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BasestationWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Basestation(also:baseradiostation)isaccordingtoarticle1.71oftheInternationalTelecommunication
Unions(ITU)ITURadioRegulations(RR)[1]definedas"Alandstationinthelandmobileservice."
Thetermbasestationisusedinthecontextofmobiletelephony,wirelesscomputernetworkingandother
wirelesscommunicationsandinlandsurveying:insurveyingitisaGPSreceiverataknownposition,whilein
wirelesscommunicationsitisatransceiverconnectinganumberofotherdevicestooneanotherand/ortoa
widerarea.Inmobiletelephonyitprovidestheconnectionbetweenmobilephonesandthewidertelephone
network.Inacomputernetworkitisatransceiveractingasarouterforcomputersinthenetwork,possibly
connectingthemtoalocalareanetworkand/ortheinternet.Intraditionalwirelesscommunicationsitcanrefer
tothehubofadispatchfleetsuchasataxiordeliveryfleet,thebaseofaTETRAnetworkasusedby
governmentandemergencyservicesoraCBshack.

Landsurveying[edit]
Inthecontextofexternallandsurveying,abasestationisaGPSreceiveratanaccuratelyknownfixedlocation
whichisusedtoderivecorrectioninformationfornearbyportableGPSreceivers.Thiscorrectiondataallows
propagationandothereffectstobecorrectedoutofthepositiondataobtainedbythemobilestations,which
givesgreatlyincreasedlocationprecisionandaccuracyovertheresultsobtainedbyuncorrectedGPS
receivers.
Intheareaofwirelesscomputernetworking,abasestationisaradioreceiver/transmitterthatservesasthe
hubofthelocalwirelessnetwork,andmayalsobethegatewaybetweenawirednetworkandthewireless
network.Ittypicallyconsistsofalowpowertransmitterandwirelessrouter.

Wirelesscommunications[edit]
Inradiocommunications,abasestationisawirelesscommunicationsstationinstalledatafixedlocationand
usedtocommunicateaspartofoneofthefollowing:
Inprofessionaltwowayradiosystems,abasestationisusedtomaintaincontactwithadispatchfleetofhand
heldormobileradios,and/ortoactivateonewaypagingreceivers.Thebasestationisoneendofa
communicationslink.Theotherendisamovablevehiclemountedradioorwalkietalkie.[2]Examplesofbase

stationusesintwowayradioincludethedispatchoftowtrucksandtaxicabs.

Basicbasestationelementsusedinaremotecontrolledinstallation.SelectivecallingoptionssuchasCTCSSareoptional.

Professionalbasestationradiosareoftenonechannel.Inlightlyusedbasestations,amultichannelunitmay
beemployed.[3]Inheavilyusedsystems,thecapabilityforadditionalchannels,whereneeded,isaccomplished
byinstallinganadditionalbasestationforeachchannel.Eachbasestationappearsasasinglechannelonthe
dispatchcentercontrolconsole.Inaproperlydesigneddispatchcenterwithseveralstaffmembers,thisallows
eachdispatchertocommunicatesimultaneously,independentlyofoneanother,onadifferentchannelas
necessary.Forexample,ataxicompanydispatchcentermayhaveonebasestationonahighrisebuildingin
BostonandanotheronadifferentchannelinProvidence.Eachtaxidispatchercouldcommunicatewithtaxisin
eitherBostonorProvidencebyselectingtherespectivebasestationonhisorherconsole.[4]
Indispatchingcentersitiscommonforeightormoreradiobasestationstobeconnectedtoasingle
dispatchingconsole.Dispatchingpersonnelcantellwhichchannelamessageisbeingreceivedonbya
combinationoflocalprotocol,unitidentifiers,volumesettings,andbusyindicatorlights.Atypicalconsolehas
twospeakersidentifiedasselectandunselect.Audiofromaprimaryselectedchannelisroutedtotheselect
speakerandtoaheadset.Eachchannelhasabusylightwhichflasheswhensomeonetalksontheassociated
channel.[5]
Basestationscanbelocalcontrolledorremotecontrolled.Localcontrolledbasestationsareoperatedbyfront
panelcontrolsonthebasestationcabinet.RemotecontrolbasestationscanbeoperatedovertoneorDC
remotecircuits.Thedispatchpointconsoleandremotebasestationareconnectedbyleasedprivateline
telephonecircuits,(sometimescalledRTOcircuits),aDS1,orradiolinks.[6]Theconsolesmultiplextransmit
commandsontoremotecontrolcircuits.Somesystemconfigurationsrequireduplex,orfourwire,audiopaths
fromthebasestationtotheconsole.Othersrequireonlyatwowireorhalfduplexlink.[7]

Thediagramshowsabandpassfilterusedtoreducethebasestationreceiver'sexposuretounwantedsignals.Italsoreducesthe
transmissionofundesiredsignals.Theisolatorisaonewaydevicewhichreducestheeaseofsignalsfromnearbytransmitters
goinguptheantennalineandintothebasestationtransmitter.Thispreventstheunwantedmixingofsignalsinsidethebase
stationtransmitterwhichcangenerateinterference.

Interferencecouldbedefinedasreceivinganysignalotherthanfromaradioinyourownsystem.Toavoid
interferencefromusersonthesamechannel,orinterferencefromnearbystrongsignalsonanotherchannel,
professionalbasestationsuseacombinationof:[8][9]
minimumreceiverspecificationsandfiltering.[10][11][12]
analysisofotherfrequenciesinusenearby.
intheUS,coordinationofsharedfrequenciesbycoordinatingagencies.[13]
locatingequipmentsothatterrainblocksinterferingsignals.
useofdirectionalantennastoreduceunwantedsignals.
BasestationsaresometimescalledcontrolorfixedstationsinUSFederalCommunicationsCommission
licensing.ThesetermsaredefinedinregulationsinsidePart90ofthecommissionsregulations.InUSlicensing
jargon,typesofbasestationsinclude:
Afixedstationisabasestationusedinasystemintendedonlytocommunicatewithotherbasestations.A
fixedstationcanalsoberadiolinkusedtooperateadistantbasestationbyremotecontrol.(Nomobileor
handheldradiosareinvolvedinthesystem.)
Acontrolstationisabasestationusedinasystemwitharepeaterwherethebasestationisusedto
communicatethroughtherepeater.
Atemporarybaseisabasestationusedinonelocationforlessthanayear.
Arepeaterisatypeofbasestationthatextendstherangeofhandheldandmobileradios.
Amateurandhobbyistuse[edit]
Inamateurradio,abasestationalsocommunicateswithmobilerigsbutforhobbyorfamilycommunications.
Amateursystemssometimesserveasdispatchradiosystemsduringdisasters,searchandrescue
mobilizations,orotheremergencies.
AnAustralianUHFCBbasestationisanotherexampleofpartofasystemusedforhobbyorfamily
communications.

Wirelesstelephone[edit]
Wirelesstelephonedifferfromtwowayradiosinthat:
wirelesstelephonesarecircuitswitched:thecommunicationspathsaresetupbydialingatthestartofacall
andthepathremainsinplaceuntiloneofthecallershangsup.
wirelesstelephonescommunicatewithothertelephonesusuallyoverthepublicswitchedtelephonenetwork.
Awirelesstelephonebasestationcommunicateswithamobileorhandheldphone.Forexample,inawireless
telephonesystem,thesignalsfromoneormoremobiletelephonesinanareaarereceivedatanearbybase
station,whichthenconnectsthecalltothelandlinenetwork.Otherequipmentisinvolveddependingonthe
systemarchitecture.Mobiletelephoneprovidernetworks,suchasEuropeanGSMnetworks,mayinvolve
carrier,microwaveradio,andswitchingfacilitiestoconnectthecall.Inthecaseofaportablephonesuchasa
UScordlessphone,theconnectionisdirectlyconnectedtoawiredlandline.

Emissionsissues[edit]

AcelltowernearThicketty,SouthCarolina.

Whilelowlevelsofradiofrequencypowerareusuallyconsideredtohavenegligibleeffectsonhealth,national
andlocalregulationsrestrictthedesignofbasestationstolimitexposuretoelectromagneticfields.Technical
measurestolimitexposureincluderestrictingtheradiofrequencypoweremittedbythestation,elevatingthe
antennaabovegroundlevel,changestotheantennapattern,andbarrierstofootorroadtraffic.Fortypical
basestations,significantelectromagneticenergyisonlyemittedattheantenna,notalongthelengthofthe
antennatower.[14]
Becausemobilephonesandtheirbasestationsaretwowayradios,theyproduceradiofrequency(RF)
radiationinordertocommunicate,exposingpeoplenearthemtoRFradiationgivingconcernsaboutmobile
phoneradiationandhealth.HandheldmobiletelephonesarerelativelylowpowersotheRFradiation
exposuresfromthemaregenerallylow.
TheWorldHealthOrganizationhasconcludedthat"thereisnoconvincingscientificevidencethattheweakRF
[15]

signalsfrombasestationsandwirelessnetworkscauseadversehealtheffects."[15]
Theconsensusofthescientificcommunityisthatthepowerfromthesemobilephonebasestationantennasis
toolowtoproducehealthhazardsaslongaspeoplearekeptawayfromdirectaccesstotheantennas.
However,currentinternationalexposureguidelines(ICNIRP)arebasedlargelyonthethermaleffectsofbase
stationemissions,consideringthenonthermaleffectsharmless.

Emergencypower[edit]
Fuelcellbackuppowersystemsareaddedtocriticalbasestationsorcellsitestoprovideemergencypower.[16]
[17]

Media[edit]

AcelltowernearThicketty,SouthCarolina.

TwoGSMmobilephonebasestationtowersdisguisedastreesinDublin,Ireland.

AbasestationdisguisedasapalmtreeinTucson,Arizona.

CloseupofabasestationantennainMexicoCity,Mexico.Therearethreeantennas:eachservesa120
degreesegmentofthehorizon.Themicrowavedishlinksthesitewiththetelephonenetwork.

AprofessionalrackmountiDENBaseRadioataCellSite.

Trunkedsystemshavegroupsofbasestationsconfiguredasrepeaters.Thecenterblockswithfrequencies
inthistrunkedblockdiagrameachrepresentabasestation.

136174MHzUSprofessionalbasestationantennaexamples.

WiMAXbasestationequipmentwithasectorantennaandwirelessmodemontop
1.^Basestationsinlandmobilesystemsareoftenlocatedatremotesitessuchashilltopsorwatertowers.
Somearecontrolledfromtwoormorelocations.Forexample,abasestationusedtocommunicatewithtaxis
maybeconnectedtoremotecontrolconsolesatbothataxicompanyofficeandanansweringservicefor

afterhourscalls.Thetaxicompanyandansweringservicemaybemilesapart.Singlechannelbasestations
reduceconfusionbyeliminatingthepossibilitythatthewrongchannelmaybeselected.
2.^Toreadmoreaboutmultichannelconsoles,lookattheservicemanualforarelativelysimpleconsole:8
ChannelRemoteConsole,120,220,240VACor12VDCT16167AMorBM,6881021E80,(Schaumburg,
Illinois:Motorola,Inc.1980.)Thisisarelativelysimpleanalogconsolecomparedtolarge,enterpriselevel
Centracomseriesunits.
3.^Forabriefdiscussionofremotecontrolledbasestations,see:"EvaluatingRegionalAlternatives:Systems
DesignConsiderations,"PlanningEmergencyMedicalCommunications:Volume2,Local/RegionalLevel
PlanningGuide,(Washington,D.C.:NationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministration,USDepartmentof
Transportation,1995)pp.3941.Toneremotecontrolsaredescribedinthissection.
4.^Alistoftypesoffilteringusedtopreventinterferencebetweenequipmentatthesamesiteisincludedin
"6.2.4ElectromagneticCompatibilityStudies,"800MHzTrunkedRadioRequestforProposals:PublicSafety
ProjectsOffice,(OklahomaCity,Oklahoma:OklahomaCityMunicipalFacilitiesAuthority,2000,pp.119.