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Curso de Ingls

1. Listening: Kruger National Park

Join the animals to the adjectives
1. sloth

a) prey

2. cheetah

b) nocturnal

3. gazelle

c) carnivore

4. chameleon

d) camouflage

5. owl

e) endangered

KEY: 1.e 2.c 3.a 4.d 5.b

1.1. Listening transcript: Kruger National Park

Interviewer: Margaux Mathey-Le Roux is a registered free-lance Field
Guide that often leads open vehicle safaris through the World renowned Kruger
National Park. She has been conducting tours for over 3 years and has a deep love
for the Park and its wildlife. I am happy that she has obliged us in answering a
series of question about her experience of the Kruger.
Margaux, please tell us why you got into the nature-tourism industry?
Margaux: Its actually quite strange- ever since I was a little girl my
parents would always take us into wild and remote wilderness areas for holidays,
be it Kruger, the Kalahari or Mapelane. My dad was a passionate nature lover,
traveller and adventurer.
It was however much later in life that I decided to take up field guiding as a
career, as this was the perfect opportunity to combine my passion for people and
nature, showing the general public how wonderfully everything in the natural World

has been assembled and how everything is interconnected and interdependent, and
that we are responsible for maintaining this vulnerable balance.
I did my fist Field Guiding course in 2003, but I soon decided to get a proper
university qualification, and decided to study Eco-tourism Management.
Interviewer: In a few words how would you describe your experience of
the Kruger as a safari guide?
Margaux: Ive always had a soft spot for the Kruger, and even though I can
travel the same road a million times things are constantly changing, and just when
you think youve seen it all nature always ends up surprising you. I love the
unexpected thrill of it all!
Interviewer: It seems a general opinion that game- and tourist densities in
the Kruger are highest in the southern portions of the Park. Has this been your
Margaux: I have to agree with this statement. Animal densities tend to be
higher in the Southern parts, where the various ecotypes and vegetation types
allow various plant species to flourish- giving rise to a greater mammal species
Access to the Southern Parts are also fairly easy, unfortunately during peak
tourist seasons the roads can become quite congested, and the animals in general
move away to find some peace and quite.
Interviewer: Between the southern, middle and northern portions of the
Kruger, which do you prefer and why?
Margaux: I prefer the North. Its more remote, and although animal
numbers tend to be a bit lower than in other parts of the Park, all of the Big 5 can
be found in the area. Its also a brilliant place for bird watching, and the scenery is
magnificent. It just feels wilder, as a day can go by without seeing any other
tourist- something that never happens in the South of the Park.
Interviewer: Apart from the Big 5, Cheetah and Wild Dog, what Kruger
animals do you particularly enjoy encountering?
Margaux: Well yes, after the African Wild Dog, I would have to say that my
all time favourite animal is the Dwarf Mongoose! They are so curious, and if you
were to switch your vehicles engine off they would actually come out of the bush in

most cases and inspect your vehicle- very brave and often overlooked little
Interviewer: As a guide and as someone staying close to the Kruger youve
probably witnessed some amazing happenings in the Park. Please share one or two
with us.
Margaux: This is quite a tricky question!
I think one of the most memorable experiences Ive ever had happened in
2007, during my first week of working as a guide. At that time I worked at one of
the 5 star private lodges, and I was living on-site in the Kruger Park. In the middle
of the afternoon I was asked to assist some of the housekeepers with preparing a
room for the new arriving guests. I heard an alarm call of some of the resident
bushbuck as I walked to the furthest suite, but I thought nothing of it, as it was hot
and I thought that no predator would be active during this time of the day. I had
managed to get to the door, when all of a sudden I saw three bushbuck dashing
past us, followed in close pursuit by a rather odd looking baboon. It happened so
quickly, yet it took my brain several seconds to register that this was not a baboon,
but a leopard whom had just run past us and killed one of the bushbuck, less than
15 meters from where we were standing. What made the moment even more
memorable is that we were standing in an unfenced area, and for the first time I
was taught a very important lesson: always respect nature and the warnings she
gives, and be ready to expect the unexpected!
Interviewer: Would you say visiting the Kruger on a regular basis has had
an emotional or spiritual impact on your life? If so, please elaborate.
Margaux: For sure its had both an emotional and spiritual impact on my
life. Unfortunately there are days when the guests just want to chase after the Big
5, and in the process one loses a bit of the magic of the natural environment, but
some days you are fortunate enough to come across like-minded souls who are
keen to sit quietly and absorb the beauties of the wilderness.

Adapted from Kruger National Park: Interview with Kruger Field Guide
Article by Denni Raubenheimer

Exercise 1: Comprehension questions. Are these sentences true of false?

1. Margaux started to be in contact with nature 3 years ago.
a) True
b) False

2. Despite working in the Kruger for more than 3 years she does not get bored of it.
a) True
b) False

3. f you want to see the big animals you have to go to the South part of the park.
a) True
b) False

4. Margaux doesnt like to com across African Wild Dogs.

a) True
b) False

5. Margaux thinks theres a lot more to enjoy than chasing the Big 5.
a) True
b) False

KEY: 1.b 2.a 3.b 4.b 5.a

Exercise 2: Vocabulary. Join the words with the meaning in the text.
1. renown

a) pursue in order to catch or catch up with

2. oblige

b) develop or present (a theory, policy, or system) in further detail

3. assemble

c) ignore or disregard (something)

4. congest

d) so crowded with traffic or people as to hinder or prevent freedom

of movement

5. overlook

e) gather together in one place for a common purpose

6. elaborate

f) do as (someone) asks or desires in order to help or please them

7. chase

g) the condition of being known or talked about by many people;


KEY: 1.g 2.f 3.e 4.d 5.c 6.b 7.a

1.2. Prevent, avoid, protect, reach, arrive, get (to)

Pay attention to the following definitions:
Prevent: keep (something) from happening
Avoid: keep away from or stop oneself from doing (something)
Protect: keep safe from harm or injury

Exercise: Fill the gaps with prevent, avoid or protect in the right
1. These sunglasses are perfect for ___ my eyes.
2. So many policemen in the streets ___ thieves from stealing
3. You can ___ your house by installing an alarm.
4. She went in the house through the back door to ___ meeting her parents.
5. You should stay away from those boys in order to ___ problems.

KEY: 1.protecting 2.prevent 3.protect 4.avoid 5.avoid

Now, have a look at these verbs which are usually confusing:

Reach: arrive at; get as far as (especially when a lot of time or effort was
Arrive: each a place at the end of a journey or a stage in a journey
Get (to): to arrive at a place

Exercise: Fill the gaps with reach, arrive and get to in the right form.
1. We were waiting for him, but finally he ___ when the party was over.
2. Youd better hurry if you want to ___ the office on time
3. We ___ the top of the mountain yesterday in the evening.
4. I ___ late so I missed his speech.
5. After the shipwreck, 5 people managed to ___ the shore.

KEY: 1.arrived 2.get to 3.reached 4.arrived 5.reach

2. Reading: Live green

Warm up
Which of these environmental problems are affecting your country?
Climate change
Nuclear issues
How do you think this can be avoided?

2.1. Reading: Live green

Residents say it's their attitude - as much as science - that makes the
project work
Residents living on the most eco-friendly social housing development in the
UK are reporting massive reductions in energy bills.
Sinclair Meadows was launched six months ago and already, the average
costs have been cut by seventy five per cent.
One of the first things you notice at Sinclair Meadows is the smell.
It's a light woody smell coming from the timber clad homes which are facing
the sun. The solar panels are also soaking it up and along with a boiler that runs on
recycled wood pellets, these twenty one properties have all the energy they need.
Inside, the toilets use rainwater and there are vents which take in a room's
heat and re-distribute it around the home.

But it's not just science which is apparently making this social scheme work,
it's the attitude of the people who live here too. Their behaviour is even being
monitored by Northumbria University. It's a living human experiment.
At one of the ground floor flats, Dot and Brian Wilson are out gardening.
They're the couple on the complex with the green fingers and were chosen from
five hundred applicants because of their environmental awareness.
"We've got some leeks, onions, cauliflower and we're going to get some
peppers and peas too" Dot explains. I asked her what it feels like to be part of a
grand experiment. She laughs with delight, "I've always wanted to live in an ecofriendly home and I never thought I'd be able to do it. But I can and I am!
"Everybody's got something different to offer. Those that can garden, do the
gardening, and everybody else pitches in somewhere along the line".
Rio Adams is pitching in with the maintenance. She lives in one of the
houses and is sweeping the paths (wood chippings are environmentally friendly but,
apparently, they can cause a mess). Her two year old son Brody is over at the "bug
It's a damp timber structure with sticks, leaves and pipes to try and attract
more insects. "There were no birds around and we're hoping that if there are more
insects, it will encourage them back".
The sense of community is something that Northumbria University is keen to
watch. Gill Davidson is one of the researchers, "We're trying to find out how this
community grows.
Some people started off being very environmentally aware and were living
that kind of lifestyle already, whereas others weren't and we're finding that people
are getting into the lifestyle much more now. There are gardening groups and a
community group is also being set up."
Some people's good habits seem to be rubbing off on others. If not, there's
a gadget which can help them along the way. Each kitchen has an energy monitor.
It shows how much electricity is being used and how much it costs. Early
findings from this two-year experiment suggest that house bills at Sinclair Meadows
are about 30 per month, compared to 30 per week in an average UK house.

Adapted from Eco-friendly housing complex keeps down bills

By Fiona Trott

Exercise 1: Comprehension questions. Say if these sentences are true or

false according to the text.
1. Residents expect the bills to be reduced in 75%.
a) True
b) False

2. Northumbria University is studying the residents way of living.

a) True
b) False

3. Dot and Brian Wilson had never been worried about the environment until now.
a) True
b) False

4. Residents are looking for new ways to avoid insects.

a) True
b) False

5. The experiment will last two years.

a) True
b) False

KEY: 1b; 2a; 3b; 4b: 5a.

Exercise 2: Vocabulary.
1. start off

a) escape a punishment; be acquitted

2. keep off

b) avoid encroaching on or touching

3. fall off

c) begin (or cause someone or something to begin) to operate or do


4. get off

d) emit odour, vapour, or similar substances

5. give off

e) a decrease in something

KEY: 1.c 2.b 3.e 4.a 5.d

2.2 Passive voice

The passive voice is formed according to the following structure:
Subject + to be + Past Participle
Ex: Lisa makes a cake
A cake is made by Lisa
We use the passive voice when:

The actor is unknown: Those paintings were done during the Stone Age
The actor is irrelevant: An experimental solar power plant will be built in the
Australian desert.
You dont want to say who did it: Mistakes were made.
You are talking about a general truth: Rules are made to be broken.
You want to emphasize the action not the actor: the car has been repaired
so we can go back home.

The passive with get

In informal English, "get" is also often used to construct passive sentences.
We use "get" in a passive sentence when we talk about something that
happened or something that changed. For this reason it is not possible to use it
with stative verbs.
Ex: He got hurt playing football yesterday.
He got arrested by the police.

The passive with reporting verbs

ometimes when you are reporting what people say or believe, you don t
know, or you dont want to say, who exactly the

people are.

o you use an

impersonal construction:
People believe that many children disappeared

The same idea can be expressed by using the passive in three different ways

passive of reporting verb

to infinitive

Many children are believed to have disappeared.

2) It + passive of reporting verb + that + clause
It is believed that many children disappeared
3) It + passive of reporting verb

to infinitive

It has been agreed to help those families.

Exercise 1: Rewrite these sentences in passive voice

1. An Irishman wrote this book.
2. The professor is going to show the students an old bone.
3. The girls had lost the match.
4. Steven has forgotten the book.
5. They don't speak English in this shop.
6. Somebody built the house last year.
7. They will meet Doris at the station.
8. Somebody cleans the office every day.

9. A workman will repair the computer tomorrow

10. Somebody must have taken my wallet.

KEY: 1. This book was written by an Irishman. 2. The students are going to
be shown an old bone 3. The match had been lost. 4. The book has been forgotten.
5. English is not spoken in this shop 6. The house was built last year. 7. Doris will
be met at the station. 8. The office is cleaned every day 9. The computer will be
repaired tomorrow 10. My wallet must have been taken.

3. Grammar: Reported speech

3.1. Tense changes
Direct speech

Reported speech

Simple present

Simple past

Present continuous

Past continuous

Simple past

Past perfect

Present perfect

Past perfect

Past perfect

Past perfect

Present perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

Past continuous

Past perfect continuous


Present conditional

Future continuous

Conditional continuous






Had to

Some modal verbs do not change in reported speech:

- Might
- Could
- Would
- Should
- Ought to

You do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the present, or if the
original statement was about something that is still true.
Ex: We explained that it is very difficult to sing like that.
Questions in reported speech
In order to report a question we have to do the following changes:
- Change the word order from question to statement.
- Make the same tense changes as for the statements
- Use the same question words
- Use a full stop and not a question mark.
- We do not use auxiliary verbs do, does and did.
- Yes/ no questions use if or whether
Ex: Where did you go yesterday? / He asked where I had gone the day before.
Have you finished your homework?/ He asked if I had finished my homework.

Changes in time and adverbs

- Today changes to that day/the same day
- Tomorrow changes to the next day/the following day
- Yesterday changes to the day before/the previous day
- Next week/month/year changes to the following week/month/year
- Last week/month/year changes to the previous week/month/year
- Now/just changes to then
- Ago changes to before
- Here changes to there
- This changes to that

3.2 Reporting verbs

There are many verbs which can be used to introduce reported speech. Each one is
followed by different grammatical patterns. Most verbs can be followed by more
than one pattern.
Verb + Infinitive
Ex: She offered to give him a lift

Verb + Object + Infinitive

EX: My parents encouraged me to travel.

Verb + object + Preposition + Gerund

Ex: The woman accused him of stealing her purse.

Verb + (that) + Sentence

Ex: Tom admitted (that) he had cheated in the exam

Exercise 1: Write the following sentences into indirect speech.

. Jim: How old is your son?
2. Peter: "Why did Lisa leave so early?"
3. John: "Whose dog is missing?"
4. Mark: "Do you need any help?"
5. Mary: "Can I stay a bit longer?"

KEY: 1. Jim asked how old my son was. 2. Peter asked why Lisa had left so early.
3. John asked whose dog was missing. 4. Mark asked me if I needed any help. 5.
Mary asked if she could stay a bit longer,

Exercise 2: Write a pronoun in the gaps.

1) Jacob: "I work in an office."
Jacob told me (that) ___ worked in an office.

2) Ryan and Lucas: "We play football."

Jacob told me (that) ___ played football.

3) Victoria: "I like my cat."

Victoria told me (that) ___ liked ___ cat.

4) Henry: "Can you see me?"

Henry asked me if ___ could see ___ .

5) Julian: "I will have to borrow your pencil."

Julian told me (that) ___ would have to borrow ___ pencil.

6) Melanie: "My father is Jamaican."

Melanie told me (that) ___ father is Jamaican.

7) Emma and Doris: "Can we lend your rackets?"

Emma and Doris asked me if ___ could lend ___ rackets.

8) Leah: "How is your journey."

Leah asked me how ___ journey was.

9) Isabella and Ella: "We love our pets."

Isabella and Ella told me (that) ___ loved ___ pets.

10) Grandmother: "Please bring me a cup of my tea."

Grandmother told me to bring ___ a cup of ___ tea.

KEY: 1.he 2.they 3.she/her 4.I/him 5.he/ my 6.her 7.they/ my 9.they/their
10. her/her
Exercise 3: Choose the right option
. Why don't we go to the cinema? he said.
He ___ to the cinema.
a) suggested going
b) thanked for going
c) promised to go
d) warned against going

2 Watch out! The bull looks dangerous, they said.

They ___ the dangerous bull.
a) denied going to
b) warned us against
c) accused us of coming to
d) promised not to come

3. Daddy, I'm going out with John, she said.

Sue ___ with John.
a) denied going out
b) confessed that she was going
c) apologized for going out
d) regretted going out

4.What a pity I didn't see the ceremony, he said.

He ___ not seeing the ceremony.
a) regretted
b) accused
c) denied
d) advised

5 You are right. it was a mistake to get up so early, Chris said.

Chris ___ early was a mistake.
a) admitted getting up
b) begged getting up
c) denied to get up
d) advised getting up

KEY: 1.a 2.b 3.b 4.a 5.a


The passive voice is formed according to the following structure: Subject +

to be + Past Participle

We use the passive voice when:

The actor is unknown, irrelevant, you dont want to say who did it, you are
talking about a general truth or you want to emphasize the action not the

In informal English, "get" is also often used to construct passive sentences

ometimes when you are reporting what people say or believe, you don t
know, or you dont want to say, who exactly the

people are.

o you use

an impersonal construction.

Some modal verbs do not change in reported speech might, could, would,
should, ought to

In order to report a question we have to change the word order and a full

We do not use auxiliary verbs do, does and did and yes/ no questions
use if or whether

Also there are changes which affect time and adverbs.

There are many verbs which can be used to introduce reported speech.
Each one is followed by different grammatical patterns: Verb + Infinitive;
Verb + Object + Infinitive; Verb + object + Preposition + Gerund; Verb +
(that) + Sentence