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Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 1

College Physics 2016

LESSON 1: Introduction and Measurements
1. Review of Basic Algebra and Trigonometry
2. Physics and Measurements and its Application to Nursing
3. Fundamental Quantities and Systems of Units
a. Deriving and interpreting formulas
b. Units
c. Significant figures
LESSON 2: Describing Motion
1. Physical Quantities: Scalar and Vector
2. Traction System
3. Torque
4. Kinematics
5. Force and Motion
6. Machines
a. Lever
b. Mechanical advantage
c. Other simple machines
LESSON 3: Work, Energy and Power
1. Ergonomics
2. Proper Body Mechanics
3. Work
4. Energy
5. Power
LESSON 4: Fluids, Pressure, Heat and Oxygen Therapy
1. Fluids
a. Properties of fluids
b. Pressure in liquids
c. Edema
2. Pressure
a. Hydrostatic pressure
b. Blood pressure and velocity
c. Measuring the blood pressure with sphygmomanometer
d. Air pressure
3. Heat
a. Heat transfer
b. Body temperature
c. Application of heat and cold
4. Oxygen Therapy
a. Respiration
b. Ventilation
LESSON 5: Waves and Radiation
1. X-radiography
2. Computed Tomography (CT)
3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
4. The Gamma Knife
5. Ultrasound
6. Optical Methods
7. Endoscopy
8. Pulse Oximetry
9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
10. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
11. Pacemaker

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 2

College Physics 2016
LESSON 1: Introduction and Measurements
1. Review of Basic Algebra and Trigonometry
Rational Expression
Fractions - it has a numerator and denominator
* ADDITION (Least common denominator)



ad+ bc


2 1 2 13 8+ 39 47
+3 = + =
4 3 4 3(4) 12

a c ad bc
b d

1 2 13 839 31
3 = =
4 3 4

a c ac
x =
b d bd

3 15 2 10
x x = 2=
4 12 3 16

a c b a d ad
= = x =
b d c b c bc

3 5 2 4 5
3 3
5 9 5 9 12 27
= = x = = x = =2
4 12 3 2 12 4 2 12 8 12 8 5 10

[ ]

ax 2+ bx+ c=0

b b24 ac


Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 3

College Physics 2016
X2 +4x-2 = 0

;a =1


4 4 4(1)(2)

4 24

4 4.89

X = 0.445 ; X = -4.445



Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 4

College Physics 2016
Basic trigonometric fxn:

sin =

opposite a
= ; csc=

cos =

adj b
= ; sec =
hyp c

opp a
tan =
= ; cot =
adj b

x 7 . x 2=x 9
2. ( xm ) n=x m .n

( x 7 ) 2=x 7.2=x 14

if m>n ; x

x7/x2 = x7-2 = x5

sin B= ; cos B= ; tan B=

1. x m . xn =x m+n

if m< n ;1 /x nm
X2/x7 = 1/x7-2 = 1/x5
But if m=n
X7/x7 = 1

2. Physics and Measurements and its Application to Nursing

What is Physics?
Physics is the most fundamental science
It is the basis of other physical sciences like chemistry, astronomy and geology.
Most principles of the other sciences are based on the principles of Physics.
It is a study of the basic principles of the universe
Its basic concepts, laws and equations govern most of the things that happened
around us.
o Why do we have atmospheric pressure?
o How are we able to walk?
o How does blood flow in our body?
It is also a science of measurement
Since it is also a science of measurement, we need values and description of
these values to be able to measure things.
Knowledge of physics is essential not only to the skillful use of hospital and nursing appliances
and equipment but to an understanding of the structure and functions of the human body. Dr.
John C. Draper says:
There is not a tissue, organ, nor function of the body the proper
compensation of which does not
involve a knowledge of the laws of physics. There is hardly a principle of
physics which does not
apply to the human body.
Physics interaction of matter and energy classified as:
1. Mechanics
2. Wave motion
3. Heat
4. Electricity and Magnetism
5. Light
1. Relativity
2. Quantum Mechanics
3. Atomic and Nuclear Physics
4. Condensed Matter Physics
5. Elementary Particles and High-Energy Physics

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 5

College Physics 2016

- Is the study of the application of physics to medicine:
- Is the application of the principle of physics to the understanding of the function of the
human body in health and disease.
is the applications of physics in the instrumentation used in diagnosis and therapy.
3. Fundamental Quantities and Systems of Units
a. Deriving and interpreting formulas
There are fundamental laws in physics. Much of the rest of physics can be
derived from these few fundamental laws. Occasionally, we will actually derive
one equation from a set of other equations. Why do we do this? It is to show the
relationships between the fundamental laws and the derived laws.
Mathematics allows one to understand the world and make predictions
about how things will behave. It is very important that we understand not only
how to use and manipulate equations but also what the equations physically
mean. We must learn what each piece of a formula is measuring, the units of
measure involved in the equation, and what information is being sought using the
equation. Equations apply to certain observations and events, they describe each
detail of an event, and they help us make predictions based on the
measurements and observations.
b. Units
Every measurement or quantitative statement requires a unit. Unit is a
value or quantity in terms of which other values or quantities are
expressed. If you are driving your car 30, that does not mean anything. If
you are driving it 30 miles/hour, 30 km/hour, or 30 ft/sec. then 30 means
something when you attach a unit into it.
c. Significant figures
There are only three fundamental quantities in mechanics; LENGTH, MASS and TIME. All
other quantities are considered as derived quantities and their corresponding units are derived
units. Examples of derived quantities are area, volume, speed and density. The corresponding
units are considered derived because they were simply obtained by multiplying or dividing
1. Metric or System International Units (SI) use mks and cgs
METER (1889 1960) a platinum-iridium alloy rod with two etched marks defined the
standard meter. The new meter is defined as the length of path traveled by light in a
vacuum during 1/(299,792,458)th of a second. (Length) (unit m).
SECOND old definition was 1/(86,400)th of a mean solar day (time between noon, one
day until noon the next). Alternatively, the second is defined as 9, 192, 631, 770 vibrations
of a cesium atom. (Time) (unit s).
KILOGRAM a precisely staright piece of platinum iridium alloy cylinder kept under
guard in Paris. (Mass) (unit kg).
1 nanometer = 1nm = 10-9m (a few times the size of the largest atom)
1 micrometer = 1m = 10-6m (size of some bacteria and living cells)
1 millimeter = 1mm = 10-3m (diameter of the point of a ballpoint pen)
1 centimeter = 1cm = 10-2m (diameter of your little finger)
1 kilometer = 1km = 103m (a 10-minute walk)
1 microgram = 1g = 10-6g = 10-9kg (mass of a very small dust particle)
1 milligram = 1mg = 10-3g = 10-6kg (mass of a grain of salt)

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 6

College Physics 2016
1 gram = 1g or 1gm = 10-3kg (mass of a regular paper clip)
1 nanosecond = 1ns = 10-9s (time for light to travel 0.3 m)
1 microsecond = 1s = 10-6s (time for an orbiting space shuttle to travel 8mm)
1 millisecond = 1ms = 10-3s (time for sound to travel 0.35 m)
2. British Engineering System (BES) or English System use fps is used primarily
in the United States and in Great Britain.
3. Apothecary used by chemists and pharmacists
Approximate liquid measurements
1 fluid ounce (floz) = 30 milliliters (ml) = 30g (28.35g)
One liter of pure water weighs approximately one kilogram, so: 1 cc (ml) of water
weighs 1 gram
a spoonful generally means heaped or rounded with as much above the brim of
the spoon. However, a measure of liquid in a level spoonful.
1 pound (lb) = 16 oz
1 grain (gr) = 60 mg
1 ml = 15 minims
1 pint (pt) = 16 floz = 480 ml (473.2 ml)
1 quartz (qz) = 2pt
1 gallon (gal) = 8pt
4. Household measurements
1 cup = 180 ml
1 glass = 200 ml (standard) = 250 ml (tall glass)
1 teaspoonful = 5 milliliters
1 tablespoonful = 15 milliliters
1 ounce = 30 grams
In 1866, the United States Congress legalized the use of the metric system
within the United States. The law also established approximate equivalents
between customary and metric measurements.
1 gram = 1,000 milligrams
1 milligram = 1,000 micrograms
Exact equivalents are used for compounding and calculations requiring a
high degree of accuracy.
International unit (IU) is an old measurement of vitamin activity
determined by biological methods as opposed to new measures that are
determined by direct chemical analysis. An international unit is quantity of a
biological effect agreed upon as an international standard. Many healthy foods
and supplements use IU.
Categories of Physical Quantities
1. Fundamental Quantities
Length meter - mm, cm, m, km
inch, ft, yd, mi
Mass kilogram - kg, g --- lbs, slugs
Time seconds, min, hour
Temp 0C ---- 0F; kelvin
Electric current ampere (A)
Amount of substance mole (mol)
Luminous Intensity Candela (cd)
2. Derived Quantities
mm2, cm2, m2, km2,
in2, ft2, mi2
mm3, cm3, m3, km3
in3, ft3, mi3
mm/s, cm/s, m/s, km/s,
in/s, ft/s, mi/s
slugs / ft3
newton ( kg m/s )
Pounds (slugs ft/s 2)


Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 7

College Physics 2016
1. If you donated 3 pints of blood, how many 500ml collapsible plastic bag can you fill?

2. A nurse is asked to prepare medication for a patient with a prescribed dosage of 10mg
per kg of body mass of 60 kg. How much medicine should the nurse give the pt?

3. We have some 25 X 1012 RBC in our body and 1 million of then die every second and are
replaced by our system because of some abnormalities, how many days will it take for
all of the red blood cells to die?

4. The human hair grows a rate of about 0.073 cm per day, if you intend to have a haircut
in 6 weeks, how much would your hair have grown?

5. The RBC are so small that if you line up 3000 of them will only measure short of 25 mm,
25 x 1012 RBC in the body, how many km will they measure if you line them up all
10-24 - yocto (y)
10-21 - zepto (z)
10-18 atto (a)
10-15 femto (f)
1015 peta
10 exa
10 zetta (Z)
1024 yotta (Y)
Speed of light (c) = 2.99792458 x 108 m/s magnitude of charge of electron (e) =
1.602176462(63) x 10-19 C
- A second 9, 192, 631, 700 cycles of microwave radiation
- Meter is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1/299, 792, 458 seconds.
This provides a more precise standard of length that the one based on a wavelength of light.
- Kilogram is defined to be the mass of a particular cylinder of platinum iridium alloy gram
(which is not a fundamental unit) is 0.001 kg.
1. The official world land speed record is 1228.0 km/hr, set on October 15, 1997 by Andy
Green in the jet engine car Thrust SSC. Express this speed in meters per second.

2. The worlds largest cut diamond is the First Star of Africa (mounted in the British Royal
Scepter and kept in the Tower of London). Its volume is 1,84 cubic inches. What is its
volume in cubic centimeter? In cubic meters?

- How many hairs do you have on your head?

- How many times does a human heart beat during a lifetime? How many gallons of blood does
it pump? (Estimate that the heart pumps 50 cm 3 of blood with each beat)
- What total volume of air does a person breathe in a lifetime? How does that compare with the
volume of the Houston Astrodome? (Estimate that a person breathes about 500 cm 3 of air with
each breath?

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 8

College Physics 2016

Additional problems to be solve..

A man donated 800 cubic centimeter of his blood. How many gallons is this?

A patient is taken by an ambulance to a hospital at a rate of 30 mi/h. What
is the speed of the ambulance in (a) ft/s, (b) km/h?
(a) The direct conversion for mi/h and ft/s is available from the table, (1 mi/h = 1.47 ft/s),
but you may not always have a table handy, so instead use several better - known
conversion factors to get the result.
(b) From the conversion table, 1 mi/h = 1.61 km/h. This ratio is used to cancel the units that
are to be changed, leaving behind the ones that are wanted.
A cell membrane is 70 angstroms (A ) unit thick. If an angstrom unit is 10
m, what is the membrane thickness in (a) meters; (b) micrometers?
The corners of a square lie on a circle whose radius is 50 cm. What is the
length of a side of the square in inches?

The half-life of a radioactive nucleus is 1.5 x 10 -8 s. what is the half-life in
milliseconds (ms), microseconds (s), nanoseconds (ns), picoseconds (ps), and minutes

Pediatric dose calculation is usually based on either body surface are (mg/m 2) or body
weight (mg/kg) of a child. Body weight is used more frequently for ease of calculations.
To calculate drug doses, use the following formula:
Dose required/ Present Standard Quality of Drug * Present Quantity of Liquid in which
Standard Quantity of Drug is Dissolved, in other words:
What you want
--------------------- x What it is in (dilution)


Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 9

College Physics 2016
What you have
Ampicillin 125 mg po q 4 hr is prescribed. A bottle of ampicillin suspension
contains 250 mg in 5 mL. What volume should be given to the patient?
To calculate the volume of ampicillin to administer to the patient, the nurse
should use the above formula as follows:
What you want (125 mg)/ What you have (250 mg) x What it is in (5 mL)
125 mg/250mg x 5mL 0.5 x 5 mL = 2.5 mL
In order to administer 125 mg of Ampicillin, the nurse should give 2.5 mL of the
Ampicillin suspension from the above bottle
MayangAngin is to receive 2 grams of neomycin. The nurse has 500 mg tablets
available. How many of these tablets should be administered?
Because the nurse is dealing with different metric base units, and the numerator
and denominator must have the same units, grams must be converted to milligram first.
2 grams = 2,000 mg
What you want (2,000 mg)/ What you have (500 mg) x What it is in (not applicable)
2000 mg/500 mg = 4 so the nurse needs to administer 4 tablets
of neomycin
A child weighing 24 kg is to have 10mg/kg/day of a drug. Calculate the amount of
the drug the child will receive in a day.
10mg/kg/day mean that for each kg of weight the child receives 10mg during the
The child of 24 kg requires 24 x 10 mg = 240 mg/day
*there are three main ways drugs may be administered: by injection (subcutaneous,
intramuscular and intradermal), orally and intravenous infusion.
Drug dosages for injections:
There is one formula to calculate the volume required for an injection:
Strength required Volume of Stock
Volume required = ------------------------------ X --------------------------Stock Strength
The volumes will be measured in millimeters (mL), the strength required and stock
strength in grams (g), milligrams (mg) or micrograms (g).
You must make sure that the unit of measurement for the stock and strength required
match if they dont convert them both to smaller of the two units.
Eg.1. Calculate the volume to be injected if a patient required 1 mg of bumetanide, and each
stock ampule is 2mg/4mL.
Strength required is 1mg; and stock strength is 2 mg in 4 mL,
The units match so the formula becomes:
Volume = 1 / 2 x 4 / 1 mL = 4 / 2 mL = 2mL; so 2mL is the volume to be injected.
Eg.2. Kim Mabalyo is ordered 70 mg of pethidine, find the volume required if the stock solution
contains 10 g of pethidine per 200mL.
Strength required is 70 mg; and stock strength is 10g of pethidine per 200mL
First is to convert the g to make the units the same:
10g mg; 10g x 1000mg/ 1g = 10,000 mg
Now incorporate it with our formula
Volume = ------------ x ------ mL = ---------mL = -------- = 1.4 mL
Drug dosages for oral medication: tablets and mixtures
There formula for oral medication is the same as for injections:
Lets look at some examples for mixtures and suspensions (note that there is no real
difference with suspensions or mixtures, except that suspensions have to be well shaken
before use to obtain the correct stock strength).

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 10

College Physics 2016
Eg.1. Lily Tsunin who has a sore head from an accidental fall is prescribed 1000mg of a mild
painkiller. The stock contains 100mg in 5 mL. How much medication should be given to the
Strength required is 1000mg; and stock strength is 100 mg in 5 mL
1000 5
Volume = ------------ x ------ mL = ---------mL = -------- = 50 mL
Eg.2. Malou Wang is prescribed 800mg of erythromycin, stock on hand contains 500mg/10mL
in suspension. Find the amount of suspension required?
Strength required is 800mg; and stock strength is 500mg (after shaking) in 10 mL
Volume = ------------ x ------ mL = ---------mL = -------- = 16 mL
Things are slightly different when we start using tablets. The rules for tablets are that you
always try to use a whole tablet as much as possible, using half a tablet is the last resort.
Always try to give as few tablets as is possible.
Eg.: Kerbit is prescribed 50mg of codeine. The three types of codeine tablets on hand
contains 5mg, 10mg and 20mg.
We could give Kerbit ten 5mg tablets; however another option with fewer tablets would
be preferred.
We could give him two and a half 20 mg tablets (this would be the least number of
tablets); however we want to avoid chopping tablets in half if possible.
The better option is to give two 20mg and one 10mg tablets.
When a choice of tablet strengths is not available we can use a similar formula as for oral
and injection doses to calculate the number of tablets required, however as the stock volume
will always be 1 tablet formula is modified to:
Strength required
Volume required = -----------------------------Stock Strength
Eg.1. A 750mg of ciprofloxacin is prescribed. On hand are 500mg tablets. How many tablets
should be given?
Strength required is 750mg; and stock strength is 500mg
Volume = ------------ tabs = --------tabs = -------- = 1.5 tabs
Eg.2. How many 20mg tablets of codeine are required for a dose of 0.05g?
Strength required is 0.05g; and stock strength is 20mg
First step is to convert 0.05g to mg;
0.05g x (1000mg/1g) = 50mg
Volume = ------------ tabs = --------tabs = 2.5 tabs so 2 tablets and half tablet are
Intravenous (IV) infusion:
When the medication is to be administered intravenously we may need to calculate the
drops per minute (gtts/min) to be delivered by the pump or the flow rate to be delivered in
millimeters per hour by a volumetric infusion pump.
To calculate the flow rate in millimeters per hour, divide the volume to be delivered in
millimeters (mL) also equivalent to cubic centimeter (cc) by the time in hours (h).
Volume (in mL or cc)
Rate = -----------------------------Time (h)
Eg.1. Tim Makki is to receive 600mL to be infused over 4 hours. Calculate the rate in mL/hour
to be delivered by the pump.
Rate = ------------ = 150 mL/h

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 11

College Physics 2016
Eg.2. Zuma Yett is to receive 1.5 liters over 8 hours. What is the rate in cc/hour?
The volume needs to be converted to cc;
1.5L x (1000cc/ 1L) = 1500cc
Rate = ------------ = 187.5 188 cc/h
To calculate the rate in drops per minute (gtts/min) we need to know the volume to be
delivered in mL or cc, the time in minutes (min) and the rate of the given set.
Giving sets usually deliver at 20 drops per cc (macrodrip) or 60 drops per cc (microdrip)
but can also deliver 15 drops per cc as drop factor.
Volume (in mL or cc) x drop factor
Drip rate (gtts/min) = ---------------------------------------------Time (h) x 60
Eg.1. A 800 cc of fluid is to be given intravenously to a patient over 6 hours. The IV set delivers
at 20 drops/cc. Calculate the drip rate.
800 x 20
Gtts/min = --------------- = 44.44 44 gtts/min
6 x 60
Eg.2. Mikey Litti is to receive 200 cc of fluid over 40 minutes with a given set of 20 drops/mL.
How many gtts/min will the pump need to be set for?
Here the time is given in minutes; so the (x 60) is not required on the denominator of the
200 x 20
Gtts/min = --------------- = 100 gtts/min
Eg.3. A teenager who is badly dehydrated is to receive 1.5 L over 10 hours of rehydration fluid
by IV infusion. The giving set delivers 15 drops/cc. Calculate the gtts/min. (1.5 L = 1500cc)
1500 x 15
Gtts/min = --------------- = 37.5 38 gtts/min
10 x 60
Other calculations involving Intravenous (IV) flow rates
At times the flow rate may be known but the volume or the time may be known. This
requires our formula to be re-arranged.
To find the volume:
volume (cc) = rate (cc/h) x time (h)
To find the time:
time (h) = volume (cc) / rate (cc/h)
Eg.1. Gina Cole is receiving 100cc/h of a solution for 1.5 hours. How much fluid is she
Given: rate = 100cc/h; and time = 1.5 h; we need to calculate the volume
volume (cc) = rate (cc/h) x time (h) volume (cc) = 100cc/h x 1.5h = 150 cc
Eg.2. Marian G. Palad is prescribed 2000cc (2 liters) of a dextrose saline solution. The flow rate
is set at 160 cc/h. How long will the infusion take?
Given: rate = 160cc/h; and Volume = 2000cc; we need to calculate the time
time (h) = volume (cc) / rate (cc/h)time (h) = 2000cc/ (160cc/h) = 12.5 h
To convert 0.5 hours to minutes, multiply by 60: 0.5 x 60 = 30 min
Time needed for infusion is 12 hours and 30 minutes

1.1. An intravenous fluid of, Plain Normal Saline Solution (PNSS) 1L to run by 20
hours was ordered to your patient with blood transfusion. It was hooked 5 AM.
a. What is the cc/hr?
b. What is the cc/min?
c. What is the cc/sec?
d. How many gtts/min will you infuse?
e. How many gtts/min will you infuse?
f. How many ml is infused by 9 AM?

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 12

College Physics 2016

How many ml is retained after the 3PM shift?

How many ml is infused by 10PM:25min:40sec?
How many ml is retained after the 11 PM shift?
What time will the IVF be consumed?
How many 300 mg tablets should be administered for a prescribed dose of 450 mg?

1.3. A patient is prescribed 3g of suphadiazine, the stock contains 600mg/5mL. How much
stock should be given?

1.4. A teenager is prescribed 1000mg of chloramphenicol, stock on hand contains 250

mg/10mL in suspension. Calculate the volume required.

A 500cc of IV fluid is to be infuse over a 5 hour period. Compute for the flow rate in cc/h.

1.6. An order of 200 cc is to be infused over 30 min via a microdrop set. What drip rate
should be established?

1.7. What drip rate is required to administer 500cc of whole blood via a blood giving set (15
drops/cc) over a period of 4 hours?

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 13

College Physics 2016

1.8. Compute the drip rate if a patient is receiving fluid at a flow rate of 120 mL/h through a 20
drops/cc giving set?

Celsius Fahrenheit Temperature Scales

There are three temperature scales in common use, the Celsius, the Fahrenheit, and, in
some scientific work, the Kelvin. The Celsius temperature scale was worked out by Anders
Celsius (1701 1744), a Swedish astronomer, who proposed in 1742 that the freezing point of
water be called zero degrees and the boiling point of water at one atmosphere pressure be called
100 degrees. (Atmospheric pressure is a pressure exerted by the air on any object.) Since this
gives 100 degrees between freezing and boiling, the scale was for many years referred to as
centigrade. Today the scale is known as Celsius. The Fahrenheit scale is named after a German
physicist, Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686 1736), who set 32 degrees for freezing point and 212
degrees for the boiling point of water. The Kelvin scale, named for the British mathematician and
physicist, William Thompson, Lord Kelvin (1824 1901), incorporates units of the same size as
the Celsius, but adds 273 to the degrees C. For example, 0 C is equal to 237 K., and 100 C is
equal to 373 K.
C = (F 32) (5/9)
F = C (9/5) + 32

Eg.1. Change 98.6 F to Celsius.

Eg.2. Change 41 F to Celsius.

Eg.3. Change 60 C to Fahrenheit.

Eg.4. Change 40 C to Fahrenheit.

LESSON 2: Describing Motion

1. Physical Quantities: Scalar and Vector
Quantities that can be expressed completely by single numbers with appropriate
units and follow the usual laws of algebra are called scalar quantities (or simply
scalars). Examples are density (whole blood has a density of 1.05 x 10 3 kg/m3), amount of
energy (a kilogram of fat supplies about 3.8 x 10 7 J of energy), and viscosity (blood plasma
has a viscosity of 1.810 x 10-3 Pa s at 20C).
Quantities that require magnitude and direction for their complete description, and
whose behavior obey the associative and commutative laws of vector addition are called
vector quantities (or simply vectors). Examples are displacement (leukocyte travels
0.825 mm from the lymph node at 42.4 above the horizontal), velocity (an oocyte has a
velocity of 370 m/s vertically downward) and force (a push of 9 lb is exerted on a baby
toward the cervix.)
A vector is an arrowed line whose length represents the magnitude of the vector
while the orientation of the arrow shows direction.
Addition of vectors is equivalent to composition of vectors and the sum of the
vectors is the resultant of the vectors.
Distance vs. Displacement
Speed vs. Velocity

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 14

College Physics 2016

Mass vs. Weight

Methods of Vector Addition
1. Graphical or Geometrical Method
The general rule for adding vectors states that if the arrows representing a set of
vectors are laid tail to head in any order, the vector sum (the resultant vector) is
represented by the arrow that connects the tail of the first to the head of the
a. Triangle or Tip-to-tail Method
For the addition of two vectors choose a suitable scale at appropriate angles,
then follow the steps specified by the rule of adding vectors to obtain their
resultant. The two given vectors are the sides of the triangle of which the third
closing side is their resultant.
b. Parallelogram Method
The resultant of two vectors acting at any angle may be represented by the
diagonal of a parallelogram drawn to scale with the two vectors as adjacent
sides and directed away from the origin of the two vectors.
c. Polygon Method
This method of finding the resultant consists in beginning at any convenient
point and drawing to scale with proper orientation of each vector in turn, taking
them in any order of succession according to the rule of adding vectors. The
resultant is represented by the straight line directed from the starting point to
the arrow end of the last vector added.

2. Analytical Method
The analytic method of finding the sum of two or more vectors requires the
application of trigonometry.
a. Addition of vectors by Pythagorean Theorem
In adding two vectors that form a right triangle, the Pythagorean Theorem is
used to determine their resultant represented by the hypotenuse. The direction
of the resultant is obtained by taking the inverse tangent of the two
perpendicular sides of the triangle.
b. Vector addition Using the law of Cosines
This method is used to find the resultant of two vectors forming an oblique
triangle and by using the law of sines gives the direction of the resultant.
c. Component Method
The method of component reduces all vector additions to the addition of
perpendicular vectors.
Equilibrant is a vector equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the
resultant. It is that vector that balances all the original vectors taken together.
2. Traction System
Patients are placed in traction because of broken bones and spinal injuries. Traction
system appear complex with wires going in every direction, performing unknown
functions. Traction is rather simple and easy to understand when analyzed using the ideas
of vectors.
Traction system requires wires, pulleys and weights. The force applied is equal to
the weights that are hanged. The wire transmits the force, a tensile force (tension) to the
patient; the pulley (frictionless) simply changes the direction of the wire. Because wires
are used, the force is in the same direction as the wire at the point where it is attached to
the patient. The wire is attached to pins in the patient to allow some movement without
disturbing the direction and magnitude of the traction force. Friction between the patient
and the bed prevents the patient from moving.
Skin traction is usually accomplished by applying adhesive tape or other bandage
adherents to the part and attaching the ends of the tape to a spreader on which the pull
is exerted.
Skeletal traction exerts the pull on the bone itself by means of a steel pin (such as
the Steinmann rustless steel pin) or a wire (such as Kirschner piano wire of chromic steel)
drilled through the bone and held by a metal yoke.

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Provision forcountertraction must be made if the friction of the patients body with
the bed is not sufficient to prevent him from sliding down the bed. Countertraction may be
obtained by exerting a pull against a fixed point (such as the pelvis when a Thomas splint
is used) or by elevating the bed under the part which is being placed in traction, thus
using gravity to counteract the pull on the limb in extension.
Russell Traction

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3. Torque
Moment of Force
Torque, t; Forces can cause objects to rotate, but their effectiveness in producing
rotation depends on how they are applied.
Torque = lever arm * force = LF
Two conditions for a body to be in Equilibrium:
1. The net external force on the body must be zero, so that its acceleration is zero.
2. A rotation is caused by an external force. Things must be arranged so that the
body does not rotate.
4. Kinematics
Kinematics: A Description of Motion
3.1.1 The branch of physics that deals with the motion of objects and the forces that
change it is called mechanics. There are two areas of mechanics:
1. Kinematics describes the motion of objects without explicit reference to any forces.
2. Dynamics deals with forces and their effect on motion.


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4.2.1 Motion is defined as the displacement of an object in relation to objects that are
considered to be stationary. Motion is relative displacement.
4.2.2 The motion of bodies, or kinematics of particles, moving along a straight line is
called rectilinear motion.
4.2.3 Distance refers to the total path length traversed in moving from one location or
point to another.
4.2.4 Displacement is a change of position in a particular direction. Displacement is a
vector quantity with both magnitude and direction.
3.3.1 Speed is a scalar quantity which specifies the magnitude, or numerical value, of the
rate of motion without reference to the direction of motion. Speed is sometimes used to mean
the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity. It is because distance and displacement become
the same when they become infinitesimally small.
3.3.2 The average speed of a body which travels a distance s in time t is defined by

Average speed =
For the case of constant speed, Eq. 3.1 gives these useful formulas:
s = vt

(v = constant)

Distance = speed x time


(v = constant)

Time =
4.3.3 Units of linear speed are the centimeter per second (cm/s), meter per second (m/s),
kilometer per hour (km/h), feet per second (ft/s), and the mile per hour (mi/h).
Note: Symbols and abbreviations for unit terms need not be punctuated by a period mark
except when the abbreviation resembles another word, e.g., in. for inch.
4.3.4 Velocity is a vector quantity whose magnitude is identical with speed and which has
direction associated with the speed. Briefly, velocity is speed in a given direction. The velocity
of a body is changing if it changes speed, or in direction of motion, or in both.
4.3.5 The average velocity of a body is its displacement divided by the time interval during
which this displacement occurred. The magnitude of the average velocity is

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Average velocity =
The subscripts s0and t0 stand for original and indicate that these quantities refer to original,
initial, position and time. The symbol
change in.

(Greek capital letter delta) means difference, or


4.4.1 Defined as the time rate of change of velocity is acceleration. It can be positive or
negative. Acceleration is a vector quantity.
4.4.2 In rectilinear motion, the acceleration is constant, that is, the velocity changes at the same
rate throughout the motion. If we let v0 be the initial velocity of a body and at the end of a time
interval t is has a final velocity v, then the magnitude of the acceleration a is given by

Acceleration = a =

v = v0 + at

(constant acceleration only) (4.2)

4.4.3 The average velocity for constant acceleration is the average of the initial and final
velocities. Hence

(constant acceleration only)

and the distance s traveled in time t is

s = t or



Equations 3.2 and 3.3 may be combined in many ways: two of the possibilities are of particular
usefulness. They are

s = v0t +
v2 = v02+ 2as


3.4.4 Units of constant acceleration

From its definition, acceleration is expressed in terms of

The SI units of acceleration are therefore m/s 2 (and read as meters per second squared).
In the BES, the units are ft/s2.

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4.4.5 For the special case of straight-line or linear motion, plus and minus signs will be used to
indicate velocity directions, as was done for linear displacements.
4.5.1 Gravity is a fundamental physical force that is responsible for interactions which occur
because of mass between particles and between aggregations of matter.
4.5.2 A freely falling body is defined as a body that is moving freely under the influence of
gravity, where it is assumed that the effect of air resistance is negligible. The body can have an
upward, downward, or even zero initial velocity.
4.5.3 The constant acceleration of a freely falling body is called the acceleration due to
gravity, or the acceleration of gravity, and it is denoted by the letter g. At or near the earths
surface its magnitude is approximately 980 cm/s 2, 9.8 m/s2, or 32 ft/ s2, and it is directed toward
the center of the earth.
4.5.4 Free-fall Equations
The equations of motion for constant acceleration are applicable to freely falling bodies by
substituting g got a.

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4.6.1 A projectile is any body that is given an initial velocity and then follows a path determined
entirely by the effects of air resistance and gravitational force.
4.6.2 The path followed by a projectile through space is called a trajectory.
4.6.3 Projectile motion refers to the notion of objects that are thrown or projected by some
means into the air at an angle. Projectile motion can be analyzed by the use of vector
4.6.4 Neglecting air resistance and the curvature and rotation of the earth, the range of a
projectile launched at angle

above the horizontal with initial velocity v0 is

And the time of flight is


EXAMPLE 4.1 Motion with Constant Acceleration

A sprinter accelerates from rest at a uniform rate of 1.75 m/s 2 for 4s to reach his maximum
speed. (a) How far does he go at that time? (b) What is his speed after 4s? (c) How long a time
is required for the runner to go 12m? (d) What is his speed as he passes the 12-m point?
Solution. It is noted that all of the units are standard and summarizing the given data and what
is to be found, we have,

v0 = 0

Find: (a) s (distance)

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a = 1.75 m/s2

(b) v (speed)

t = 4s

(c) t (time)

s = 12m

(d) v (speed)

(a)In the first 4s the sprinter runs

(b)The speed after 4s is

(c) Here the time required to run 12 m is

(d)The speed, found from Eq. 3.5, is

The speed of the sprinter is 6.48m/s. This means that the sprinter is running at a speed of
6.48 m/s as he passes the 12-m point.

EXAMPLE 4.2 Uniformly Decelerated Motion

The driver of an ambulance going 100 km/h applies the brakes, giving the vehicle a uniform
deceleration of 6.50m/s2 while it travels 20m. (a) What is the velocity of the ambulance at the
end of this distance? (b) How much time has elapsed?
Solution. Notice that the ambulance is at first in constant velocity and slows down, so we must
pay close attention to the directional signs of the vector quantities. Taking the initial motion to
be in the positive direction, we have,

v0 = 100 km/h

s = 20m

Find: (a) v (final velocity)

(b)t (time)

The units of velocity are different from those of a and s. To reconcile the difference, convert the
100km/h to m/s:

(a)To find v, we use Eq. 3.5 directly:

(b)Here we want time, so solving Eq. 3.4 for t we have,

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EXAMPLE 4.3 Free Fall Up and Down

A bangus (milkfish) can attain a maximum swimming speed of 19.3ft/s. (a) How jhigh can a
bangus jump vertically out of the water art that speed? (b) What is the total time the fish is off
the water?
Solution. It might appear that all that is given in the general problem is the initial velocity v0.
However, a couple of other things are implicitly given because they are understood. One is the
acceleration g, and the other is the velocity at the maximum height where the fist stops. Here,
in changing direction, the velocity of the fish is momentarily zero, so we have

v0 = 19.3 ft/s

Find: (a) ymax(maximum height)

g = 32 ft/s

(b) tt (total time)

v = 0 (for part a)

(a)The fish represented as dots in Fig.3-1 shows its successive airborne positions. Notice that
we reference the height (y=0) to the surface of the water. For this part of the problem, we
need only be concerned with the upward motion a fish that leaped in the air and it stops
at its maximum height ymax. With v = 0 at this height, ymax may be found directly from Eq.

Fig. 3-1



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relative to the surface of the water (y=0).

(b)The time the fish travels upward is designated tu.This is the time it takes to reach ymax
where v =0. Then, knowing v0 and v, the time tu may be found directly from Eq. 3.2:


Since the time of flight upward and the time to return to the starting point are the same,
therefore, the total time the fish is over the water is given by

5. Force and Motion

Force and Motion

The Concept of Force and Net Force
5.1.1 Force is a push or pull that, when applied to an object, tends to accelerate that object.
Force is a vector, since the direction of the applied force determines the direction of the
acceleration (another vector) that results.
5.1.2 Combined Effects of Forces
1. The vector sum or resultant of all forces acting on an object or system is called net
force. The net force is zero when forces of equal magnitude act in opposite directions.
Such forces are said to be balanced forces.
2. A nonzero net force is referred to as an unbalanced force. In this case, the situation
can be analyzed as though only this single force were acting. An unbalanced force or
net force produces acceleration. In some instances, an applied unbalanced force
deforms an object. A deformation involves a change in motion for some part of an
object, hence there is acceleration.
5.1.3 Two Classes of Forces
1. Contact forces Forces that arise because of physical contact between objects. For
example, when you pull on a door to close it or throw a ball, you exert a contact force on
the door or ball.
2. Action-at-a-distance forces Forces that have an inverse square relationship for the
separation distance between interacting particles, and an infinite range. Examples of
these forces are gravity, the magnetic force between two magnets, and the electrical force
between two charges. (The modern view of how action-at-a-distance forces are
transmitted is beyond the scope of this lecture.)

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Newtons Laws of Motion
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), founder of the science of mechanics, formulated the three laws of
motion, namely:
5.2.1 Law of inertia. 1st Law: All matter has Inertia: A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body
in motion will continue in motion, travelling in a straight line unless a force is applied.
5.2.2 Law of acceleration. 2nd Law: Force equal mass times acceleration; F=mxa; a=in
5.2.3 Law of interaction. 3rd Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Recoil Principle
First Law Inertia
5.3.1 Inertia is the natural tendency of an object to maintain a state of rest or to remain in
uniform motion in straight line (constant velocity).
5.3.2 Mass is a measure of inertia. It is a quantity of matter in a given body.
5.3.3 Law I. An object continues in a state of rest or in a state of motion at a constant
speed along a straight line, unless compelled to change that state by a net force.
Second Law Acceleration
5.4.1 Law II. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force
acting on it, and inversely proportional to its mass. The direction of the acceleration
is in the direction of the applied force.
In mathematical terms, this law states that ka =

m or F = kma, where k is a proportionality

constant. If suitable units are chosen so that k = `1, then F = ma or in words, the force is equal
to the mass times the acceleration.
force = mass acceleration

5.4.2 Three consistent sets of units that may be used with the equation F = ma:
Mks system

F (newtons) =

Cgs system :

F (dynes)

Fps sys

F (pounds)

m (kilograms)

m (grams)

m (slugs)

a (cm/ s

a (m/ s

a (ft/ s

5.4.3 Weight
1. The weight of a body is the gravitational force with which the earth attracts the body.
Weight (a vector quantity) is different from mass (a scalar quantity), which is a measure of
the response of a body to an applied force.
2. The weight of a body varies with its location near the earth (or other astronomical body),
whereas its mass is the same everywhere in the universe.

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3. If a body of mass m is allowed to fall freely, the resultant force acting on it is its weight w,
and its acceleration is that due to gravity, g. Then in any consistent system of units the
equation F =ma becomes
w = mg
g (m/ s

w (newtons) =

m (kilograms)

w (dynes)

m (grams)

g (cm/ s

w (pound)


m (slugs)

g (ft/ s

Third Law Interaction

5.5.1 Law III. For every force (action) there is an equal and opposite force (reaction).
5.5.2 This law is based on two familiar facts:
1. There can never be a force acting unless two bodies are involved, one exerting the force
and the other on which it is exerted.
2. Forces do not exist singly but in pairs.
5.6.1 Friction refers to the resistance which opposes every effort to slide of roll one body over
5.6.2 It is caused by the adhesion of one surface to the other and the interlocking of
irregularities of the rubbing surfaces.
Classes of Friction Forces
5.7.1 Static friction: The frictional force exerted by one surface on another where there is no
relative motion of the two surfaces.
5.7.2 Kinetic friction: The frictional force exerted by one surface on another when one surface
slides over the other.
5.7.3 Rolling friction: The frictional force that opposes one body rolling over another owing to
the constant deformation of the surfaces in contact.
5.7.4 Fluid friction: The property called viscosity of liquids and gases to offer resistance to
object moving through them.
Effects of Friction
5.8.1 Advantages of friction Walking would be impossible without it; the usefulness of
brakes, matches, nails, and screws depends on it; prevents belts from slipping off their
pulleys; friction between tires and roads prevents skidding; friction clutches enable gas
engines to start under a load.

5.8.2 Disadvantages of friction are:

1. It causes wearing out of parts.
2. It results in loss of work thus reducing efficiency.
3. It produces heat which may cause expansion of the machine.
Factors Affecting Friction
5.9.1 The factors that affect friction are:
1. Velocity Friction decreases somewhat with increasing speed, thus starting (static)
friction is greater than sliding (kinetic) friction but sliding is independent of velocity. (This
is only approximately true.)

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2. Normal force Friction increases with the increased perpendicular force with which
either surface is pressed against the other.
3. Nature and condition of rubbing surfaces Friction is less when the surfaces are hard
and smooth.
4. Area of contact For dry surfaces, friction is particularly independent of the area in
contact, but with wet or well lubricated surfaces, friction is nearly proportional to the area
in contact.
5.9.2 Ways of reducing friction are:
1. Lubrication Human and other mammalian joints are well-lubricated by synovial fluid;
lubrication in our bodies include the saliva we add to food as we chew it, and the mucus
coatings in our heart, lungs, and intestines that minimize friction as these organs move in
carrying out their functions: lubrication such as oil, grease, and wax paraffin may be used
to various mechanical devices.
2. Smoothing and polishing the contact surfaces The contact surfaces must be
polished to a glasslike smoothness. They must also be hard. Example, jeweled bearings
are used in watches to reduce friction.
3. Using antifrictional metals An alloy called Babbitt metal to cover bearings is used to
diminish friction.
4. Using unlike metals for contact surfaces Friction between surfaces of like materials
is greater than that between unlike materials.
5. Using ball bearings or roller bearings Rolling friction is very much less than sliding
friction so rolling is substituted for sliding friction.
Coefficient of Friction
It is experimentally found that for a given pair of surfaces, the magnitudes of static friction force


(max) and kinetic friction


are proportional to the normal force pressing the two

surfaces together and independent of the area in contact or the surfaces relative velocity.
Therefore, by introducing proportionality constant for the static and kinetic friction forces form
two equations:


s N


k N

The constants



f s (max) =

s N

are called the coefficients of static and kinetic friction respectively.

They are dimensionless numbers but depend on the types of surfaces in contact. Typically,

s > k ; it takes a larger force to set a body in motion than to maintain it in motion at constant
speed. Values of are usually but not necessarily less than 1.00.


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GRAVITY is the force which the earth exerts on all sort of matter. It is this pull of the Earth which
causes objects to fall when not supported, makes the rain and snow descend, water to run
downhill, etc.
Pull of the Earth = Weight (since the earth pulls equally on every molecule, it gives us a
convenient method of finding out the quantity of matter in a mass.)
W = mg (measure of the force of gravity upon an object)
Where: m = mass; and g = gravity
Amount of matter refers to the number of molecules in it
Volume refers to the space it occupies
Eg., There is the same amount of matter in a pound of Lead and a pound of feather, but
there is a great difference in the volume of the two. WEIGHT indicates the amount of matter, but
has no relation to volume.
- Specific gravity or specific weight of any substance is its weight as compared with an
equal volume some substance taken as a standard. In the case of solids and liquids water
is used as the standard. (distilled water at a temperature of 4 degrees Celcius); with
gases, hydrogen gas at 0 degrees Celcius. For example, water is called 1.000, gold is 19.5
(meaning that it is 19.5 times as heavy as an equal volume of water); copper is 8.788; coal
1.270; urine about 1.020; olive oil; 0.970; alcohol 0.797; ether 0.734; wood 0.580; cork
0.240 and so on.
- Center of gravity is the point on which it will just balance itself no matter in what position
it is placed.
- Equilibrium is poise of balance between two or more forces. The stability of an object
depends upon the relation of its CENTER to its BASE. A large base or a low-down center of
gravity gives greater stability.
5.1 Objects and Systems at Rest
5.1.1 Rigid body refers to an object extended in space which does not change its size or
shape when subjected to a force.
5.1.2 The center of gravity (CG) is that point of an object about which all gravitational
torques cancel.
5.1.3 The center of mass (CM) is that point at which all the mass of an object of system
may be considered to be concentrated.
5.1.4 Static is the study of forces acting on an object that is in equilibrium and at rest.
5.1.5 Equilibrium is that condition in which two or more forces acting on an object
produces no acceleration because they balance each other out. Three states of
equilibrium for solid objects:
A. Stable: when a body has a broad or heavy base and a low center of gravity
Eg. A cone or a pyramid, a chair with four spreading legs.
B. Unstable: when a slight force will push an object over, that is when its center of
gravity is high up or fall towards one side of the base
Eg. A book standing on its edge, a person standing on one leg.
C. Nuetral: when a slight force would not act upon it, nor change its center of gravity.
Eg. A three legged stool which stands well until a heavy weight is put on one side of
it, bringing the center of gravity outside of its base.
5.2 Parallel and Non-Parallel Coplanar Forces
5.2.1 Concurrent forces are forces whose lines of action intersect at a common point when
they act on an object.
5.2.2 Coplanar forces are forces having their lines of action lie on the same plane.
5.2.3 Translational equilibrium is the state of an object of which no net force act on it.
This means the object is at rest, or is moving at constant speed in straight line.
1. Condition For Translational Equilibrium
For an object to be in translational equilibrium, the vector sum of the forces acting it
must be zero. This is equivalent to saying that the algebraic sum of the forces or

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components of forces acting on the object in any direction is zero. This statement is
referred to as the first condition of equilibrium.
5.2.4 Rotational equilibrium is a situation in which an object is not rotating, or if it is
rotating at constant angular speed about an axis.
1. The torque or moment of a force, about an axis is the effectiveness of the force in
producing rotation about the axis. It is measured by the product off the force and
the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the line of action of the force,
called the lever arm or moment arm. Thus
Torque = Force lever arm (or distance) or

= Fd

In the SI system torque (moment) is expressed in newton-meter (N-m); in the British

system, in lb-ft.
2. Condition For Rotational Equilibrium
For an object to be in rotational equilibrium, the algebraic sum of the torques of all
the forces about any axis perpendicular to the plane of the force is zero. This is
equivalent to saying that the sum of the clockwise torques about any such axis
equals the sum of the counterclockwise torques about the axis. This is regarded as
the second condition of equilibrium.
A man standing rapidly from a sitting or squatting position (body experiences an upward rapid
acceleration) would also suffer from a lesser degree loos of blood circulation in the brain causing
a feeling of lightheadedness and sometimes fainting. If a man is accelerated upward, gravity will
tend to pull down every part of his body including his blood making it harder for the heart to
pump blood upstream to the upper extremities, particularly the brain.
The blood collects at the legs causing muscle cramps and sometimes even petechiae ( broken
capillaries ) in feet and legs . If this acceleration continues the significant reduction of blood
supply to the brain causes loss of consciousness and sometimes death. Rapid upward or
downward acceleration causes the body to go about a neurohumoral response that involves a
change in the hormone levels of the body, (vasopressin , rennin , angiotensin and aldosterone
levels ) to regulate the bodys blood pressure . Arterial baroreceptors particularly those in the
carotid sinus area and the left atrium response to regulate blood pressure. If these mechanisms
are disrupted, a person can experience a series of symptoms, and may include syncope.
Gravity on earth not only affects everything that is on earth, but it also affects nearby objects in
space within the reach of earths gravity. Since everything on earth is affected by gravity , even
circulating blood is subjected to gravity . If you are lying down, by the time blood reaches the
capillaries in your foot , the systolic pressure will be lower than it was when it left the heart . If
you stand up from sitting or lying position, gravity makes it more difficult for the blood to flow
upward to the brain and to return to the heart because it tends to pull blood to the lower
extremities. Blood is redistributed to regions below the heart towards the lower extremities and
venous return to the heart is reduced; if this is not corrected it can lead to loss of consciousness
and ultimately, death. So when you are standing, the pressure at your foot is much greater than
when you are lying down and this pressure is transmitted to the veins, which need to generate
enough pressure to work against gravity and propel the blood back to the heart.
Our body needs automatic nervous control of the cardiovascular system to remain conscious
standing position. Baroreceptors provide the mechanism so that our body quickly senses
changes the blood flow to the brain and heart and makes automatic adjustments to peripheral
resistance ( your smaller blood vessels) and And the heart to regulate the overall blood pressure
in your body . These baroreceptors causes vasoconstriction (to maintain arterial pressure) and
venoconstriction (to limit venous pooling of blood and thereby prevent further reductions in

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venous return of blood to the heart) to maintain normal blood circulation in our body.
Some veins in the arms and legs are equipped with the valves that only allow blood to flow in
one direction; towards the heart only. Leg muscle activity also plays a role in venous return; it
can be referred to as the muscle pump blood to the heart and head.

Maintaining arterial pressure in a standing person is very important for the normal operation of
the brain because the brain needs a considerable part of the total cardiac output (about + 750
ml/min out of a total cardiac output of + 5 li/min, depending on body size and structure.)
Because of the circulatory demands of the human brain, the responses to fluid shifts due to the
effect of gravity are critical . When the muscle pump is not enough and the automatic nervous
system is not able to regulate arterial pressure and venous return sufficiently to fulfill the
demands of the brain, a person can experience vasovagal syncope ( commonly known as
fainting. )
Prolonged passive standing can also lead to a vasovagal syncope because the muscle in the
legs are not moving and, cannot help in the venous return leaving the heart and brain deprived
of adequate blood circulation.
We therefore see that the fall through the relatively small height of 1.3 m. can result in the
fracture of tibia if the landing is made stiffly.
By bending the knees during the landing, h will be about 0.6 m. this value for h is 60 times
greater than that used in the computation above and would indicate that a jump from a height
H= 60 x 1.3 m. = 78 m. could be negotiated by bending during the landing. In this case,
however, the deceleration force is exerted almost entirely by the tendons and ligaments instead
of the leg bones, and these muscles are capable of withstanding only about 1/20 the force that
will fracture the bones. Thus, the maximum height is reduced to about 4 m. To land safely from
such a height requires that the collapsing motion to be made uniformly so that the instantaneous
forces exerted on the muscles do not exceed the failure level. Therefore, jumping from a height
of 4 m is still a risky business.

If an individual lands in a yielding substance such as water or soft snow, then much higher
impact velocities can be tolerated. There are several documented cases of military personnel
falling (without parachutes) from aircraft in flight and surviving because they landed in soft snow.
(G.B. Benedek, 1973).
6. Machines
a. Lever
b. Mechanical advantage
c. Other simple machines
A devise used to perform work through the application of a force over a distance is a MACHINE.

Is a simple machine consisting of a rigid bar which moves about a fixed point
called the fulcrum. You are already familiar with this in a seesaw. The lever
produces a rotating motion called TORQUE (meaning twist), also called moment
of force. The torque developed by a lever depends upon two factors: the force,
(weight) and the distance of the force or the weight from the fulcrum.

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T =torque= FORCE x distance from the fulcrum
T =f x d


Any machine has a mechanical advantage, which is the resistance overcome

divided by the effort needed to overcome it.
Can be determined also by the effort needed to overcome it
Use T to compute for mechanical advantage (in lever types)

Other simple machines the wheel, the axle, the wedge and the screw.
a The screw
The gatch bed is an example of a device used in nursing which utilizes the
screw principle. The right crank regulates the position of the knees and the
left crank regulates the position of the head.
b Pulleys
Serves two function: (1) to multiply force (2) to change the direction of a
c Traction
Is used in cases of fracture to overcome the muscle contraction which would
produce overriding and misalignment
SKIN TRACTION is usually accomplished by applying adhesive tape or other
bandage adherents to the part and attaching the ends of the tape to a
spreader on which the pull is exerted
SKELETAL TRACTION exerts pull on the bone itself by means of a steel pin
(such as STEINMANN rust-less steel pin) or a wire (such as the KIRSCHNER
PIANO WIRE made of chromic steel) drilled through the bone and held by a
metal yoke.
RUSSELL TRACTION treatment of a fracture of a femur; it appears that there
are forces pulling in many directions except in the correct direction. Use
polygon method or component method to solve for the resultant.

LESSON 3: Work, Energy and Power

1. Ergonomics
Ergonomics in Healthcare
Keeping a healthy back and body at work: Is a no-lift policy in your future?
By Susan Fralick-Ball, PsyD, MSN, CH, CLNC
Ergonomics is a human factor with the application of scientific information concerning objects,
systems and environment for human use. The field of ergonomics is an applied science that also
studies the effects of fatigue and discomfort on the body and designs protective equipment to
keep operators safe and efficient. Specifically, physical ergonomics deals with the human body's
responses to physiological stress. This article refers to the systems and scientific knowledge
applied to lifting, turning and guiding heavy objects, namely patients.
Patient handling and movement tasks are physically demanding, generally performed under
unfavorable conditions and often unpredictable in nature. Patients offer multiple challenges
including variations in size, physical disabilities, cognitive function, level of cooperation and
fluctuations in condition. As a given weight to be lifted, they are awkward packages, lack even
weight distribution and have been known to become combative during the lift process.
According to Tuohy-Main, the cumulative weight lifted by nurses, nurse's aides, orderlies and
attendants in one typical 8-hour shift is equivalent to 1.8 tons. 1 No wonder we're exhausted and
so prone to back, neck and other musculoskeletal or neurological injuries.
Based on information from the American Nurses Association, Bureau of Labor Statistics and
DeCastro, the statistics regarding occupational injury seem staggering. 2
Nursing has one of the highest occupational injury rates of any profession. National nursing injury
rates are more than 12.5 percent, which is higher than auto manufacturing, mining and

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College Physics 2016
construction worker injuries. Nurses and other bedside healthcare workers are at greater risk for
sustaining musculoskeletal disorders than most U.S. workers. For comparison, consider that truck
drivers ranked second and construction workers eighth. Twelve percent of nurses nationwide
leave the profession annually because of back injuries and more than 52 percent of U.S. nurses
complain of chronic back pain.
Oregon's State Accident Insurance Fund manager, Chuck Easterly, admits that, "For all of the
technological advances in healthcare, the vast majority of healthcare facilities still rely on
antiquated, physically challenging techniques. If you were a mason, or a carpenter or a factory
worker who had to move 150 or 250 or 300 pounds, you'd get a dolly or a lift of some kind. You
wouldn't try to do it by hand. But that's what we do in healthcare when we move people." 3
The lifting problem has become so detrimental to bedside healthcare personnel that many
private hospitals, nursing homes, and state and government healthcare agecies have set forth
no-lift policies and procedures in an attempt to drastically cut the number of injuries, time away
from work, initial and chronic pain, need for pain alleviation treatment, and loss of staff.
Why Injuries Happen
There are multiple reasons why thousands of nursing injuries occur each year. Slip and slide
injuries are related to everything from a leaky urine collection bag to improper signage following
the damp cleaning of floors. Even the nursing shortage is being blamed for many forms of nurse
injuries. The fourth most commonly reported injury during times of nursing staff shortages is
injury related to poor ergonomics. 4
Simply stated, nurses and bedside healthcare workers are moving patients in unsafe conditions
because a second pair of hands or helpful lifting equipment is just not available. In sharp contrast
are lifting techniques adhered to by physical and occupational therapists, regardless of a dearth
of willing and able hands and bodies for patient movement and transfers.
Today, caregivers who fall into nurse-like caregiving include loved ones caring for the patient in
the home. With this one-to-one care, laypersons are lifting loved ones in and out of bed, tubs,
chairs, cars and more. Integrating devices, such as Hoyer lifts and others, to help the home
caregiver lift a loved one safely and with less fear would be not only an advantage to the
caregiver, but encourage more care in the home. Without initial and ongoing training of home
healthcare givers, risk of back injury is imminent. Pulling on the arms of a reclining person or
leaning over a person in a regular height bed leads to early strain and weakening. One added
twist-and-turn injury while transferring a loved one out of bed may be the proverbial straw to
break the caregiver's back.
Deborah X. Brown, herself a casualty of an ergonomic disaster, believes there are no
ergonomically safe ways to lift patients and indicates experts have known this for more than 15
years. 4 Nurses hurt not only themselves, but also the patients in their charge. Hoisting patients
under their arms or bending and twisting to place a patient in a wheelchair from the bed leads to
dislocations, shearing injuries, musculoskeletal and nerve damage, and the opportunity for
internal injuries as well. Following our ergonomically savvy European colleagues, adopting a nolift policy in your facility can reduce lift and strain injuries across the population who lifts people
as part of a daily occurrence.
No-Lift Policies
So what are these no-lift policies all about? First, they are designed to be implemented. This may
sound elemental, but how many nurses do you know who believe it's just easier and faster to "do
it myself." The gap from the first Nursing Arts course to hands-on application of movement of
patients in the clinical setting is often of astronomical proportions.
Central to all national no-lift policies is that manual lifting of patients should be eliminated in all
but exceptional or life-threatening situations. To clarify this intent, several other key factors have
been noted by Hignett: 5

Patients should be encouraged to assist in their own transfers and handling aids must be
used whenever possible to help reduce risk, if this is not contrary to a patient's needs.

Manual lifting may only be continued if it does not involve lifting most or all of a patient's
weight (lifting a leg or arm to apply topical medication or bandaging would be

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College Physics 2016

A no-lift policy does not mean healthcare providers will never transfer or reposition any
resident manually, but rather needs to be based on patients' physical and cognitive status
as well as medical conditions.

Proper infrastructure must be in place before a no-lift policy is enforced. Infrastructure is

defined as management commitment and support, availability of patient-handling
equipment, equipment maintenance, employee training, advanced training for resources
and a culture of safety.

The culture of safety approach includes collective attitude of employees at all levels taking
a shared responsibility for safety in the work environment and, by doing so, providing a
safe environment for themselves and patients.

Nelson and Baptiste have found strategies to prevent or minimize work-related musculoskeletal
injuries associated with patient handling often are based on tradition and personal experience
rather than scientific evidence. The most common patient-handling approaches include manual
patient lifting, classes in body mechanics, training in safe-lifting techniques, and back belts.
There is strong evidence each of these commonly used approaches is not effective in reducing
caregiver injuries. A major paradigm shift is needed toward the following evidenced-based
practices: patient-handling equipment/devices, patient care ergonomic assessment protocols, nolift policies, training on proper use of patient-handling equipment/devices, and patient lift
teams." 6
Providing you adopt the shift toward evidence-based safe ergonomic techniques, no-lift policies
and the addition of lift teams, you may be able to remain pain-free while assisting your patient's
movements. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, with corroboration from R.
Crouthamel, OT, gives ergonomically correct guidelines for several of the most frequently
encountered patient movements. 7,8 These guidelines may become the basis for your patient care
ergonomic assessment and protocols.
Helping the Patient Out of Bed

To move a person lying in bed to a wheelchair, put the chair close to the bed and lock the
wheels. The chair should be on the patient's strongest side. Bed wheels also should be

Adjust the bed height so you are comfortable while moving the patient. A slightly higher
bed than necessary for patient sitting is helpful during transfers. Let the physical therapist
and occupational therapist transfer the patient at the lower heights while the person is

If the person is not strong enough to push up with his hands to a sitting position, put your
hands under the person's legs, shifting the patient's weight forward. If in an electric
hospital bed, use the head-raising controls.

Move the person's legs over the edge of the bed while pivoting his body so the person
ends up sitting on the edge of the bed. Pivoting on a freely moving bed sheet or underpad
limits shearing.

Keep your feet shoulder-width apart, your knees bent toward the patient's knees and your
back in a natural, straight position.

Helping the Patient Stand

If the person needs assistance getting into the chair, face the patient, place your feet
shouder-width apart and bend your knees.

Position the person's feet on the floor and slightly apart. The person's hands should be on
the bed, the arm of the wheelchair or armchair, or on your shoulders.

Place your arms around the person's back and clasp your hands together. Nurses, physical
therapists and others in hospitals often use lifting belts, which are fastened around a
patient's waist. The caregiver grasps the belt when lifting the patient.

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 33

College Physics 2016

Hold the person close to you, stand tall and shift your weight.

Helping the Patient Sit

Pivot toward the chair, bend your knees and lower the patient into the chair. The patient should
have both hands on the arms of the chair before lowering him or her down. If you know the
patient is a "pusher" or leans backward while sitting (usually due to stroke or neurological
disorder), obtain help and divide the load.
Helping the Patient Move in Bed

Get assistance from at least one other person. If the move in bed will require more than
one additional person, use a lifting device.

Make certain the side rails are up, the bed is in a reasonably high position so you are not
leaning and the patient is on an underpad or draw sheet that can safely hold the patient's
weight while in motion. Pull the pad or draw sheet tightly to avoid wrist damage while
moving the patient.

Set up the patient to use his strong side.

Have the patient bend his knees, place feet solidly on the bed (if only one leg is mobile,
use that leg) and push up when you and your partner lift. Having everyone follow the
same directions leads to a smooth move. Often counting "one, two, three"? with the move
on three has been a functional set of directions delivered to the patient and co-worker
prior to the lift.

Lift with your legs, not your back. This may necessitate shifting weight from one leg to
another as you lift.

Have the patient help turn himself by grasping the side rails. Use a pad or draw sheet
even for turning.

Again, get as close as you can to the patient.

Pull the sheet or pad tight before rolling to protect your wrists.

Make the bed the correct height.

Avoid pulling on the arms to turn patient. Log roll and utilize the underpad for rolling.

Always avoid pulling a patient up in bed by his arms.

You can place the bed in Trendelenburg position to pull the patient up in bed if he can
tolerate it. Let gravity help.

What Nurses Can Do

When you lift or move a person:

maintain the proper alignment of your head and neck with your spine;

maintain the natural curve of your spine; don't bend at your waist; and

avoid twisting your body when lifting or carrying a person.

Experts, individual nurses and governing bodies are highly concerned with the care of your body
as you go about lifting and helping patients each day. Encourage institution-wide, hands-on
ergonomics seminars and lifting-equipment demonstrations, and set up lift teams and no-lift

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 34

College Physics 2016
A healthy, strong nursing team can accomplish just about anything for patients and themselves.
We all know nurses and hands-on healthcare workers are the core of care, so let's give care to
ourselves, our colleagues and our patients. Ask for help, expect help and accept help. We're all in
this together.
2. Proper Body Mechanics
Body Mechanics
Practice of good body mechanics is very important not only in carrying out clinical
procedures, but also in the everyday maintenance of posture, alignment, and motion. Good use
of the body means getting the best results with the least effort. There is a right way to do
everything, and the right way is the efficient and energy-saving way. The wrong way causes
strain, fatigue, and frustration, and is wasteful of time and energy. Many common ailments may
be caused by poor body mechanics. Among there may be mentioned low back pain and strained
muscles. Maintaining the various segments of the body in correct relation to one another directly
affects the working capacity of the vital organs which are supported by the skeletal structure.
There is a constant interplay or state of dynamic equilibrium between the flexor and the extensor
muscles of the body which produces an involuntary body sway. in the practice of good body
mechanics, the less disturbance to this equilibrium the better.
There are three rules of good body mechanics:
1) Use large muscles whenever possible
2) Keep feet apart for a broad base in lifting, bend the knees with the back straight, instead of
bending over.
Rule No. 1, using large muscles in lifting heavy objects, is self-evident.
Rule No. 2, keeping the feet apart for broad base, can be explained by the principle of gravity
discusses in chapter 3. If the feet are held close together, the base will be small and a slight
tilting of the body will produce instability. If the feet are places somewhat apart with one foot in
front of the other, there will be a broader base with more stability both sideways and front to
Rule No. 3, about the lifting objects, can be explained by the principle of levers. Torque or
moment for force is equal to force times distance from the fulcrum. The farther out weight is
held, the longer the moment arm and the greater the torque.
Let us take an example. If a 50-pound object is picked up, the effort required will be close
to 50 pounds if the proper procedure of bending the knees and keeping the object close to the
body is used.
If we assume that the weight of the upper half of the body is 75 pounds, this plus the 50
pounds of the object equals 125 pounds. The clockwise torque is thus 125 times the distance
from the middle of the arm socket to the hip joint, which is considered as a the fulcrum. Measure
on your partner the distance described.
What keeps the person from rotating? we could see this better if we had weight serving as
counterbalance. in the body, however, the back muscles tighten to avoid the rotation. The
distance of this effort arm would be from the hip joint to the back. This short distance can be
approximated if your partner stands against a wall and your measure the distance from the hip
joint to the wall. The counterclockwise torque is thus equal to the force of the back muscles
times the distance just measured.
Now you are ready to calculate the total force on the back muscles required to lift a 50
pound object. Your answer will probably be between 300 and 600 pounds. This tremendous effort
shows the very poor mechanical advantage of the body in this position.

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 35

College Physics 2016

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 36

College Physics 2016


Range of motion refers to the distance and direction a joint can move to its full potential. Each
specific joint has a normal range of motion that is expressed in degrees after being measured
with goniometer (i.e., an instrument that measures angles from axis of the joint).
Limited range of motion refers to a joint that has a reduction in its ability to move. The reduced
motion may be a mechanical problem with the specific joint or it may be caused by diseases
such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other types of arthritis. Pain, swelling, and
stiffness associated with arthritis can limit the range of motion of a particular joint and impair
function and the ability to perform usual daily activities
Physical therapy can help to improve joint function by focusing on range-of-motion exercises. The
goal of these exercises is to gently increase range of motion while decreasing pain, swelling, and
There are three types of range-of-motion exercises:
Activate range-of-motion patient exercises without any assistance
Active assistive range-of-motion patient requires some help from therapist to do the exercises
Passive range-of-motion therapist or equipment moves patient through range of motion (no
effort from patient)
Its important to know the normal range of motion for each joint. After physical examination, if it
is determined that you have limited or abnormal range of motion in one or more joints, you can
put together a treatment plan with your doctor. You can be reassessed for range of motion to
determine if the treatment is effective. Patients who have joint surgery must also go through
extensive rehabilitation to get back to normal range of motion in the affected joint.
Remember try to think a way to push first. First test the load to see how easy it is to pull. Make
sure the path is clear. Stand facing the object, placing the hands on the object. Place one leg
behind the other. Bend the knees and keep the back straight. Tighten the abdominal muscles and
slowly pull the arms and legs. Once moving, continue to pull in a slow and a steady manner.
When ready to stop pulling, slowly ease up, and return to standing position.

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 37

College Physics 2016
When carrying things like boxes or other items that can be held, hold the object close to the
trunk. Do not twist.
If carrying things like suitcase or hand bags, hold the object close to the trunk:
1. Try to carry equal weight in both arms.
2. Then picking up the bags, keep back straight and bend at the knees,
3. Do not twist while varying the bags.
4. Lower bags by bending knees, no the back.
Body Mechanics Basics
1. Test the load. Before you lift, check the weight and make sure you can lift it safely. If not,
get help or use an assistive device.
2. Keep its back in its natural curve. Bend at the hips and or knees. Whit the law back erect,
the forces are distributed safely.
3. Maintaining a wide base of support. A solid and wide base will help reduce the possibility
of slipping.
4. Hold the objects as close to you as possible. This reduces stress at the back.
5. Do not twist when carrying. Move or change directions with the feet . this decreases the
load at the back
6. Tighten stomach muscles when lifting. This helps the abdominal are to help in the lift and
reduces strain on the low back.
7. Think before you lift. First think how you will lift the object. Plan the path and make sure it
is clear.
8. Lift with the legs or the large muscle groups helps diminish the forces on the low back.
9. Maintain good communication if two or more people are involved. Good timing on a lift
reduces the likelihood of jerky or sudden unexpected movements.
10.Move obstacles out of the way. Making sure the path is clear( clearing away toys , tools,
loose rugs, etc.) decrease the risk of slipping or falling.
11.Push rather than pull. It is easier to utilize your weight advantage when pushing.
12.Eliminate repetitive lifting duties if possible. Place things or supplies that you constantly
need or use at a better height initially to decrease lifting activities.
This lift is useful for something of moderate size and weight such as laundry basket, a box of
clothes or a bag of groceries.
Begin standing close to the object to be lifted. Squat down, keeping the back straight and firmly
grasps the container. Pick the container up and hold close to body as you tighten the stomach
muscles. Next, stand up slowly and smoothly letting the large leg muscle to do work.
This lift may be helpful with things that have be irregular shape or may tend to move as you
lift. This might be things like a small fan, a small pet, or a small child. This lift can also be useful
when lifting objects from a low shelf or table. Stand close to the object to be lifted. Squat down
onto one knee. Keep the back straight and pick up the object and slide up onto high and then
cradle the object or child against body. Tighten stomach muscles and slowly stand, using the leg
This is a good way to retrieve things out of a car trunk, grocery cart, or washing machine.
When lifting from a car trunk, prepare the object to be lifted by placing one leg on bumper,
keeping back straight, and sliding package to the edge. Place both feet Back on the ground.
Place one hand on the receptacle that you are picking up the object from (car, washing machine).
Reach in with arm. Keep back straight and pivots at the hips while extending the opposite leg
backwards. Grasps the object firmly, and slowly lift while straightening at the hips, pushing up
with the other arm, and bringing the leg back down. Position the object close to body.
This lift should only be done with objects that weight only a pound or less. If you currently
have a back injury, a week back, had prior back surgery, a tendency to have back pain, or are
pregnant, this lift should be avoided. Keeping the back straight, pivot at the hips, while extending
one leg straight behind you as you reach down to pickup the object. As you pivot back up with
the object, swing the straight leg back down.

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 38

College Physics 2016
This lift is used when lifting objects down from a high surface such as a shelf. If the object is
higher then head level, use a stepstool. Move up closer to shelf. Place one leg in front of the
other. Shift weight slightly to the front leg. Reach up and firmly grasps object in both hands while
keeping back straight. Slowly lift object off of shelf as you shift weight back onto both feet
carefully lower object down to chest.
This lift works well when moving objects from within a car such as a small child. Stand close
to car seat. Keep back straight. Kneel on inside knee. Tighten abdominal muscles and slowly
grasps child in hands and carefully bring back child to chest. Stand up slowly.
3. Work
4. Energy
5. Power
Work and Energy
6.1 Work
A force does work on an object when it makes the object move through a distance against a
resisting force. Work is a scalar quantity.
By definition, the work done by a constant force in moving an object is equal to the product of
the magnitudes of the displacement and the component of the force parallel to the
W = (F cos

)(s) = Fs cos

; wherein s is equal to distance

If F and s are in the same direction, cos

perpendicular to s,

= 90

= cos 0

= 1 and W = Fs. When F is

and cos 90 = 0, no work is done in this case.

If F and s are in the opposite directions (for example, a braking force that tends to slow down, or
decelerate a car)

= 180

and cos 180

= -1. Then the work is negative: W = Fs cos

180 = -Fs. This means that the work is done by the cars brake against friction.
6.1.1 Units of Work
The unit of work is the product of a force unit and a length unit. Thus,
In mks system: One newton-m (N-m), called one joule, the work done when a constant force
of 1N moves an object a distance of 1 meter in the direction of the force.
In cgs system: One dyne-cm, called one erg, is the work done when a constant force of 1
dyne moves an object a distance of 1 cm in the direction of the force.
In fps system: One pound-ftis the work done when a constant force of 1 lb moves an object a
distance of 1 ft in the direction of the force.
6.2 Power
The time rate of doing work.

t ;

time ;


= watt

1 horsepower (1hp) = 746 watts

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 39

College Physics 2016
6.3 Energy
If an object can do work, it possesses energy. Hence the energy of an object is its ability or
capacity to do work. Since the energy of an object is measured in terms of the work it can do, it
has the same unit as work. Energy, like work, is a scalar quantity.
6.3.1 Kinetic energy (

Ek ) is the energy possessed by an object because of its motion. The

kinetic energy of an object of mass m moving with a velocity v is

Kinetic energy (

Ek ) = 12m v 2

In mks units:



2 m (kg)

In mks units:



2 m (grams)

In mks units:



2 m (slugs)


(m/s squared)



(cm/s squared)

(ft/s squared)

6.3.2 Work-Energy Theorem for Net Force

A net force in the direction of motion increases the kinetic energy of an object, whereas a net
stopping force decreases it. In mathematical language
Work done on object by

Work done by



= change in objects

m v 2f 2

6.3.3 Potential energy (

m v 2i =



E p ) is the energy an object has by virtue of its position or

configuration. The energy an possesses due to gravitational forces is called gravitational

potential energy. Thus
Lifting work done = tension distance
1. Absolute Units
The potential energy of mass m lifted a vertical distance h, where g is the acceleration
due to gravity, is
Gravitational potential energy =
In mks system:



= mgh

(joules) = m (kg) g (m/ s

) h (m)

In cgs system:


(ergs) = m (grams) g (cm/ s

In fps system:


(ft-lb) = m (slugs) g (ft/ s

) h (cm)

) h (ft)

2. Gravitational Units
The potential energy of a weight lifted to a vertical distance is
Gravitational potential energy =


= wh

6.3.4 Energy Consumption Rate for Various Activities

walking (4.8 km/hr)

Energy Consumption Rate (kcal/min)


Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 40

College Physics 2016
cycling (13-18 km/hr)
playing basketball


LESSON 4: Fluids, Pressure, Heat and Oxygen Therapy

1. Fluids
Water is the most common and most important liquid. It is therefore used as a standard
for measuring the qualities of other fluids. Specific gravity, or the weight of a substance
compared with the same amount of water refers to both liquids and solids.
a. Properties of fluids
Liquids tend to keep their molecules together, but not strongly. The force of
their cohesion is not enough to overcome the action of gravity; therefore they run
to the earth unless prevented by other forces.
The symbol for density is rho = . Density is simply mass per unit volume.
Water, for example, has a density of about 1 gram per milliliter. (It varies slightly
with temperature and pressure). The SI unit for density is kg/m 3.
mass, m (kg)
= ------------------volume, v (m3)

b. Pressure in liquids
Pressure is simply force per unit area. Pressure is often measured in pounds per
square inch (psi), atmosphere (atm), or torr (which is a millimeter of mercury). The
SI unit for pressure is Pascal (Pa), which is Newton per square meter: 1Pa = 1 N/m 2.
c. Edema
We find that osmosis takes place toward the more concentrated solution, and that
saline substances increase it. When certain disease or conditions that the kidney fail
to eliminate a sufficient quantity of saline material from the body and it
accumulates in the tissues, it produces osmosis of the body fluids and we have a
condition called edema.
2. Pressure
a. Hydrostatic pressure
b. Blood pressure and velocity
Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against the blood vessel walls during the
cardiac cycle; it is influenced by a variety of factors.
Blood pressure is the pressure of the fluid (blood) against the walls of the blood vessels.
Fluid will move from areas of high to low hydrostatic pressures. In the arteries, the hydrostatic
pressure near the heart is very high. Blood flows to the arterioles (smaller arteries) where the
rate of flow is slowed by the narrow openings of the arterioles. The systolic pressure is defined as
the peak pressure in the arteries during the cardiac cycle; the diastolic pressure is the lowest
pressure at the resting phase of the cardiac cycle. During systole, when new blood is entering
the arteries, the artery walls stretch to accommodate the increase of pressure of the extra blood.
During diastole, the walls return to normal because of their elastic properties.
Blood pressure values are universally stated in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). The blood
pressure of the systole phase and the diastole phase gives the two readings for blood pressure .
For example, the typical value for a resting, healthy adult is 120/80, which indicates a reading of
120 mm Hg during the systole and 80 mm Hg during diastole.
c. Measuring the blood pressure with sphygmomanometer

Eugene Flor Lindawan Ulpindo, MSN, RN, ECE 41

College Physics 2016
Blood Pressure Regulation
Throughout the cardiac cycle, the blood continues to empty into the arterioles at a relatively
even rate. However, these measures of blood pressure are not static; they undergo natural
variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day. The measures of blood
pressure also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease. The body
regulates blood pressure by changes in response to the cardiac output and stroke volume.
Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute. It is calculated by
multiplying the number of heart contractions that occur per minute (heart rate) times the stroke
volume (the volume of blood pumped into the aorta per contraction of the left ventricle).
Therefore, cardiac output can be increased by increasing heart rate, as when exercising.
However, cardiac output can also be increased by increasing stroke volume, such as if the heart
were to contract with greater strength. Stroke volume can also be increased by speeding blood
circulation through the body so that more blood enters the heart between contractions. During
heavy exertion, the blood vessels relax and increase in diameter, offsetting the increased heart
rate and ensuring adequate oxygenated blood gets to the muscles. Stress triggers a decrease in
the diameter of the blood vessels, consequently increasing blood pressure. These changes can
also be caused by nerve signals or hormones; even standing up or lying down can have a great
effect on blood pressure.

d. Air pressure
3. Heat
a. Heat transfer
b. Body temperature
c. Application of heat and cold
4. Oxygen Therapy
a. Respiration
The act of breathing involves the laws of pneumatics. When the chest wall is pulled
outward by the action of the chest muscles, and the diaphragm is lowered, the
external air rushes in to fill what would otherwise be a vacuum. When the chest
muscles relax
b. Ventilation
LESSON 5: Waves and Radiation
1. X-radiography
2. Computed Tomography (CT) scan
3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)scan
4. The Gamma Knife
5. Ultrasound
6. Optical Methods
7. Endoscopy
8. Pulse Oximetry
9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
10.Electrocardiogram (ECG)
12.2D and 3D echo