetry
Remember in the case of axial symmetry, there is no dependence on
Therefore, the compatibility equation in terms of stresses, for an axially
symmetrical body reduces to:

d2 1 d
2 +
( r + ) = 0
r dr
dr
Multiplying out:

d 2 r 1 d r d 2 1 d
+
+
+
=0
2
2
dr
r dr
dr
r dr

23
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

(14)

Summary of compatibility equations under axial symmetry

From equilibrium equation (slide page 14):

Obtain from the above Eqns.

Differentiate the above equation:

= r

d r
+ r
dr

d d r
d 2 r d r
=
+r
+
2
dr
dr
dr
dr

and

3
2
d 2 d 2r d 2r
d 3r d 2r
d

d
r
r
=
+
+
r
+
=3
+r
2
dr 2
dr 2
dr 2
dr 3
dr 2
dr
dr 3

Substituting Eqns. (15) and (16) for in Eqn. (14) and gathering terms
together gives:

d 3 r
d 2 r 3 d r
r
+5
+
=0
2
3
dr
dr
r dr

24
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

(15)

(16)

Summary of compatibility equations in under axial symmetry


d 3 r
d 2 r 3 d r
r
+5
+
=0
2
3
dr
dr
r dr

17

For an axially symmetrical system with no body force,


Eqn. 17 is a third-order ordinary differential equation in terms of

One particular solution of this equation is :

18

19
25
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

Example 3.1
Derive compatibility equations from the following straindisplacement relationships:

Solution:
Differentiate first equation with respect to
respect to z

z w
=
z
2

z 1 2 w
=
r z
z

Thus the compatibility equation is :

z
z
=r

26
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

and the second equation with

Example 3.2
Derive compatibility equations from the following
strain-displacement relationships:

Solution:
Differentiate first equation with respect to z, the second equation with
respect to y , and the third equation with respect to x

xy

2u
2v
=
+
z
yz xz

xz 2u
=
y
zy

Therefore the compatibility equation is :

xy

xz yz
=
+
z
y
x

27
SUTS HES5320 Sem 2 2013

yz

2v
=
x
zx