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WeldingProcedures(overview)

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QA/QCSYSTEMS
ISO9000(1994)

Welding Procedures (overview)

ISO9000(2000)
QAProcedures
ConstructionProcedures
QCCheckSheets

InspectionPlan
AuditDocumentation
VendorInspection
PipingHydrotesting
NonDestructiveTesting
Calibration
WeldingProcedures
QA/QCJobDescriptions

Thecostimpactofnotbeingabletocontrolthequalityofweldingand
repairratescanbesubstantial.Thiswillandcancostthecontractor
considerabledelayinthecompletionoftheproject.Thereafter
invokingcontractualpenalties.Resultinginthelossofprofitmargins
andlaterarbitration.

MethodStatement

Approvalspriortothecommencementofweldingoperations.

2)Weldingsupervisor/weldersshallensurethat"Welding
ProcedureSpecification"(WPS)selectionistakenfromthe
approvedmatrixforeachspecificlineclass/application
accompanyingeachWPS.

OrganisationCharts

PHOTOS
Video&Photos

WeldingProcedureSpecifications.
ProcedureQualificationReports.
WelderCertificationCertificates.

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WeldingofPipingandStructuralComponents

1)Weldersshallonlyworkwithinthelimitoftheirqualification
range.

3)Withdrawconsumablesonlyfromdesignatedweldingstoresand
endorseinitialsonthe"WeldingConsumablesDistributionForm"
maintainedbytheissueclerk.
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Posters
Rejected/Nonconforming
Work
ConstructionProject
Overview
FiberGlassReinforced
Piping

WeldingConsumables.
NDTCompany.
NDTOperators.
NDTProcedures.
RadiationSafety.
PostWeldHeatTreatmentCompany.
PostWeldHeatTreatmentProcedure.
WeldingInspectionPersonnel.
WeldingRepairProcedure.

StructuralSteel

EarthWork
CivilWork
FabricationShop
WeldingPowerPiping
WeldingPipeLines
PostWeldHeatTreatment
NondestructiveTesting
CoatingWork
ElectricalWork
InstrumentationWork
StaticEquipment

DEFECT
Pipeoffsetmismatch
Lackofrootpenetration
Insufficientrootfill
Excessivepenetration
Externalundercut
Internalundercut
Internalconcavity
Rootburnthrough
Lackofrootpenetration
Interpassslaginclusions
Elongatedslaginclusions
lackofsidewallfusion
Interpasscoldlap
Scatteredporosity
Clusterporosity
Rootpassalignedporosity
Transversecrack

Boilers
StorageTanks

Longitudinalcrack

HVAC
Longitudinalrootcrack

SelectLanguage
Poweredby

Tungsteninclusions

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5)Alllowhydrogenweldingelectrodesshallbemaintainedin
heated"portablerodcaddies".Thelidofthecaddieshouldbe
closedfollowingthewithdrawalofeachwithdrawalelectrodes.
6)Lowhydrogenelectrodesshallonlybeconveyedtothejobsite
inheated"portablerodcaddies".
7)Atshiftchange,all"rodcaddies"mustbereturnedtothe
originatingweldingstoreforchecking.Allissuedandunusedlow
hydrogenelectrodesshallbescrapped.

WeldingDefectsDefined

PilingWork

4)Withdrawonlysufficientquantitiesofweldingconsumablefora
four(4)hourperiodofwork.

CAUSE
Pipemisalignment
Weldingtechnique
Weldingtechnique
Weldingtechnique
Excessiveamps/volts
Excessiveamps/volts
Weldingtechnique
Weldingtechnique
Weldjointsetup
Weldtechnique,grinding,cleaning
Weldtechnique,grinding,cleaning
Weldtechnique,amps/voltstolow
Weldtechnique
Weldtechnique
Weldtechnique,insufficientwind
cover
Weldtechnique,insufficientwind
cover
Insufficientwindcover,lackofpre
heating&postweldheattreatment
ofweldjoint.Materialproblem.
Insufficientwindcover,lackofpre
heating&postweldheattreatment
ofweldjoint.Materialproblem.
Insufficientwindcover,lackofpre
heating&postweldheattreatment
ofweldjoint.Materialproblem.
Weldtechnique

8)Thetechnicalrequirementsofthe"WeldingProcedure
Specification"(WPS)mustbefollowedatalltimes.
9)Preheatandinterpasstemperaturesshallbemonitoredusing
"TempilStiks"orcalibrated"digital"temperaturebypyrometers.
greaterthanthenominalwallthickness.ii)Forflanges,usethe
thicknesscorrespondingtotwo(2)higherwallthicknessranges
greaterthanthenominalwallthickness.
10)PreheatvaluesshallbetakencalculatedandWPSassuminga
valueof0.42CE(CarbonEquivalent).Wallthicknessvaluesshall
beselectedasfollows:
a)Forpipepipe,usetheactualwallthickness.
b)Forpipetofittingorfittingtofitting.
c)Forfittings(otherthanflanges),usethenext
higherwallthicknessrangeasufficientperiodoftime
toensureanOxygencontentoflesstan0.5%.When
available,"purgemonitoringdevices"shallbeused.
d)Backpurgeshallbemaintainedforaminimumof
four(4)passes.Pipebungs(purgedams)shallbe
leftinplaceuntilcompletionofthejoint.
e)Theendofpartlyusedfillerwireshallbesnipped
offpriortouse.
f)Maintainthetipofthefillerrodwithinthegas
shroudduringweldingtoavoidcontamination.
g)Interpasstemperaturesforthesematerialsis
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WeldingProcessMetology

WeldingProcedurestoavoidhydrogeninducedcracking.

Tocontrolcrackingwhencompletingtheweldingprocedurethe
followingfactorsmustbeconsidered.

critical.Theweldershallcheckthetemperatureprior
tothenextpass.Allausteniticstainlessweldsonthis
projectwillbetestedfor"Ferrite"contenttherefore,
cleanlinessduringfabricationandmonitoringof
interpasstemperatureswillhaveadirecteffecton
testresults.
h)Onlyapproved"ironfree"cuttingandgrinding
disksshallbeused.
i)Onlyapprovedmarkingmaterials(sulphur,
chlorinefreeetc.)aretobeused.

Combinedthicknessofthematerialtobewelded
Carbonequivalentvalues
Hydrogenscales
Weldingarcenergy

j)Allmaterialhandlingdevicesandequipmentshall
beadequatelyprotected/lined,topreventthe
possibilityofcarbon"pickup"(i.e.workbench,
transporttrucks,supportsetc.).
k)Whereverpossible,toolsshallbecolourcodedto
preventcrossusewithothermaterialtypes.

CodesandStandardsThataremostCommonlyUsedon
ConstructionProjects

CodesandStandardsThataremostCommonlyUsedon
ConstructionProjects

ASMEBoilerandPressureVesselCode
Clause
Section
Powerboilers
Pressurevessels
Pressurevessels
HeatingBoilers
NondestructiveEx
Welding&brazing
qualifications

I
VIII,DIVISION1
VIII,DIVISION2
IV
V
IX

AmericanPipelineInstitute
API

1104

WeldingPipelines&relatedfacilities

API

650

WeldedSteelTanksforOilStorage

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11)Preheadshallbeappliedthroughthefullthicknessofthejoint
andcheckedfromtheoppositesidewhereverpossible.
12)Forrepairwelds,thepreheatingtemperatureshallbe500C
(1220F)abovethatusedfortheoriginalweld.Maximumpreheat
forrepairweldingis1500C(3020F).
13)approvedWPS.Internalmisalignmentforbuttjointsshallnot
exceed1.5mm(1/16'').
14)Deposittherootpassandsix(6)successivepassesor1/3of
theweldvolumepriortointerruption(allowingtocooltoambient
temperature).
15)Buttering(buildup)ispermittedasfollows:
a)Butteringshallnotexceedthelesserof10mmor
1/3basemetalthickness.
b)Ifbutteringwillexceed10mmor1/3basemetal
thicknessthenthisshallbewitnessedbythe
customerandtheareashallbetestedbyPT/MT
followingcompletionofbutteringbutbeforefinal
weldingofthejoint.

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AWS
ANSI

D1.1

AmericanWeldingSociety

16)Backweldingispermissibleforallapplications,solongasthe
sameelectrodesandprocessisusedasforthefillpass.

AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute
17)Thefollowingpointsshallbeobservedwhen
fabricating/weldingstainlessandnonferrousmaterials:

B31.1PowerPiping
B31.2IndustrialGas&AirPiping
B31.3PetroliumRefineryPiping
B31.4OilTransportationPiping
B31.5RefrigerationPiping
B31.6ChemicalIndustrialPiping
B31.7NuclearPowerPiping
B31.8GasTransmission&DistributionPipingSystems

a)Weldprepsandfillermaterialsshallbedegreased
usinganappropriatesolvent.
b)Weldprepsurfacesshallbebufferedusingflapper
wheels.
c)Argonhosesshallbecheckedforanyloose
connectionsorleakageetc.
d)Fitupgeometryshallbeinaccordancewiththe
applicable,approvedWPS.
e)Bridgetackstobeused.Avoidtackingdirectlyon
totheadjacentpipewall.Bridgetackwithinthe
fusionfacesofthejointwhereverpossible.
f)Priortowelding,thebackpurgeshallbesetupin
accordancewiththeapprovedWPSforasufficient
periodoftimetoensureanOxygencontentofless
tan0.5%.Whenavailable,"purgemonitoring
devices"shallbeused.
g)Backpurgeshallbemaintainedforaminimumof
four(4)passes.Pipebungs(purgedams)shallbe
leftinplaceuntilcompletionofthejoint.
h)Theendofpartlyusedfillerwireshallbesnipped
offpriortouse.
i)Maintainthetipofthefillerrodwithinthegas
shroudduringweldingtoavoidcontamination.
j)Interpasstemperaturesforthesematerialsis
critical.Theweldershallcheckthetemperatureprior
tothenextpass.Allausteniticstainlessweldsonthis
projectwillbetestedfor"Ferrite"contenttherefore,
cleanlinessduringfabricationandmonitoringof
interpasstemperatureswillhaveadirecteffecton
testresults.
k)Onlyapproved"ironfree"cuttingandgrinding
disksshallbeused.

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l)Onlyapprovedmarkingmaterials(sulphur,
chlorinefreeetc.)aretobeused.
m)Allmaterialhandlingdevicesandequipment
shallbeadequatelyprotected/lined,topreventthe
possibilityofcarbon"pickup"(i.e.workbench,
transporttrucks,supportsetc.).
n)Whereverpossible,toolsshallbecolourcodedto
preventcrossusewithothermaterialtypes.

NDTTechnique

Materials
applicable

Detection
capability

Depth
Sizing

Orientation
Evaluation

Access
problem

Remote
Detection

Automated
detection

Liquidpenetrant

All

Surface

No

No

Yes

No

No

Ultrasonic

All

Volumetric

Yes

Yes

Limited

Yes

Yes

Radiography

All

Volumetric

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

MagneticParticle Magnetic

Surface,near
surface

No

No

Yes

No

No

Magnetic
Fluxleakage

Magnetic

Surface,near
surface

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Eddycurrent

Conducting

Surface,near
surface

Yes

yes

Yes

Yes

yes

AcousticEmission All

Volumetric

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Thermography

All

Surface,near
surface

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Visual

All

Surface

No

No

Limited

Yes

Yes

XRD

Conducting

SufaceStresses

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Potentialdrop

Conducting

Surface

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

EngineeringandConstructionCodesandStandards

ASMEIXAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers
ASMEIXB31.3PROCESSPIPING
ASMEIXB31.1POWERPIPING
Material(Pnumbers)willassisttheWeldingEngineertocompletetheWeldingProcedureSpecificationpriortothemechanicaltestingof
theProcedureQualificationReport.
Pnumbers
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MaterialComposition
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CarbonSteel

Upto1/2%Crandupto1/2%Mo

1to2%Cr,1%MoAlloySteel

5A

2to3%Cr,1%MoAlloySteel

5B

5to10%Cr,1%MoAlloySteel

5C

All5Aand5BMaterialsheattreatedto85ksi+

MartensiticStainlessSteel

FerriticStainlessSteel

AusteniticStainlessSteel

2to5%NiAlloySteel

10

MnV,CrV,9%Ni,HighCrAlloySteels

11

LowAlloySteel,QuenchedandTemperedto95ksi+

21

1.2%MgorMnalloyAluminium

22

1.2%Mn,2.5%Mg,0.25%CuAluminium

23

1.3%Mg,0.7%Si,0.25%CrAluminium

25

1.5%Mg,0.8%Mn,0.15CrAluminium

31

Copper

32

Admirally,Naval,Aluminiumbrass,MuntzMetals

33

CuSiAlloys

34

CuNiAlloys

41

Nickel

51

Titanium

61

Zirconnium

WeldingDefects
ColdLap
ColdLapisaconditionwheretheweldfillermetaldoesnotproperly
withthebasemetalorthepreviousweldpassmaterial(interpass
coldlap).Thearcdoesnotmeltthebasemetalsufficientlyand
causestheslightlymoltenpuddletoflowintothebasematerial
withoutbonding

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Porosity
Porosityistheresultof"gasentrapment"inthesolidifyingmetal.
Porositycantakemanyshapesonaradiographbutoftenappears
asdarkroundorirregularspotsorspecksappearingsingularly,in
clusters,orinrows.Sometimes,porosityiselongatedandmay
appeartohaveatail.Thisistheresultofgasattemptingtoescape
whilethemetalisstillinaliquidstateandiscalled"wormhole
porosity"Allporosityisavoidinthematerialanditwillhaveahigher
radiographicdensitythanthesurroundingarea.

ClusterPorosity
ClusterPorosityiscausedwhenfluxcoatedelectrodesare
contaminatedwithmoisture.Themoistureturnsintogaswhen
heatedandbecomestrappedintheweldduringthewelding
process.Clusterporosityappearsjustlikeregularporosityinthe
radiographbutheindicationswillbegroupedclosetogether.

Slaginclusion
Slaginclusionsarenonmetallicsolidmaterialentrappedinweld
metalorbetweenweldandbasemetal.Inaradiograph,dark,
jaggedasymmetricalshapeswithintheweldoralongtheweldjoints
areasareindicativeofslaginclusions.

IncompletePenetration(IP)orlackofpenetration(LOP)
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IncompletePenetration(IP)orlackofpenetration(LOP)
IncompletePenetration(IP)orlackofpenetration(LOP)occurs
whentheweldmetalfailstopenetratethejoint.Itisoneofthemost
objectionablewelddiscontinuities.Lackofpenetrationallowsa
naturalstressriserfromwhichacrackmaypropagate.The
appearanceonaradiographisadarkareawithwelldefined,
straightedgesthatfollowsthelandorrootfacedownthecenterof
theweldment.

Incompletefusion
Incompletefusionisaconditionwheretheweldfillermetaldoesnot
properlyfusewiththebasemetal.Appearanceonradiographis
usuallyappearsasadarklineorlinesorientedinthedirectionofthe
weldseamalongtheweldpreparationorjoiningarea.

InternalConcavityorSuckBack
Internalconcavityorsuckbackisaconditionwheretheweld
metalhascontractedasitcoolsandhasbeendrawnupintotheroot
oftheweld.Onaradiographitlookssimilartoalackofpenetration
butthelinehasirregularedgesanditisoftenquitewideinthe
centeroftheweldimage.

InternalorRootUndercut
InternalorRootUndercutisanerosionofthebasemetalnexttothe
rootoftheweld.Intheradiographicimageitappearsasadark
irregularlineoffsetfromthecenterlineofhtweldment.Undercutting
isnotasstraightedgedasLOPbecauseitdoesnotfollowaground
edge.

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ExternalorCrownUndercut
ExternalorCrownUndercutisanerosionofthebasemetalnextto
thecrownontheweld.Intheradiograph,itappearsasadark
irregularlinealongtheoutsideedgeoftheweldarea.

OffsetorMismatch
OffsetorMismatcharetermsassociatedwithaconditionwheretwo
piecesbeingweldedtogetherarenotproperlyaligned.The
radiographicimageshowsanoticeabledifferenceindensity
betweenthetwopieces.Thedifferenceindensityiscausedbythe
differenceinmaterialthickness.Thedark,straightlineiscausedby
thefailureoftheweldmetaltofusewiththelandarea.

InadequateWeldReinforcement
InadequateWeldReinforcementisanareaofaweldwherethe
thicknessofweldmetaldepositedislessthanthethicknessofthe
basemetal.Itisveryeasytodeterminebyradiographiftheweldhas
inadequatereinforcement,becausetheimagedensityintheareaof
suspectedinadequacywillbehigher(darker)thantheimagedensity
ofthesurroundingbasematerial.

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ExcessWeldReinforcement
ExcessWeldReinforcementisanareaofaweldthathasaweld
metaladdedinexcessofthatspecifiedbyengineeringdrawingsand
codes.Theappearanceonaradiographisalocalized,lighterarea
intheweld.Avisualinspectionwilleasilydetermineiftheweld
reinforcementisinexcessofthatspecifiedbytheengineering
requirements.

Cracks
Crackscanbedetectedinaradiographonlywhentheyare
propagatinginadirectionthatproducesachangeinthicknessthatis
paralleltothexraybeam.Crackscanappearasjaggedandoften
veryfaintirregularlines.Crackscansometimesappearas"tails"on
inclusionsorporosity.

DiscontinuitiesinTIGWelds
TungstenInclusion
Tungsteninclusion:Tungstenisabrittleandinherentlydense
materialusedintheelectrodeintungsteninertgaswelding.If
improperweldingproceduresareused,tungstenmaybeentrapped
intheweld.Radiographically,tungstenismoredensethan
aluminumorsteel,thereforeitshowsupasalighterareawitha
distinctoutlineontheradiograph
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Oxideinclusions
OxideInclusionsareusuallyvisibleonthesurfaceofmaterialbeing
welded(especiallyaluminum).Oxideinclusionsarelessdensethan
thesurroundingmaterial,and,thereforeappearasdarkirregularly
shapeddiscontinuitiesintheradiograph

DiscontinuitiesinGasMetalArcWelds(GMAW)
Whiskersareshortlengthsofweldelectrodewire,visibleonthetoporbottomsu6rfaceoftheweldorcontainedwithintheweld.Ona
radiographtheyappearaslight,"wirelike"indications.

BurnThrough
BurnThroughresultswhentoomuchheatcausesexcessiveweld
metaltopenetratetheweldzone.Oftenlumpsofmetalsagthrough
theweld,creatingathickglobularconditiononthebackoftheweld.
Theseglobsofmetalarereferredtoasicicles.Ontheradiograph,
burnthroughappearsasdarksports,whichareoftensurroundedby
lightglobularareas(icicles).

HandsonQualityControlWeldDefects

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PIPINGMATERIALCOLOURCODE

WELDINGMETHODSTATEMENT
FLOWCHARTOFPIPINGPROCESSINTHEFABRICATIONSHOP
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DESIGNCODEANSIB31.3&ASMESECTIONIX

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ControlofHydrogenRemovalin11/4Cr.Molowalloysteelforthepreventionof
weldcracking
Theabovespecificationwasreviewedandacommentmadeadvisinga60minuteminimumsoakat300400Concompletionorpartial
completionofweldmentsinCr.Mo.Material.TheSpecificationtabulated15minutesformaterials10inchSCH80andbelow(15mmand
below)and30minutesfor12inchSCH80andabove(above15mmto40mm.).
Thefollowingnotesareintendedtogivesomeadditionalinformationandshouldbetakenintoaccount.
Thepresenceofhydrogendependsonanumberoffactorsasfollows:
1.Jointcleanliness(removalofsurfacecontaminants,scale,rustoil,grease,paintetc)
2.Presenceofmoistureinthefluxesusedinwelding(controlledbybakingandtheuseoflowhydrogenconsumables,typically5ml
hydrogen/100gmsweldmetalmaximum.Controlandissueofelectrodesisalsocrucialafterbaking.
3.Preheatcontrols(adequateinChiyoda'sspecification)
4.Microstructuresusceptibility(highinthisalloy)
5.Stresslevels(greaterinthickerjoints).
6.Temperaturelimitsoncooling.(thegreatestriskoccurswhennearambienttemperaturesarereachedandcrackingcanoccur
severalhoursorsometimesuptothreedaysafterweldingiscompleted.
MostFabricators/Contractorsareawareofthesecausesandtakemeasurestoreducetheriskwherepossible.Thecommonadditional
techniquetoremove/reducehydrogenlevelsisbyintroducingthepostweldheatingcycle.Crackingisunlikelytooccurwhenadequatesoak
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timesabove250Careusedimmediatelyoncompletionorpartialcompletionofwelds.Removalratesaredependantonsoaktimeand
temperature.Thetableoverleafgivessomedetailsfortheamountofhydrogenremovalbasedondifferentsoaktimesandtemperaturesfor
theSMAWprocessusinglowhydrogenelectrodes,stored,baked,issuedtothewelderandcontrolledinaccordancewiththemanufacturer's
recommendations.
Material
Thickness

SoakTemperature
(Centigrade)

SoakTime
(Minutes)

%Original
HydrogenRemaining

7mm
7mm
15mm
15mm
15mm
30mm
40mm
40mm

300
300
300
300
400
300
300
400

60
15
60
15
15
60
30
30

0
20
20
70
65
75
90
85

ThesefigureswerecalculatedbytheWeldingInstitutewhoemphasisedthatalthoughthetechniqueforcalculationisconsidered
conservativetheyhavebeenshowntoproducesatisfactoryresultsoveratwoyearperiod.Theytakeaccountofthepotentialhydrogen
whichisalaboratorymeasurementofthemoistureorhydrogenofanyconsumableandadiffusivity(ofhydrogen)factorforCr/Momaterialof
4x105cms/sec.
Assuminglowhydrogenelectrodesareusedandtakingaccountofthepotentialhydrogenfactor,theaveragedepositedweldmetal
hydrogenwouldbe5mlhydrogen/100gmsweldmetal.Hydrogencrackinghasbeenencounteredinforgingsaslowas25mlhydrogen
/100gmsweldmetal.Basedonallinformationabovei.eChiyoda'sexperienceandtheWeldingInstitute(conservative)recommendations
ouradviceisasfollows:
Formaterialupto15mmthicksoakat350Cminimumfor15minutesminimum
Formaterialover15mmto40mmsoakat350Cminfor45minutesminimum
Theotherprecautionarymeasureslistedin1,to6mustalsobefollowedwhereapplicable.
Webelievetheserecommendationsarearesponsiblealternativetoadequatelyreducethehydrogenlevelstoacceptablelevels
andofferapracticewhichisnotfarremovedfromcurrentpractice.

MarketleadingcompaniesinthefieldofQualityAssuarance

MarketleadingcompaniesinthefieldofQualityControlSuppliers
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Allmajorcreditanddebitcards
accepted

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