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Meggering (insulation resistance testing) of dry-type power


The insulation resistance test (meggering) is of value for

future comparison and also for determining if the
transformer is to be subjected to the applied voltage
test.The winding insulation resistance test is a DC high
voltage test used to determine the dryness of winding
insulation system. The test measures the insulation
resistance from individual windings to ground and/or
between individual windings.
The measurement values are subject to wide variation in
design, temperature, dryness and cleanliness of the
parts. This makes it difficult to set minimum acceptable
insulation resistance values that are realistic for wide
variety of insulation systems that are in use and
performing satisfactorily. If a transformer is known to be
wet or if it has been subjected to unusually damp
conditions, it should be dried before the application of the
applied voltage test.

MEGGER - Insulation resistance test device

Low readings can sometimes be brought up by cleaning or drying the apparatus. The insulation resistance test
should be performed at a transformer temperature as close as possible or at 20 C. Test conducted at other
temperature should be corrected 20C with the use of temperature correcting factor.
The test equipment is calibrated to read in Megohm and commonly know as a HV Megger. Typical maximum test set
voltage values may be 1kV, 5kV or 15kV. The 30kV Megger is also available.
Duration of the test voltage shall be 1 minute. In the absence of manufactures recommended values, the following
readings may be used. Refer to Table 1.
Table 1 Transformer Insulation Resistance Acceptance Testing
Winding Insulation Class, kV

Insulation Resistance, M*











* Normally dried transformers may be expected to have readings 5 to 10 times the above minimum values.

Important Notes:
1. Table 1 was sourced from IEEE C57-94-1982 Recommended Practice for Installation, Operation and
Maintenance of Dry-type General Purpose Distribution and Power Transformer. Table 6 differs from NETA
Table 100.5 figures for transformer Insulation Resistance Acceptance Testing values. There is no industry
consensus for satisfactory values.
2. Other references noted a general rule of thumb for acceptable insulation values at 1M per 1kV of nameplate
rating plus 1M.
3. Under no condition should the test be made while the transformer is under vacuum.
4. The significance of values of insulation resistance test requires some interpretation depending on design,
dryness and cleanliness of the insulation involved. It is recommended that the insulation resistance values be
measured during periodic maintenance shutdown and trended. Large variation in the trended values should
be investigated for cause.
5. Insulation resistance may vary with applied voltage and any comparison should be made with the same
measurements at the same voltage and as close as possible to the same equipment temperature and
humidity as practically possible.

Insulation Resistance Test Procedure:

1. Isolate the equipment, apply working grounds to all incoming and outgoing cables and disconnect all incoming
and outgoing cables from the transformer bushing terminals connections. Disconnected cables should have
sufficient clearance from the switchgear terminals greater that the phase spacing distance. Use nylon rope to
hold cable away from incoming and outgoing terminals as required.
2. Ensure the transformer tank and core is grounded.
3. Disconnect all lightning arresters, fan system, meter or low voltage control systems that are connected to the
transformer winding.
4. Short circuit all winding terminals of the same voltage level together.
5. Perform a 1 minute resistance measurements between each winding group to the other windings and ground.
6. Remove all shorting leads after completion of all test.

Table 2 Insulation Resistance Test Connections for Two Winding Transformer


Single-phase transformer

Three-phase transformer

High voltage winding to low voltage winding

and ground

High voltage winding to low voltage winding and


High voltage winding to low voltage winding

High voltage winding to low voltage winding

High Voltage winding to ground

High voltage winding to ground with low voltage

winding to guard

Low Voltage winding to high voltage winding

and ground

Low voltage winding to high voltage winding and


Low voltage winding to ground

Low voltage winding to ground and high voltage

winding to guard

Resource: Substation Commisioning Course Module for Dry-type power transformer by R. Lee