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You are on page 1of 57

SUBCARRIER AND POWER ALLOCATION

by

of Masters of Engineering in Telecommunications

Examination Committee:

Dr. Attaphonse Taparugssanagorn (Co-supervisor)

Prof. Kazi M. Ahmed

Nationality: Bangladeshi

Previous Degree: Bachelor of Science of Engineering in Electrical, Electronic

and Communication

Military Institute of Science and Technology, Bangladesh

Scholarship Donor:

AIT Fellowship

School of Engineering and Technology

Thailand

May 2013

Acknowledgment

First and foremost, all praises to Almighty Allah for His blessings in completing

this thesis work.

Then, I would like to express my utmost gratitude and thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Poompat Saengudomlert for his continuous support, vast reserve of patience

and knowledge throughout the period of thesis. His guidance helped me in all possible

ways in the time of research and thesis writing. I would like to thank my co-supervisor,

Dr. Attaphonse Taparugssanagorn and and thesis committee member, Prof. Kazi M.

Ahmed for their constant co-operation and their constructive comments and suggestions which helped me to bring out this thesis on resource allocation in multiuser

MIMO-OFDM-MAC system successfully.

I would also like to give my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Muhammad Zubair Farooqui

for his great help in learning LaTeX software. A special thanks to my brother, Nabil

Tahmidul Karim for helping me to learn the programming language in MATLAB.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank my family for always supporting and

encouraging me with their best wishes.

Tahia Fahrin Karim

07.05.2013

ii

Abstract

Resource allocation in multiuser MIMO-OFDM cellular systems is the focus of this

thesis. The main aim of this work is to improve the average battery lifetime of the users,

where it is assumed that battery lifetimes are dominated by the transmit powers in the

uplink direction. A reduced complexity algorithm for subcarrier and power allocation

is developed. As the joint subcarrier and power allocation problem is a complicated,

nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem that can not be solved using a standard

technique, the main optimization problem is decoupled so that subcarrier allocation

and power allocation are done separately. The subcarrier allocation is done based on

the maximum subchannel gain of the channel matrix, while a bit-by-bit waterfilling

algorithm is used for power allocation. The main contribution of this thesis work is

the proposal to use all the spatial subchannels of a channel matrix, unlike (Zhang

& Lataief, 2005b), (Uthansakul & Bialkowski, 2006) and (Zhang & Lataief,

2003) which only consider a single spatial subchannel with the maximum gain on each

subcarrier. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is able to better utilize

the spatial subchannels and thus significantly improve the average battery lifetime while

satisfy each users data rate requirement. Finally, the thesis also explores subcarrier

allocation that allows multiple users to share a common subcarrier, where multiaccess

interference is removed using zero forcing equalization. Simulation results indicate that

sharing of subcarriers can improve the average battery lifetime compared to the nosharing scheme that allows using only the maximum gain subchannel in each subcarrier.

However, this improvement is only present when the antenna correlation is low for the

MIMO channel.

iii

Table of Contents

Chapter

Title

Page

Title Page

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Symbols

1

Introduction

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1

2

2

3

3

Overview

Statement of the Problem

Objectives

Scope and Limitations

Organization of the Thesis

Literature Review

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

i

ii

iii

iv

vi

vii

ix

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Transmission

MIMO-OFDM Systems

Multiuser Systems

Resource Allocation

Related Works on Subcarrier and Power Allocation in

MIMO-OFDM Systems

4

4

6

8

11

13

Methodology

16

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

16

23

24

27

System Model

Optimization Problem Formulation

Proposed Adaptive Resource Allocation

Performance Evaluation

28

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

28

28

29

29

37

Simulation Environment

Simulation Parameters

Performance Analysis of the Proposed Algorithm

Summary

38

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendations for Future Work

38

38

References

Appendix A

40

Reviews of Related Mathematics

A.1 References

A.2 Review of Matrix

42

42

42

iv

Appendix B

MATLAB Codes

43

44

B.2 Scheme Utilizing All Subchannels with Sharing Subcarriers

46

List of Figures

Figure

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

3.1

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11

4.12

4.13

Title

Page

A digital implementation of a baseband OFDM system (Edfors, Sandell, Beek, Landstrom, & Sjoberg, 1996).

4

A schematic diagram of spatial multiplexing (Kim, n.d.)

5

A schematic diagram of spatial diversity (Kim, n.d.)

5

(a) Schemaic diagram of a MIMO-OFDM system (b) Singleantenna OFDM modulator and demodulator (c) Adding the

cyclic prefix (Bolecskei, 2006).

7

Downlink and uplink channels (Goldsmith, 2005)

9

Various MUDs in MIMO-OFDM systems

10

Transmit power allocation by waterfilling (Saengudomlert, 2011) 13

Schematic of an uplink multiuser MIMO-OFDM system

16

Simulation flow chart

28

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to selected

subchannel index with K = 3, M = 16, Rk = 32 and t =

r = 0.3

30

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

subcarriers with K = 4, Rk = 128 and t = r = 0.3

31

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

subcarriers with K = 4, Rk = 128 and t = r = 0.0

31

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

subcarriers with K = 4, Rk = 128 and t = r = 0.7

32

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

subcarriers with K = 8, Rk = 128 and t = r = 0.3

32

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

bits/user with K = 6, M = 32 and t = r = 0.3

33

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

bits/user with K = 6, M = 32 and t = r = 0.0

33

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

bits/user with K = 6, M = 32 and t = r = 0.7

34

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

bits/user with K = 6, M = 64 and t = r = 0.3

34

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number

users with Rk = 128, M = 64 and t = r = 0.3

35

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

bits/user with Rk = 128, M = 64 and t = r = 0.7

36

Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of

bits/user with Rk = 128, M = 64 and t = r = 0.0

36

vi

List of Tables

Table

2.1

2.1

4.1

Title

Page

Previous works on resource allocation in multiuser MIMOOFDM systems

Simulation parameters

vii

14

15

29

List of Abbreviations

ADC

BER

BC

BS

CDMA

CCI

CP

CIR

CSI

DCA

DFT

IID

ISI

IDFT

MA

MAC

MAI

MIMO

MUD

OFDM

OPP-RR

QAM

QoS

RA

SNR

SIR

SISO

SDM

SDMA

STBC

STTC

SVD

ZF

Analog-to-Digital Converter

Bit Error Rate

Broadcast Channels

Base Station

Code Division Multiple Access

Co-channel Interference

Cyclic Prefix

Channel Impulse Responses

Channel State Information

Dynamic Channel Assignment

Discrete Fourier Transform

Independent and Identically Distributed

Intersymbol Interference

Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

Margin Adaptive

Multiple Access Channel

Multiple Access Interference

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output

Multiuser Detection

Orthogonal Frequncy Division Multiplexing

Opportunistic Scheduling with Round Robin

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Quality of Service

Rate Adaptive

Signal to Noise Ratio

Signal to Interference Ratio

Single-Input Single-Output

Space Division Multiplexing

Space Division Multiple Access

Space-Time Block Codes

Space-Time Trellis Codes

Singular Value Decomposition

Zero-Forcing

viii

List of Symbols

bk,m,i

B

BERktarget

Ek

hr,j

k,m

Hk,m

J

K

K0

M

Mk

N0

pk,m

R

Rk

Rm

Uk,m

Um

Vk,m

xk,m

k,m,i

ik,m

t

r

subcarrier

Total system bandwidth

Target BER for user k

Battery energy level for user k

Channel gain for k th user on subcarrier m from j th transmit antenna to

rth receive antenna

R J channel matrix for user k on subcarrier m

Number of total transmit antenna for each user

Number of users

Number of users that can share one subcarrier

Number of subcarriers in OFDM-MIMO-MAC system

Selected subcarrier set for each user

Noise variance

Transmit power for user k on subcarrier m

Number of total receive antennas

Data rate requirement of user k

Correlation matrix

Left unitary matrix for user k on subcarrier m

Matrix constructed by Uk,m terms for all K 0 users that are sharing

subcarrier m

Right unitary matrix for user k on subcarrier m

Uplink data symbols for user k on subcarrier m

New noise covariance matrix

ith element of the k th diagonal entry matrix of

SNR gap

ith singular value of subchannel matrix Hm

Transmit antenna correlation coefficient

Receive antenna correlation coefficient

ix

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1

Overview

Cellular radio is the fastest growing segment of the communications industry today.

The number of subscribers and demand for cellular traffic has increased enormously.

The demand for cellular data traffic has also grown significantly in recent years with

the introduction of smartphones (Android phones and iPhone) and tablets. Hence,

meeting these new demands is becoming unavoidable for the mobile operators while

keeping the costs minimum.

There are two main issues regarding resource sharing in cellular communications:

the first one addresses how the total resource (time, space, frequency) of the system is

shared by the users within the same cell while the second one addresses the inter-cell

interference.

The third generation (3G) cellular technology was designed to address the support of voice and data. Using CDMA technology, 3G systems provide quality-of-service

(QoS) support for voice. However, it has weaknesses in extension to high data rates

due to excessive interference between services. In addition, it has a limitation of providing a full range of multirate services (Yang, 2005). Hence, there has been extensive

research into fourth generation (4G) systems to support broadband wireless services

and take into account spectrum efficiency, bandwidth constraints, fading and the interference. The combination of two powerful techniques, MIMO and OFDM, has been

found to be an attractive and promising key technique for achieving the requirements

of 4G communication systems (Ho & Liang, 2009).

Recent developments in MIMO techniques have resulted in a significant boost in

performance of OFDM systems (Zhang & Lataief, 2006). MIMO is known to increase the capacity. For high data rate transmissions, the multipath characteristic of

the environment causes the MIMO channel to be frequency-selective whereas OFDM

can transform such a frequency-selective MIMO channel into a set of parallel frequencyflat MIMO channels, thus reducing the receiver complexity.

In light of the explosive growth of wireless services, radio resources such as frequency spectrum would be far from adequate unless advanced technologies are developed to achieve better efficiency of resource utilization. The traditional approach of

static allocation of resources is found to be inefficient because of wastage of scarce

spectrum and power. In worst-case fading, extra power has to be added to maintain

an acceptable performance. Hence, it is necessary to allocate and utilize the resources

in such a way that a higher spectrum efficiency and power efficiency can be achieved

while maintaining an acceptable QoS under the scarce resources.

Besides the robust performance over wireless media, OFDM and MIMO are particularly suitable for adaptive transmission and resource allocation due to the existence of

parallel subchannels in the frequency and space domains. This unique feature enables

flexible adaptive resource allocation to significantly enhance system capacity and resource utilization. A key principle of adaptive resource allocation is to exploit inherent

1

allocation, multiple access, scheduling, and rate and power adaptation.

1.2

in SISO-OFDM systems due to the following reasons (Zhang & Lataief, 2006).

CCI caused by subcarrier reuse makes the optimization problem combinatorial

and non-convex.

To maximize spectrum efficiency while achieving a sufficient SIR, an optimal set

of co-channel users should be identified for every subcarrier based on their spatial

correlations and power distributions.

MIMO-OFDM systems are able to multiplex the users in both the space and

frequency domains. As a result, we have to decide which dimension should be

occupied by which set of users.

QoS requirements impose additional constraints on the optimization problem.

Efficiency and fairness are two crucial research issues in resource allocation in

wireless communication systems. (Zhang & Lataief, 2005a) and (Zhang & Lataief,

2003) focused on improving the power and spectral efficiency in the resource allocation problem. Fairness, on the other hand, indicates how fairly the resources can be

distributed among the users. (Maw & Sasase, 2011) performed a resource allocation

by equally distributing the power among the users while maintaining a proportional

data rate fairness. But none of these papers have discussed about the average lifetime

of the users in the network. User lifetime can be defined as the ratio of the initial

battery energy of the user and the total transmit power of that user. If we take the

summation of the lifetime of all users and divide it by the total number of users, we find

the average lifetime of a user. The main focus of this work is to allocate the resources

in such a way that the lifetime of a user can be improved. A user which has the least

battery energy is given priority to transmit its data using the best channel so that it

can finish its transmission before its battery dies out.

1.3

Objectives

The main objective of this thesis is to propose a resource allocation algorithm for

uplink transmission of a multiuser MIMO-OFDM cellular network in order to allocate

the subcarriers, power and bits dynamically so that the lifetime of the users can be

improved. The objectives of this thesis can be stated as follows.

Proposing an algorithm to allocate the subcarriers to multiple users, where each

subcarrier is allowed to be shared among multiple users. The allocation scheme is

based on the idea that the user with the least battery energy will get the privilege

to choose the best subcarriers first.

Allocating power among the subcarriers and then performing bit loading satisfying each users QoS requirements including the target BER and the required

data rate.

Maximizing the average lifetime of the users.

2

Numerical simulations will be run using MATLAB to compare the average lifetime for different numbers of users and to observe if multiuser diversity is used

efficiently.

Comparing the performance of the proposed algorithm with the existing allocation scheme in (Wong, Tsui, Cheng, & Lataief, 1999) and (Zhang & Lataief,

2005a) where at most one data stream is transmitted over each subcarrier and

there is no sharing of the subcarriers among the users.

1.4

Both the transmitters and receivers are assumed to have the perfect channel

knowledge.

The channel is assumed to remain constant for each OFDM symbol.

Resource allocation is done for uplink transmissions only. It is assumed that

users battery lifetimes are dominated by uplink transmit powers.

An OFDM system that employs M-QAM modulation technique is considered.

1.5

The thesis work is organized as follows. Chapter 2 provides the literature review

which gives a brief explanation on all the relevant basic knowledge on MIMO-OFDM

systems and different resource allocation algorithms which were established in earlier

works. The methodology of the proposed algorithm of this thesis is described in chapter

3. In chapter 4, simulation results show the comparison between the proposed algorithms and the existing resource allocation algorithm.The performances of the average

battery lifetime are analyzed with the change of various parameters. The last chapter,

chapter 5 includes the conclusion and also presents possible further extentions that can

be made for the research.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1

The basic idea of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is to divide the available spectrum into several subchannels or subcarriers (Edfors et al.,

1996). The main advantage of OFDM is its ability to cope with severe channel conditions, for example multipath and narrowband interference, without complex equalization filters. By making all subchannels narrowband, a transmitted signal experiences

almost flat fading, which makes equalization simple. To obtain a high spectral efficiency, the frequency responses of the subchannels are overlapping and orthogonal,

hence the name OFDM. An OFDM modulator can be implemented as an inverse discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) on a block of information symbols followed by an

analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To mitigate the effects of intersymbol interference

(ISI) caused by channel time spread, each block of IDFT coefficients is typically preceded by a cyclic prefix (CP) or a guard interval. A CP is a copy of the last part of

the OFDM symbol which is prepended to the transmitted symbol and helps the transmitted signal to be periodic and thus intersymbol and intercarrier interference can be

avoided. Figure 2.1 shows a schematic diagram of a baseband OFDM system.

1996).

2.2

both in transmitter and receiver equipment for wireless radio communications. The

main reason to introduce MIMO in current wireless systems is to improve the capacity

of existing networks and to exploit the space dimension to improve wireless range and

coverage. MIMO uses multiple antennas to send multiple data signals in parallel. A

MIMO system takes advantage of the spatial diversity that is obtained by spatially

separated antennas in a dense multipath scattering environment.

In recent years, various smart antenna designs have emerged, which have found

application in diverse scenarios. The four most wide-spread MIMO types summarized

in (Jiang & Hanzo, 2007) are discussed below.

Space Division Multiplexing (SDM)

SDM systems employ multiple antennas for maximizing the attainable multiplexing gain, i.e., the throughput of a single user in terms of the number of

4

bits per symbol, by exploiting the channel impulse responses (CIRs). The main

principle of this technique is to deliver parallel streams of data to the receiver

by exploiting multipath by which capacity and the throughput can be increased.

One popular example of such a system is V-BLAST suggested by Foschini (Tse

& Viswanath, 2005). A simple schematic diagram is shown in figure 2.2.

Unlike SDM, SDMA schemes maximize the number of users supported by

sharing the total system throughput amongst the users supported. This scheme

allows supporting multiple users within the same frequency band and/or time

slot, provided that their CIRs are sufficiently different and are accurately measured.

Spatial Diversity

In contrast to the half-wavelength spaced phased array elements of beamforming, in spatial diversity schemes, such as space-time block codes (STBC) or

trellis codes (STTC), multiple antennas are positioned as far apart as possible

so that the transmitted signals of different antennas experience different fadings, resulting in the maximum achievable diversity gain. In this technique, the

same data is coded and transmitted through different antennas, which effectively

doubles the power in the channel. This improves Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

for cell-edge performance. STBC has less decoding complexity than STTC and

therefore has been widely used. Figure 2.3 represents a coarse idea of spatial

diversity.

Beamforming

Beamforming is considered to be spatial processing that occurs at the transmitter (Jiang & Hanzo, 2007). The benefits of beamforming are to increase the

5

received signal gain by making the signals emitted from different antennas with

appropriate phases add up constructively, and to reduce the multipath fading

effects. It can achieve full diversity in single-user systems at the expense of some

capacity loss.

2.3

MIMO-OFDM Systems

In a very high data rate MIMO communication system, the radio channel introduses ISI. MIMO systems require highly complex equalization techniques to mitigate

this interference. However, OFDM simplifies the channel equalization by inserting a

CP and also converts the frequency-selective channel into a set of flat fading channels

so that MIMO-related algorithms can be easily implemented with OFDM systems. In

addition to the spatial dimension of MIMO, OFDM adds one extra dimension to exploit the frequency dimension.

The quality of a wireless link can be described by three basic parameters, namely

the transmission rate, transmission range and transmission reliability. Conventionally,

the transmission rate may be increased by reducing the transmission range and reliability. By contrast, the transmission range may be extended at the cost of a lower

transmission rate and reliability while transmission reliability can be improved by reducing the transmission rate and range (Datacom, 2005). However, with the advent

of MIMO assisted OFDM systems, the above-mentioned three parameters may be simultaneously improved (Datacom, 2005).

Although MIMO can potentially be combined with any modulation or multiple

access technique, recent research suggests that implementation of MIMO-aided OFDM

is more efficient as increased capacity, coverage and reliability is achievable. Figure 2.4

depicts a schematic diagram of a MIMO-OFDM system where figure 2.4(b) shows the

OFDM modulator-demodulator which was previously explained in figure 2.1.

(Bolecskei, 2006).

In the following subsections, the signaling schemes of MIMO applied with OFDM

are described (Bolecskei, 2006).

2.3.1

In an OFDM-based MIMO system, spatial multiplexing is performed by transmitting independent data streams on different subcarriers with the total transmit power

split across antennas and the subcarriers. Although the use of OFDM eliminates ISI,

the computational complexity of MIMO-OFDM spatial-multiplexing receivers can still

be high. This is because the number of data-carrying subcarriers typically ranges between 48 (as in the IEEE 802.11a/g standard) and 1728 (as in the IEEE 802.16e standard) and spatial separation has to be performed for each subcarrier. This problem can

be reduced by a new class of algorithms proposed in (Borgmann & Bolecskei, 2004).

The basic idea underlying these algorithms is to exploit the fact that the matrix-valued

transfer function in a MIMO-OFDM system is smooth across the subcarriers because

the delay spread in the channel is limited. Computational complexity can be reduced

by using linear equalization at the receiver and interpolation.

2.3.2

independent data streams, the basic idea of space-time coding is to introduce redundancy across space and time to realize spatial diversity gain without the need for CSI

at the transmitter. In single-antenna OFDM systems, frequency diversity is obtained

by coding and interleaving across the subcarriers. In frequency selective MIMO channels, two sources of diversity are available: frequency diversity and spatial diversity.

A straightforward way to realize space-frequency diversity is to combine space-time

coding approach with forward-error-correction coding and interleaving across subcarriers. In the coherent case, where the receiver has perfect CSI, because of ISI, low

7

the properties required in the flat-fading case. A framework for designing codes that

achieve full rate and full diversity in frequency-selective fading multi-antenna channels

was proposed by (Ma & Giannakis, 2003). For noncoherent MIMO-OFDM systems,

a space-frequency code design criteria has been proposed by the author where the presence of ISI was taken into account and provides explicit constructions of codes that

achieve full diversity in space and frequency.

2.4

Multiuser Systems

In multiuser systems the system resources must be divided among multiple users.

Allocation of signaling dimensions to specific users is called multiple access. Multiple

access methods perform differently in different multiuser channels. The two basic multiuser channels are: downlink channels and uplink channels. Multiuser communications

have several key advantages over single-user communications (Gesbert, Kountouris,

Heath Jr., Chae, & Salzer, 2007), such as:

Multiuser schemes allow for a direct gain in multiple access capacity with the

help of multiuser multiplexing schemes.

Multiuser systems appear to be more immune to propagation limitation, such as

antenna correlation and degredation due to Line-of-Sight (LOS) propagation.

2.4.1

Multiuser Channels

A multiuser channel is any channel that must be shared among multiple users

(Goldsmith, 2005). Methods of allocating resources in multiuser systems can be

applied in two basic multiuser channels: downlink channels (one-to-many), also known

as broadcast channels (BC) and uplink channels (many-to-one), also called multiple

access channel (MAC).

Broadcast Channels:

In cellular broadcast channels, signals originated from the base station (BS)

are transmitted

to all the mobile users. In figure 2.5, the transmitted signal

P

s

(t),

with total power P and bandwidth B, is the sum of signals

s(t) = K

k=1 k

transmitted to all K users. The received signal at the k th receiver can be written

as,

yk (t) = hk (t)sk (t) + nk (t),

(2.1)

where the transmit signal passes through user ks channel hk (t) to reach the

receiver and nk (t) is the noise term for user k.

Multiple Access Channels:

In an uplink channel, many transmitters from different users transmit signals

to the BS, where each signal must be within the signal bandwidth B. Unlike

downlink channels, in the uplink each user has its individual transmit power

constraint Pk associated with the transmitted signal sk . Figure 2.5 indicates that

signals from different users travel through different channels, so if the transmitted

powers Pk are the same, received powers at the BS associated with different users

8

will be different if channel gains are different. The total received signal at the

BS from all the users can be written as,

y(t) =

K

X

(2.2)

k=1

where the transmit signal passes through user ks channel hk (t) to reach the

receiver and nk (t) is the noise term for user k.

2.4.2

Multiuser Diversity

Multiuser diversity takes the advantage of the fact that in a system with many

users, if some users are experiencing deep fade channels, those channels may appear to

be better for some other users. By transmitting only to users with the best channels

at any given time, system resources are allocated to the users efficiently, leading to

improved system capacity and performance. Multiuser diversity was first explored by

Knopp and Humblet with the aim to increase the throughput and to reduce the error

probability in uplink channels; the same ideas are also applicable for the downlink

channels (Goldsmith, 2005). In multiuser diversity, multiple channels are associated

with different users. The system uses selection diversity to select the user with the

best channel in any given fading state. This diversity technique is effective when the

number of users is large.

2.4.3

Multiuser Detection

the resulting knowledge to mitigate its effect on the desired signal. In case of uplink,

no transmission cooperation is needed and independent data streams are being transmitted. So multiuser detection techniques are used at the receiver side, i.e. at the base

station. But for the downlink, the receiver structure should be different for each user.

Here precoding strategy, which is the transmit dual to the receiver based detection, is

used.

Figure 2.6 shows the most popular MUD schemes proposed for MIMO-OFDM

9

systems. Among those schemes, classic Least Square (LS), Minimum Mean Square

Error (MMSE) and Zero-Forcing (ZF) have low complexity at a cost of low performance whereas high complexity Maximum Likelihood (ML) is capable of acheiving

the best performance but for a limited number of users. In case of non-linear MUDs,

Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) or Parallel Interference Cancellation (PIC)

give suboptimal results using iterative processing technique combining detection and

demodulation. Recently, Genetic Algorithm (GA) aided multiuser detection has been

advocated (Jiang & Hanzo, 2007). In practice, spatial multiplexing is often implemented using more receive antennas than transmit antennas so that the channel matrix

is better conditioned and the performance of suboptimal detectors (ZF, MMSE) is improved.

Zero-Forcing Detection:

Zero-forcing is a linear multiuser detection technique which takes place at the

receiver side, where it is assumed that the channel matrix H is invertible (Zelst,

2004). To eliminate the inteference from the received signals, a nulling weight matrix

W is chosen, where,

WH = IJ ,

(2.3)

be zero, desired signal can be estimated. From (2.3), if H is not a square matrix, then

W is the pseudo-inverse of H, which is written as (Zelst, 2004),

W = H = HH H

1

HH .

(2.4)

If the elements of H are assumed to be IID, the pseudo-inverse exists when the

number of transmit antennas is less than or equal to the number of receive antennas

(Zelst, 2004). Therefore, if the transmit signal vector is x, the estimates of the transmit

10

x

= Wy = H y

= H (Hx + n)

= x + HH H

1

HH n.

(2.5)

that the elimination of the interferences comes at a cost of noise enhancement which

can be observed from (2.5).

2.5

Resource Allocation

data rate requirements. Consequently, efficient allocation of resources has become an

important topic. Two types of resource allocation techniques have been proposed in

multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems.

Fixed allocation

Dynamic allocation

A fixed resource allocation scheme is not optimal since the scheme is fixed regardless of the present channel condition. Due to the time-varying nature of the wireless

channel, dynamic resource allocation achieves higher performance. In a dynamic allocation scheme, the subcarriers are assigned to the users based on users channel state

information (CSI). This is mainly classified into two techniques as Margin Adaptive

(MA) and Rate Adaptive (RA) techniques, where the MA technique aims at minimizing the total transmit power given the users data rate constraints while the RA

technique has the goal of maximizing the overall data rate with the total transmit

power constraint.

In a multiuser MIMO-OFDM system, the spectral efficiency can be increased if

the system effectively adapts to the radio channel and takes advantage of the available

resource in both frequency and space domains. The probability that a subcarrier is in

deep fade for one user and is also in deep fade for other users is quite low. Therefore,

efficient resource allocation algorithms, i.e. allocating the subcarriers, power and bits

adaptively according to the users CSI is required to increase the system efficiency.

2.5.1

Power Allocation

total transmit power, maximizing the spectral efficiency and maximizing the throughput. Power allocation has been a topic of considerable interest to researchers. It has become a research topic in MIMO-OFDM systems assuming that the channel is perfectly

known at the transmitter. Power allocation schemes for the wireless communication

systems mainly fall into three categories, i.e. equal power allocation, waterfilling power

allocation based on SVD and Newton and convex optimization method based power

allocation (Yin & Xiao, 2009). In some research papers, power has been allocated

equally among the subcarriers and antennas (Maw & Sasase, 2011). The capacity

11

achieving waterfilling power allocation has also been considered in many works to design efficient communication systems (Gunaseelan, Reba, & Kandaswamy, 2009),

(Pan, Cai, & Xu, 2005).

Consider M be the number of subcarriers in a multicarrier system. Let each

subcarrier has a bandwidth of B (in Hz) and the noise levels on the subcarriers are

n1 , n2 , . . . , nM . Denote the p1 , p2 , . . . , pM be the allocated transmit powers on the

subcarriers and the power gains are h1 , h2 , . . . , hM . The number of bits that can be

transmitted over a parallel set of subcarriers can be written as,

M

1X

pm h2m

b=

log2 (1 +

),

2 m=1

nm

(2.6)

where is called the SNR gap. For MA case, the optimization is formed to minimize

the total transmit power with a given required data rate constraint. Therefore, the

final optimization problem can be written as,

minimize

M

X

pm

m=1

subject to:

M

1X

pm h2m

log (1 +

) = b,

2 m=1 2

nm

(2.7)

m,

(2.8)

pm 0.

!

M

M

M

X

X

1 X

pm h2m

(p, ) =

pm 0

ln(1 +

)b

m pm .

2

ln

2

n

m

m=1

m=1

m=1

(2.9)

pair (p , ) should satisfy (p,)

= 0, which yields,

pm

h2m pm + nm

1

=

2

hm

2 ln 2

0

1 m

.

(2.10)

Therefore, (2.7) yields,

pm +

nm

0

=

.

h2m

2 ln 2

(2.11)

This means, the addition of noise and the poured power should be a constant,

where the power is allocated only until the required data rate over all the subcarriers

is satisfied in (2.4).

12

An example of waterfilling in a system with 4 subcarriers is shown in figure 2.7.

.

Note that, with channel gain hm and the gap-to-capacity , the noise level nm in

m

the figure 2.7 is modified to n

.

h2

m

2.5.2

Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) falls into two categories: intracell dynamic

channel assignment and intercell dynamic channel assignment (Goldsmith, 2005). For

orthogonal channels, intercell DCA is preferable. The basic principle is to make every

channel available in every cell. Each channel can be used in each cell as long as the

SIR requirements are fulfilled. When the user needs a channel, only then a channel

is assigned to that user. In addition, after call termination, the channel is treated as

available channel for another assignment. Dynamically allocating the subcarriers to

users according to their channel conditions ensures that each subcarrier is allocated to

the user with high channel gains, hence effectively improving spectrum utilization.

2.6

Systems

There have been already a lot of research papers which introduced many techniques

and algorithms for allocating the resources in MIMO-OFDM downlink transmission.

In comparison, very few researches have been done in the uplink case. Table 2.1

summarizes the key findings related to this research topic.

13

SL Author

1

(Pfletschinger,

Speidel, 2002)

Mnz,

&

Paper Discussion

Subcarrier allocation algorithm is proposed in a

margin adaptive way for both downlink and uplink

transmission in OFDM systems. MIMO is not considered. Two-step algorithm is described where the

first step estimates the total number of subcarriers

per user. In second step subcarriers are allocated

with a priority basis.

Mainly focuses on allocating the resources in case of

high and low spatial correlation. With low spatial

correlation, the multiuser resource allocation problem is reduced to the single-user allocation problem. In case of users with high correlation, users

are divided into groups according to their mutual

correlations, and then allocated the subcarriers in

such a way that users from the same group cannot

share the same subcarrier. Though this proposed

algorithm achieves great power and diversity gain,

if threshold correlation is very high or too low, the

system performance degrades.

Power is equally distributed among the subcarriers

and antennas. Subcarrier and antenna allocation

are done based on SVD and channel gain for each

user. Though this algorithm is successful in ensuring a data rate fairness among users, the total

system capacity improvement is not significant.

The proposed adaptive SVD-ZF scheme is based

on the greedy algorithm. However, when the correlation between the users are high and transmit

powers become higher, noise enhancement cannot

be ignored. Therefore, users who are not spatially

separable are made orthogonal to each other in the

frequency domain. In this case, the algorithm is

based on only the SVD structure.

Adaptive resource allocation algorithm is proposed

by a local-search method to obtain additional

power efficiency. Power efficiency was achieved by

reducing the power by the neighborhood search and

by allowing the spatially separable users to share

the same subcarrier. But the scheme has a limitation in affordable maximum data rate due to

constraints on maximum modulation order when

number of antenna increases.

This paper presents an enhanced version of the

scheme described in (Zhang & Lataief, 2005a).

The proposed algorithm is imposed upon a maximum power constraint and relaxes the maximum

modulation order constraint in bit loading process.

14

SL Author

Paper Discussion

(Uthansakul

Bialkowski, 2006)

&

& Zhang, 2009)

10

The proposed algorithm is based on one step Lagrange multiplier method which does not require

any iterative implementation. This algorithm is

faster than the iterative greedy algorithm. But here

no subcarrier allocation is done, rather the author

allows every user to share the same subcarrier.

A downlink MIMO-OFDM is considered where the

subcarriers are assigned to the users based on the

maximum received SNR on the corresponding subcarrier. Adaptive bit and power allocation are done

based on the greedy algorithm to minimize the total

trasmit power. But CCI is not taken into account

in this work.

In this paper, the author, assuming the data rate of

each user to be the same, allocates the subcarriers

to the users according to the instantaneous characteristics of all the spatial subchannels on each subcarrier. Bit and power allocation is done based on

greedy algorithm. Later a modified bit and power

allocation scheme is also proposed to reduce the

computational complexity with a little expense of

system performance. The modified scheme divides

the spatial subchannels of each user into groups and

the same modulation and coding are used within

each group.

Block diagonalization with waterfilling power allocation algorithm is proposed in this paper to improve the system capacity with zero CCI. Each subcarrier carries an equal number of users.

15

Chapter 3

Methodology

The main stages of the proposed work can be stated as follows.

Allocation of subcarriers to the users based on the users remaining battery energy

and channel gain.

Iterative bit and power allocation for each user using water-filling scheme.

Performance evaluation of the proposed scheme to demonstrate the effectiveness

of the scheme in terms of the users average battery lifetime.

3.1

System Model

The system model considered here is mainly based on (Zhang & Lataief, 2005b)

and (Liu, Yang, & Hanzo, 2009). Figure 3.1 represents an uplink multiuser MIMOOFDM cellular system. The wideband Rayleigh frequency-selective MIMO channel

can be transformed into many Rayleigh flat fading MIMO channels. Assume there are

K users in the system, each having J transmit antennas. The whole frequency band

is divided into M subcarriers. We also assume Ek to be the initial battery energy of

user k. The BS is equipped with R receive antennas.

The following assumptions are made in the system model to reduce the computational complexities.

The fading variation of the channel is slow enough such that the channel can be

assumed to be quasi-static, i.e. the channel condition does not change within

each OFDM transmission block. (Zhang & Lataief, 2005b).

Every user has a fixed data rate.

16

The uplink transmission parameters for each user are decided by the BS using

the CSI that is feedbacked by every user to the BS. These decision parameters

are then again feedbacked to each user via the control channel for the uplink

transmission. So both the BS and the users know the channel perfectly.

There are enough transmission capacities to be allocated to satisfy traffic demands for all users.

The cyclic prefix (CP) is long enough to suppress the ISI.

There is no cooperation among the users (Liu et al., 2009).

A subcarrier can be allocated to K 0 users at most in order to suppress the amount

of MAI among the users, where K 0 < K.

3.1.1

Notations

Throughout the thesis, the following notations will be used. Bold upper case,

such as H, represents matrices and bold lower case, such as h, represents vectors. The

symbol || denotes the absolute value and ()H denotes the Hermitian conjugate of a

matrix. We denote [] as the pseudo-inverse operation of a matrix.

3.1.2

Channel Model

Based on CSI from all users, the general MIMO channel matrix between base

station and all users on mth subcarrier can be constructed as follows.

Hm = [H1,m , , Hk,m , , HK,m ].

The channel matrix of user k on subcarrier m can be denoted as,

1,1

1,2

1,J

hk,m hk,m hk,m

2,1

2,2

2,J

h

h

h

k,m

k,m k,m

Hk,m = .

,

..

...

.

.

.

R,1

R,2

R,J

hk,m hk,m hk,m

(3.1)

(3.2)

th

where hr,j

user on subcarrier m from j th transmit

k,m represents the channel gain for k

antenna to rth receive antenna of the BS. By applying the SVD technique to the channel

matrix, the channel can be decomposed into multiple parallel independent subchannels.

H

Hk,m = Uk,m k,m Vk,m

(3.3)

rank(Hk,m )

i

)H ,

uik,m ik,m (vk,m

(3.4)

i=1

i

where uik,m and vk,m

are the left and right singular vectors and ik,m denotes the singular

values that are arranged in a descending order. For simplicity, we assume that Hk,m

satisfies rank(Hk,m ) = J.

17

For this work, a simple channel model, known as the Kronecker Model, has been

used to generate the channel matrix. We consider a system model with K users,

where each has J transmit antennas and the receiver side has R receive antennas. For

simplicity, let us consider an example where J = 2 and R = 2, so that the channel

matrix can be written as (Oestges, 2006)

h1,1 h1,2

H=

(3.5)

.

h2,1 h2,2

For Rayleigh fading, a general model of H is given by

1

vec(H) = R 2 vec(Hw ),

(3.6)

1

MIMO channel,

whereas R = R 2 R 2

H

is the covariance matrix defined as R = E vec(H)vec(H) . The covariance matrix

R is defined as

1 r1 t1 s1

r 1 s2 t2

1

(3.7)

R=

,

t1 s2 1 r2

s1 t2 r2 1

where the parameters, r1 , r2 , t1 , t2 are the antenna correlations. The remaining two

parameters s1 and s2 are defined as cross correlations, which represent the correlations

between channels originating from and impinging on different antennas at each side of

the links.

The main problem with (3.7) is that it is not easily tractable. Therefore, to

simplify the equation, the antenna correlations are assumed to be equal in transmitter

and reciever side, r1 = r2 = r and t1 = t2 = t . Using these two values, transmit and

receive correlation matrices, Rt and Rr can be constructed as,

1 t

1 r

Rt =

(3.8)

and Rr =

.

t 1

r 1

Now the covariance matrix, R can be written as a Kronecker product of the two

correlation matrices.

R = Rt Rr .

(3.9)

1

H = Rr2 Hw Rt2 .

18

(3.10)

Mathematically, this Kronecker model is valid if and only if the following two

conditions are fulfilled (Oestges, 2006),

Transmit antenna correlation coefficients are independent from the considered

receive antenna (respectively from transmit antenna), i.e. r1 = r2 and t1 = t2 .

The cross correlations should be equal to the product of the transmit and receive

correlation coefficients. Therefore, we can simplify the covariance matrix R in

(3.7) to the form in (3.9) by considering s1 = r t and s2 = r t .

Exponential Correlation Matrix:

To model the correlation matrix for the antennas on both sides, we can introduce

the following model for Rt (Martin & Ottersten, 2004),

(T 1)

1

t

2t t

(T 2)

t

1

t t

Rt = .

(3.11)

,

.

.

.

..

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

(T 1)

(T 2)

t

t

1

where the term, T is the total number of transmit antennas for K users. A similar

model can be used to define Rr , but by replacing t with r , with |t | < 1 and |r | < 1.

3.1.3

Transmitter Structure

Suppose that, at the transmitter side, user k has a data rate requirement of Rk

(in bits per OFDM symbol period). In each symbol duration, a data stream composed

of Rk bits is fed into M parallel streams. The uplink data symbols to be transmitted

by the k th user on subcarrier m from all J antennas to the BS can be expressed as a

vector, xk,m = [xk,m,1 , xk,m,2 , . . . , xk,m,J ]T . If user k is not assigned to use any subcarrier

m, then xk,m = 0. As shown in figure 3.1, xk,m is preprocessed using a pre-processing

matrix which is equal to the right singular matrix, Vk,m of Hk,m to precode the symbols

to be transmitted by J antennas on subcarrier m. The pre-processed outputs will be

(Liu et al., 2009),

ek,m = Vk,m xk,m .

x

3.1.4

(3.12)

Receiver Structure

At the BS, the receiver structure can be designed in two ways based on how we

want to allocate the subcarriers among the users. The two criteria of allocating the

subcarriers among different users are:

Each subcarrier will be allocated to only one user, i.e. there will be no sharing of

subcarriers among the users. Therefore, in this case we do not need any multiuser

detection scheme. As the subcarriers are orthogonal to each other, so there will

be no MAI.

19

is now being shared by different users, MAI from the cochannel users will exist

within each subcarrier that is shared. A widely used linear multiuser detector,

namely zero-forcing, will be applied at the receiver side to eliminate this multiuser

interference.

No Sharing of Subcarriers:

This work is mainly done based on the Constructive Initial Allocation of Subcarriers algorithm from (Zhang & Lataief, 2005b). But in (Zhang & Lataief, 2005b),

they have considered spatial diversity mechanism and allowed the use of the subchannel

which has the maximum singular value only. In our work, we perform spatial multiplexing to all the users and consider all subchannels to be utilized on each subcarrier

of all users. This helps to make our problem more flexible.

As it is assumed that rank(Hk,m ) = J, the SVD of Hk,m can be expressed as (Liu

et al., 2009),

k,m H

Hk,m = Uk,m

Vk,m

0

k,m H

= Uks,m Ukn,m

Vk,m

0

H

= Uks,m k,m Vk,m

,

(3.13)

k,m . The

matrix Uks,m consists of the J eigenvectors corresponding to the signal subspace of

Hk,m HH

k,m , whereas Ukn,m consists of the (R J) eigenvectors corresponding to the

null subspace of Hk,m HH

k,m (Liu et al., 2009).

If we want to allocate one subcarrier to each user, we can perform receiver shaping

at the receiver by multiplying the channel output by the matrix Uks,m from the left

unitary matrix Uk,m (Goldsmith, 2005). The received channel output for subcarrier

m can be expressed as,

ek,m + nm .

ym = Hk,m x

(3.14)

After multiplying Uks,m with the channel output and using the expressions from

H

(3.5) and (3.6) and exploiting the property Vk,m

Vk,m = IJ , the output after the receiver

shaping will become,

MF

ek,m + nm )

ym

= UH

ks,m (Hk,m x

H

H

= UH

ks,m Uks,m k,m Vk,m Vk,m xk,m + Uks,m nm

em.

= k,m xk,m + n

(3.15)

20

Therefore, the transmitted signal can be estimated without any interference from

e m = UH

other users and the new noise term n

ks,m nm does not change the distribution of

e m are identically distributed (Goldsmith, 2005). Accordingly, we

noise i.e., nm and n

can utilize the same singular values of the channel matrix, Hk,m in performing the bit

and power allocation scheme.

After we calculate the power allocation, which is described by pk,m,i for user k on

subchannel i of subcarrier m, the SNR expression in this subchannel can be written as

SNRk,m,i =

(ik,m )2 pk,m,i

.

N0

(3.16)

Sharing of Subcarriers:

The work in this section differs from the previous work in the aspect that we allow

sharing of subcarriers among multiple users. We limit the number of users that may

share one subcarrier to be at most K 0 . If we allow each subcarrier to be shared among

different users, we need to design the receiver structure in such a way that the MAI

from other users can be eliminated properly in order to estimate the transmitted data

symbols correctly. The SVD of Hk,m can be expressed as it is done in (3.6), i.e.

H

Hk,m = Uks,m k,m Vk,m

,

(3.17)

where the matrix Uks,m contains the J eigenvectors corresponding to the signal subspace of Hk,m HH

k,m , whereas Ukn,m consists of the (R J) eigenvectors corresponding

to the null subspace of Hk,m HH

k,m (Liu et al., 2009).

After we perform the subcarrier allocation, we get to know the set of users which

are using the same subcarriers. Without loss of generality, let users 1, 2, , K 0 share

the subcarrier m. The vector ym of the UL received signal of all K 0 users on subcarrier

m can be expressed as,

0

ym =

K

X

ek,m + nm .

Hk,m x

(3.18)

k=1

0

ym =

K

X

H

Uks,m k,m Vk,m

Vk,m xk,m + nm

k=1

0

K

X

(3.19)

k=1

Equation (3.9) shows that the UL transmit preprocessing matrix, Vk,m decouples

each of the antenna specific transmitted data symbols of the k th MS from those of its

other antennas (Liu et al., 2009).

21

Let us define

Um = [U1s,m , U2s,m , , UK 0 s,m ],

(3.20)

(3.21)

where each term Uks,m represents the J columns of eigenvectors for K 0 users that are

sharing the subcarrier m.

Then, we can write the received UL signal vector as,

ym = Um m xm + nm ,

(3.22)

m, and nm is an R 1 noise vector with each entry being independent and identically

distributed (IID) complex Gaussian with variance N0 . The matrix xm in (3.14) can be

defined as, xm = [xT1,m , xT2,m , . . . , xTK 0 ,m ]T .

A close observation of (3.14) indicates that Uks,m can be considered as users

spatial signature on subcarrier, which spreads the transmitted symbol in the space

domain. At the receiver, the despread signal can be obtained by correlating the received

signal with every users spatial signature. The despread signal is given by (Zhang &

Lataief, 2005b),

MF

ym

= (Um )H ym

= Rm m x m + U H

m nm ,

(3.23)

m Um . It should be noted that,

although the columns of Uks,m are orthogonal, the columns of Um corresponding to

the different UL MS transmitters are nonorthogonal (Liu et al., 2009). Therefore,

there is MAI from other users which should be cancelled by the BSs receiver. In this

work, we apply zero-forcing UL MUD scheme, which is a linear detector and is capable

of entirely mitigating the MAI, but at the cost of enhancing the noise term. Zeroforcing applies the inverse of the correlation matix to the output of the MF receiver to

decouple the data. The output becomes,

MF

ZF

ym

= R1

m ym

H

= m xm + R1

m Um nm

em,

= m xm + n

(3.24)

1 H

H

1 H

e m is a JK 0 1 vector which is equal to (UH

where n

m Um ) Um nm . The term (Um Um ) Um

can also be defined as the pseudoinverse of the matrix, Um . Although from (3.16), the

singular values remains the same as before for each user on their allocated subcarrier,

the new noise term will affect the allocation of the transmit powers to different users.

e m still represents a Gaussian noise vector with zero mean, but

The new noise term n

22

1

H

emn

eH

=E n

m = N0 (Um Um ) ,

(3.25)

detection, the noise observations become correlated. We can compute the SNR of the

k th user on the mth subcarrier in the same way as we computed for the case without

subcarrier sharing, but this time the noise levels will be different. The SNR can be

written in this case as

SNRk,m,i

(ik,m )2 pk,m,i

,

=

k,m,i

(3.26)

3.1.5

BER Expression

After we achieve the SNR values for user k on subcarrier m, we can evaluate the

BER for that transmission. To simplify the task of evaluating the BER, a unified

expression of the actual BER for QAM can be defined as (Zhang & Lataief, 2005b),

BERk,m,i

actual = 0.2 exp(

1.5 SNRk,m,i

).

2bk,m,i 1

(3.27)

The extra SNR needed to achieve a target probability of error with a given modulation and coding scheme is defined as the SNR gap, (Lee, 2012). It can be expressed

as the following equation for an uncoded M-QAM modulation with a specified BER.

=

3.2

ln(5BER)

.

1.5

(3.28)

The main objective here is to optimize the multiuser MIMO-OFDM system. Specifically, we want to propose an adaptive resource allocation algorithm where the algorithm endeavors to prolong the average remaining battery lifetime of the users subject

to an instantaneous BER performance constraint on each subcarrier, while meeting

a constant bit rate. The subcarrier, power and bit allocation is formulated into a

23

The objective is

K

Ek

1 X

max

PM

K k=1 m=1 pk,m

subject to:

k,

M

X

bk,m = Rk ,

(3.29)

m=1

k,

BERkactual BERktarget ,

(3.30)

k, m,

pk,m 0,

(3.31)

k, m,

bk,m 0, bk,m Z.

(3.32)

Since there is no general algorithm for solving a nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, we consider approximated algorithms as described in the next

subsections.

3.3

Ideally, to achieve an optimal solution, the subcarriers, power and bits should be

allocated jointly. However, solving such a nonconvex and combinatorial optimization

problem is too complex. To deal with the high computational complexity as well

as maintain the reasonable performance, subchannel and power allocation are done

separately. Subcarrier allocation is done based on the idea of allocating the channel

with the maximum gain to the user with the least battery energy.

3.3.1

Subcarrier Allocation

The subcarrier allocation can be done in two steps (Sun et al., 2009). In the first

step, we determine the number of subcarriers Mk required for each user k. The second

step is to assign the specified subcarriers to each user according to the singular values

of the channel matrix. In the latter step, there are two aspects: Subcarrier sharing

and no sharing.

1. The number of subcarriers Mk for user k is first determined. In order to maintain

the fairness among the different users, the following equation can be used to

initially assign the number of subcarriers for each user.

Rk

Mk =

, k = 1, 2, . . . , K,

(3.33)

Ravg

PK

where Ravg = M1

k=1 Rk can be defined as the average number of bits assign to

each subcarrier, satifying the users data rates.

2. In this step, we follow two algorithms for the two aspects:

24

subcarriers to the users based on the channel conditions in (Wong et al.,

1999). At first, the users are sorted in the ascending order according to

their battery energy levels. Then, for each user, the subcarriers are sorted

in the descending order based on their maximum singular values obtained

from the SVD of the channel matrices.

Subcarrier allocation is performed in multiple rounds. In each round, the

users are considered in the sorted order. Each user, say user k, is allocated

the next subcarrier in the sorted order if it is available (not yet allocated to

any user before). Otherwise, we skip the assignment of subcarrier to that

user and then proceed to the next user. However, if the number of assigned

subcarriers for the user k is equal to Mk , then user k is not allocated any

subcarrier in the next rounds.

Subcarrier allocation continues round by round and terminates when user k

has been allocated Mk subcarriers for all k.

Sharing the Subcarriers: At first, the users are sorted in the ascending order based on their battery energy levels. Then, all the required number of

subcarriers (Mk subcarriers for user k) are allocated to each user one by one

according to the sorted order. Unlike the previous scheme, there is only one

round of subcarrier allocation for each user, but each user may be allocated

multiple subcarriers in this single round.

For each user, say user k, the subcarriers are sorted in the descending order

based on their maximum nonzero singular values obtained from the SVD

of the channel matrices. The first available Mk subcarriers from the sorted

order are then allocated to user k. Each of the Mk subcarriers is allocated

to at most K 0 users.

In this scheme, a subcarrier may be allocated to multiple users. However,

each subcarrier can be allocated to no more than K 0 users in order to limit

the amount of MAI.

3.3.2

is used at the receiver, power allocation can be done for each user separately. From

(ik,m )2

(3.19), the equivalent channel gain, k,m,i

after multiuser detection is no longer dependent on other users transmit power. Hence, we can decouple the joint power allocation

into individual user optimization problems (Zhang & Lataief, 2003). For each user

25

The objective function is

minimize

M

X

pk,m

m=1

subject to:

M

X

bk,m = Rk ,

(3.34)

m=1

BERkactual BERktarget ,

(3.35)

m,

pk,m 0,

(3.36)

m,

bk,m 0, bk,m Z.

(3.37)

where bk,m is the bit rate of user k on subcarrier m and can be written as

bk,m =

J

X

log2 (1 +

i=1

pk,m,i (ik,m )2

).

k,m,i

(3.38)

We define ik,m as the ith nonzero singular value element of user k on subcarrier

m. The term pk,m,i is the power loading on subchannel i for user k on the mth subcarrier. After we find powerPloading, we can calculate the allocated power for user k

on subcarrier m as pk,m = Ji=1 pk,m,i . If no subcarrier is assigned to any user, then

power allocation and bit rate will be zero on that subcarrier.

In this work, a sub-optimal waterfilling scheme considered as a separate optimization problem for each user is still difficult to solve due to its nonlinearity. Waterfilling

can be carried out over user ks singular channels across all subcarriers to find the

power and bit allocation (Ho & Liang, 2009). From (3.30), we can write the bit

allocation in subchannel i of subcarrier m for user k as

bk,m,i

pk,m,i (ik,m )2

= log2 (1 +

).

k,m,i

(3.39)

Rearranging the above equation, we can determine the power allocation for each

subchannel i of subcarrier m for user k.

pk,m,i =

(2bk,m,i 1) k,m,i

.

(ik,m )2

(3.40)

satisfied.

M X

J

X

bk,m,i Rk .

(3.41)

m=1 i=1

To solve the waterfilling problem, we can follow a bit-by-bit allocation process for

26

1. Initially, let bk,m,i = 0 for all m = 1, 2, . . . , Mk and for all i = 1, 2, . . . , J.

2. Calculate the normalized noise level for each subchannel i = 1, 2, . . . , J for all

m = 1, 2, . . . , Mk .

3. Then, allocate one bit on the subchannel i which has the minimum noise level.

Update bk,m,i = bk,m,i + 1.

4. Compute the value of pk,m,i from (3.32).

5. Repeat step 2 and 3 for all Mk subcarriers of user k.

PJ

6. Find pk,m =

i=1 pk,m,i . After that, select the subcarrier with the minimum

power to allocate another additional bit. Update bk,m,i = bk,m,i + 1. Continue the

process until the data rate is satisfied for the user. Once (3.34) is satisfied, we

stop allocating any additional bits to any subchannel of that subcarrier.

7. Then we obtain the power allocation on subcarrier m, denoted by pk,m .

8. Calculate the average lifetime.

3.4

Performance Evaluation

The system performance will be evaluated in terms of its average lifetime of the

users. We will simulate two aspects in MIMO-OFDM resource allocation scheme,

namely sharing and no sharing of subcarriers to compare the performance between

them. The following comparisons will be made after the simulations:

The first graph will be plotted to observe the performance of waterfilling in each

subchannel with 3 users.

Then, we vary the number of subcarriers for these three criteria to observe the

changes in average battery lifetime.

The plot of average lifetime of users versus the number of users for the two cases

will be created and compared.

The changes in the average lifetime of users will be investigated with respect to

the number of bits assigned to each user.

27

Chapter 4

Simulation Results and Discussions

A detailed performance analysis using the proposed algorithm is given in this

chapter, where the algorithm details have been explained in the last chapter . Two

types of subcarrier allocation algorithms were discussed, where in the first algorithm

the subcarriers will not be shared among different users but the users will utilize all the

subchannels. In the second algorithm, different users will be allowed to share the same

subcarrier as well as utilizing all the subchannels of each subcarrier. The performances

in terms of the average battery lifetime of these two algorithms are compared with the

case in which only the maximum singular mode subchannel is used. Simulation results

are obtained and discussed for different numbers of users, subcarriers and different data

rates for each user.

4.1

The simulation flow chart is shown in figure 4.1.

4.2

Simulation Environment

A wireless network is assumed where each mobile station is equipped with two transmit

28

antennas and the BS is equipped with four receive antennas. The antenna correlation

coefficients are assumed to be 0.3 for both transmitter and receiver. Each user is

assumed to have the data rate requirement of 2 bits per subcarrier on average.

4.3

Simulation Parameters

Simulation parameters are kept the same as in (Zhang & Lataief, 2005b). The

simulations will be done in MATLAB environment. The system parameters that will

be used for the simulations are given below.

Table 4.1: Simulation parameters

Symbol

Parameter

Value

Number of subcarriers

641

Number of users

2,3,4,6,8

K0

carrier

J

21

user

1

2

3

41

Bandwidth

20 MHz3

BERtarget

Target BER

105

Rk

N0

Noise power

109 W/Hz2

t , r

Correlation coefficient

0.31

Ek

Randomly generated

Taken from (Goldsmith, 2005)

Taken from (Maw & Sasase, 2011)

4.4

The performance of both the no sharing and sharing of the subcarriers are compared with the algorithm in (Wong et al., 1999) and (Zhang & Lataief, 2005a)

where no subcarriers are shared and only the maximum singular value subchannel is

used. In almost every case, the scheme with no sharing of subcarriers outperforms the

other two algorithms, because there is no MAI and all the subchannels are being used.

All the simulations were carried out in MATLAB. Simulation parameters are shown in

29

Table 4.1.

Figure 4.2 shows a plot of the poured power level in each subchannel of the selected subcarriers for each user. As this waterfilling is done by a bit-by-bit allocation

process, the level of power is not flat.

Figure 4.2: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to selected subchannel index

Figure 4.3 to figure 4.6 compare the performances of the average battery lifetime

with respect to the numbers of subcarriers for the three cases mentioned above. In all

cases, both sharing of subcarriers and transmission through all subchannels outperform

the maximum singular mode transmission case (Wong et al., 1999) and (Zhang &

Lataief, 2005a), except for figure 4.5.

30

Figure 4.3: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of subcarriers

In figure 4.4, an uncorrelated antenna matrix has been considered, where the

performance of average battery lifetime of maximum singular mode transmission case

degrades than before. When an uncorrelated antenna matrix are considered, the other

subchannels also have significant gains. In the maximum singular mode case, as the

other subchannels are not used, there is a chance that a good subchannel is not taken

into account and thus the performance is not good.

Figure 4.4: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of subcarriers

Figure 4.5 plots the same graph but for a high correlated antenna matrix. In this

31

case, the performance for sharing of subcarriers degrades because the MAI increases

with the increase of the users spatial correlation.

Figure 4.5: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of subcarriers

Figure 4.6 shows the same performance evaluation with an increasing number of

users.

Figure 4.6: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of subcarriers

From figure 4.7 to figure 4.10, the performance analysis of average network lifetime is shown with respect to the number of bits per user. Waterfilling is done at the

32

subchannel level for both no sharing and sharing of the subcarriers cases. Therefore,

when we have more bits, it is efficient to allocate the bits utilizing all the subchannels

so that the total transmit power can be reduced.

Figure 4.7: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of bits/user with

K = 6, M = 32 and t = r = 0.3

Figure 4.8: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of bits/user with

K = 6, M = 32 and t = r = 0.0

However, when high antenna correlation is considered in figure 4.9, the maximum

singular value is much larger than the other singular values. This implied that most

33

of the channel energy can be collected by the maximum singular value subchannel.

Therefore, performance of utilizing all subchannels is closer to the maximum singular

mode transmission. Because of the high correlation, MAI among the users in sharing

of subcarriers case increases. To eliminate this interference, noise enhancement cost

becomes so high that the performance degrades in this case.

Figure 4.9: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of bits/user with

K = 6, M = 32 and t = r = 0.7

Figure 4.10: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of bits/user

34

Figure 4.11 to 4.13 show the performance of average network lifetime of a user

with respect to the total number of users in the system. Utilizing all the subchannels

outperforms the other two algorithms. In figure 4.11, when the number of users is small

there will be a number of unused subcarriers in the case of sharing of the subcarriers.

Therefore, the performance is worse than the maximum singular mode case.

Figure 4.11: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number users with

In a highly correlated case in figure 4.12, the performance of sharing of subcarriers

is much worse than the other two cases because of the noise enhancement which occurs

from using the ZF multiuser detection to suppress the MAI among different users.

35

Figure 4.12: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of bits/user

In figure 4.13, the uncorrelated case, utilizing all the subchannels is proved to

be better than the maximum singular mode transmission. When the number of users

is 2, we allow both the users to share the same subcarrier in the case of sharing of

subcarriers. Due to the interference, the performance is worse than the maximum

singular mode case. In sharing of subcarriers, users have the opportunity to share a

good channel with other users, whereas in the no-sharing and maximum mode cases,

users have to skip a channel if it has been previously assigned to any other users.

Figure 4.13: Average battery lifetime of a user with respect to number of bits/user

36

4.5

Summary

The whole performance analysis can be summarized into following key points:

Utilizing all the subchannels and allowing no sharing of the subcarriers outperform utilizing only the subchannels according to the maximum singular modes

in all cases.

Sharing of subcarriers can improve the system performance when the amount of

antenna correlation is not high. With high antenna correlation, the amount of

MAI is high, and ZF equalization results in high noise enhancement.

When the antenna correlation becomes the maximum, i.e., equal to 1, there

exists only one subchannel for each channel matrix. Therefore, utilizing all the

subchannels performs similar to utilizing only the subchannels according to the

maximum singular modes.

37

Chapter 5

Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1

Conclusion

In this thesis, we presented an uplink resource allocation algorithm for a cellular MIMO-OFDM system by which the average network lifetime defined based on the

battery lifetimes was improved. The main focus of this work wass to utilize all the

spatial subchannels in a channel matrix, so that the total transmit power could be

minimized compared to the transmission through the subchannel with the maximum

gains (maximum singular modes) only. By minimizing the total transmit power, the

average battery lifetime was maximized.

Two cases of using all subchannels were considered in this thesis: 1) No sharing

of subcarriers; and 2) Sharing of subcarriers. Both cases were compared with the maximum singular mode transmission which was considered in (Wong et al., 1999) and

(Zhang & Lataief, 2005a). In all cases, the BS selects the uplink transmission parameters for all users based on the CSI estimated from the previously received information.

For tractable solutions, the subcarrier allocation and power allocation were done

separately. In subcarrier allocation, at first the number of subcarriers to be allocated

to the users were calculated. Then, those numbers of subcarriers were allocated to

the users based on their maximum singular values of the channel matrices. Without

sharing of subcarriers, a constructive initial allocation algorithm was followed. With

sharing of the subcarriers, multiple users were allowed to share the same subcarrier

although we limited the number of users sharing a subcarrier in order to suppress the

interference among cochannel users. Finally, a bit-by-bit waterfilling algorithm was

followed to allocate the power among the users satisfying their data rate requirements.

Once the optimal transmit power values were computed, the corresponding average

network lifetime was found.

From the simulation results, it is clear that the scheme that utilizes all spatial

subchannels without sharing the subcarriers always outperforms the other two cases.

In sharing the subcarriers, we have implemented a simple multiuser detection technique,

namely ZF, which can eliminate the MAI but at a cost of noise enhancement. If the

noise level becomes too high, the system performance may degrade. Simulation results

suggest that sharing of subcarriers can be helpful only when the antenna correlation is

low in the MIMO channel.

5.2

At the end of this thesis, we would like to present the following recommendations

and open issues to stimulate further research.

Solving the resource allocation problem with imperfect channel knowledge.

Modifying the optimization problem for sharing of subcarriers in such a way that

the MAI among the cochannel users are small without significantly enhancing

the noise power, and thus yielding a better performance than the case with no

sharing of subcarrier.

38

When the channel correlation between the users increases, the performance from

sharing of subcarriers degrades. One basic idea of allocating the users to the

subcarrier is to put a constraint on correlation so that highly correlated users

will not share the same subcarrier.

Though ZF detection scheme is most commonly used to eliminate the MAI, it has

a disadvantage of the noise enhancement. Hence for multiuser detection, more

powerful multiuser detection techniques can be employed at the BS.

39

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41

Appendix A

A.1

References

Most of the mathematical theory that is described in the next sections can be

found in (Goldsmith, 2005) and (Zelst, 2004).

A.2

A.2.1

Review of Matrix

Hermitian Matrix

transpose of that matrix: AH = (A )T . The complex conjugate A is obtained by

taking the complex conjugate of each element in matrix A.

A.2.2

Rank of a Matrix

A is an N M matrix, the rank of A cannot exceed min[N, M ]. If an N M matrix

A is full rank, then the rank of A is equal to min[N, M ].

A.2.3

written as: A = UUH , where U is a unitary matrix whose columns are the eigenvectors of A and boldsymbol represents a diagonal matrix where the diagonal entries

are the nonzero eigenvalues of A and are arranges in descending order.

However, SVD can be applied to matrix of any dimension. Suppose for an N M

matrix A, SVD can be written as,

A = UVH

(1.1)

The columns of V are called the right singular vectors of A and the columns of U are

the left singular vectors of A. In this case the matrix has a special form which is

42

written as,

N M

1

.

..

0

=

.

..

...

...

0

..

.

..

.

for N M

(1.2)

and

N M

1 0 0 0

. .

.

. . ... ... . . . ...

=

.

0 M 0 0

for N < M

(1.3)

where i is the square root of the eigen values of matrix AAH and are called the

singular values of A.

A.3

N L M K matrix which can be defined as,

a11 B a12 B

a21 B a22 B

AB = .

..

..

..

.

.

aM 1 B aM 2 B

43

and an L K matrix B is an

a1N B

a2N B

..

.

aM N B

(1.4)

Appendix B

MATLAB Codes

B.1

a=0.3; % transmitter correlation coefficient

b=0.3; % receiver correlation coefficient

R_t=[1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2)) (conj(a^3)) (conj(a^4)) (conj(a^5));a 1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2))...

(conj(a^3)) (conj(a^4)); a^2 a 1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2)) (conj(a^3)); a^3 a^2 a 1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2));...

a^4 a^3 a^2 a 1 (conj(a)); a^5 a^4 a^3 a^2 a 1];

% Transmitter Correlation matrix for 3 users.

R_r=[1 (conj(b)) (conj(b^2)) (conj(b^3));b 1 (conj(b)) (conj(b^2));...

b^2 b 1 (conj(b)); b^3 b^2 b 1];

% Receiver Correlation matrix

J=2; % No. of transmit antennas for each user

T=6; % No. of total transmit antennas

M=64; % Total subcarrier

K=3; % Total users

user = 1:K; % user=1:K

R=4; % Total receive antennas at BS

Ek = [12 5 9]; % Battery energy level

B=20^6; %Bandwidth

BER_target=1/100000;

No=(10^(-9))*B; %Noise power in Watt/Hz

Rk=[128;128;128]; % Data rate requirement for each user in bits/symbol

Ravg=(K*Rk(1))/M; % Average no of bits assigned to each subcarrier

Mk=floor(Rk(1)/Ravg); % No of subcarriers required for each user

gamma = -log(5*BER_target)/1.5; % SNR Gap

H = zeros(R,J*K,M); % creating a RxJK 3-dimensional matrix

matrix = zeros(K,M); % a matrix for SVD

indexMatrix = zeros(K,M);

assign=zeros(K,M);

A=zeros(K,Mk,J);

bkm = zeros(K,M);

Availability = zeros(1,M);

pkmi = zeros(K,Mk);

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%% Ordering the users based on their battery energy %%%%

new_E = Ek;

for l = 1:K

for k = 1:K-1

if(new_E(k)>new_E(k+1))

temp = new_E(k+1);

temp2 = user(k+1);

new_E(k+1) = new_E(k);

user(k+1) = user(k);

new_E(k) = temp;

user(k) = temp2;

end

end

end

R_r_sqrt = R_r^0.5;

R_t_sqrt = R_t^0.5;

%%%% Generating the channel matrix %%%%

for m = 1:M

Hw = (randn(R, T, 2) + sqrt(-1) * randn(R, T, 2)) / sqrt(2); % i.i.d complex Gaussian or Ragleigh in

envelope

H(:,:,m) = R_r_sqrt * Hw(:,:,1) * R_t_sqrt;

end

for m = 1:M

for k = 1:K

H_km(:,:,k,m) = H(:,(k-1)*J+1:k*J,m); % Getting the channel matrix for user k on subcarrier

[U,eigval(:,:,k,m),V] = svd(H_km(:,:,k,m)); % Performing SVD Hkm

matrix(k,m) = eigval(1,1,k,m);

A(k,m,1)= eigval(1,1,k,m);

A(k,m,2)= eigval(2,2,k,m);

end

end

[sorted sortedIndex] = sort(matrix,2,descend); % Sorting in Descending order

44

power_pkmi = zeros(K,Mk,J);

Total_assigned = zeros(1,K);

selected_subcarrier = zeros(K,Mk);

%%%% Performing Subcarrier Allocation %%%%

for m = 1:M

for k = 1:K

if(Total_assigned(user(k)) < Mk)

selected = sortedIndex(user(k),m);

if(Availability(selected)~= 1)

assign(user(k),selected) = 1;

Availability(selected) = 1;

Total_assigned(user(k)) = Total_assigned(user(k)) + 1;

for i = 1:Mk

if(selected_subcarrier(user(k),i)==0)

selected_subcarrier(user(k),i) = selected;

break;

end

end

end

end

end

end

normalized_noise = Inf*ones(K,Mk,J);

Y=zeros(K,1);

Pk = zeros(K,1); Tk = zeros(K,1); gain_min = zeros(K,Mk);pmin = zeros(K,J);

%%%% Calculating Normalized Noise level in each subchannel %%%%

for k = 1:length(user)

for m = 1:size(selected_subcarrier,2)

for i = 1:J

normalized_noise(k,m,i) = gamma*No/(A(k,selected_subcarrier(k,m),i))^2;

end

end

end

%%%% Power Allocation by waterfilling %%%%

for k = 1:length(user)

while Y(k)< Rk(k)

for m = 1:size(selected_subcarrier,2)

X = sum(bkmi,3);

Y = sum(X,2);

for i = 1:J

pkmi(k,m,i)=(2^bkmi(k,selected_subcarrier(k,m),i)-1)*gamma*No/(A(k,selected_subcarrier(k,m),i))^2

+ normalized_noise(k,m,i);

SNR(k,m,i) = pkmi(k,m,i)*(A(k,selected_subcarrier(k,m),i))^2/No;

[minval,minpos] = min(pkmi(k,:,i));

pmin(k,i) = minval;

index(k,i) = minpos;

[min_p,min_m] = min(pmin(k,:));

minp(k) = min_p;

minind(k) = min_m;

end

end

if (Y(k)< Rk(k))

bkmi(k,selected_subcarrier(k,index(k,minind(k))),minind(k)) =

bkmi(k,selected_subcarrier(k,index(k,minind(k))),minind(k)) + 1;

end

end

end

%%%% Finding out the average battery lifetime %%%%

for k = 1:length(user)

for m = 1:size(selected_subcarrier,2)

for i = 1:J

power_pkmi(k,m,i) = pkmi(k,m,i) - normalized_noise(k,m,i) ;

end

pkm = sum(power_pkmi,3);

Pk = sum(pkm,2);

Tk(k) = Ek(k)/Pk(k);

end

Avg_lifetime = sum(Tk)/K;

end

display(Avg_lifetime);

45

B.2

b=0.3; % receiver correlation coefficient

R_t=[1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2)) (conj(a^3)) (conj(a^4)) (conj(a^5));a 1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2))...

(conj(a^3)) (conj(a^4)); a^2 a 1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2)) (conj(a^3)); a^3 a^2 a 1 (conj(a)) (conj(a^2));...

a^4 a^3 a^2 a 1 (conj(a)); a^5 a^4 a^3 a^2 a 1];

% Transmitter Correlation matrix for 3 users.

R_r=[1 (conj(b)) (conj(b^2)) (conj(b^3));b 1 (conj(b)) (conj(b^2));...

b^2 b 1 (conj(b)); b^3 b^2 b 1];

% Receiver Correlation matrix

J=2; % No. of transmit antennas for each user

T=6; % No. of total transmit antennas

M=64; % Total subcarrier

K=3; % Total users

K_prime = 2; % No. of users that can share a subcarrier

user = 1:K; % user=1:K

R=4; % Total receive antennas at BS

Ek = [12 5 9]; % Battery energy level

B=20^6; %Bandwidth

BER_target=1/100000;

No=(10^(-9))*B; %Noise power in Watt/Hz

Rk=[128;128;128]; % Data rate requirement for each user in bits/symbol

Ravg=(K*Rk(1))/M; % Average no of bits assigned to each subcarrier

Mk=floor(Rk(1)/Ravg); % No of subcarriers required for each user

gamma = -log(5*BER_target)/1.5; % SNR Gap

H = zeros(R,J*K,M); %creating a RxJK 3-dimensional matrix

H_km = zeros(R,J,K,M);

matrix = zeros(K,M); % a matrix for SVD

indexMatrix = zeros(K,M);

assign=zeros(K,M);

A=zeros(K,Mk,J);

bkmi = zeros(K,M,J);

Availability = zeros(1,M);

pkmi = zeros(K,Mk,J);

pkm = zeros(K,Mk);

SNR = zeros(K,Mk,J);

normalized_noise = Inf*ones(K,Mk,J);

Pk = zeros(K,1); Tk = zeros(K,1); gain_min = zeros(K,Mk);pmin = zeros(K,J);

allocate = zeros(1,M);

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%% Ordering the users based on their battery energy %%%%

new_E = Ek;

for l = 1:K

for k = 1:K-1

if(new_E(k)>new_E(k+1))

temp = new_E(k+1);

temp2 = user(k+1);

new_E(k+1) = new_E(k);

user(k+1) = user(k);

new_E(k) = temp;

user(k) = temp2;

end

end

end

R_r_sqrt = R_r^0.5;

R_t_sqrt = R_t^0.5;

%%%% Generating the channel matrix %%%%

for m = 1:M

Hw = (randn(R, T, 2) + sqrt(-1) * randn(R, T, 2)) / sqrt(2); % i.i.d complex Gaussian or Ragleigh in

envelope

H(:,:,m) = R_r_sqrt * Hw(:,:,1) * R_t_sqrt;

end

for m = 1:M

for k = 1:K

H_km(:,:,k,m) = H(:,(k-1)*J+1:k*J,m); % Getting the channel matrix for user k on subcarrier

[U,eigval(:,:,k,m),V] = svd(H_km(:,:,k,m)); % Performing SVD Hkm

matrix(k,m) = eigval(1,1,k,m);

A(k,m,1)= eigval(1,1,k,m);

A(k,m,2)= eigval(2,2,k,m);

end

end

[sorted sortedIndex] = sort(matrix,2,descend); % Sorting in Descending order

sortedIndex1 = sortedIndex;

46

sub_allc = zeros(K,Mk);

for k = 1:length(user)

j = 1;

for m = 1:M

if (allocate(sortedIndex1(user(k),m))< K_prime && j<=Mk)

sub_allc(user(k),j) = sortedIndex1(user(k),m);

allocate(sortedIndex1(user(k),m)) = allocate(sortedIndex1(user(k),m))+1;

j = j+1;

elseif(allocate(sortedIndex1(user(k),m))>= K_prime && j<=Mk)

for e = 1:20

temp = sortedIndex1(user(k),m);

i = m;

if(allocate(sortedIndex1(user(k),i))>= K_prime)

while(i<=M-1)

sortedIndex1(user(k),i) = sortedIndex1(user(k),i+1);

i = i + 1;

end

end

end

sub_allc(user(k),j) = sortedIndex1(user(k),m);

allocate(sortedIndex1(user(k),m)) = allocate(sortedIndex1(user(k),m))+1;

j = j+1;

end

end

end

%%%% Creating Um and new noise term eta %%%%

selected_user = zeros(M,K);

initial_Um = {};

for k = 1:K

for j = 1:Mk

m_index = sub_allc(k,j);

for m = 1:M

selected_user(m_index,k) = 1;

end

end

end

for m = 1:M

for k = 1:K

if(selected_user(m,k)==1)

initial_Um(m,k) = {U_ksm(:,:,k,m)};

elseif (selected_user(m,k)==0)

initial_Um(m,k) = {[]};

end

end

end

for m = 1:M

Um{m} = create_Um(initial_Um,m); % Constructing Um for each m

Rm{m} = (Um{m})*Um{m}; % correlation matrix

eta{m} = No*pinv(Rm{m}); % constructing the new noise matrix

end

Y=zeros(K,1);

noise_k = zeros(K,Mk,J);

for k = 1:length(user)

for m = 1:size(sub_allc,2)

eta_m = eta{sub_allc(k,m)};

% Storing eta for each k and m

c = diag(eta_m); % Taking out all the diagonal entries from eta_m

a = find(selected_user(sub_allc(k,m),:)==1);

if length(a) == 1

for i = 1:J

noise_k(k,sub_allc(k,m),i) = c(i);

end

elseif length(a) > 1

for j = 1:length(a)

b = c((j-1)*J+1:j*J);

for i = 1:J

noise_k(a(j),sub_allc(k,m),i) = b(i);

end

end

end

end

end

%%%% Calculating Normalized Noise level in each subchannel %%%%%

47

for k = 1:length(user)

for m = 1:size(sub_allc,2)

for i = 1:J

normalized_noise(k,m,i) = gamma*real(noise_k(k,sub_allc(k,m),i))/(A(k,sub_allc(k,m),i))^2;

end

end

end

%%%% Power Allocation by Waterfilling %%%%

for k = 1:length(user)

while Y(k)< Rk(k)

for m = 1:size(sub_allc,2)

X = sum(bkmi,3);

Y = sum(X,2);

for i = 1:J

pkmi(k,m,i) = (2^bkmi(k,sub_allc(k,m),i)-1)*gamma*real(noise_k(k,sub_allc(k,m),i))/

(A(k,sub_allc(k,m),i))^2 + normalized_noise(k,m,i);

SNR(k,m,i) = pkmi(k,m,i)*(A(k,sub_allc(k,m),i))^2/real(noise_k(k,sub_allc(k,m),i));

[minval,minpos] = min(pkmi(k,:,i));

pmin(k,i) = minval;

index(k,i) = minpos;

[min_p,min_m] = min(pmin(k,:));

minp(k) = min_p;

minind(k) = min_m;

end

end

if (Y(k)< Rk(k))

bkmi(k,sub_allc(k,index(k,minind(k))),minind(k)) = bkmi(k,sub_allc(k,index(k,minind(k))),minind(k))

+ 1;

end

end

end

%%%% Calculating Average Battery Lifetime %%%%

for k = 1:length(user)

for m = 1:size(sub_allc,2)

for i = 1:J

power_pkmi(k,m,i) = pkmi(k,m,i) - normalized_noise(k,m,i);

pkm = sum(power_pkmi,3);

end

Pk = sum(pkm,2);

Tk(k) = Ek(k)/Pk(k);

end

Avg_lifetime = sum(Tk)/K;

end

display(Avg_lifetime);

48

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