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Howard Carmichael

An Open Systems Approach to Quantum Optics

Lectures Presented at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles October 28 to November 4, 1991

Springer-Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo Hong Kong Barcelona Budapest

Author

Howard Carmichael University of Oregon, Department of Physics College of Arts.and Sciences, 120 Willamette Hall Eugene, OR 97403-1274, USA

ISBN 3-540-56634-1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN 0-387-56634-1 Springer-Verlag New York Berlin Heidelberg

This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustra- tions, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law.

© Springer-Verlag Berlin.Heidelberg 1993 Printed in Germany

Printing and binding: Druckhaus Beltz, HemsbachlBergstr. 2158/3140-543210- Printed on acid-free paper

v

Dedication

To Marybeth and the little Welshmen

VI

Acknow ledgernents

I would like to thank Professor Paul Mandel, Optique Nonlineaire Theorique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, for inviting me to give the ULB Lectures in Nonlinear Optics and for his hospitality to me and my wife during our time in Brussels. I thank the Universite Libre de Bruxelles for an appointment as Visiting Professor during my stay, with financial support from the Interuni- versity Attraction Pole program of the Belgian government. The early part of this volume relies heavily on material developed from lectures I gave while a Visiting Lecturer at the University of Texas at Austin during the fall semester of 1984. I thank Professor Jeff Kimble, now at the Califor- nia Institute of Technology, for hosting me on that occasion, and for the benefits of subsequent scientific interactions with himself and his group. Liguang Tian has been an invaluable help with the work on quantum tra- jectories discussed in the latter part of the volume. She is responsible for all of the numerical simulations and for preparing many of the figures. We have learned a great deal about quantum trajectories since she began working with the idea two and a half years ago. I would also like to acknowledge Murray Wolinsky and Phil Kochan who have worked as students on aspects of the theory. Murray was able to produce our first quantum trajectory simulations using a density operator formulation of the theory after a brief "napkin discussion" in a Chinese restaurant in 1989. Regrettably, the work of all of these students has received less exposure than ideally I - they, I am sure - would like.

VII

Preface

This volume contains ten lectures presented in the series ULB Lectures in Nonlinear Optics at the U niversite Libre de Bruxelles during the period October 28 to November 4, 1991. A large part of the first six lectures is taken from material prepared for a book of somewhat larger scope which will be published ,by Springer under the title Quantum Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics. The principal reason for the early publication of the present volume concerns the material contained in the last four lectures. Here I have put together, in a more or less systematic way, some ideas about the use of stochastic wavefunctions in the theory of open quantum optical systems. These ideas were developed with the help of two of my students, Murray Wolinsky and Liguang Tian, over a period of approximately two years. They are built on a foundation laid down in a paper written with Surendra Singh, Reeta Vyas, and Perry Rice on waiting-time distributions and wavefunction collapse in resonance fluorescence [Phys. Rev. A, 39, 1200 (1989)]. The ULB lecture notes contain my first serious atte~pt to give a complete account of the ideas and their potential applications. I am grateful to Professor Paul Mandel who, through his invitation to give the lectures, stimulated me to organize something useful out of work that may, otherwise, have waited considerably longer to be brought together.

At this time, more than a year after I presented the ULB Lectures, the account in this volume is far from complete. I have continued my work with Liguang Tian and a new student, Phil Kochan, and now there is quite a lot more we could say. More important than this, there is related work by other people, none of which is referenced in the lectures. The related work falls into two categories: work in quantum optics, some of it published nearly simultaneously with my lectures and some published during the last year, and work from outside quantum optics coming, in the main, from measure- ment theory circles. The second category includes work that predates my lectures by a number of years. I would like to give a full account of every- thing and, in particular, comment on the relationships between the ideas in this volume and those coming from measurement theory and elsewhere. It is not practical, however, to attempt this and still see the ULB Lectures published in a reasonable time; there has already been a long delay due to my late realization that I should publish the lectures ahead of the larger book I am writing. As a partial solution I have added a postscript that lists the most relevant references I am aware of; in the postscript I make some

VIII

brief comments that are intended only to classify the references in a very general way.

Eugene, Oregon

H. J. Carmichael

January 1993

Contents

IX

Introduction 1 0 • 0 0 •• 0 • 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 • • • •
Introduction
1
0
0
0
••
0
0
•••••••••••••••••••••••
0
1.
Lecture
1
-
Master Equations and Sources I
1.1
Photoemissive sources
5
0
•••••••
0
••••••••••
0
1.2
Master equations
6
0
1.3
Master equation for a cavity mode driven by thermal light
.
9
1.4
The cavity output field
13
0
••
1.5
Correlations between the free field and the source
.
16
2.
Lecture 2 -
Master Equations and Sources II
2.1
Two-state atoms
22
0
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
0
2.2
Master equation for a two-state atom in thermal equilibrium
24
2.3
Phase destroying processes
28
0
••••
0
2.4
The radiated field
33
0
2.5
Other sources: resonance fluorescence, lasers, parametric
oscillators. 0 • • • • •
35
3.
Lecture 3 -
Standard Methods of Analysis I
3.1
Operator expectation
.
39
3.2
Correlation functions: the quantum regression theorem ..
..
.
41
3.3
Optical spectra
46
0
3.4
The Hanbury-Brown-Twiss effect
52
0.0
••••••••••••••••••••
0
3.5
Photon anti bunching
53
o ••••••••••••••••••••••
0
4.
Lecture 4 -
Standard Methods of Analysis II
4.1
Quantum-classical correspondence
0
....
..
58
4.2
Fokker-Planck equation for a cavity mode driven by thermal
light. 0 0
'
0
..............
64
4.3
Stochastic differential
equations.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
67
4.4
Linearization and the
system size
expansion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
68
4.5
The degenerate parametric oscillator
73
0
5.
Lecture 5 -
Photoelectric Detection I
5.1
Photoelectron counting for a constant intensity classical field
78
5.2
Photoelectron counting for general classical
.
80

X

Contents

5.3 Moments of the counting distribution 82 e • • • 5.4 The waiting-time distribution ......
5.3
Moments of the counting distribution
82
e
5.4
The waiting-time distribution ......
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
86
5.5
Photoelectron counting for quantized
fields.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
88
6.
Lecture 6 -
Photoelectric Detection II
6.1
Squeezed
.
93
6.2
Homodyne detection: the spectrum of
squeezing.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
100
6.3
Vacuum fluctuations
'
..
..
..
.
..
..
.
.
..
..
103
6.4
Squeezing spectra for the degenerate parametric
.
107
6.5
Photoelectron counting for the degenerate parametric oscillator 110
7.
Lecture 7 -
Quantum Trajectories I
7.1
Exclusive and nonexclusive photoelectron counting
probabilities. . .
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
114
7.2
The distribution of waiting times
116
e
7.3
Quantum trajectories from the photoelectron counting
distribution .
117
e
7.4
Unravelling the master equation for the source
..
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
121
7.5
Stochastic wavefunctions
'
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
122
8.
Lecture 8 -
Quantum Trajectories II
8.1
Damped atoms and cavities
126
e
..
..
..
8.2
Resonance
.
130
8.3
Cavity mode driven by thermal light
.
134
e
•••••••••
e
..
e
8.4
The degenerate parametric oscillator
136
e
..
8.5
Complementary unravellings
138
e
9.
Lecture 9 -
Quantum Trajectories III
9.1
The riddle of squeezed light ......
140
e
9.2
Homodyne detection
.........................................
143
9.3
Nonclassical photoelectron correlations .... ............... ' ....
146
9.4
Stochastic Schrodinger equation for the degenerate
parametric
.
148
9.5 Nonlocality
.................................................
152
10. Lecture 10 -
Quantum Trajectories IV
10.1
Single-atom absorptive optical bistability
155
e
10.2
Strong coupling:
cavity
QED.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
160
10.3
Spontaneous dressed-state polarization
.
162
10.4
Semiclassical
analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
164
10.5
Quantum stability, phase switching, and Schrodinger
.
166

Introduction

The theory of open systems has been a theme. in quantum optics since the birth of the subject some thirty years ago. The principal reason for this is that quantum optics was formed as a discipline around the invention of a new source of light - the laser. Sources of light are open systems. Thus, those working on the quantum theory of the laser found that they needed a way to treat dissipation in a quantum mechanical way [1]. The central ideas of a dissipative process are embodied in Fermi's golden rule and were used in quantum mechanics for many years before the invention of the laser. A complete theory of the laser needed more than this, however. Fermi's golden rule gives us a picture of quantum dynamics expressed in terms of transi- tions between discrete states. Needless to say, the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics are not expressed in these terms; they describe the continuous evolution of complex amplitudes, the coefficients in a superposi- tion of states. With its emphasis on coherence, laser dynamics involves the complex amplitudes; to understand the properties of laser light something more than a calculation of rates for the incoherent emission and absorption of photons is required; the quantum theory of the laser must be formulated in a way that reveals the roles of both coherence and incoherence in open system dynamics.

Over the years, research in quantum optics has continued to be con- cerned with new sources of light. The current interest in squeezed light is, perhaps, the most prominent example. In this case the sources are paramet- ric amplifiers, parametric oscillators, multi-wave mixers, and semiconductor diode lasers. Other fashionable topics in quantum optics, while not dealing directly with the development of practical light sources, have, nonetheless, been concerned with sources of light: resonance fluorescence, optical bista- bility, superradiance and superfluorescence are examples. Still further re- moved, sometimes it is the response of a system - an atom, or collection of atoms - to illumination by a source of light that is of interest, rather than the properties of the source itself. Problems of this sort also lend themselves to an open systems treatment. Collecting all the examples together, it might be said that the majority of calculations in quantum optics have a natural formulation in open systems language; those that are excluded are chiefly problems conceived in a rather idealized way in terms of a one- or few-mode interaction taking place in a lossless cavity.

Introduction

3

like this the methods for turning master equations into Fokker-Planck equa- tions are generally not useful. The states of the optical field accessed through nonlinear interactions have been brought to our attention through the study of anti bunched , sub-Poissonian, and most recently, quadrature squeezed light. Squeezing, certainly, is the principal popularizer. The theoretical challenges posed by squeezing did not, however, strain standard methodologies too far, because for practical systems the nonlinear interactions involved in squeezing gen- erate transformations that combine field modes in a linear way. As a conse- quence, the most transparent calculations are operator based, with the open

systems character removed by transforming the modes of a closed system, two at a time, in frequency space. The more telling strain on standard methods for dealing with master equations has come from another direction - from the field of cavity quan- tum electrodynamics (cavity Q.E.D.). In cavity Q.E.D. the many-photon difficulty of optical systems that Glauber dealt with is, in one sense, re-

moved. The emphasis moves closer to standard Q.E.D

..

The whole objec-

tive in cavity Q.E.D. is to achieve experimental conditions that make the field of just one photon large, where "large" is measured with respect to the same intrinsic nonlinearities that turn coherent states into something else. The experimental challenge here is confronted at the forefront of a number of technologies, involving the design of electromagnetic cavities, the cooling and trapping of atoms, and the development of microscopic lasers and novel optical materials. The theoretical challenge is that the conventional way of analyzing and thinking about open systems in quantum optics, based on the connection with a classical diffusion process, is now completely inadequate. These lectures are intended to state the challenge and describe some ideas that begin to met it. The ultimate goal of the lectures is to discuss a new way of analyzing and thinking about the master equations that describe sources of light. The new approach employs what I call quantum trajectories. The words "quantum trajectory" refer to the path of a stochastic wavefunction that describes the state of an optical source, conditioned at each instant on a history of classical stochastic signals realized at ideal detectors monitoring the fields radiated by the source. Before we get to the new ideas, however, we must learn something about the master equations themselves and the standard ways in which they are analyzed. The first four lectures will deal with these subjects. The next two lectures deal with the theory of photoelectric detection, which we will use as a bridge between the old and the new. The quantum trajectory idea will occupy us for the final four lectures.

Lecture 1

-

Master Equations and Sources I

1.1 Photoemisslve sources

Most experiments in quantum optics involve sources of light that might be called photoemissive sources. These are sources that emit photons ir- reversibly, to propagate away from the source until they are absorbed in the walls of the laboratory or are detected. Contrast this with the ideal- ized picture of an electromagnetic field confined within a perfect cavity and measured inside the cavity by a detector introduced into that otherwise lossless environment. In the first scenario the act of detecting photons does not directly interfere with the source, since the photons have already left the source, irreversibly, before they encounter the detector. In the second, the detector is a major intrusion; if it turns photons into photoelectrons it removes photons from an otherwise lossless cavity; the description of the cavity field dynamics when the detector is present must be quite different from the description when it is not. We are going to be discussing photoemissive sources and the quantum statistical methods that are used to analyze the properties of the light emit- ted by these sources. These sources are open systems that can be treated by the methods used to deal with dissipation in quantum mechanics. These methods allow us to make a convenient separation between the treatment of the source, as a damped quantum system, and the treatment of the fields the source emits. We begin by separating the whole system of source plus emitted fields into a system 5, which accounts for all the internal workings of the source, and a reservoir R that carries the emitted fields; in the lan- guage of dissipative systems the reservoir describes the environment into which the source losses energy. For photoemissive sources the lost energy is useful energy - it appears in the reservoir as emitted fields that can be observed by an experimenter, or redirected for use elsewhere. In this first lecture we will see a little of both ends of this problem. First we will discuss the master equation approach for treating a system (source) S damped by a reservoir R. We will then consider the problem of constructing the emitted fields in terms of the variables of the system S. In the first part of the lecture we follow the ideas for treating dissipation in quantum mechanics pioneered by Senitzky [1.1]. Other useful references are standard texts such as those by Louisell [1.2], and Sargent, Scully and Lamb [1.3].

6

Lecture 1 - Master Equations and Sources I

1.2 Master equations

We begin with a Hamiltonian in the general form

(1.1)

where Hs and HR are Hamiltonians for S and R, respectively, and HSR is an interaction Hamiltonian. We will let X(t) be the density operator for

S EB R

and define the reduced density operator pet) by

(1.2)

where the trace is only taken over the reservoir states. Clearly,

if

6

is

an operator in the Hilbert space of S we can calculate its average in the Schrodinger picture if we have knowledge of pet) alone, and not of the full

x(t):

(0) = trSEBR[OX(t)] = trs{OtrR[x(t)]} = trs[Op(t)].

(1.3)

Our objective is to obtain an equation for pet) with the properties of R entering only as parameters. The Schrodinger equation for X reads

(1.4)

where H is given by (1.1). We transform (1.4) into the interaction picture,

separating the rapid motion

generated by H S + H R from the slow motion

generated by the interaction HSR. With

x(t) = e(i/h)(Hs+HR)tx(t)e-(i/h)(Hs+HR)t,

from (1.1) and (1.4) we obtain

  • X = in [Hs R ( t), xl,

·

I-

where fISR(t) is explicitly time-dependent:

fI S R ( t) = e(i/Ii)(Hs+HR)t HsRe-(i/h)(Hs+HR)t.

We now integrate (1.6) formally to give

and substitute for X(t) inside the commutator in (1.6):

1 it

0

  • X ·

= ~[HSR(t), XeD)] - 2

Zn

n

1

-

I

I

dt [HsR(t), [HSR(t ), x(t

-

-

 

(1.5)

(1.6)

(1.7)

(1.8)

I

)]].

(1.9)

1.2 Master equations

7

This equation is exact. Equation (1.4) has simply been cast into a convenient form where we can now identify reasonable approximations.

We will assume that the interaction is turned on at

t

= 0 and

that

no

correlations exist between Sand R at this initial time. Then X(O) = X(O) factorizes as

x(O) = p(O)R o,

(1.10)

where R o is an initial reservoir density operator. Then, noting that

trR(X) = e(i/A)Hstpe-(i/Ii)Hst = p,

(1.11)

after tracing over the reservoir, (1.9) gives

p= -~ t dt , trR{[HSR(t), [HSR(l), x(t')]]}

n 10

,

(1.12)

where, for simplicity, we have eliminated the term (l/in)trR {[HSR(t), X(O)]}

with the assumption trR[HsR(t)Rol = O. This is guaranteed if the reservoir operators coupling to S have zero mean in the state R o , a condition which can always be arranged by simply including trR(HsRR o) in the system Hamiltonian. We have stated that X factorizes at t = o. At later times correlations between S and R may arise due to the coupling of the system and reservoir through H S R . However, we have assumed that this coupling is very weak, and at all times X(t) should only show deviations of order HSR from an uncorrelated state. Furthermore, R is a large system whose state should be virtually unaffected by its coupling to S. We then write

X(t) = p(t)R o + O(H SR).

(1.13)

We now make our first major approximation, a Born approximation. Ne- glecting terms higher than second order in HSR, we write (1.12) as

p= -~ r dt' trR{[HsR(t), [HSR(t'), ,o(t')Roll}.

n Jo

(1.14)

A detailed discussion of this approximation can be found in the work of

Haake [1.4, 1.5].

Equation (1.14) is still a complicated equation. In particular, it is not Markoffian since the future evolution of p(t)depends on its past history through the integration over pet') (the future behavior of a Markoffiansys- tem depends only on its present state). Our second major approximation,

the Markoff approximation, replaces pet') by pet) to obtain a master equa- tion in the Born-Markoff approximation:

1 1 t

0

p = -2

1i

·

dt trR

,

{-

[HsR(t), [HSR(t ), p(t)Roll ·

-,

}

(1.15)

8

Lecture 1 - Master Equations and Sources I

Markoffian behavior seems reasonable on physical grounds. Potentially, S can depend on its past history because its earlier states become imprinted as changes in the reservoir state through the interaction Hs R ; earlier states are then reflected back on the future evolution of S as it interacts with the changed reservoir. IT, however, the reservoir is a large system maintained in thermal equilibrium, we do not expect it to preserve the minor changes brought by its interaction with S for very long; not for long enough to significantly affect the future evolution of S. It becomes a question of reser- voir correlation time versus the time scale for significant change in S. By studying the integrand of (1.14) with this view in mind we can make the underlying assumption of the Markoff approximation more explicit. We first make our model a little more specific by writing

(1.16)

where the Si are operators in the Hilbert space of S and the r i are operators in the Hilbert space of R. Then

(1.17)

The master equation in the Born approximation is now

p= - ~ itdt' trR{[Si(t)i'i(t), [Sj(t')i'j(t'), p(t')R o ]]}

I,}

  • =- ~ it dt' {[Si(t)Sj(t')p(t') - Sj(t')p(t')Si(t)](i'i(t)i'it')}R

I,}

+ [p( t')Sj( t')Si( t) - Si(t)p( t')s j( t')](i'j(t')i'i( t)}R },

(1.18)

where we have used the cyclic property of the trace - tr(ABC) = tr( CAB) =

tr{BCA) - and write

(i'i(t)Fj(t'))R = trR[Roi'i(t)i'j(t')),

(1.19a)

(Fj{t')Fi(t))R = trR[Roi'j(t')i'j(t)).

(1.19b)

The properties of the reservoir enter (1.18) through the two correlation functions (1.19a) and (1.19b). We can justify the replacement of p{t') by p{t) if these correlation functions decay very rapidly on the time scale on which pet) varies. Ideally, we might take

(1.20)

The Markoff approximation then relies, as suggested, on the existence of

two

widely separated time scales: a slow time scale for

the dynamics of

the system S, and a fast time scale characterizing the decay of reservoir

1.3 Master equation for a cavity mode driven by thermal light

9

correlation functions. Further discussion on this point is given by Schieve and Middleton [1.6].

1.3 Master equation for a cavity mode driven by thermal light

Let us consider an explicit modeL We will derive the mater equation for a single mode of the optical cavity illustrated in Fig. 1.1. The figure shows a ring cavity with the reservoir comprised of travelling-wave modes that satisfy periodic boundary conditions at z = -L' /2 and z = L' /2. The cavity mode (system S) couples to the reservoir through a partially transmitting mirror. For the Hamiltonian of the composite system S EB R we write

Hs

= nweata,

 

(1.21a)

H R

 

'"

lua,r otr 0

 

(1.21b)

-

L.-.J

i

 

-

J

J

J'

HSR = L n(Kjarj t + Kjatrj) = n(ar t + at r).

(1.21c)

 

j

The system S is an harmonic oscillator with frequency we and creation and annihilation operators at and a, respectively; the reservoir R is a collection of harmonic oscillators with frequencies Wj, and corresponding creation and annihilation operators r j t and r j, respectively; the oscillator a couples to the jth reservoir oscillator via a coupling constant Kj (for the moment un- specified) in the rotating-wave approximation. We take the reservoir to be in thermal equilibrium at temperature T - the cavity mode is driven by thermal light:

R o = II e-llwjrjfrj/kBT(l_ e-IlWj/kBT) ,

j

(1.22)

where kB is Boltzmann's constant. The identification with (1.18) is made by setting

81

= a,

r. =

r t = LKjrjt,

j

r2 = r = L K jr j, j

(1.23a)

(1.23b)

and the operators in the interaction picture are

S1(t) =

.

e 1w c a

tot

atae-Iwca at = ae- 1wc t ,

0

o

S2(t) = e 1wc a

ttt

a

a

e- 1wc a

.

tt

a

= a e

to

1wc

t

,

and

(1.24a)

(1.24b)

10

Lecture 1 - Master Equations and Sources I

/

{-:~

-

-z=L'/2

z = -L'/2

I

 

--- ~

I

Fig.l.l. Schematic diagram of a cav- ity mode coupled to a travelling-wave reservoir

i\(t) = i't(t)

=

exp «~;=wnrntrnt)

~Kjr/ exp (-i ~wmrmtrmt)

= L Kjrjteiwjt,

 

(1.25a)

 

j

t 2(t) = ret) = L

Kjrje- iwjt.

(1.25b)

 

j

Now, since the summation in (1.18) runs over i = integrand involves sixteen terms. We write

1,2 and j

=

1,2, the

p= -ltdt' {[aap(t') - ap(t')a]e-iwc(Ht') (i't(t)Ft(t'))R + h.c. + [at at p(t') - at p( t')a t] eiwc(t+t') (.t( t)t( t'))R + h.c,

 

+

[aa t p( t')

-

at p( t')a]

e-iwc(t-t') {tt (t)f( t'))R + h.c.

+

[at ap(t') - ap(t')a t]

eiwc(t-t') (F( t)Ft (t'))R + h.c.},

(1.26)

where the reservoir correlation functions are explicitly:

 

(ft(t)ft(t')}R = 0,

 

(1.27)

{t(t)f(t'))R = 0,

(1.28)

(i't(t)i'(t'))R

=

L

IKjI2 eiwj(t-t')ii(Wj, T),

(1.29)

 

j

(F(t)Ft(t'))R = L

IKjI2 e-iwj(t-t')[ii(Wj, T) + 1],

(1.30)

 

j

with

(1.31 )
 

(1.31 )

1.3 Master equation for

a cavity mode driven by thermal light

11

These results are obtained quite readily if the trace is taken using the mul- timode Fock states. n(Wj, T) is the mean photon number for an oscillator with frequency Wj in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. The nonvanishing reservoir correlation functions (1.29) and (1.30) in- volve a summation over the reservoir oscillators. We will change this sum- mation to an integration by introducing a density of states g(w), such that g(w)dw gives the number of oscillators with frequencies in the interval w to w + dw. For the one-dimensional reservoir field illustrated in Fig. 1.1,

g(w) = L' /27rc.

(1.32)

Making the change of variable r = be restated as

t -

t' in (1.26), this equation can then

p= -I t dr ([ aa t pet -

r) -

at pet - r)a] e- iWCT (tt(t)t(t - r ))R + h.c.

+ [atap(t -

r) -

ap(t - r)a t] eiWCT(t(t)tt(t - r))R + h.c.},

(1.33)

where the nonzero reservoir correlation functions are

(tt(t)t(t - r))R =

1

00

(t(t)tt(t - r))R = 1 00

dw e-: g(w)llI:(w)1 2n(w, T),

(1.34)

dw

e- iWT g(w)llI:(w)1 2[n(w, T) + 1],

(1.35)

with n(w, T) given by (1.31) with Wj replaced by w. We can now argue more specifically about the Markoff approximation. Are (1.34) and (1.35) approximately proportional to 8(r)? We can certainly see that for r "large enough" the oscillating exponential will average the

"slowly varying" functions g(w), IK(w) 1 2, and n( w, T) essentially to zero. However, how large is large enough? If we can argue for a specific w depen- dence in K(W), then with (1.31) and (1.32) we can evaluate the correlation functions (1.34) and (1.35) explicitly to obtain the reservoir correlation time. The Markoff approximation assumes that this correlation time is very short compared to the time scale for significant change in p. Since we do not yet

have an

equation of motion for p we must rely on intuition rather than a

solution for p( t) to tell us how fast p will change. The free oscillation at the

frequency we is removed by the transformation to the interaction picture; therefore, we expect that the remaining time dependence in p is charac- terized by a decay time for the cavity mode - by the inverse of the mode linewidth. This might typically be a number of the order of 10- 8 sec. To estimate the reservoir correlation time let us just take K(w) to be constant and focus on the frequency dependence of n(w, T). Because of the e±iwc r multiplying the reservoir correlation functions in (1.33) it is really only the w ~ we part of the frequency range in (1.34) and (1.35) that is important. We can therefore estimate the reservoir correlation time by extending the frequency integrals to -00 [replace n(w,T) by n(lwl,T)]. We

12

Lecture 1 - Master Equations and Sources I

now have a Fourier transform and the correlation time will be given by the inverse width "Ii/kBT of the function n(lwl, T). At room temperature this

gives a number of the order of 0.25 x 10- 13

sec, much less than our estimated

time scale for significant changes to occur in p. [Under the assumption that K(W) is constant the +1 in (1.35) adds a 8-function.] Now we are satisfied that the r integration in (1.33) is dominated by times that are much shorter than the time scale for the evolution of p, we replace p(t - r) by p(t) and obtain

p= a(apa t -

atap) + f3(apa t + at pa -

atap -

paa t) + h.c.,

with a = l tdT 1 f3 = ltdT1 00

00

dwe- i (W- dwe- i (W-

WC )T g(w)Ix:(w)1 2 WC )T g(w)llI:(w)1 2 n(w,T ).

,

(1.36)

(1.37)

(1.38)

Then, since t is a time typical of the time scale for changes in p, and the t: integration is dominated by much shorter times characterizing the decay of reservoir correlations, we can extend the r integration to infinity and evaluate a and f3 using

  • i w where P indicates the Cauchy principal value. We find

lim

t-

..

oo

0

.

dre-'(W-WC)T=1r8(w-we)+i

We -

,

t

p

a = 1rg(WC)IK(Wc)1 2 + iLl,

f3 = 1rg(wc )IK(WC )1 2 n(wc ) + iL\',

with L\ = pi OO dw g(w)llI:(w)l2,

o

L\' = pi

o

OO

We- W

dw g(w)Ix:(w)12 n(w,T).

We- W

(1.39)

(1.40)

(1.41)

(1.42)

(1.43)

We finally have our master equation. Setting

n = n(we,T), from (1.36), (1.40), and (1.41), we obtain

(1.44)

  • p=- iL\[ata,p] + K.(2apa t - atap - pata)

+ 2KTi(apa t + at pa -

atap - paa t).

(1.45)

Here pis still in the interaction picture. To transform back to the Schrodinger picture (1.11) gives

1.4 The cavity output field

13

i> = i~[Hs, p] + e -(i/A)Hst pe(i/A)Hst.

(1.46)

With Hs = nweata, we substitute for pand use (1.11) and (1.24) to arrive

at the master equation for a cavity mode driven by thermal light:

p =

-

iw~[ata,p] + ~(2apat - atap - pata)

+2~n(apat +atpa-atap-paa t),

(1.47)

where

 

w~ = we + Ll.

(1.48)

1.4 The cavity output field

The master equation (1.47) provides a description of the field inside the (lossy) cavity. Normally we would want to observe the field from outside the cavity. The cavity mode is a source, radiating a field that is carried by the modes of the reservoir. Classically, the field at the ·output of an optical cavity is obtained from the intracavity field after multiplying by a mirror transmission coefficient. Quantum mechanically this simple relation- ship will not do. It asserts that the output field is described by operators

VTe i 4>T a and VTe- i 4>T at,

where T is the transmission coefficient of the

output mirror and ¢T is the phase change on transmission through the out-

put mirror. But a and at obey

the commutation relation [a, at] = 1, and

therefore [ i 4> Ta, VTe- i 4> Ta t ] = T <

..

;Te

1. Thus, special care must be taken

to preserve commutation relations. We can construct the cavity output field by calculating the source con- tribution - the contribution from S - to the reservoir mode operators rk and rt. The field outside the cavity is described by the Heisenberg operator

E(z, t) =

E(+)(z, t) + E(-)(z, t),

with

E(+) (z, t)

=

ieo '""

nWk

T

(t)e

  • i [(w k

/ c)z+ 4>(z)]

 

L

J

2€oAL'

k

 
 

k

E( -) (z, t) = E(+)( z, t) t,

 

where

 

z > O. z < 0'

 
 

(1.49a)

(1.49b)

,

 

(1.49c)

(1.50)

4>R is the phase change on reflection at the cavity output mirror and A is the cross-sectional area of the cavity mode. Using the Hamiltonian (1.21), we obtain Heisenberg equations of motion

14

Lecture 1 - Master Equations and Sources I

(1.51 )

The term iKka couples energy from the intracavity field into the modes of the external field; for the present the coupling constant K k is left unspecified. Integrating (1.51) formally, we have

rk(t) =

rk(O)e -iWil t- iK'ke-iwct itdt' a(t')ei(Wil-WC )(t'-t),

where aCt) is the slowly-varying operator

aCt) = eiwcta(t).

Then the laser output field is given by

 

E(+)(z, t)

= E~+>Cz,t) + E~+)(z,t),

 

with

 

E(+)(z t)

r

= ie '"

JfiWk r

(O)e-i[wk(t-z/c)-t/>(z)]

 

v::

,

and

   
 

E(+)(z

t) =

e

 

e-i[wc(t-z/c)-,p(z»)

 
 

8

,

  • x LVWkKk tdt'a(t')ei(Wil-WC)(t'-HZ/C).

k

10

(1.52)

(1.53)

(1.54)

(1.55)

(1.56)

This field decomposes into the sum of a freely evolving field E~+)(z,t), and

a source field E~+)(z,t). To express the source field in manageable form we introduce the mode density (1.32) and perform the summation over k as an integral:

E(+)(z, t) = eoJ

  • 8 2€oAc V-;:

n

(lje-i[wc(t-z/C)-,p(z»)

x ~ roodJ

21r io

JVWK*(w)
JVWK*(w)

tdt'a(t')ei(W-Wc)(t'-HZ/C).

io

(1.57)

Now, since we have removed the rapid oscillation at the cavity resonance frequency in (1.53), a is expected to vary slowly in comparison with the optical period - on a time scale characterized by K- 1 [see the discussion

below (1.35)]. Thus, for frequencies outside the range -lOOK :5 W - we :5 lOOK, say, the time integral in (1.57) averages to zero. This means that over the important range of the frequency integral we can assume that

v'WK*(W)

~

VW"CK*(WC);

we can

also extend the range of the frequency

integral to -00. Then, evaluating the frequency integral, we obtain

1.4 The cavity output field

15

E~+)(z,t)

=

eo} 1iw c

[i1 K*(wc)e-i[wc(t-z/c)-tP(z)] rdt'ii(t')6(t' - t + z/c) Jo

2eoAc V~

=

{

eo)

o

hw Ac

2eo

(i1 K*(WC )eitPRa(t - ,z/c)

c V~

ct > z > 0

z < O.

(1.58)

Thus, for ct > z > 0 the source field is proportional to the intracavity field

evaluated at the retarded time t

-

z / c.

We can now fix the value of the reservoir coupling constant ~*(we). If (1.58) is to give the expected relationship (a) ~ VTe i tPT (a) between the

mean intracavity field and the mean output field, we must choose

-i[f;K*(wc)e itPR = If VTe i tPT =

...

(2K,e

itPT,

(1.59)

where ~ = Tc/2L is the cavity decay rate appearing in the master equa-

tion (1.47); L is the round-trip distance in the cavity.

We can

also

de-

rive this relationship (without the phase factor) from (1.44), which gives

2~ = 27rg( we) I~(we 1 2

Substituting (1.32)

for the reservoir density of

states, we find L' / c]~(we) I = V2K, which is the modulus of the rela- tionship (1.59). The final form for the source term in the cavity output field IS now

et>z>O

z < o.

(1.60)

Equation (1.60) yields exactly what we would expect for the average photon flux from the cavity:

  • 2 (E~-)(z,t)E~+)(z,t)} = 2K(a

1i€ocA

we

t(t

-

.

z/c)a(t -

z/c)}.

(1.61)

The right-hand side is the product of the photon escape probability per unit time and the mean number of photons in the cavity. In fact (1.60) is the relationship we would write down from the classical result for the transmission of the intracavity field through the cavity output mirror; we could have constructed the full expression (1.54) for the cavity output field from our understanding of the classical boundary conditions at the output mirror; the free-field term is just the contribution from the reflection of incoming reservoir modes into the cavity output (our theory as- sumes R = 1-T ~ 1). The only difference between the quantum-mechanical

and classical pictures is that E~+)(z.,t) andE~+)(z,t) are operators in the quantum-mechanicaltheory, and therefore play an algebraic role that is ab- sent in a classical theory. The operators E~±)(z,t) and E~=f)(z,t) do not

1.5 Correlations between the free field and the source field

19

The last term on the right-hand side of (1.71) describes the driving of the cavity mode by the freely evolving modes of the reservoir field. The cavity mode will only respond to those free-field modes with frequencies

close to We. For these frequencies we may read (1.71) with "'k

=

",(we) =

-iei(4JR-4JT)veIL'v'2K, and (1.67b) with JWklwe = 1. Thus, (1.71) may be written in the form

a = i~[a,HS]-lw- Jc/L/~rf.

(1.72)

This equation allows us to express the correlations between the free field and the source field in terms of averages involving system operators alone. By multiplying (1.72) on the left or right by an arbitrary system operator 6, we find

Vel L'~(6(t + r)rf(t))

1

= in (O(t + r)[a, Hs](t)} -

,

..

"'.'"

II:(O(t + r)a(t)} -

(O(t + r)a(t)},

(l.73a)

Vel L/~(rf(t)6(t+ r))

=

  • 1 in ([a, Hs](t)O(t + r)) - ",(a(t)O(t + r)) -

A,

..

, ..

(li(t)O(t + r)),

(1.73b)

and, for

r

> 0,

Vel L/~(6(t)rf(t+ r))

= -

(

d

dr

)

+ II:

(O(t)a(t .. AI, + r)} + in (O(t)[a, Hs](t + r)},

(l.74a)

veIL/~(rf(t+ r)O(t))

  • =- (

\.

  • d dr + II:j (a(t + r)O(t)} + in([a,Hs](t+r)O(t)}.

,

..

1

,

..

(1.74b)

The rest of the calculation involves knowing how to evaluate the correlation functions that involve time derivatives on the right-hand sides of (1.73) and (1.74) [1.8]. For a cavity mode that obeys the master equation (1.47) this leads to the results

 

r<O

 

Vel L/~(6(t+ r)rf(t)) = { ~n([6~t+ r), aCt)]}

r=O

(1.75a)

 

2Kn([O(t + r ), aCt)])

r> 0,

and

 

r<O

 

vel L/~(rf(t)6(t+ r))

={ ~(n+ 1)([6~t+ r ), aCt)]}

r=O

 

2K(n + l)([O(t + r),a(t)])

r

> O.

 

(1.75b)

20

Lecture 1 - Master Equations and Sources I

We can now evaluate all

of the terms in (1.68) and (1.69)

for a cavity

mode radiating into a thermal reservoir. Using (1.75a) we have

g~~)(r)= ({ttt}ss) -1 {(c/L'){r}(O)r/(r)} + 211: L~~(at(t)a(t + r)}]

+211:n L~~([at(t),a(t + r)]}]},

with

(& &}ss=(c/L)(rfrf}+2~(a a}ss+2~n((a - ,a])ss

At A

It· t

t

= (c/L')(r}rf) + 2~((ata)ss - s),

(1.76)

(1.77)

In steady state the presence of the cavity should be invisible to a measure- ment made on the total reservoir field; effectively, the cavity mode is simply "absorbed" into the reservoir, becoming part of a slightly larger thermal equilibrium system. We have not yet seen how to calculate the system cor- relation functions that appear on the right-hand side of (1.76). But it should not be difficult to accept the results

 

(1.78a)

and

 

lim (at(t)a(t + r))

= ne- iwc r e- K1rl

,

(1.78b)

t-

...

oo

lim ([at(t), aCt + r)]) = _e-iwcte-Klrl.

 

(1.78c)

t-

...

oo

 

When these are substituted into (1.76) and (1.77) we see that the interfer-

ence term 2~nlimt-

oo([a

t( t), aCt + r )]) between the free field and the source

term 2~limt--+oo (a t (t )a(t + r)).

Thus,

... field cancels the source

(1.79)

We have recovered the reservoir correlation function; thus, the correlation function for the total field - free field plus source field - is unaffected by the presence of the cavity which is what we expect for our thermal equilibrium example.

References

[1.1] I. R. Senitzky, Phys. Rev., 119, 670 (1960); 124, 642 (1961).

[1.2] W. H. Louisell,

Quantum Statistical Properties of Radiation, Wiley:

New York, 1973, pp. 331ff.

[1.3]

M.

Sargent III, M.

O. Scully, and W.

E. Lamb,

Jr.,

Laser Physics,

Addison-Wesley: Reading, Massachusetts, 1974, pp. 265ff.

[1.4] F.

Haake, Z. Phys.

224, 353 (1969); ibid., 365 (1969).

Lecture 2 -

Master Equations and Sources II

A cavity mode driven by thermal light does not provide a very interesting example of an optical source. Indeed, it is not really a source at all since the total field observed at the output of the cavity is just the thermal field that drives the cavity. It is only for a non-thermal-equilibrium system that we will see a bright light, different from the surroundings, emitted by a source. The importance of the cavity mode calculation is that it provides one of the building blocks that we will use to construct more interesting sources. At the end of this lecture we will meet some examples of more interesting photoemissive sources. But first, most of the lecture will be devoted to a discussion of two-state atoms which provide another building block for the construction of more interesting sources. Excited atoms act as a source of radiation through spontaneous and stimulated emission. We are going to use the master equation approach from Sect. 1.2 to treat these processes for an atom in thermal equilibrium.

2.1 Two-state atom.s

We consider two states of an atom, designated II} and 12}, having energies E 1 and E 2 with E 1 < E 2 Radiative transitions between II} and 12} are allowed in the dipole approximation. Our objective is to describe energy dissipation and polarization damping through the coupling of the II} -+ 12) transition to the many modes of the vacuum radiation field (a reservoir of harmonic oscillators). For simplicity we assume that there are no transitions between 11) and 12) and other states of the atom. The extension to multilevel atoms can be found in Louisell [2.1] and Haken [2.2]. A treatment for just two levels which corresponds closely to our own is given in Sargent, Scully and Lamb [2.3]. Any two-state system can be described in- terms of the Pauli spin op- erators. We will be using this description in many of the following lectures and therefore we briefly review the relationship between these operators and quantities of physical interest such as the atomic inversion and polarization. A more complete coverage of this subject is given by Allen and Eberly [2.4]. If we have a representation in terms of a complete set of states In), n =

2.1 Two-state atoms

23

o = '2:(nIOlm}ln}(ml.

n,m

(2.1)

This follows after multiplying on the left and right by the identity operator j = En In)(nl· The (nIOlm) are the matrix representation of 0 with respect to the basis In). If we adopt the energy eigenstates 11) and 12) as a basis for our two-state atom, the unperturbed atomic Hamiltonian HA can be written in the form

HA =

E1Il)(ll + E 2 12)(21

= "2(E1 + E 2)I + "2(E2 -

1

A

1

E1)O'z,

where

(2.2)

O'z =

12)(21-11)(11.

(2.3)

The first term in (2.2)

is a constant and can be omitted if we refer atomic

energies to the middle of the atomic transition. We thenwrite

(2.4)

Consider now the dipole moment operator eq, where e is the electronic charge and q is the coordinate operator for the bound electron:

2

eq = e '2: (nlqlm)ln)(ml

n,m=l

= e((1IqI2)ll)(21 + (21411)12)(11)

=

d 12 0' -

+ d 21 0'+,

(2.5)

where we set (1Iqll) = (2(qI2) = 0, assuming atomic states whose symmetry guarantees zero permanent dipole moment, and we define the dipole matrix element

d 12 = e(llqI2),

(2.6)

and operators

0'_ = 11)(21,

0'+ = 12)(11.

(2.7)

The matrix representations for the operators introduced in (2.3) and (2.7) are

 

(2.8)

If we write

O'± = !(O"x ± iO'y),

(2.9)

with

24

Lecture 2 - Master Equations and Sources II

u y

=

(

0

i

-i)

0

'

(2.10)

then ux,u y , and U z are the Pauli spin matrices introduced initially in the context of magnetic transitions in spin-! systems. In their application to

two-state atoms u z , (7_, and (7+ are referred to as

pseudo-spin operators,

since, here, the two levels are not associated with the states of a real spin. From the relationships above it is straightforward to deduce the following:

  • 1. the commutation relations

  • 2. the action on atomic states:

u z ll ) =

-11),

u zl2}

=

12),

u_11) =

0,

u_12) =

11),

u+11) =

12),

u+12) = O.

(2.11)

(2.12a)

(2.12b)

(2.12c)

From (2.12b) and (2.12c) the common designation of a : and

u+

as

atomic lowering and raising operators is clear, We will formulate our description of two-state atoms in terms of the operators U z , a _, and u+. For an atomic state specified by a density operator p, expectation values of U z , u_, and (7+ are just the matrix elements of the density operator, and give the population difference

(u z ) = tr(pu z ) = (2IpI2) -

(1IpI1) =

and the mean atomic polarization

(eq) = d 12 tr(pu _) + d 21 tr(pu +)

=

d 12

(2Ipll ) + d 21 (l lpI2)

=

d

12 P21

+ d 2I PI2·

P22

-

PII,

(2.13)

 

(2.14)

2.2 Master equation for a two-state atom in thermal equilibr-ium

We consider an atom which is radiatively damped by its interaction with the many modes of the radiation field in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. This field acts as a reservoir of harmonic oscillators. The reservoir is essentially the same as that considered in Lecture 1. However, the geometry is now different; electromagnetic field modes impinge on the atom from all directions in three-dimensional space, instead of entering an optical cavity by propagating in one dimension. Within the general formula for a system S

2.2 Master equation for a two-state atom in thermal equilibrium

25

interacting with a reservoir R, the Hamiltonian (1.1) is given in the rotating- wave and dipole approximations by

 

H s =

4 1iw A O'z ,

(2.15a)

HR =

L 1iwk r L,) r k,) ,

..

..

 

(2.15b)

 

k,A

HSR = L n(Kk,Ark,)

..

O'-

+ Kk,Ark,)

..

O'+),

(2.15c)

 

k,A

with

 

V~

. ik.rA~"

 

d

Kk,A = -ze

 

ets»:

21·

(2.16)

The summation extends over reservoir oscillators (electromagnetic field modes) with wavevectors k and polarization states A, and corresponding frequencies Wk and unit polarization vectors ek,A; the atom is positioned at r A and V is the quantization volume. The general formalism from Sect. 1.2 now takes us directly to (1.18), where from (1.17) and (2.15) we must make the identification:

r.

= r t =

L Kk,)

..

rk,)

..

,

k,A

In the interaction picture,

iHt) = i't(t) = L 4,.\rL,.\e i w lo t

,

F 2

k,A

(t ) = ret) = L Kk,Ark,Ae-iwkt,

k,A

and

Sl(t)

= ei(WAtTz/2)tu_e-i(WAtTz/2)t

= O'_e- iwA t,

S2(t) =

ei(WAtTZ/2)tO'+e-i(WAtTz/2)t = u+e iWA•

(2.17a)

(2.17b)

(2.18a)

(2.18b)

(2.19a)

(2.19b)

Aside from the obvious notational differences, (2.18) and (2.19) are the same

as (1.25) and (1.24), respectively, with the substitution

a ~ a.s , at

--+- u+.

The derivation of the master equation for a two-state atom then follows in complete analogy to the derivation of the master equation for the cav- ity mode, aside from two minor differences: (1) The explicit evaluation of the summation over reservoir oscillators now involves a summation over wavevector directions and polarization states. (2) Commutation relations used to reduce the master equation to its simplest form are now different. Neither of these steps are taken in passing from (1.18) to (1.33), or in eval- uating the time integrals using (1.39). We can therefore simply make the substitution a ~ 0'_, at ~ 0'+ in (1.36) to write

2.2 Master equation for a two-state atom in thermal equilibrium

27

take thermal photons from the equilibrium electromagnetic field. Notice the frequency shift wA - WA. This is the Lamb shift, including a temperature- dependent contribution 2Ll', which did not appear for the harmonic oscil- lator. The appearance of the temperature-dependent piece here is a con- sequence of the commutator [0'_,0'+] = -0' z in place of the corresponding [a, at] = 1 for the harmonic oscillator. From (2.22), (2.23), and (1.31)

2L1' + L1

= L PJd 3k g(k)llI:(k, .\)1

A

WA

-

ke

2

[1 + 2n(kc, T)]

=" PJd3k g(k)llI:(k,TW c.oth( like ),

LJ

A

WA

-

kc

2k BT

(

2.28)

where kB is Boltzmann's constant. The temperature independent term in the square bracket gives the normal Lamb shift, while the term proportional to 2ft gives the frequency shift induced via the ac Stark effect by the thermal reservoir field [2.5, 2.6, 2.7]. We might note that the use of the rotating-wave approximation in our calculation does not give the correct nonrelativistic result for the Lamb shift [2.8]. In place of (WA - ke)-l in (2.22) and (2.23) there should be (WA - ke)-l + (WA + ke)-l. After making this replacement it can be shown that (2.23) gives the formula for the temperature-dependent shift derived in Ref. [2.6]:

2L1' =

_1_

442

P

47rl:o 31i7rc3

[00 Of.AJW 3(

10

WA

1

-

W

+

WA

1)

+ W

1

eliw/ksT -

1

.

(

2.29

)

The corresponding formula for the Lamb shift is

L1 -

-

_1

__2_4_2

47r€0 311,1t"e 3

P roodw w 3 (

1

10

WA

-

W

+ _1_)

WA + W

(2.30)

If we have a correct description of spontaneous emission we must expect the damping constant, appearing in (2.26) to give the correct result for the Einstein A coefficient. We can check this by performing the integration over wavevectors and the polarization summation in (2.21). Adopting spherical coordinates in k-space, the density of states for each polarization state .A is given by

w

2

V

g(k)d 3 k = -8a adwsin8d8d¢.

1t"

e

(2.31)

Substituting (2.31) and (2.16) into (2.21),

v> 27r L

A

1

0

00

dw

l1r

0

sin8d8

1 21r

0

2

w

e

d4> -83 3 -IiV(ek,A· d 12 )28(w -

1t"

2

EO

V

W

3

= 8

7r

\

2

w

EO

3 L

e

A

1r

l

sin9d9

0

1 21r

0

d<jJ

(ek,J

..

· d 12 )2.

WA)

(2.32)

2.3 Phase destroying processes

29

elastic phonon scattering in a solid. Let us see what terms are added to the master equation to describe such processes. A phenomenological model describing atomic dephasing can be obtained by adding two further reservoir interactions to the Hamiltonian (2.15). We add

 

(2.36)

with

HR 1 + HR2

= L

nWlj rIjrlj + L Tiw 2j rJj T2j,

 

(2.37a)

 

j

j

HSR 1

+ HSR 2 =

L

nKljk rljrlk 0'_0'+ + L

nK2jk r~jr2k0'+0'

_.

(2.37b)

j,k

j,k

Of course, these additional reservoirs are not associated with additional ra- diated fields; they simply modify the dynamics of the radiating source. The complete reservoir seen by the atom is now composed of three subsystems:

R = R 12 EB R 1 EB R 2 , where R 12 is the reservoir defined by (2.15b). These reservoir subsystems are assumed to be statistically independent, with the

density operator R o given by the

product of three thermal equilibrium op-

erators in the form of (1.22). The interactions HSR 1 and HSR 2 describe

the

scattering of quanta from the atom while it is in states 11) and 12), respec- tively; they sum over virtual processes which scatter quanta with energies

Tiw1k and Tiw 2k into quanta with energies nwlj and nW2j while leaving the state of the atom unchanged. The terms which are added to the master equation by these new reser- voir interactions follow in a rather straightforward manner from the general form (1.18) for the master equation in the Born approximation. In addition

to the

reservoir

operators F1(t) and F 2 (t ) which are defined by the inter-

action

with R 12

[Eqs. (2.18)], we must introduce operators Fa(t) and F 4(t)

to account for the interactions with R 1 and R 2

However, we first have to

take care of a problem, one which was not met in deriving master equations for the cavity mode and the radiatively damped atom. Equation (1.18) was obtained using the assumption that all reservoir operators coupling to the system S have zero mean in the state R o [below (1.12)]. This is not true for the reservoir operators coupling to 0'_0'+ and 0'+0'_ in (2.37b); terms with j = k in the summation over reservoir modes have nonzero averages pro- portional to mean thermal occupation numbers. To overcome this difficulty the interaction between S and the mean reservoir "field" can be included in

Hs rather than HSR. With the use of (2.25), in place of (2.37a) and (2.37b) we may write

and

(2.38)

2.4 The radiated field

33

2.4 The radiated field

As we saw in Lecture 1, the master equation approach focuses first on the dynamics of the source - in this case the two-state atom. We are ultimately interested, however, in the properties of the field radiated by the source. We therefore need a relationship analogous to that derived in Sect. 1.4 hetween source operators and the radiated field:

A

A(+)

E(r, t) = E

A(-)

(1', t) + E

where

(1', t),

(2.50a)

(2.50b)

(2.50c)

As before we will separate this field into a freely evolving part and a con- tribution from the source using the Heisenberg equations of motion for the reservoir modes. The Heisenberg equations of motion give

If we write

rk

.x

= Tk

.x

e-

iw lc t

,

(1_ = u_e- iwA t

,

after formal integration of (2.51)

Tk,).(t) = rk,).(O) - i 4 ,).l tdt ' iL(t')ei(Wk-WA)t'.

(2.51)

(2.52a)

(2.52b)

(2.53)

Separation of the rapidly oscillating term in (2.52b) is motivated by the solution of Heisenberg equations for a free atom [Eqs. (2.19)]. Now, substi- tuting for rk,,\(t) in: (2.50a) and introducing the explicit form of the coupling constant from (2.16), the field operator becomes

A(+)

E

A(+)

(r,t)=E

f

A(+)

(r,t)+E

s

with

and

(1',t),

(2.54)

(2.55)

2.5 Other sources: resonance fluorescence, lasers, parametric oscillators

35

We

therefore

We then find

replace w 2 by w~ and extend the frequency integral to

-00.

E~+)(r,t)

=

t

w1

(d 12 x r) x r [e- i WA (t+T'

C)l

dt' iT_(t')I5(t' -

0

47r€oc 2r

-

e-iWA(t-r/c) l tdt ' iT_(t')I5(t' - t + rIc)]

t -

rIc)

=

2

W A

2

47r€oc r

(d 12 x r)

x rO"_(t -

rIc).

(2.61)

This is precisely the familiar result for classical dipole radiation with the

dipole moment operator d 12 0' _ in place

of the classical dipole moment.

2.5 Other sources: resonance fluorescence, lasers, para:metric oscillators

The issue raised in Sect. 1.5 regarding correlations between the free field and source field is relevant again for the atomic source. However, we·have seen what this issue is in principle and we will not spend time on the specific details of the correlations for the atomic case. In fact, in the case of an atomic source, the occasion for which we really need these correlations will be even rarer than it is for cavity-based sources. The reason is that the scattering from an atom goes into a 47r solid angle. Even if the atom is illuminated by a non-vacuum field, it is unlikely that the illuminating field will fill all 47r of the modes seen by the atom; and the scattered light will generally be viewed from a direction that is outside the solid angle filled by the illuminating field - a direction in which the free field is in the vacuum state. Of course, one example where this is not so is the example of thermal equilibrium, which is intrinsically isotropic. But the thermal equilibrium calculations are just an introduction; they are not what really interests us. At optical frequencies and laboratory temperatures the thermal photon number n is completely negligible (~ 10- 42 ) . We will therefore omit the terms proportional to n in most of the examples discussed in later lectures. We should remember, however, that thermal effects are not negligible at microwave frequencies where even at liquid helium temperatures a few thermal photons are present. This regime is quite relevant to current research because of the work on micromasers and cavity Q.E.D. [2.11,2.12]. Once we have understood the derivation of the two master equations (1.47) and (2.26) [and perhaps (2.48)] we can quickly write down master equations for a variety of sources that involve cavity modes, atoms, and their interaction. To conclude this lecture let us see a few of the examples we will be using in later lectures.

36

Lecture 2 - Master Equations and Sources II

With minor modification (2.26) is converted into the master equation

for resonance fluorescence:

p = -i~WA[Uz, p] + i(Q/2) [e-iWAtu+ + eiWAtu_, p]

+ ~(20"_pO"+-

O"+O"_p -

PO"+O"_).

(2.62)

All we have done here is add the second commutator term on the right-hand side to describe the interaction, in the dipole and rotating-wave approxima- tions, of the two-state atom with a resonant laser field. Because the driving laser is modeled by a highly populated field mode that is essentially unde- pleted by its interaction with the atom, its amplitude may be treated as a c-number rather than as an operator. To be more precise, the parameter

n = 2dE /n is the Rabi frequency associated

with the driving field ampli-

tude E; d is the projection of the atomic dipole moment on the polarization direction of the driving field. Now to an example involving cavity modes. The master equation (1.47) provides the basic building block for the quantum mechanical treatment of various nonlinear optical models. One important example is the degenerate parametric oscillator. This system involves two cavity modes, a pump mode of frequency 2we and a subharmonic mode of frequency we, coupled by a X(2) nonlinearity. The pump mode is driven by a classical field injected into the cavity and the output of the cavity is a source of the subharmonic. The

master equation for the degenerate parametric oscillator has the form

p =

-iwe[ata,p] - i2we[btb,p]

+

(g/2)[a f 2b - a 2b f,p] - i[fie-i2wctbf + Etei2wctb,p]

 

+

~(2apaf - atap -

pata) + ~p(2bpbf -

bfbp -

pbtb).

(2.63)

Here at and a are creation and annihilation operators for the subharmonic, and b t and b are creation and annihilation operators for the pump; 9 is a cou- piing coefficient proportional to X(2), E i is proportional to the amplitude of the field driving the pump mode; and ~ and ~p are decay rates (half-widths) for the subharmonic and pump modes, respectively. The master equation (2.63) is comprised of four commutators coming from the (l/in)[Hs,p] in (1.46) and two decay terms associated with the loss of energy into cavity output fields at frequencies we and 2wc. Often a simpler version of (2.63) can be used, with the pump field entering only as a parameter. We will meet this simpler equation and the reasons justifying the simplification later on. Finally, just one rather complicated example - the master equation for

the single-mode homoqeneouslu-broadened laser with atomic dephasing:

p = -i!we[Jz,p]- iwe[ata,p] + g[afJ_ - aJ+,p]

+ ~(2apat -

atap - pata)

References

37

+ ~(t 2aj_paj+ - aj+aj_p -

J=1

+ ~(t 2aj+paj_ - «i-vs-» -

J=1

paj+aj_'

)

paj_aj+'

)

+ ~(tajZpajZ-N).

J=1

J

(2.64)

We are not going to discuss the analysis of this more complicated system in future lectures; but is worthwhile just stating the master equation to see how simple its structure really is. The first three terms on the right-hand side obviously describe N identical two-state atoms interacting on resonance with a cavity mode; the operators J+, J_, and J z are sums over the O'j+, O'j_, and O'jz for N atoms. The next term describes the decay from the cavity mode (laser output field); it is given by the master equation (1.47). The last three terms describe the radiative decay, incoherent pumping, and dephasing of the N lasing atoms: the first of these .comes from the master equation (2.26), the third is the dephasing term added in (2.48), and the second - the pumping term - is the decay term in (2.26) written backwards- O'j_ and O'j+ operators are interchanged to make the "spontaneous emission" go from the lower state to the upper state instead of the reverse.

References

[2.1] W. H. Louisell, Quantum Statistical Properties of Radiation, Wiley:

New York, 1973, pp. 347ff. [2.2] H. Haken, Handbuch der Physik, Vol. XXV /2c, ed. by L. Genzel, Springer: Berlin, 1970, pp. 27££.

[2.3] M.

Sargent

III, M.

O.

Scully, and W.

E. Lamb, Jr., Laser Physics,

Addison-Wesley: Reading, Massachusetts, 1974, pp. 273ff.

[2.4] L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms,

Wiley: New York, 1975, pp. 28££.

[2.5] T.

F.

Gallagher and W. E. Cook, Phys.

Rev.

Lett. 42,835 (1979).

[2.6] J. W. Farley and W. H. Wing, Phys. Rev. A 23, 5 (1981).

[2.7] L. Hollberg and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 230 (1984).

[2.8] G. S. Agarwal,

(1973).

Phys.

Rev.

A

4,

1778 (1971);

Phys.

Rev.

A

7,

1195

[2.9] Reference [2.1], pp. 250ff. [2.10] V. G. Weisskopf and E. Wigner, Z. Phys. 63, 54 (1930). [2.11] S. Haroche and J. M. Raimond, "Radiative Properties of Rydberg

States in Resonant Cavities," in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics,

38

Lecture 2 - Master Equations and Sources II

Vol

20,

Eds. D. Bates and B. Bederson, Academic Press: New York, 1985,

pp.347ff.

[2.12] D. Meschede, H. Walther, and .G. MUller, Phys.

Rev.

Lett.

54, 551

(1985).

  • 40 Lecture 3

....

Standard Methods of Analysis I

Notice how thermal fluctuations are fed into the cavity from the reservoir; the mean energy does not decay to zero but to the mean energy for an har- monic oscillator with frequency We in thermal equilibrium at temperature

T.

Equations (3.1) and (3.2) are examples of operator expectation value equations - the simplest way to get physical information from a master equa- tion. We can obtain equivalent equations for the atomic source described by the master equation (2.26). Since (O'z), (0'_), and (0'+) are simply related to the matrix elements of P, one way to proceed in this case is to take the matrix elements of (2.26) directly. This gives

P22

=

-,en + I)P22 + ,npII'

PII =

-,npII + ,(n + I)P22,

P21

=

-

[~(2n+ 1) + iWA] P21,

Pt2 = - [~(2n+ 1) - iWA] P12.

(3.4a)

(3.4b)

(3.4c)

(3.4d)

Equations (3.4a) and (3.4b) are the Einstein rate equations; they clearly illustrate the physical interpretation of the two terms - proportional to (,/2)(n + 1) and (,/2)n - in the master equation; the former describes 12) ~ 11) transitions at a rate ,(n + 1) and the latter describes 11) ~ 12) transitions at a rate ,n. In the steady state the balance between upwards and downwards transitions leads to a thermal distribution between states

11) and

12).

Using the relations (O'z) = P22 - PII, (0'_) = P21, (0'+) = P12, and PII + P22 = 1, (3.4a)-(3.4d) can be written as operator expectation value equations. If we include the coherent driving term that appears in the master equation for resonance fluorescence [Eq. (2.62)] we obtain

{u_}

= -

[~(2n+ 1) + iWA] {O"_} - i(il/2)e- iwAt {O"z},

(3.5a)

{u+}

= - [~(2n+ 1) - iWA]

{O"+} + i( il /2)e iwAt {O"z},

(3.5b)

(u z ) = -i[{O'z)(2n + 1) + 1] + iile-iwAt{O'+) - iileiwAt(O'_).

(3.5c)

These are the optical Bloch equations with radiative damping, so called

for their relationship to the equations of a spin-!

system in a magnetic

field. As we noted at the end of the last lecture, at optical frequencies and laboratory temperatures n can be set to zero. If we also neglect the effects of spontaneous decay, which is valid for short times, the optical Bloch equations are equivalent to the classical equations for a magnetic moment m in a rotating magnetic field B; with (O'x) and (O'y) defined as in (2.9), we can write

m=Bxm,

with

(3.6)

3.2 Correlation functions: the quantum regression theorem

41

and

(3.8)

where X, y, and z are orthogonal unit vectors. An idea of the dynamics contained in the optical Bloch equations is obtained from their solution for the initial state II} (n = 0):

e±iwAt{O"'f(t)) = ±

i ~ 1.:y2

[1- e-(3-y!4)t (COSh8t + (3"'(j4)

sinh 8t)]

±

iV2Ye-(3-y!4)t C'Y~4)sinh 8t,

(3.9)

where

1

1 + Y2

[1 + y2

e-(3-y/4)t

(COSh8t + (3"'(/4) Sinh8t\]

6) ,

(3.10)

y

= .;2il,

I

(3.11)

(3.12)

We will make use of this solution shortly to derive some of the properties of the fluorescence from a two-state atom. But first we need to make a diversion to consider one other piece of formalism.

3.2 Correlation functions: the quantum regression theorem.

We have developed a formalism which allows us, in principle, to solve for the density operator for a system (source) interacting with a reservoir. From this density operator we can obtain time-dependent expectation values for any operator acting in the Hilbert space of the system S. What, however, about products of operators evaluated at two different times? Of partic- ular interest, for example, are the first-order and second-order correlation functions of the field radiated by the source. For a cavity mode with the reservoir in the vacuum state (see Sects. 1.4 and 1.5) these are given by

G(l)(t, t + r) oc (at(t)a(t + r)},

G(2)(t,t + r) oc (at(t)at(t + r)a(t + r)a(t)).

42

Lecture 3 - Standard Methods of Analysis I

The first-order correlation function is required for calculating the spectrum of the field. The second-order correlation function gives information about the photon statistics and describes photon bunching or antibunching. Clearly, averages involving two times cannot be calculated directly from the master equation - at least, not without a little extra thought. We need to return to the microscopic picture of system plus reservoir. At this level two-time averages are defined in the usual way in the Heisenberg represen- tation. Our objective, then, is to derive a relationship which allows us to calculate these averages at the macroscopic level using the master equation for the reduced density operator alone; thus, in some approximate way we wish to carry out the trace over reservoir variables explicitly, as we did in deriving the master equation. The result we obtain is known as the quantum regression theorem and is attributed to Lax [3.1, 3.2]. Recall our microscopic formulation of system S coupled to reservoir R. The Hamiltonian for the composite system S EB R takes the form given in (1.1). The density operator is designated X(t) and satisfies Schrodinger's equation (1.4). Our derivation of the master equation gives us an equation for the reduced density operator (1.15), which we will now write formally as

p=[,p,

(3.13)

where E is a generalized Liouvillian - E operates on operators rather than states; for example, for the cavity mode driven by thermal light the action of E on an arbitrary operator 0 is defined by the equation

£0 = -

iwc[ata, 0] + K(2aOa t -

ataO - Data)

+ 2Kn(aOa t + atOa - ataO - Oaa t).

(3.14)

Now, within the microscopic formalism multi-time averages are straight- forwardly defined in the Heisenberg picture. In particular, the average of a product of operators evaluated at two different times is given by

(3.15)

where 0 1 and 6 2 are any two system operators. These operators satisfy the Heisenberg equations of motion

with the formal solutions

01(t) =

e(i/h) Ht 6 1(O)e-(i/h)Ht,

02(t') = e(i/h)Ht' 02(O)e-(i/h)Ht':

(3.16a)

(3.16b)

(3.17a)

(3.17b)

From (1.4) the formal solution for X gives

3.2 Correlation functions: the quantum regression theorem x(O) = e(i/h)Htx(t)e-(i/Ii)Ht.

43

(3.18)

We then substitute these solutions into (3.15) and use the cyclic property of the trace to obtain

{6 1 (t)6 2 «»= trsffiR [e(i/1&) Ht X( t)6 1 (O)e( i/1&)H(t' -t) 6 2(O)e -(i/1&)Ht'] tr s {6 2(O)trR [e-(i/1&)H(t'-t)x(t)6 1 (O)e(i/1&)H(t' -t)]).

=

(3.19)

In the final

step we use the fact that 6 2 is an operator in the Hilbert space

of Salone. We will now specialize to

the case t'

2 t

and define

T

=

t' -

t,

X 0 1 (r ) = e-(i/1&)HT X(t)6 1(O)e(i/1&)HT.

Clearly, X Ol satisfies the equation

(3.20)

(3.21)

(3.22)

(3.23)

If we are to eliminate explicit reference to the reservoir in (3.19) we need to evaluate the reservoir trace over X 0 1 ( T) to obtain the reduced operator

 

(3.24)

where

 

(3.25)

notice that POl(r) is the term trR[···J inside the curly brackets in (3.19).

If we assume X(t) factorizes as from (3.23) and (3.25),

p(t)R o in the spirit of (1.13), we

can write,

 

(3.26)

Equations (3.22), (3.24), and (3.26) are now equivalent to (1.4), (1.2), and (1.10) - namely, to the starting equations in our derivation of the master

equation. We can find an equation for P 0 1 ( T) in the Born-Markoff

approxi-

mation following a completely analogous course to that followed in deriving the master equation. Since (1.4) and (3.22) contain the same Hamiltonian H, in the formal notation of (3.13) we will arrive at the equation

3.2 Correlation functions: the quantum regression theorem

45

equations, are also the equations of motion for correlation functions (two- time averages). We begin by assuming that there exists a complete set of system opera-

tors J p , JL = 1,2, 0, and for each Ap"

...

, in the following sense: that

for an arbitrary operator

trs[Ap(£O)] = L Mp,Atrs(AAO),

(3.35)

A

where the M pA are constants. In particular, from

this it follows that

 

(AI') = trs(App) = trs[Ap(£p)] = L Mp.\(A.\).

(3.36)

 

A

Thus, expectation values (AIL)' JL = 1,2,

, obey a coupled set of

linear

(3.35). In vector notation,

(A) = M(A),

(3.37)

where

A

is

the column vector of operators A p ,

(3.29) and (3.35) (r

~

0):

JL

= 1,2, ....

Now, using

~(Ol(t)A p(t + r)) = trs{Ap(O)(£ecT[p(t)Ol(O)])}

= L MILAtrs{AA(O)eCT[p(t)OI(O)]}

A

 

= L M pA(OI(t)AA(t + r»),

(3.38)

A

or,

 

(3.39)

where 0 1 , can be any system operator, not necessarily one of the A p This result is just what would be obtained by removing the angular brackets from (3.37) (written with t ~ t+r, and- == d/dt ~ d/dr), multiplying on the left by D 1 (t ), and then replacing the angular brackets. Hence, for each operator

0 1 , the set of correlation functions (Ol(t)A IL(t + r»), JL = 1,2,

...

,

with

r ~ 0, satisfies the same equations (as functions of r) as do the averages

(Ap,(t + r»).

For

r

~ 0 we can

show, in a similar way, that

(3.40)

Thus, we can also multiply (3.37) on the right by 02(t), inside the average. We also find

48

Lecture 3 - Standard Methods of Analysis I

where we have used (2.25a) and (2.25b), together with the following:

u~ = 12)(112)(11 = 0,

 

(3.54a)

u: =

11)(211)(21 = 0,

(3.54b)

u+u_u+

=

12) (111)(212)(11 =

12) (11 =

0"+,

(3.54c)

a _u+u _ = 11) (212)(111) (21 = 11)(21 = 0"

_.

(3.54d)

The nonzero correlation functions obtained from (3.51a)-(3.51c) with initial

conditions (3.53) are (T 2:: 0)

 

(u_(t)u+(t + T») = e iwATe-(-Y/2)T(I_ e--yt) ,

(3.55)

(u+(t)u_(t

+

T»)

= e- iWAT e-(-y/2)T «»;

(3.56)

(u + (t)u _ ( t)u + (t + T)O" _ (t + T») =

e --yT

e --yt .

(3.57)

Equation (3.56) provides the result for the emission spectrum. For an

ideal detector the probability of detecting a photon of frequency w during

the interval t =

0 to