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Final Review

Part I

MISHNA: Megilla is read on the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th of Adar; not more,
not less. Walled cities from the time of Yehoshua ben Nun read on th 15th.
Villages and big cities (krachim veayarot gedolot) read on the 14th. But the
villages read it earlier on the Yom Haknisa. How does this work- for
example, if Purim (the 14th) falls out on Monday, villages and big cities read
on that day and walled cities read the next day. (Why does it give Monday as
an example and not Sunday? Because Monday is the classic, simple
example.)
Rashi:
1. Sometimes you can read it on the 11th, sometimes on the 12th, 13th,
and so on. You might think that you can read on any one of the
aforementioned days, so Rashi clarifies.
2. ‘Not more, not less’ means not earlier, not later. You might have
thought that that meant that you have to read on exactly 5 different
days.

GEMARA: From where does it say in the Megilla that we can read on the
11th, 12th, or 13th? Doesn’t it only say 14 and 15?
What do you mean? It doesn’t say in the Megilla. As R’ Chanina says, it
was a gift, a leniency by the Chachamim as thanks to the villagers for their
service in providing food and water for the big cities.

Who is talking when the Gemara says ‘from where does it say’ at before?
Anshei Kneset Hagedola

Who instituted the concept of the extra days of 11, 12, and 13?
The Anshei Kneset Hagedola instituted all 5 days. What else is there?
That the AKG only instituted 14 and 15, and the Rabanan came
later and instituted 11, 12, and 13.
This can’t be true because the Rabanan don’t have the
authority, as we learn in a Mishna that states that a
Sanhedrin cannot cancel out the decree of another
Sanhedrin unless it is greater in wisdom or has more
Talmidim. So the AKG must have instituted all 5.
So, what did we mean when we said ‘from where does it say’ at the
beginning of the Gemara?
We meant ‘where in the Megilla does it mention/hint at 11, 12, and 13.
Statement: R’ Shemen ben Aba quotes R’ Yochanan: The Pasuk says ‘to
observe these days of Purim in their proper times (Bizmaneihem).” So, since
the AKG wrote Megillat Ester, they must have established MANY days for
Megilla reading.
The Gemara splits into 2 separate ‘teams’: the Kushya-attack on R’
Shemen’s statement, and the Terutz- solutions to the attacks.
Kushya: No! We need the word ‘bizmaneihem’ for its simple maning- to
teach us 14 and 15!! There is nothing extra in the Pasuk! The Pasuk just
teaches 14 and 15!
Terutz: If the Pasuk only meant 14 and 15, it should have said ‘bizman!’
The extra letters in Bizmaneihem- yud, hay, mem- teach us 11, 12, and 13!
Kushya: No! The yud, hay, and mem are NOT extra! They are there to
teach us ZMANO SHEL ZEH LO KEMO ZMANO SHEL ZEH, which means that
each day is separate! Nothing is extra!
Terutz: If the purpose of ‘zmaneihem’ is to teach us that 14 and 15 are two
separate days, the pasuk could have used the word ‘zmanam’ to teach us
the same idea. Only the yud and hay would be extra if that were true!
Kushya: Yes, you have successfully shown us that there are extra letters
and days, but why stop at just 11, 12, and 13? Why not a week? A month?
Terutz: They added days need to be similar to the original days, and since
both are learned from the same word, just like the original days are two (14
and 15), the added days are also 2.
Kushya: If you want to add 2 days, why not just 12 and 13? Why also 11?
Terutz: Because, as R’ Shmuel ben Yitzchak the 13th is a day of gathering,
and therefore it is self-evident that the Megilla can be read of the 13th. It
doesn’t need an extra letter to add it. So, therefore, the extra letters add 11
and 12.
Rashi:
Why are they gathering for the 13th in the first place?
On the 13th, everyone fought, both Shushan and other places, like it
says in the Megilla. Therefore, of course there should be erading on that
day, because that’s when the actual miracle happened.

Kushya: Instead of the 11th and 12th being added, why not the 16th and 17th?
Terutz: You can never go past the 14th and 15th. (The pasuk says ‘velo
yaavor’- do not go past [15].
R’ Shmuel ben Nachmeni: the pasuk says “Kayamim asher nachu bahem
hayehudim.” The kaf in ‘kayamim’ is extra. So there are extra days. And
since we can’t go beyond the 15th, it must be the 2 days before 13, because
13 is a day of gathering.

Part II
The Mishna has said that ‘walled cities read on the 15th’. From where do we
know these words? The Megilla doesn’t say anything about walled cities!
Rava: the Megilla says that unwalled cities read on the 14th. From the fact
that the Megilla goes out of its way to say this, we can deduce that there is
another situation for walled cities.
Kushya: If the Megilla doesn’t mention walled cities, then let it be that
walled cities don’t read at all!
Terutz: a)They’re still Jewish!
b) the pasuk in Megilla says from India to Ethiopia- ALL of Israel is
included in this
Kushya: So, what if walled cities are supposed to do both 14 and 15,
because the pasuk says to celebrate ‘on 14 and on 15 every year’!
Terutz: If the pasuk had been shortened to say ‘on 14 and 15 every year’
[excluding the second ‘on’] then you would have been right- the walled cities
wouldn’t have to read. Since it says the extra word, the extra word
separates the two days, as if to teach that it is not so that some people
celebrate 14 and 15, while some only celebrate 14 or only celebrate 15.
Kushya: No, the walled cities do not read on the 15th! The walled cities are
supposed to be allowed to choose whether they want to read on 14 or 15!
Terutz: Since the pasuk says ‘bizmaneihem’ we learn that ZMANO SHEL ZEH
LO KEMO ZMANO SHEL ZEH. 14 and 15 are two completely different days, so
it is impossible that someone can choose whichever; there has to be one set
day.
Kushya: So, why don’t the walled cities read on 13? Why 15?
Terutz: The pasuk says “Keshushan” (Rashi explains that since we add
another day, it makes sense to go by Shushan, who celebrated on 15.)
She’ela: Okay, fine- but the pasuk in question only deals with Mitzvot Asiya
shel Purim, which are Mishloach Manot, Matanot LaEvyonim, and Seuda. It
does not say anything about Mitzvot Zechira- Megilla. How do we know that
walled cities READ on 15?
Teshuva: Another pasuk in Ester says “vehayamim haeleh nizkarim
venaasim”. It mentions both Zechira and Asiya- so both are done by walled
cities on 15.

Our Mishna disagrees with the following Braiita:


“Rebbe Yehoshua ben Karcha says that a walled city must have walls from
the time of Achashverosh, not Yehoshua ben Nun.
What is the reason for Rebbe Yehoshua’s opinion?
Like Shushan- Achashverosh lived in Shushan, so since Shushan was walled
from the time of Achashverosh, it should be an example for other walled
cities to be judged based on whether their walls are from the time of
Achashverosh.
What is the reason for our Tanna’s opinion (that walled cities need to have
walls from Yehoshua’s time)?
We learn a Gzeira Shava: In Megilla, the phrase ‘prazi prazi’ is used. We
apply the fact that prazi means unwalled city to Devarim where it says
“levad mearei haprazi harbeh meod”- since Moshe makes reference to
unwalled cities and walled cities, we learn that it should be from the time of
Yehoshua.

Talmud Yerushalmi: Why Yehoshua ben Nun’s time?


To give kavod to Eretz Yisrael because the story happened in the time of
Achashverosh and in Achashverosh’s time there were no walled cities
because Eretz Yisrael was destroyed in the Galut.

Ritva: Why Yehoshua ben Nun’s time?


Yehoshua was the first one to fight Amalek, an Haman was descended from
Amalek. So we base what qualifies as a walled city on Yehoshua.

Both the Ritva’s and the Talmud Yerushalmi’s answers are one answer.
Talmud Yerushalmi explains why it is not Achashverosh. Ritva explains why
it is Yehoshua.

Back to Gemara:
Kushya: It makes sense that Rebbe Yehoshua ben Karcha doesn’t hold like
our Tanna, because Rebbe Yehoshua didn’t accept or learn that Gzeira
Shava. But why doesn’t our Tanna hold like Rebbe Yehoshua?
Kushya on the Kushya: What do you mean? The answer is obvious! He
doesn’t hold like Rebbe Yehoshua because HE DOES have that Gzeira Shava!
Terutz to the Kushya on the Kushya:This is what he was trying to say:
why would it be from the time of Yehoshua ben Nun, since Shushan itself
doesn’t even qualify for that, and we know that we accept Shushan as a
walled city?
Terutz to the entire Kushya: Either Rava OR Kadi (unknown which) said:
Shushan is separate because that is where the miracle happened.
Part III
Now that you said “medina umedina veir veir” is coming for a drasha, what is
the extra word “mishpacha” for?
Rebbe Yosi ben Chanina says: to include Mishpachot Levi and Kohanim to
cancel their service (Korban Tamid) and come to hear Megilla.
Why Leviim too?
They were also singing.
(You should delay Korban Tamid to hear Megilla for the purpose of Parsumei
Nisa- reading the Megilla publically and with as large a crowd as possible is
Parsumei Nisa.)
As Rebbe Yehuda said in the name of Rav: the Kohanim in their work, the
Leviim in their platform, the Yisraelim in their places; all of them cancel their
work (Korban Tamid) and come to hear Megilla.
[Not only that, but] a Braiita also says: the Kohanim in their work, the Leviim
in their platform, the Yisraelim in their places; all of them cancel their work
(Korban Tamid) and come to hear Megilla.
The Yeshiva of Rebbe (Rebbe Yehuda HaNasi) relied on this to learn the
following Halacha: if there is a set time to learn Torah (like a Chevruta), you
should cancel your Torah learning to hear Megilla.
Kal Vechomer: since we know that Avoda is canceled to hear Megilla from
the extra word ‘mishpacha’, kal vechomer, if you cancel Avoda to hear
Megilla, of course you can cancel Torah learning to hear Megilla as well. (So
Avoda>Talmud Torah).
Is Avoda really more important than Talmud Torah? Because the pasuk in
Sefer Yehoshua says, “When Yehoshua was in Yericho, he lifted his eyes, and
behold! There was a man there…and Yehoshua bowed down.”
How was Yehoshua allowed to do this? And behold, Rebbe Yehoshua ben
Levi says that it is not allowed for one to say hello to his friend at night,
because we are concerned that he is a demon, so how could Yehoshua say
hello to the man?
It was different there, because the man said he was a Minister of God!
Maybe he was lying!
We have already learned that demons will not say God’s name in vain.
The Sar Tzva Hashem said to Yehoshua, ‘yesterday afternoon, you did not
bring the Korban Tamid, in order to prepare for war! And now, you have
canceled Talmud Torah as well! Yehoshua replied, ‘for which are you coming
to me now to criticize?’ The Sar Tzva Hashem replied, “Ata Baati”- I come
now [for Talmud Torah]. Next time, Yehoshua lied down before he went to
war [with Ai].