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CONCEPT OF AVERAGE:

A list of numbers or numerical data can be described by various statistical measures.

One of the most common of these measures is an Average or Arithmetic mean, which locates

a type of centre for the data.

FORMULAE:

1. The arithmetic mean of n numbers of data is defined as the sum of n numbers

divided by number of terms n,

Average = (Sum of observations)/(Number of observations)

Mathematically we can say it as,

Arithmetic mean = x1+x2+x3+....+xn/n = tN = 1Xi/n

2. Weighted arithmetic Mean: The term weight stands for the relative importance of

the different terms.

Weighted or compound or combined average = {ni=1 Wi * ni=1Xi}/ni=1Wi

Where W is weight and X is a variable

3. Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x kmph and an equal distance at y kmph.

Then, the average speed during the whole journey is (2xy/(x+y))kmph

DIVISION:

1. Any of the two values among the observations, number of observation and average

will be given and the other one will be questioned.

2. Average using the ages (most often from the past ages or to the future)

3. Problems based on average speed and weighted average

4. Variation of average due to the inclusion or emission of persons or things from an

already existing group.

5. Average based on splitted groups. (As if the average of first n values in x and the

next n values is y, find the nth result)

METHOD TO SOLVE

Not necessarily all the problems need to be solved by using the formulae but just by

thinking logical thinking.

However all kind of average problems has the base formula,

Average = (Sum of observations)/(Number of observations)

SOLVED EXAMPLES:

1.The average of 8, 9, 12, and 13,15,9 is:

a) 11

b) 6

c) 16

d) 18

Solution:

Average = (8+9+12+13+15+9)/6 = 66/6 = 11

2.Last year Sahara, Tata, Singhania and Birla each has 250 industries. This year everyone has

sold out 10 factories due to the recession of the economy and poor turnout. The average

number of industries which each of them now has:

a)260

b) 240

c)25

d)none of these

Solution:

Required average = Old average-New average

= 250-10 = 240

3.A, B, C, D, E, F is the only six families in Indira nagar. A, B, C, D, E and F have 7,8,10,13,6

and 10 members in their families respectively. If 1 member from all the six families left their

respective families to accommodate themselves in the hostel of IIM Lucknow, then the

average number of members now in each family of Indira nagar is:

a)8

b) 9

c)10

d) 13

Solution:

Average = ((7-1)+(8-1)+(10-1)+(13-1)+(6-1)+(10-1))/6

= ((7+8+10+13+6+10)/6)-((6*1)/6) = 9-1 = 8

4.Einstein goes from Ahmadabad to Lucknow at the speed of 40 Km/hr and returned at the

speed of 60 Km/hr. The average speed of Einstein during the whole journey is:

a)48 Km/hr

b)24 Km/hr

c)50 Km/hr

d) None of these

Solution:

(2*40*60)/(40+60) = 4800/100 = 48 Km/hr

5. The average presence of students in a class on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday is 30 and

on the Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday is 28 then number of students who

attended the class on Wednesday is, if the average number of students on all the six days is

27:

a) 24

b) 25

c) 20

d) 40

Solution:

Since, W = (M+T+W) + (W+Th+F+S)-(M+T+W+Th+F+S)

= (30*3) + (28*4)-(27*6) = 40

CONCEPT OF ALLIGATION

In dilution or mixture problems, we come across the alligationtype of questions.

Allegation is used to determine the characteristic of the resulting mixture when substances

with Different characteristics are combined.

It is also used to determine how the combine substances with different characteristics to

Produce a desired mixture.

FORMULA:

If two ingredients are mixed, then

(Quantity of cheaper/Quantity of dearer)= (C.P of dearer - Mean price)/(Mean priceC.P of cheaper)

We present as under,

C.P of a unit quantity of cheaper

Percentage/cost

(c)

(d)

/

mean (m)

/

\

x y

\

Mean percentage/cost

Quantity/ratio

DIVISION:

1. Problems with the mixture of two quantities which has different ratios of

concentration or different price.

2. Replacement of existing quantities with new concentration and repeating the

process for n number of times.

3. Mixture of three different quantities.

4. Problems related to profit percentage that which decides the mean value.

5. Problems based on averages.

METHODS TO SOLVE:

In the allegation table write the lower percentage or value at the left side and higher

percentage or value at the right side in the first row. Write the resultant value after

mixing as mean or average at the middle row. Write the quantity at the last row against

each column. Where the cost price of a unit quantity of the mixture is called the mean

price.

Inspite of using the above given formula there is a shortcut which may be used in few

problems. When the cost or mixture percentage and the mean value is given then we

can find the quantity directly.

If, type 1 costing a is mixed with type 2 costing b (assume b is higher than a) with a

mean cost of c then the quantity of type 2 = b-c and quantity of type 1 = c-a.

SOLVED EXAMPLES:

1.A milk vendor has 2 cans of milk. The first contains 25% water and the rest milk. The

second contains 50% water. How much milk should he mix from each of the containers so as

to get 12 litres of milk such that the ratio of water to milk is 3 : 5?

a) 4 litres, 8 litres

b) 6 litres, 6 litres

c) 5 litres, 7 litres

d) 7 litres, 4 litres

Solution:

Two vessels A and B contain spirit and water in the ratio 5: 2 and 7: 6 respectively.

Let the cost of 1 litre milk be Re. 1

Milk in 1 litre mix.in 1st can = 3/4 litre, C.P. of 1 litre mix. In 1st can Re. 3/4

Milk in 1 litre mix.in 2nd can = 1/2 litre, C.P. of 1 litre mix. In 2nd can Re. 1/2

Milk in 1 litre of final mix. = 5/8 litre, mean price = Re. 5/8.

By the rule of allegation, we have:

Cost of 1 kg mixture of 1st kind

So, quantity of mixture taken from each can = (1/2 X 12) = 6 litres.

2.A container contains 40 litres of milk. From this container 4 litres of milk was taken out

and replaced by water. This process was repeated further two times. How much milk is now

contained by the container?

a) 26.34 lit

b) 27.36 lit

c) 28 lit

d) 29.16 lit

Solution:

By the rule of allegation, we have

% Profit by selling part1

Net % Profit 11

12 - 11 = 1

11 - 8 = 3

given that total quantity = 1600 KgSo, 3/4 (1600) = 1200

3.In what ratio should freely available water be mixed with the wine worth Rs.60 per litre so

that after selling the mixture at Rs.50 per litre the profit will be 25%?

a)1:2

b) 2:3

c) 3:4

Solution:

Selling price = 50

Given, 25% gain--->125 %( cp) = 50------>cp = Rs. 40

Water

wine

60

40

d) 4:5

(60-40) = 20

40 = (40-0)

4.How many kilograms of sugar costing Rs. 9 per kg must be mixed with 27 kg of sugar

costing Rs. 7 per Kg so that there may be a gain of 10 % by selling the mixture at Rs. 9.24 per

Kg?

a)36

b) 42

c) 54

d) 63

Solution:

Given, 10% gain--->110 %( cp) = 9.24

So, cp = Rs.8.4

7

\

9

/

8.4

/

27

\

x

5.Teas worth Rs. 126 per kg and Rs. 135 per kg are mixed with a third variety of tea in the

ratio 1: 1: 2. If the mixture is worth Rs. 153 per kg, what is the price of the third variety per

kg?

a)182.50

b) 170.5

c) 173.50

d) 180

Solution:

Tea worth Rs. 126 per kg and Rs. 135 per kg are mixed in the ratio 1: 1

So their average price = (126+135)2=130.5

Hence let's consider that the mixture is formed by mixing two varieties of tea.

One at Rs. 130.50 per kg and the other at Rs. x per kg in the ratio 2 : 2, i.e.,

1

1.

Now

let's

find

out

Cost of 1 kg of 1st kind of tea

130.50

x

Mean Price 153

x.

(x - 153)

22.50

(x - 153): 22.5 = 1: 1

=>x - 153 = 22.50

=> x = 153 + 22.5 = 173.5

WORK OUT THE FOLLOWING:

1. A, B, C, D, E are the five electronic shops in the Naza market, which have 20, 30, 60, 80 and

50. T.V. sets with them respectively, and then the average number of T.V. sets in each shop is:

a) 24

b) 48

c) 50

d) 60

2. In a flower shop there were 6 flowers in each bouquet. If the seller has doubled the

number of flowers in each bouquet then the new average of flowers in each bouquet is:

a) 12

b) 8

c) 3

d) None of these

a) 20

b) 17

c) 15

d) 25

4.The number of students at IIM in morning batch, evening batch and weekends batch is 30,

40 and 60 respectively and their respective average ages(in years) are 22, 21 and 25, then the

average age of all the students(combined) is:

a) 22 1/13

b) 23 1/13

c) 24.5 years

d) None of these

5.6 months ago the present age of the student of class 10th was 14 years. 6 months hence,

the age of the same students will be:

a)15 years

b) 15 years

c) 20 years

d) None of these

6. The ratio of the ages of the father and the daughter at present is 3:1. Four years ago the

ratio was 4:1. The average age of the father and daughter 2 years hence will be:

a) 24

b) 26

c) 25

d) 36

7. The average salary of A, B and C is Rs. 10,000 and average expenditure of A is Rs. 6000

then the average savings of B and C is:

a) Rs.5500

b) Rs.4500

c) Rs.4000

d) Cant be determined

8. In the above problem, if the average salary of non-executives be 2/5 of the average salary

of executives, then the average salary of non-executive employees is:

a) 9000

b) 8000

c) 6000

d) data insufficient

9. Columbus started his journey from Lucknow to Kolkata, which is 200 Km, at the speed of

40 Km/hr then he went to Bangalore which is 300 Km, at the speed of 20 Km/hr. Further he

went to Ahmadabad which is 500 Km, at the speed of 10 Km/hr. The average speed of

Columbus is:

a)14 2/7 Km/hr

c)15.6 Km/hr

d)None of these

10. The average temperature of Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday is 38 degree Celsius. The

average temperature on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday is 43 degree Celsius. If the

average temperature on Monday and Thursday is 18.5 degree Celsius. The average

temperature on Monday is:

a)11C

b)21C

c)35C

d)27C

11. A mixture of water and milk contains 80% milk. In 50 lit of such a mixture, how many

litres of water are required to increase the percentage of water to, 50%?

a) 20

b) 15

c) 30

d) None of these

12. The ratio of water and alcohol in two different containers is 2:3 and 4:5. In what ratio we

are required to mix the mixtures of two containers in order to get the new mixture in which

the ratio of alcohol and water be 7:5?

a) 3:2

b) 5:3

c) 2:5

d) 3:5

13. From the 50 litres of milk, 5 litres of milk is taken out and after it 5 litres of water is

added to the rest amount of milk. Again 5 litres of mixture of milk and water is drawn out

and it was replaced by 5 litres of water. If this process is continued similarly for the third

time, the amount of milk left after the third replacement?

a) 45L

b) 39.45L

c) 40.5L

d) 42.5L

14. Two varieties of soda water with different prices is mixed in the ratio of 2:3. The price of

first soda water is Rs.10 per litre while the price of second soda water is Rs. 15 per litre,

respectively. The average price of the mixture per litre is?

a) 12

b) 13

c) 14

d) 15

15. Some amount out of Rs. 6000 was lent out at 10% per annum and the rest amount at 20%

per annum and thus in 4 years the total interest from both the amounts collected was Rs.

3400. What is the amount which was lent out at 10% per annum?

a) 2500

b) 2800

c) 3200

d) 3500

16. A man travelled a distance of 90Km in 9 hours partly on foot at 8 kmph and partly on

bicycle at 17 kmph. Find the distance travelled on foot?

a) 46

b) 56

c) 62

d) 52

17. Rs.69 was divided among 115 students so that each girl gets 50 paise less than a boy.

Thus each boy received twice the paise as each girl received. The no. of girls in the class is?

a) 92

b) 42

c) 33

d) 23

18. Baniya sells two types of tea viz. Desi Chai and Videshi Chai. He sells Desi Chai at Rs.18

per Kg and incurs a loss of 10%, whereas on selling the Videshi Chai at Rs.30 per Kg, he

gains 20%. In what proportion should the Desi Chai and Videshi Chai be mixed such that he

can gain a profit of 25%e by selling the mixtures at Rs.27.5 per Kg?

a) 3:2

b)2:3

c)2:5

d)3:5

19. The average age of boys in the class is 16.66, while the average age of girls is 18.75. Thus

the average age of all the 40 students of the class is 17.5. If the difference between the no. of

boys and girls is 8, then the no. of girls in the class is?

a) 12

b) 16

c) 18

d) Data insufficient

20. The average weight of boys in a class is 30 Kg and the average weight of the girls in the

same class is 20 Kg. If the average weight of the whole class is 23.25 Kg, what could be the

possible strength of boys and girls respectively in the same class?

a) 14, 26

b) 13, 27

c) 17, 27

d) None of these

SOLUTION:

1. Average number of T.V sets = (20+30+60+80+50)/5 = 48

2. Now required average = Old average*Multiplicand

= 6*2 = 12

3.Let the average be 20.

Then,

20-13 = 7

20-17 = 3

20-11 = 9

20-10 = 10

= 29(deficit)

20-25 = 5

20-26 = 6

= 11(surplus)

The net difference (surplus-deficit) = (11-29) = -18

Therefore average variation = -18/6 = -3

Hence, the actual average = 20+(-3) = 17

4. ((30*22) + (40*21) + (60*25)/130 = 3000/130 = 23 1/13 years

5. Since the time difference between two dates is 1 year, hence the average age will be

increased by 1 year.Thus the average age of the class 6 months hence will be 15 years.

6.Let the present ages of father be 3x and daughter be x.

So, the 4 years ago fathers age and daughters age was (3x-4) and (x-4)

Therefore ((3x-4)/(x-4)) = 4/1

So, x=12 years and 3x = 36 years

Hence, the present average age of father and daughter = 24 years and the average age

2 years hence will be 26 years.

7.Total income = Total Expenditure + Total savings

We cannot find the average savings of B and C, since data is insufficient.

8. (60*12000) = (20*x)+(40*(5/2)x),

x = 6000

= (200+300+500)/((200/40)+(300/20)+(500/10))

= 1000/70 = 100/7 = 14 2/7 Km/hr

= 14.2857 Km/hr

10. (M+T+W) = 38*3=114 (T+W+Th) = 43*3 = 129

Therefore, Th-M = 15.And Th+M = 37Thus the temperature on Monday is 11C and on

Thursday is 26C

Milk

Water

40lit (80%)

10lit (20%)

(Constant +30 lit)

40lit (50%)

40lit (50%)

Initially we have 40 lit milk and 10 lit water. Now we are required to have 50% water and

remaining 50% milk in the new mixture. So we have to have 40 lit water, equal to the

amount of pure milk (which is constant) available in the mixture. Thus we have to add

up 30 lit (=40-10) water in the original mixture.

12. w1: a1

2:3

w1/ (w1+a1)

= 2/5

= 72/180

w2:a2

wn: an

4:5

w2/(w2+a2)

= 4/9

= 80/180

5:7

wn/(wn+an)

= 5/12

= 75/180

(72/180)

(80/180)

(75/180)

(5/180) = 5

(3/180) = 3

13.

Milk

Water

50L

0L

-5L

-0L

45L

0L

+0L

+5L

-4.5L

-0.5L

40.5L

4.5L

+0L

+5L

-4.05L

-0.95L

39.45L

8.55L

+5L

(Since, withdrawn amount 50 litre after third replacement)

The amount of milk left is 39.45 L

14. The allegation table is given as,

10

15

X

Thus,

(10* 6/6)

(20*6/6)

(85/6)

35/6

25/6

Therefore, the amount which is lent out at 10% per annum is Rs.3500

16. Distance covered in 1 hour on foot = 8 km

Distance covered in 1 hour on bicycle = 17 km

Average distance covered in 1 hour = 90/9 km = 10km (mean distance)

Distance covered in

Distance covered in

1 hour on foot

1 hour on bicycle

(8km)

(17km)

Mean Distance

(17 10)

(10 8)

Distance covered on foot = (8 7) Km = 56 km

17. Here each girl receives 50 paise and each boy receives 100 paise and the average receiving

of each student

= 6900/115 = 60 paise

50

100

60

40

4

10

:

18. The S.P of Desi Chai = Rs. 18

The S.p of Videsh Chai = Rs.30

The cp of Desi Chai = Rs.20

The cp of Videsh Chai = Rs.25

The sp of mixture = Rs.27.5

The cp of mixture = Rs.22

20

25

19.

22

16.66

18.75

17.5

So,

x boys

y girls

(50/3)*(4/4)

(75/4)*(3/3)

(35/2)*(6/6)

x

which is,

(200/12)

(225/12)

(210/12)

15/12

3

10/12

:

20. Therefore no. of boys: number of girls = 13:27

20

30

23.25

6.75

27

3.25

13

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