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CONSISTENCY OF STANDARD CEMENT PASTE (IS:4031-PART4-1988)

OVERVIEW

Standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency which will permit a vicat plunger having 10 mm dia and 50 mm length to penetrate to a depth of 33-35 mm from top of the mould.

APPARATUS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

NAME

CAPACITY / RANGE / SIZE

ACCURACY / LEAST COUNT

Vicat apparatus

Should be made as per

IS:5513

Balance

1000 g

1 g

Measuring cylinder

100 ml

1 ml

OTHER ACCESSORIES

Tray, glass plate

Vicat Apparatus ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION Temperature 27 ± 2 C Humidity 65 ± 5 % PROCEDURE 1.

Vicat Apparatus

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

Temperature

27 ± 2 0 C

Humidity

65 ± 5 %

PROCEDURE

  • 1. Take 400 g of cement and place it in the enameled tray.

  • 2. Mix about 25% water by weight of dry cement thoroughly to get a cement paste. Total time taken to obtain thoroughly mixed water cement paste i.e. “Gauging time” should not be more than 3 to 5 minutes.

  • 3. Fill the vicat mould, resting upon a glass plate, with this cement paste.

  • 4. After filling the mould completely, smoothen the surface of the paste, making it level with top of the mould.

  • 5. Place the whole assembly(i.e. mould + cement paste + glass plate) under the rod bearing plunger.

  • 6. Lower the plunger gently so as to touch the surface of the test block and quickly release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste.

8.

Prepare trial pastes with varying percentages of water content and follow the steps (2 to 7) as described above, until the depth of penetration becomes 33 to 35 mm.

CALCULATION

Calculate percentage of water (P) by weight of dry cement required to prepare cement paste of standard consistency by following formula, and express it to the first place of decimal.

8. Prepare trial pastes with varying percentages of water content and follow the steps (2 to

Where, W=Quantity of water added

C=Quantity of cement used

PRECAUTIONS

Gauging time should be strictly observed

Room temperature should be well maintained as per test requirement.

All apparatus used should be clean.

The experiment should be performed away from vibrations and other disturbances.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

This test helps to determine water content for other tests like initial and final setting time, soundness & compressive strength.

NAME OF TEST

AMOUNT OF WATER REQUIRED

Soundness (Le-chatelier method)

0.78 P (P=Consistency of standard cement paste)

Setting time

0.85 P (P=Consistency of standard cement paste)

Compressive strength

Compressive strength of combined mass of cement and sand.

of combined mass of cement and sand.

Consistency refers to the relative mobility of a freshly mixed cement paste or mortar or its ability to flow. For a mortar the standard consistency is measured by flow table test.

Generally the normal consistency for OPC ranges from 26 to 33%.

2

FINENESS OF CEMENT BY DRY SIEVING (IS:4031-PART 1-1996)

OVERVIEW

Fineness of cement is measured by sieving it on standard sieve. The proportion of cement of which the grain sizes are larger than the specified mesh size is thus determined.

APPARATUS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

NAME

CAPACITY / RANGE / SIZE

ACCURACY / LEAST COUNT

Sieve

90 micron mesh

Balance

10g (max.)

10 mg

SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSORIES

Glass rod, stoppered jar, pan, lid 90 micron sieve
Glass rod, stoppered jar, pan, lid
90 micron
sieve

PROCEDURE

  • 1. Agitate the sample of cement to be tested by shaking for 2 minutes in a stoppered jar to disperse agglomerates. Stir the resulting powder gently using a clean dry rod in order to distribute the fines throughout the cement.

  • 2. Attach a pan under the sieve to collect the cement passing the sieve.

  • 3. Weigh approximately 10 g of cement to the nearest 0.01 g and place it on the sieve. Fit the lid over the sieve.

  • 4. Agitate the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movement until no more fine material passes through it.

  • 5. Remove and weigh the residue. Express its mass as a percentage (R 1 ) of the quantity first placed in the sieve.

  • 6. Repeat the steps 3 to 5 with a fresh sample to obtain R 2 .

Note :: If R 1 & R 2 differ by more than 1%, then carryout a third sieving and calculate R 3 .

CALCULATION

Calculate the residue of cement R as the mean of R 1 & R 2 (or R 1 , R 2 & R 3 ) in %, expressed to the nearest 0.1%.

PROCEDURE TO CHECK SIEVE

  • 1. Follow the steps (1 to 6) as mentioned earlier with a reference cement sample or certified reference material (i.e. CRM).

  • 2. Calculate two values ‘P 1 ’ & ‘P 2 ’ and calculate mean ‘P’ of ‘P 1 ’ & ‘P 2 ’.

  • 3. From the certificate of reference cement sample find out the known value of residue on 90 micron mesh sieve.

  • 4. Calculate a correction factor as per the below mentioned formula.

PROCEDURE 1. Agitate the sample of cement to be tested by shaking for 2 minutes in

Where R 0 =Known value of residue as per reference material certificate. P=Mean value of P 1 & P 2 . (The value of F may be 1.00±0.20) 5. Multiply this correction factor ‘F’ with mean value of ‘R’

PRECAUTION

Before sieving, air set lumps of cement should be broken

Sieving should be done by rotating the sieve and not by translation.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSIONS

Fineness of cement has a great effect on the rate of hydration and hence the rate of gain of strength.

Fineness of cement increases the rate of evolution of heat.

Finer cement offers a great surface area for hydration and hence faster the development of strength.

Increase in fineness of cement also increases the drying shrinkage of concrete and hence creates cracks in structures.

Excessive fineness requirement increases cost of grinding.

Excessive fine cement requires more water for hydration, resulting reduced strength and durability.

Fineness of cement affects properties like gypsum requirement, workability of

fresh concrete & long term behavior of structure. Coarse cement particles settle down in concrete which causes bleeding.

3

INITIAL & FINAL SETTING TIME (IS:4031-PART 5-1988)

OVERVIEW

Initial setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and time at which 1 mm square section needle fails to penetrate the cement paste, placed in the Vicat’s mould 5 mm to 7 mm from the bottom of the mould.

Final setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and the time at which 1 mm needle makes an impression on the paste in the mould but 5 mm attachment does not make any impression.

APPARATUS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

NAME

CAPACITY / RANGE / SIZE

ACCURACY / LEAST COUNT

Vicat apparatus

Should be made as per

IS:5513

Balance

1000 g

1 g

Measuring cylinder

100 ml

1 ml

Stop watch

30 min.

0.2 sec

OTHER APPARATUS

Glass plate, enamel tray, trowel

Vicat Apparatus ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION Temperature 27 ± 2 C Relative Humidity 90 % (min) PROCEDURE (A)TEST

Vicat Apparatus

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

Temperature

27 ± 2 0 C

Relative Humidity

90 % (min)

PROCEDURE (A)TEST BLOCK PREPARATION

  • 1. Before commencing setting time test, do the consistency test to obtain the water required to give the paste normal consistency (P).

3.

Gauge time is kept between 3 to 5 minutes. Start the stop watch at the instant when the water is added to the cement. Record this time (t 1 ).

  • 4. Fill the Vicat mould, resting on a glass plate, with the cement paste gauged as above. Fill the mould completely and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared is called test block.

(B)INITIAL SETTING TIME

  • 1. Place the test block confined in the mould and resting on the non-porous plate, under the rod bearing the needle.

  • 2. Lower the needle gently until it comes in contact with the surface of test block and quick release, allowing it to penetrate into the test block.

  • 3. In the beginning the needle completely pierces the test block. Repeat this procedure i.e. quickly releasing the needle after every 2 minutes till the needle fails to pierce the block for about 5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould. Note this time (t 2 ).

(C)FINAL SETTING TIME

  • 1. For determining the final setting time, replace the needle of the Vicat’s apparatus by the needle with an annular attachment.

  • 2. The cement is considered finally set when upon applying the final setting needle gently to the surface of the test block; the needle makes an impression thereon, while the attachment fails to do so. Record this time (t 3 ).

CALCULATION

Initial setting time=t 2 -t 1 Final setting time=t 3 -t 1 , Where,

t 1 =Time at which water is first added to cement t 2 =Time when needle fails to penetrate 5 mm to 7 mm from bottom of the mould t 3 =Time when the needle makes an impression but the attachment fails to do so. PRECAUTIONS

Release the initial and final setting time needles gently.

The experiment should be performed away from vibration and other disturbances.

Needle should be cleaned every time it is used.

Position of the mould should be shifted slightly after each penetration to avoid penetration at the same place.

Test should be performed at the specified environmental conditions.

STANDARD SPECIFICATION

Type/Name Of

Referenced

Initial

Final

Cement

Indian Stanadard

Setting

Setting

Time, mints

Time, mints

(min.)

(max.)

OPC(33)

IS:269

30

600

OPC(43)

IS:8112

30

600

OPC(53)

IS:12269

30

600

SRC

IS:12330

30

600

PPC

IS:1489,P1

30

600

RHPC

IS:8041

30

600

PSC

IS:455

30

600

High alumina

IS:6452

30

600

Super sulphated

IS:6909

30

600

Low heat

IS:12600

60

600

Masonry cement

IS:3466

90

1440

IRS-T-40

Railway

60

600

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

It is essential that cement set neither too rapidly nor too slowly. In the first case there might be insufficient time to transport and place the concrete before it becomes too rigid. In the second case too long a setting period tends to slow up the work unduly, also it might postpone the actual use of the structure because of inadequate strength at the desired age.

Setting should not be confused with hardening, which refers to the gain in mechanical strength after the certain degree of resistance to the penetration of a special attachment pressed into it.

Setting time is the time required for stiffening of cement paste to a defined consistency.

Indirectly related to the initial chemical reaction of cement with water to form aluminum-silicate compound.

Initial setting time is the time when the paste starts losing its plasticity.

Initial setting time test is important for transportation, placing and

compaction of cement concrete. Initial setting time duration is required to delay the process of hydration or

hardening. Final setting time is the time when the paste completely loses its plasticity.

It is the time taken for the cement paste or cement concrete to harden sufficiently and attain the shape of the mould in which it is cast.

Determination of final setting time period facilitates safe removal of scaffolding or form.

During this period of time primary chemical reaction of cement with water is almost completed.

  • 4 SPECIFIC GRAVITY/DENSITY OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT (IS:4031-PART 11-

1988)

Suryakanta | May 4, 2013 | Tests On Cement | 1 Comment OVERVIEW

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio between the weight of a given volume of cement and weight of an equal volume of water.

APPARATUS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

NAME

CAPACITY / RANGE / SIZE

ACCURACY / LEAST COUNT

Lechatelier flask

Balance

Water bath

OTHER APPARATUS

Tray
Tray
Le chatelier flask ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Temp Relative humidity TEST PROCEDURE 1. Dry the Le-chatelier flask and

Le chatelier flask

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Temp

Relative humidity

TEST PROCEDURE

  • 1. Dry the Le-chatelier flask and fill with kerosene oil or Naptha to a point on the stem between 0 and 1 ml.

  • 2. Dry the inside of the flask above the level of the liquid.

  • 3. Immerse the flask in a constant temp water bath maintained at room temp for sufficient time.

  • 4. Record the level of the kerosene oil in the flask as initial reading.

  • 5. Introduce about 60 g of cement into the flask so that the level of kerosene rises to about say 22 ml mark. Splashing should be avoided and cement should not be allowed to adhere to the sides of the flask above the liquid.

6.

Insert the glass nipple into the flask and roll it gently in an inclined position to free the cement from air until no further air bubble rises to the surface of the liquid.

  • 7. Keep the flask again in constant temp water bath and note down the new liquid level as final reading.

CALCULATION

The difference between the first and final readings represents the volume of liquid displaced by the mass of cement used in test.

The density is calculated as per the below mentioned formula to the second place of decimal.

6. Insert the glass nipple into the flask and roll it gently in an inclined positionSuryakanta | February 11, 2014 | Aggregate , Concrete , Concrete Technology , How To , Materials , Tests On Aggregate | 5 Comments The volume increase of fine aggregate due to presence of moisture content is known as bulking. Fine sand bulks more as compared to coarse sand. Extremely fine sand particularly the manufactured fine aggregate bulks as much as about 40%. Note: Fine aggregate do not show any bulking when it is absolutely dry or completely saturated. WHAT CAUSES BULKING OF AGGREGATE? " id="pdf-obj-14-15" src="pdf-obj-14-15.jpg">

Note ::Two tests shall be carried out and the average is reported. If the difference between the two values differs by more than 0.03, the test shall be repeated.

PRECAUTIONS

While pouring cement in the Lechatelier flask, care should be taken to avoid splashing and cement should not adhere to the inside of the flask above the liquid.

The kerosene or Naptha should be completely free from water. TECHNICAL DISCUSSIONS

The test for finding the specific gravity of Portland cement was originally considered to be of value in detecting adulteration and under burning, but is no longer thought to be of much importance in view of the fact that other tests lead to more definite conclusions.

BULKING OF FINE AGGREGATE – WHAT, WHY & HOW?

The volume increase of fine aggregate due to presence of moisture content is known as bulking. Fine sand bulks more as compared to coarse sand. Extremely fine sand particularly the manufactured fine aggregate bulks as much as about 40%.

Note: Fine aggregate do not show any bulking when it is absolutely dry or completely saturated.

WHAT CAUSES BULKING OF AGGREGATE?

The moisture present in aggregate forms a film around each particle. These films of moisture exert a force, known as surface tension, on each particle. Due to this surface tension each particles gets away from each other. Because of this no direct contact is possible among individual particles and this causes bulking of the volume.

Bulking of aggregate is dependent upon two factors,

  • 1. Percentage of moisture content

  • 2. Particle size of fine aggregate

Bulking increases with increase in moisture content upto a certain limit and beyond that the further increase in moisture content results in decrease in volume. When the fine aggregate is completely saturated it does not show any bulking. Fine sand bulks more as compared to coarse sand, i.e. percentage of bulking in indirectly proportional to the size of particle.

The moisture present in aggregate forms a film around each particle. These films of moisture exert

percen

tage of bulking of sand with moisture content

WHY TO DETERMINE PERCENTAGE OF BULKING?

Due to bulking, fine aggregate shows completely unrealistic volume. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that consideration must be given to the effect of bulking in proportioning the concrete by volume. If care is not given to the effect of bulking, in

the case of volume batching, the resulting concrete is likely to be undersanded and harsh. It will also affect the yield of concrete for a given cement content.

HOW TO DETERMINE PERCENTAGE OF BULKING?

The extent of bulking can be estimated by a simple field test.

Fill a sample of moist fine aggregate (sand) into a measuring cylinder in the normal manner. Note down the level, say h 1 .

Pour water into a measuring cylinder and completely cover the sand with water and shake it. Since the volume of the saturated sand is the same as that of the dry sand, the saturated sand completely offsets the bulking effect. Note down the level of sand, say h 2 .

Subtract the final level h2 from initial level h1 (i.e. h 1 -h 2 ), which shows the bulking of sand under test.

Calculate percentage of bulking using formula given below.

Percentage of bulking = [(h 1 -h 2 )/h 2 ]*100

SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT BY LE-CHATELIERS METHOD (IS:4031-PART 3-

1988)

In the soundness test a specimen of hardened cement paste is boiled for a fixed time so that any tendency to expand is speeded up and can be detected. Soundness means the ability to resist volume expansion.

APPARATUS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

NAME

CAPACITY / RANGE / SIZE

ACCURACY / LEAST COUNT

Le-chatelier apparatus

Should be made as per

IS:5514

Water bath

100 0 C (min)

1 0 C

Caliper

30 cm

0.5 mm

Measuring cylinder

100 ml

1 ml

Balance

100 g

1 g

OTHER APPARATUS

Glass sheets (2 nos), Enamel tray, trowel

Le chatelier Apparatus ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Temperature 27 ± 2 C Humidity 65 ± 5 % PROCEDURE

Le chatelier Apparatus

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Temperature

27 ± 2 0 C

Humidity

65 ± 5 %

PROCEDURE

  • 1. Before commencing setting time test, do the consistency test to obtain the water required to give the paste normal consistency (P).

  • 2. Prepare a paste by adding 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency (i.e. 0.78P).

  • 3. Lightly oil the Le-chatelier mould and place it on a lightly oiled glass sheet.

  • 4. Fill the mould with the prepared cement paste. In the process of filling the mould keep the edge of the mould gently together.

  • 5. Cover the mould with another piece of lightly oiled glass sheet, place a small weight on this covering glass sheet.

  • 6. Submerge the whole assembly in water at a temperature of 27 ± 2 0 C and keep there for 24 hours.

  • 7. Remove the whole assembly from water bath and measure the distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5 mm (L 1 ).

  • 8. Again submerge the whole assembly in water bath and bring the temperature of water bath to boiling temperature in 25 to 30 minutes. Keep it at boiling temperature for a period of 3 hours.

  • 9. After completion of 3 hours, allow the temperature of the water bath to cool down to room temperature and remove the whole assembly from the water bath.

10.Measure the distance between the two indicator points to the nearest 0.5 mm (L 2 ).

CALCULATIONS Soundness/expansion of cement = L 1 -L 2

L 1 =Measurement taken after 24 hours of immersion in water at a temp. of 27 ± 2 0 C L 2 =Measurement taken after 3 hours of immersion in water at boiling temperature. Calculate the mean of two values to the nearest 0.5 mm. Note::In the event of cement failing to comply with the specified requirements, a further test should be made from another portion of the same sample in manner described above, but after aeration (done by spreading out to a depth of 75 mm at a relative humidity of 50 to 80% for a total period of 7 days).

PRECAUTIONS

All the measurements should be done accurately.

Do not apply extra pressure while filling the moulds.

During boiling water level should not fall below the height of the mould.

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Type/Name of cement

Reference Indian standard

Expansion (max.)

OPC (33)

IS:269-1989

10 mm

OPC (43)

IS:8112-1989

10 mm

OPC (53)

IS:12269-1987

10 mm

Rapid hardening

IS:8041-1990

10 mm

Low heat cement

IS:12600-1989

10 mm

Super sulphated

IS:6909-1990

5 mm

Portland pozzolana

IS:1489-1991(part 1)

10 mm

PSC

IS:455-1976

10 mm

High alumina cement

IS:6452-1989

5 mm

SRC

IS:12330-1988

10 mm

Masonry cement

IS:3466-1988

10 mm

IRS-T-40

Railway standards

5 mm

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

Volume expansion in cement mortar or in cement concrete is caused by the presence of unburnt lime (CaO), dead burnt MgO and also CaSO 4 .

By Le-chatelier method we can only find out presence of unburnt lime (CaO).

Presence of unburnt lime may develop cracks in the cement because of increase in volume.

Free lime (CaO) and magnesia (MgO) are known to react with water very slowly and increase in volume considerably, which result in cracking, distortion and disintegration.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT MORTAR (ASTM-C-109)

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT MORTAR PURPOSE

The following covers only that portion of ASTM Designation: C 109 that is required to determine the compressive strength of 50 mm (2 inches) of Portland cement mortar cubes.

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

A 2kg scale accurate to 0.1 gram

Six 50 mm (2 inch) cube molds

Hard rubber tampers 13 × 25 mm (1/2 × 1 inch) cross section and 12 to 15 cm (5 to 6 inches) in height

Rubber gloves

Small steel trowels

Large spoons

Electrically driven mechanical mixer equipped with a paddle and mixing bowl

500 grams of Portland cement

1375 grams of Ottawa Sand (or Standard sand)

42 cc of water

TEST PROCEDURE

  • 1. Place the 242 cc of water in the mixing bowl, add the 500 grams of cement, and mix at a slow speed (140±5 rpm) for 30

  • 2. Add the 1375 grams of Ottawa Sand over a 30-second period while continuing to mix at a slow speed.

  • 3. Stop the mixing, change the mixer setting to medium speed (285±5 rpm), and mix for 30 seconds.

  • 4. Stop the mixer and let the mortar stand for 90 seconds. During the first 15 seconds, scrape down into the batch any mortar that may have collected on the sides of the bowl. Cover the bowl for the remainder of the interval.

  • 5. Finish preparing the mortar by mixing for 60 seconds at medium speed.

  • 6. Immediately upon completion of mixing, start molding the specimens by placing a 25 mm (i.e. 1 inch) layer of mortar in all of the six cube compartments. Tamp the mortar layer in each cube compartment, with the hard rubber tamper, 32 times within about 10 seconds in accordance with Figure 1 in four rounds. Each round should be at right angles to the other and consist of eight adjacent strokes over the surface of the specimen. Use sufficient tamping pressure to ensure uniform filling of the molds. Complete the lift in each mold in turn before moving on to the next one.

 500 grams of Portland cement  1375 grams of Ottawa Sand (or Standard sand) 

Fig-1

  • 7. Complete the filling of the molds by adding another layer and duplicate the tamping procedure. At this point the mortar should be slightly above the top of the molds. Carefully cut the excess mortar flush with the edge of a steel trowel.

  • 8. Place the completed mortar cubes in a moist closet, protected from dripping water, for between 20 and 24 hours, after which the cubes are to be stripped from the molds.

  • 9. Insert the mortar cubes in a saturated lime water bath until ready for testing. Periodically the lime water should be changed to keep the water clean.

10.All specimens should be tested within a specified time period.

Prior to testing, the specimens should be wiped clean. Apply the loads only to the true surfaces of the cubes. Use a straight edge to check the cube surfaces. Any loose grains of sand or other extraneous material should be removed from the surfaces in contact with the testing machine. The specimen should be placed under the center of the upper bearing block of the testing machine. A light coating of oil should be applied to the upper platen. The rate of load application should produce failure of the specimens during a time interval of 20 to 80 seconds.

COMPUTATIONS

Record the maximum compressive load and compute the compressive strength in pascals or pounds/square inch using following formula

Compressive strength = Load / Cross-sectional area

The following data sheet should be used to record findings.

   

Total load

Cross-sectional

Specimen

Specim

en No.

Time of

Loading in

Seconds

in Kg or Pound

Area of Specimen in meter 2 or inch 2

strength in

Pascals or

psi

1

2

3

4

5

6

AIM

To determine the specific gravity of given sample of fine and coarse aggregates.

SPECIFIC GRAVITTY OF COARSE AGGREGATE. Apparatus

  • 1. A balance or scale of capacity not less than 3 kg, readable and accurate to 0.5 g and of such a type and shape as to permit the basket containing the sample to be suspended from the beam and the weighed in water.

  • 2. A well ventilated oven thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 100oC to 110oC.

  • 3. A wire basket of not more than 6.3 mm mesh or a perforated container of convenient size.

  • 4. A stout water tight container of convenient size.

  • 5. Two dry soft absorbent cloths each not less than 75×45 cm

  • 6. A shallow tray of area no less than 650 cm2

Procedure

(I) Take 2 kg of aggregate. Sample larger than 10mm

(ii)Wash the sample thoroughly to remove finer particle and dust.

(iii) Place the sample in a wire basket and immerse it in distilled water at a temperature between 22oC and 32oC with a cover of at least 5 cm of water above the top of the basket.

(iv) Remove the entrapped air by lifting the basket containing the sample 25 mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop per second, care being taken to see that the sample is completely immersed in water during the operation.

(v) With the sample in water at a temper of 220C-32oC (W).

(vi) Remove the basket and aggregate from water and allow To drain for a few minutes.

(vii) Empty the aggregate from the basket to a shallow tray.

(viii) Immerse the empty basket in water jolt 25 times and than the weight in water

(w2).

(ix) Place the aggregates in oven at a temperature of 100oC to 110oC for 24+- 0.5 hours.

(x) Remove it from the oven and cool it and find the weight. (w2)

Calculations

Apparent Specific Gravity = (Weight of a substance/ wt of an equal vol of water) = W3/(W3- (w1-w2))

Result

S specific gravity of given coarse aggregate= …………………… ..

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FINE AGGREGATE Apparatues

1.A balance of capacity not less than 3kg ,readable and accurate to 0.5 gm and of such a type as to permit the weighing of the vessel containing the aggregate and water .

2.A well ventilated oven to maintain a temperature of 100ºC to 110ºC

3.Pyconometer of about 1 littre capacity having a metal conical screw top with a 6mm hole at its apex . The screw top shall be water tight .

4.a means supplying a current warm air .

5.A tray of area not less than 32cm². 6.An air tight container large enough to take the sample. 7.Filter papers and funnel.

5.A tray of area not less than 32cm². 6.An air tight container large enough to take

Procedure

(I) Take about 500g of sample and place it in the pycnometer.

(II) Pour distilled water into it until it is full.

(III) Eliminate the entrapped air by rotating the pycnometer on its side ,the hole in the apex of the cone being covered with a finger.

(IV) Wipe out the outer surface of pycnometer and weigh it (W)

(V) Transfer the contents of the pycnometer into a tray , care being taken to ensure that all the aggregate is transferred .

(VI) Refill the pycnometer with distilled water to the same level . (VII) Find out the weight (W1) (VIII) drink water from the sample through a filter paper .

(IX) Place the sample in oven in a tray at a temperature of 100ºC to 110º C for 24±0.5 hours ,during which period ,it is stirred occasionally to facilitate drying .

(X) Cool the sample and weigh it (W2)

Calculation

Apparent specific gravity = (weight of dry sample/weight of equal volume of water )

= W2/(W2- (W-W2))

Result

Specific gravity of fine aggregate =………………….

SIEVE ANALYSIS

Sieve analysis helps to determine the particle size distribution of the coarse and fine aggregates.This is done by sieving the aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part I) – 1963. In

this we use different sieves as standardized by the IS code and then pass aggregates through them and thus collect different sized particles left over different sieves.

The apparatus used are – i) A set of IS Sieves of sizes – 80mm, 63mm, 50mm, 40mm,31.5mm, 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 6.3mm,4.75mm, 3.35mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600µm, 300µm, 150µm and 75µm. ii) Balance or scale with an accuracy to measure 0.1 percent of the weight of the test sample. The weight of sample available should not be less than the weight given below:-

The sample for sieving should be prepared from the larger sample either by quartering or by

The sample for sieving should be prepared from the larger sample either by quartering or by means of a sample divider.

Procedure to determine particle size distribution of Aggregates.

i) The test sample is dried to a constant weight at a temperature of 110 + 5 o C and weighed. ii) The sample is sieved by using a set of IS Sieves. iii) On completion of sieving, the material on each sieve is weighed. iv) Cumulative weight passing through each sieve is calculated as a percentage of the total sample weight. v) Fineness modulus is obtained by adding cumulative percentage of aggregates retained on each sieve and dividing the sum by 100.

Reporting of Results

The results should be calculated and reported as:

i) the cumulative percentage by weight of the total sample ii) the percentage by weight of the total sample passing through one sieve and retained on the next smaller sieve, to the nearest 0.1 percent. The results of the sieve analysis may be recorded graphically on a semi-log graph with particle size as abscissa (log scale) and the percentage smaller than the specified diameter as ordinate.

AIM

To study the behaviour of sand grains under varying percentage of moisture content .

APPARATUES.

250 ml measuring cylinder ,weighing balance etc .

PROCEDURE

(i) Take 500gm (W1) of the aggregate.

(ii) Keep the sample in an oven in a tray at a temperature of 100°C-110° C for 24 ± 0.5 hours .

(iii) Cool the sand in an air tight container and weight it (W2) Water content of the sample = (W1-W2)x 100/W1 (iv) Take out about 250gm of sand and pour it into a pan. (v) Add 2% (by weight) of water and mix well.

(vi) Pour the sand sample into a 250 ml measuring cylinder and consolidate by shaking.

(vii) Level the surface and read the volume in ml (Yi).

(viii) Take out the whole quantity of sand and continue the experiment by adding 2%

water more each time and note the corresponding volume of sand (Y2,Y3… the dump sand volume starts decreasing.

..

) until

(ix) Beyond this point, add 4% more water each time until the sample become fully saturated.

(x) To the standard sample in the measuring cylinder, add about 50 ml water ore and stir the sample well.

(xi) Note down the surface level of inundated sand (Y ml).

(ii) Keep the sample in an oven in a tray at a temperature of 100°C-110° C

CALCULATIONS

Bulking =(Y1-Y)x100/Y

GRAPH

A graph drawn with % water content along X-mas and % bulking along Y- axis.

From the graph, pick out maximum % of bulking occurred, % of water content at maximum bulking , % of water content When bulking is zero & % of bulking for the initial water content (W) of the sample.

RESULTS

% of bulking occurred = % of water content at maximum bulking= % of water content when bulking is zero= % of bulking for the initial water content (W) of the sample =

FIELD TEST FOR BULKING OF FINE AGGREGATES AIM

To determine necessary adjustment for the bulking of fine aggregate, in the field.

APPARATUES

250 ml measuring cylinder

PROCEDURE

(I) Pour the dump sand in to a 250 ml measuring cylinder up to the 200 ml mark.

(II) Fill the cylinder with water and stir well (sufficient water should be poured to submerge the sand compleately and it can be see that the sand surface is now below its original level)

(III) Take the reading at the sand surface (Y ml)

CALCULATIONS

% of bulking { (200/Y)- 1] x100

Report the percentage bulking of the sand to the nearest whole number.

RESULT

Percentage bulking of field sample=

OBJECTIVE

Determination of unit weight or bulk density and void of aggregates.

EQUIPMENTS

Name

Capacity

  • 1. Balance

Sensitive to 0.5% of weight of material

 

Of 3 litre capacity (for fine aggregate)

  • 2. Cylindrical metal measure

Of 15 litre capacity (for aggregate upto 40mm)

  • 3. Tamping rod

16 mm dia. and 60 cm long

cylindrical metal measure used for bulk density and void test of aggregate SAMPLE PREPARATION  Taketest sample form the bulk sample using any sample reduction method.  The test is normally carried out on dry material, but when bulking tests are required, material with a given percentage of moisture may be used. A. PROCEDURE FOR COMPACTED BULK DENSITY 1. Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the metal measure and record the volume “V” in litre. 2. Fill the cylindrical metal measure about one-third full with thoroughly mixed aggregate and tamp it 25 times using tamping bar. 3. Add another layer of one-third volume of aggregate in the metal measure and give another 25 strokes of tamping bar. 4. Finally fill aggregate in the metal measure to over-flowing and tamp it 25 times. 5. Remove the surplus aggregate using the tamping rod as a straightedge. 6. Determine the weight of the aggregate in the measure and record that weight “W” in kg. " id="pdf-obj-31-2" src="pdf-obj-31-2.jpg">

cylindrical metal measure

used for bulk density and void test of aggregate

SAMPLE PREPARATION

Take the required amount of test sample form the bulk sample using any sample reductionmethod.

The test is normally carried out on dry material, but when bulking tests are required, material with a given percentage of moisture may be used.

A. PROCEDURE FOR COMPACTED BULK DENSITY

  • 1. Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the metal measure and record the volume “V” in litre.

  • 2. Fill the cylindrical metal measure about one-third full with thoroughly mixed aggregate and tamp it 25 times using tamping bar.

  • 3. Add another layer of one-third volume of aggregate in the metal measure and give another 25 strokes of tamping bar.

  • 4. Finally fill aggregate in the metal measure to over-flowing and tamp it 25 times.

  • 5. Remove the surplus aggregate using the tamping rod as a straightedge.

CALCULATION FOR COMPACTED BULK DENSITY

Compacted unit weight or bulk density = W/V Where, W = Weight of compacted aggregate in cylindrical metal measure, kg

  • V = Volume of cylindrical metal measure, litre

CALCULATION OF VOIDS

The percentage of voids is calculated as follows

Percentage of voids = [(G – ϒ)/G]*100 Where

G = Specific gravity of the aggregate ϒ = Bulk density in kg/litre

B. PROCEDURE FOR LOOSE BULK DENSITY

  • 1. Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the metal measure and record the volume “V” in litre.

  • 2. Fill the cylindrical measure to overflowing by means of a shovel or scoop, the aggregate being discharged from a height not exceeding 5 cm above the top of the measure

  • 3. Level the top surface of the aggregate in the metal measure, with a straightedge or tamping bar.

  • 4. Determine the weight of the aggregate in the measure and record the weight “W” in kg.

CALCULATION FOR LOOSE BULK DENSITY

Loose unit weight or bulk density = W/V

Where, W = Weight of loose aggregate in cylindrical metal measure, kg

  • V = Volume of cylindrical metal measure, litre

CALCULATION OF VOIDS

The percentage of voids is calculated as follows

Percentage of voids = [(G – ϒ)/G]*100 Where G = Specific gravity of the aggregate

ϒ = Bulk density in kg/litre

RESULT

The bulk density is reported in kg/litre to the nearest 0.01 kg

The percentage of voids is reported to the nearest whole number. Mention whether the aggregate is

  • (a) oven dry,

  • (b) saturated and surface dry or

  • (c) with a given percentage of moisture.

OBJECTIVE

To determine quantity of silt in fine aggregates in the field

THEORY

There are two types of harmful substances preset in fine aggregates i.e. organic matter produced by decay of vegetable matter and/or clay and silt, which form coating thus preventing a good bond between cement and the aggregates. If present in large quantities, result in the increase water-cement ratio and finally affecting the strength of concrete.

Field test is generally conducted in order to determine the volumetric percentage of silt in natural sand for percentage up to 6%, otherwise more detailed test as prescribed by standard code are required to be conducted.

APPARATUS

Measuring cylinder of 250 ml capacity.

PROCEDURE

  • 1. Fill 1% solution of common salt and water in the measuring cylinder up to 50 ml mark.

  • 2. Now add sand to be tested to this solution till the level of the salt solution shows 100 ml mark.

  • 3. Top up the level of salt solution up to 150 ml mark.

  • 4. Shake the mixture of sand and salt solution well and keep it undisturbed for about 3 hours.

  • 5. The silt being of finer particles than sand, will settle above the sand in a form of layer.

  • 6. Measure the thickness of this silt layer.

APPARATUS  Measuring cylinder of 250 ml capacity. PROCEDURE 1. Fill 1% solution of common salt

Silt content in Fine Aggregates

RECORDING OF OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

Sl.No

 

Sample Numbers

 

.

Description

Sample-

Sample-

Sample-

1

2

2

 

Volume of sample, V 1 (ml)

Volume of silt after 3 hours, V 2 (ml) % silt by volume =(V 2 /V
Volume of silt after 3
hours, V 2 (ml)
% silt by
volume =(V 2 /V 1 )*100

NOTE

If the average value of silt content exceeds 6% by volume, the aggregate requires washing before use.

PRECAUTIONS

Utmost care should be taken while taking sample for test

OBJECTIVE

Determination of unit weight or bulk density and void of aggregates.

EQUIPMENTS

Name

Capacity

  • 1. Balance

Sensitive to 0.5% of weight of material

 

Of 3 litre capacity (for fine aggregate)

  • 2. Cylindrical metal measure

Of 15 litre capacity (for aggregate upto 40mm)

  • 3. Tamping rod

16 mm dia. and 60 cm long

Sensitive to 0.5% of weight of material Of 3 litre capacity (for fine aggregate) 2.test sample form the bulk sample using any sample reduction method.  The test is normally carried out on dry material, but when bulking tests are required, material with a given percentage of moisture may be used. A. PROCEDURE FOR COMPACTED BULK DENSITY 1. Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the metal measure and record the volume “V” in litre. 2. Fill the cylindrical metal measure about one-third full with thoroughly mixed aggregate and tamp it 25 times using tamping bar. " id="pdf-obj-36-24" src="pdf-obj-36-24.jpg">

cylindrical metal measure

used for bulk density and void test of aggregate

SAMPLE PREPARATION

Take the required amount of test sample form the bulk sample using any sample reductionmethod.

The test is normally carried out on dry material, but when bulking tests are required, material with a given percentage of moisture may be used.

A. PROCEDURE FOR COMPACTED BULK DENSITY

  • 1. Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the metal measure and record the volume “V” in litre.

3.

Add another layer of one-third volume of aggregate in the metal measure and give another 25 strokes of tamping bar.

  • 4. Finally fill aggregate in the metal measure to over-flowing and tamp it 25 times.

  • 5. Remove the surplus aggregate using the tamping rod as a straightedge.

  • 6. Determine the weight of the aggregate in the measure and record that weight “W” in kg.

CALCULATION FOR COMPACTED BULK DENSITY

Compacted unit weight or bulk density = W/V

Where, W = Weight of compacted aggregate in cylindrical metal measure, kg

  • V = Volume of cylindrical metal measure, litre

CALCULATION OF VOIDS

The percentage of voids is calculated as follows Percentage of voids = [(G – ϒ)/G]*100 Where G = Specific gravity of the aggregate ϒ = Bulk density in kg/litre

B. PROCEDURE FOR LOOSE BULK DENSITY

  • 1. Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the metal measure and record the volume “V” in litre.

  • 2. Fill the cylindrical measure to overflowing by means of a shovel or scoop, the aggregate being discharged from a height not exceeding 5 cm above the top of the measure

  • 3. Level the top surface of the aggregate in the metal measure, with a straightedge or tamping bar.

  • 4. Determine the weight of the aggregate in the measure and record the weight “W” in kg.

CALCULATION FOR LOOSE BULK DENSITY

Loose unit weight or bulk density = W/V

Where,

W = Weight of loose aggregate in cylindrical metal measure, kg

CALCULATION OF VOIDS

The percentage of voids is calculated as follows

Percentage of voids = [(G – ϒ)/G]*100 Where G = Specific gravity of the aggregate ϒ = Bulk density in kg/litre

RESULT

The bulk density is reported in kg/litre to the nearest 0.01 kg

The percentage of voids is reported to the nearest whole number. Mention whether the aggregate is

  • (a) oven dry,

  • (b) saturated and surface dry or

  • (c) with a given percentage of moisture.

OBJECTIVE

For determination of flakiness index of coarse aggregate, where the size of the coarse aggregate are larger than 6.3mm .

REFERENCE STANDARDS

IS : 2386 (Part I) – 1963 – Method of test for aggregates for concrete (Part I) Particle size and shape.

EQUIPMENT & APPARATUS

Thickness gauge

Sieves [63, 50, 40, 31.5, 25, 20, 16, 12.5, 10 & 6.3mm]

Balance [0-10 kg]

IS : 2386 (Part I) – 1963 – Method of test for aggregates for concrete (Part

Thickness Gauge

PREPARATION SAMPLE

Surface dry samples is used for the test. A minimum number of 200 pieces of any specified fraction is required to do the test.

PROCEDURE

  • 1. The sample is sieved through IS sieve specified in Table shown below.

Di mension of Thickness and Length Gauge 2. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction

Di

mension of Thickness and Length Gauge

  • 2. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction is taken and weighed.

  • 3. In order to separate flaky materials, each fraction is then gauged individually for thickness on a thickness gauge.

  • 4. The total amount of flaky material retained by the thickness gauge is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of sample.

CALCULATION

In order to calculate the flakiness index of the entire sample of aggregates, first the weight of each fraction of aggregate passing and retained on the specified set of

sieves is noted (Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4…

..

etc).

Each piece of these are tried to be passed

through the slot of the specified thickness of the thickness gauge are found and

weighed (y1, y2, y3, y4…etc). Then the flakiness index is the percentage of materials passed through the thickness gauge on the various thickness gauges, expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.

Di mension of Thickness and Length Gauge 2. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction

REPORT

Flakiness index is reported in percentage to the nearest whole number

SAFETY & PRECAUTIONS

Use hand gloves while removing containers from oven after switching off the

oven. Use safety shoes, mask & aprons at the time of test.

Thoroughly clean & dry the container before testing.

Special care should be taken that no outer air enters when using the balance.

All parts of the equipment should always be kept clean.

After the end of the test sieve should be clean by smooth brush.

OBJECTIVE

For determination of elongation index of coarse aggregate, where the the coarse aggregate are larger than 6.3 mm.

REFERENCE STANDARDS

size of

IS: 2386 (Part I) – 1963 – Method of test for aggregates for concrete (Part I) Particle size and shape.

EQUIPMENT & APPARATUS Length gauge Sieves (63mm,50mm,40mm,31.5mm,25mm,20mm,16mm,12.5mm,10mm) Balance (0-10kg) Oven (300 0 c)

Length Gauge

TEST SAMPLE PREPARATION

Surface dry samples is used for the test. A minimum number of 200 pieces of any specified fraction is required to do the test.

PROCEDURE

  • 1. The sample is sieved through IS sieve specified Dimension of Thickness and Length Gauge

  • 2. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction is taken and weighed.

  • 3. In order to separate elongated materials, each fraction is then gauged individually for length in the length gauge.

  • 4. The pieces of aggregate from each fraction tested which could not pass through the specified gauge length with its long sides elongated are collected separately to find the total weight of aggregate retained on the length gauge from each fraction.

  • 5. The total amount of elongated material retained by the length gauge is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of sample.

CALCULATION

In order to calculate the elongation index of the entire sample of aggregates, first the weight of each fraction of aggregate passing and retained on the specified set

of sieves is noted (Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4…

..

etc).

Each piece of these are tried to be passed

through specified length of the gauge length with its longest side and those elongated pieces which do not pass the gauge are separated and weighed (y1, y2, y3, y4…etc). Then the elongated index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges, expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.

REPORTS

Elongation index is reported in percentage to the nearest whole number.

SAFETY & PRECAUTIONS

Use hand gloves while removing containers from oven after switching off the

oven. Use safety shoes, mask & aprons at the time of test.

Thoroughly clean & dry the container before testing.

Special care should be taken that no outer air enters when using the balance.

All parts of the equipment should always be kept clean.

After the end of the test sieve should be clean by smooth brush.

SOUNDNESS TEST OF AGGREGATES (IS-2386-PART-5)

OBJECTIVE

This test is intended to study the resistance of coarse and fine aggregates to weathering action and to judge the durability of the coarse aggregate.

APPARATUS

Name

Capacity

Least count

Balance

500 g

0.1 g

Balance

5000 g

1 g

Oven

105 to 110 0 C

 
  • 80 mm, 63 mm, 40

 

mm, 31.5 mm, 25 mm,

  • 20 mm, 16 mm, 12.5

Sieves

mm, 10 mm, 8.0 mm, 4.75 mm, 4.0 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 micron, 300 micron, 150 micron

Wire mesh basket

container

Chemicals and wire mesh basket CHEMICAL SOLUTION  Sodium Sulphate Solution  Magnesium Sulphate Solution PREPARATION

Chemicals and wire

mesh basket

CHEMICAL SOLUTION

Sodium Sulphate Solution

Magnesium Sulphate Solution

PREPARATION OF TEST SAMPLE FOR FINE AGGREGATE

Wet sieve the sample through a nest of IS sieves, the lower being 300 micron and the upper being 10 mm size.

The material passing 10 mm sieve and retained on 300 micron sieve is then dried and taken for the test.

The sample collected as above is again sieved through a series of sieves such as 10 mm, 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 micron and 300 micron.

The amount of sample to be taken for sieving is such that, it will yield not less than 100 g of each of the following sizes.

Passing

Retained

10 mm

4.75 mm

4.75

mm

2.36 mm

2.36

mm

1.18 mm

1.18 mm

600 micron

600 micron

300 micron

Weigh 100 g of sample from each of the separated fraction and place it in separate containers for the test.

Note- Fine aggregates sticking in the meshes of the sieves is not used in preparing the sample.

PREPARATION OF TEST SAMPLE FOR COARSE AGGREGATE

Wash the coarse aggregate through 4.75 mm IS sieve and dry the material retained on the sieve in an oven maintained at a temp of 105 to 110 0 C, till it attains a constant mass.

Sieve the dried sample to separate it into different size fractions using sieves of sizes 80 mm, 63 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm.

The sample should be of such an amount that it will yield not less than the following amount of the different sizes, which shall be available in amounts of 5 percent or more.

Size

Yield

10

mm to 4.75 mm

300 g

 

1000

g (consisting of 12.5 mm to 10

20

mm to 10 mm

mm

= 33% and 20 mm to 12.5 mm =

 

67%)

 

1500

g (consisting of 25 mm to 20

40

mm to 20 mm

mm

= 33% and 40 mm to 25 mm =

 

67%)

 

3000

g (consisting of 50 mm to 40

63

mm to 40 mm

mm

= 50% and 63 mm to 50 mm =

 

50%)

80

mm and larger

3000 g

Take proper weight of sample from each fraction and place it in separate containers for the test.

PROCEDURE

  • 1. Take individual samples in a wire mesh basket and immerse it in the solution of sodium sulphate or magnesium sulphate for not less than 16 hours nor more than 18 hours, in such a manner that the solution covers them to a depth of at least 15 mm.

  • 2. After completion of the immersion period, remove the samples from solution and allow it to drain for 15 minutes and place it in drying oven.

  • 3. Dry the sample until it attains a constant mass and then remove it from oven and cool it to room temperature.

  • 4. After cooling again immerse it in the solution as described in step-1.

  • 5. The process of alternate immersion and drying is repeated until the specified number of cycles as agreed between the purchaser and the vendor is obtained.

  • 6. After completion of the final cycle and after the sample has been cooled, wash it to free from sodium sulphate or magnesium sulphate solution. This may be determined when there is no reaction of the wash water with barium chloride.

  • 7. Then dry each fraction of the sample to constant temp of 105 to 110 0 C and weigh it.

  • 8. Sieve the fine aggregates over the same sieve on which it was retained before test.

  • 9. Sieve the coarse aggregate over the sieve shown below for the appropriate size of particles.

Size of Aggregate

Sieve used to determine loss

  • 63 mm to 40 mm

31.5 mm

  • 40 mm to 20 mm

16.0 mm

  • 20 mm to 10 mm

8.0 mm

  • 10 mm to 4.75 mm

4.0 mm

REPORT

The result should be reported giving the following particulars Type of solution used for the test

Weight of each fraction of sample before the test.

Material from each fraction of the sample passing through the specified IS sieve, expressed as a percentage by weight of the fraction.

In the case of particles coarser than 20 mm size before the test, the number of particles in each fraction before the test and the number of particles affected classified as to the number disintegrating, splitting, crumbling , cracking, flaking etc.

 In the case of particles coarser than 20 mm size before the test, the number

Before and After Soundness Test

REFERENCE

IS-2386 (Part-5)-Methods Of Test For Aggregates For Concrete (Part-5- Soundness)

DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE AIM:

(i) to determine the impact value of the road aggregates; (ii) to assess their suitability in road construction on the basis of impact value.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963 consists of:

(i) A testing machine weighing 45 to 60 kg and having a metal base with a painted lower surface of not less than 30 cm in diameter. It is supported on level and plane concrete floor of minimum 45 cm thickness. The machine should also have provisions for fixing its base.

(ii) A cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 102 mm, depth 50 mm and minimum

thickness 6.3

mm.

.

(iii) A metal hammer or tup weighing 13.5 to 14.0 kg the lower end being cylindrical in shape, 50 mm long, 100.0 mm in diameter, with a 2 mm chamfer at the lower edge and case hardened. The hammer should slide freely between vertical guides and be concentric with the cup. Free fall of hammer should be within 380±5 mm.

(iv) A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 75 mm and depth 50 mm for measuring aggregates. (v) Tamping rod 10 mm in diameter and 230 mm long, rounded at one end. (vi) A balance of capacity not less than 500g, readable and accurate upto 0.1 g.

THEORY:

The property of a material to resist impact is known as toughness. Due to movement of vehicles on the road the aggregates are subjected to impact resulting in their breaking down into smaller pieces. The aggregates should therefore have sufficient toughness to resist their disintegration due to impact. This characteristic is measured by impact value test. The aggregate impact value is a measure of resistance to sudden impact or shock, which may differ from its resistance to gradually applied compressive load.

PROCEDURE:

The test sample consists of aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm. Aggregates may be dried by heating at 100-110° C for a period of 4 hours and cooled. (i) Sieve the material through 12.5 mm and 10.0mm IS sieves. The aggregates passing through 12.5mm sieve and retained on 10.0mm sieve comprises the test material. (ii) Pour the aggregates to fill about just 1/3 rd depth of measuring cylinder. (iii) Compact the material by giving 25 gentle blows with the rounded end of the tamping rod. (iv) Add two more layers in similar manner, so that cylinder is full. (v) Strike off the surplus aggregates. (vi) Determine the net weight of the aggregates to the nearest gram(W).

(vii) Bring the impact machine to rest without wedging or packing up on the level plate, block or floor, so that it is rigid and the hammer guide columns are vertical.

(viii) Fix the cup firmly in position on the base of machine and place whole of the test

sample in it and compact by giving 25 gentle strokes with tamping rod.

(ix) Raise the hammer until its lower face is 380 mm above the surface of aggregate sample in the cup and allow it to fall freely on the aggregate sample. Give 15 such blows at an interval of not less than one second between successive falls.

(x) Remove the crushed aggregate from the cup and sieve it through 2.36 mm IS sieves until no further significant amount passes in one minute. Weigh the fraction passing the sieve to an accuracy of 1 gm. Also, weigh the fraction retained in the sieve.

Compute the aggregate impact value. The mean of two observations, rounded to nearest whole number is reported as the Aggregate Impact Value.

OBSERVATIONS

 

Sample 1

Sample 2

Total weight of dry sample ( W 1 gm)

Weight of portion passing 2.36 mm sieve (W 2 gm)

Aggregate Impact Value (percent) = W 2 / W 1 X 100

Mean =

RESULT:

Aggregate Impact Value =