How packets are quantized

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How packets are quantized

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Telecommunications

Digital Transmission of Analogue

Signals

Lecture #4

Quantization and Encoding

Content

Quantization and Encoding

Uniform Quantization

Quantization Noise

Non-Uniform Quantization

Bandwidth Requirements for PCM

Sampling process alone does not convert a signal into

digital form

The sampled signal m(nTs ) of the message signal, m(t )

band-limited to B Hz is discrete in time but continuous in

amplitude.

Digital representation of m(t ) requires: (i) Quantization of the amplitude of a sampled signal

m(nTs )

(ii) Encoding of each quantized sample value resulting in

a pulse code modulation (PCM) system.

Amplitude quantization transforms the sample amplitude

m(nTs ) into amplitude m (nTs ) taken from a finite set of

possible L amplitudes.

When quantization of one sample value is independent of

other sample values, the quantization process is

memoryless and instantaneous.

(Quantization of m(nTs ) is independent of m(kTs ) for n k )

The quantization process partitions the amplitude range of

the continuous-valued samples into L intervals

The l th interval I l is determined by decision levels or

threshold levels Dl and Dl1

i.e. I l :Dl m Dl1, l 1,2,....,L.

m sample value

target level or representation level Tl I l

The spacing between two adjacent target levels (or two

adjacent decision levels) is called the step size of the

quantizer

l T l1Tl

The Quantizer is called a uniform quantizer all step sizes are

equal i.e. l T l1Tl for all l . If the step sizes are not

equal it is a non-uniform quantizer

In PCM system, each quantized sample m (nTs ) is

encoded into an R-bit sequence of binary digits (bits)

called a code word where R log 2 L

In binary coding, the l th target level is represented by the

binary equivalent b1b2 ..bk ...bR its ordinal number l 1

Example: If L 8 , R log 2 8 3

With binary code, there may be a change of more than

one bit for two adjacent target levels resulting in distorted

receiver output due to channel noise and interference.

A binary code b1b2 ..bk ...bR can be converted to a Gray code

g1 g2 ..gk ...g R as follows:

g1 b1

g k bk bk 1 , k 2

With Gray code, there is a change of only one bit for two

adjacent target levels.

Uniform Quantization

The input/output characteristic for a uniform quantizer is a

staircase function which can be a midtread or midriser.

Assumption is made, that the input to the quantizer is

variable M with pdf f M (m) and amplitude range

m p m m p (p=peak)

The range is divided in L zones, each of quantization step

size given by

2m p

Uniform Quantization

A sample amplitude value is approximated by the

midpoint of the interval in which it lies

Uniform Quantization

The input-output characteristics of a uniform quantizer

(midriser)

Uniform Quantization

The input-output characteristics of a uniform quantizer

(midtread)

Quantization Noise

Quantization

(noise).

process

introduces

quantization

error

output signals of the quantizer

Quantization noise q m m is a sample value of a zero

mean random variable with uniform pdf. It

varies

randomly within the interval

q

2

2

Quantization Noise

The variance (average power) of the quantization noise is

obtained as follows

2

2

2

m

m

1

q2 q 2 dq p2 p2 R

12 3L 3 2

follows

m

2

m m m 2 f M (m)dm

p

m2 3 L2 m2 3 2 2 R m2

SNRq 2

2

q

mp

m 2p

Quantization Noise

In dB signal-to-quantization noise ratio is expressed as

m

SNRq 6.02 R 20log 2 4.7 dB

mp

A 6 dB improvement in Signal-to-quantization noise ratio

is gained for each bit added to represent the samples.

Uniform Quantization

Advantage of a uniform quantizer is that it is simple to

implement and is commonly used

However, for fixed m p , the signal-to-quantization noise

ratio deteriorates with the decrease in the message signal

average power.

This is typical in the transmission of speech signals where

the input signals have a wide variation in power levels.

A non-uniform quantizer maintains a constant signal-toquantization noise ratio for a wide range of input power

levels.

Weak signals (smaller amplitudes) are assigned more

representation levels (smaller step sizes) whereas

stronger signals (larger amplitudes) are assigned less

representation levels (larger step sizes).

In some signals (eg audio/speech) smaller amplitudes

predominates larger amplitudes.

Thus using uniform quantization is a wasteful because

many quantization levels will be rarely used

Example:

In audio signals, if the quantization levels are equally

spaced, 12 bits must be used to obtain telephone quality

speech

However, only 8 bits are required if the quantization levels

are made unequal

Same results as non-uniform quantization can be

achieved by first compressing signal samples and then

using uniform quantizer

The compressor maps small input signal into large

output of which is uniformly quantized.

At the receiver, an expander is used to undo the effect of

the compression at the transmitter. Combination of the

compressor and the expander is called a compander.

The input-output characteristics of a compressor

Compounding curves

Two standards are used for companding curves:

1. -law companding

o A North America standard for digital telephone

systems

ln 1 m / m p

y

sgn( m)

ln(1 )

o is a positive constant ( 255) ,and

1 m 0

sgn( m)

1 m 0

2. A-law companding

o Used in European digital telephone systems

A m

m

1

ln

A

p

y

1 ln A m / m p

sgn( m)

1 ln A

m 1

mp A

1 m

1

A mp

-Law Companding

A-Law Companding

Sampling process takes samples of a continuous

message signal

Quantizer takes sampled amplitude value and

approximates it by the midpoint of the interval in which it

lies

An encoder translates the quantized sample into a code

number

Code number is converted to its representation in binary

sequence

The binary sequence is converted to a sequential string of

pulses for transmission

Assume an analog signal, m(t ) confined to the range -4 to

4 volts (i.e. m p 4, m p 4 )

A uniform quantizer is used, with step size set to 1

( 1)

Thus 8 quantizing levels ( L ) are employed

2m p

L

These level will form 8 code numbers which will be

represented by 3-bit binary sequence (i.e. R log 2 L )

Levels are located at

-3.5V, -2.5V, -1.5V, -0.5V, 0.5V, 1.5V, 2.5V, 3.5V

(i.e. midpoint of the interval)

Assign code numbers to quantized levels from 0 t0 7

(i.e. 0 to l 1)

Assign each code number with its binary code

representation (i.e. 0 =000,..7=111)

Each binary code will be assigned a series of pulses

depending on type of Line code used

Let the bandwidth of the base-band message signal m(t )

be B Hz

The signal is sampled at a sampling rate f s 2 B samples/s

Let the number of bits per sample be n for the quantizer

with quantization levels L ( L 2n )

The transmission bit rate Rb nf s 2nB bits/s

The minimum transmission bandwidth required for the

PCM signal

BT Rb / 2 nB Hz

The transmission bandwidth is always larger than that of

the base-band signal.

The quantization error decreases with the increase in n

The transmission bandwidth requirements increase with

the increase in n

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