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January 12, 2006

Abstract

This paper contains a short introduction to the use of the LaNet-vi visualization tool for

the analysis of large sparse networks. LaNet-vi is based on the k-core decomposition, whose

characteristics are summarized in this paper along with the main features of the developed

algorithm and layout. We elucidate the relation among the layouts features and the graph

topological properties. Finally we show how LaNet-vis visualizations can be used to exploit

the network organizational features: hierarchical relationships, shells interconnectivity or nodes

clustering provide global structural information at a glance, yielding a rapid method for graphs

fingerprinting.

LaNet-vi is a visualization tool for large scale networks based on the k-core decomposition [1].

Formally, the k-core of a graph G is the connected maximal induced subgraph which has minimum degree greater than or equal to k [2]. Roughly speaking, it is the maximal subgraph H of G

with the property that the minimum number of edges from any vertex in H towards other vertices

of H is at least k.

Starting from k = 1 (for graphs without isolated vertices), a simple recursive algorithm allows

to obtain all k-cores of a graph.

Every vertex of a connected graph belongs to the 1-core. In Fig.1, we have highlighted the

different core using closed lines of different types. A dashed line encloses all the vertices in

the 1-core (the entire graph).

Then, all vertices of degree d < 2 are recursively cut out. In Fig.1 all these vertices are

colored in blue. The other vertices maintain a degree d 2 also after the pruning of the blue

ones, therefore they are not eliminated. The remaining vertices form the 2-core, enclosed by

a dotted line.

Further pruning allows to identify the innermost set of vertices, the 3-core. One can check

that all red vertices in Fig.1 have internal degree (i.e. between red vertices) at least 3. This

core is highlighted by a dash-dotted line.

atiment 210, Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 ORSAY

Cedex France.

on 850, C 1063 ACV Buenos Aires, Argentina.

School of Informatics and Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408, USA.

shell index 2

2core

shell index 1

1core

shell index 3

3core

Fig.1. Sketch of the k-core decomposition for a small graph. Each closed line contains the set of vertices

belonging to a given k-core, while colors on the vertices distinguish different k-shells.

The use of different colors for the vertices is useful to stress another important property: the

shell index of a vertex. A vertex has shell index k if it belongs to the k-core but not to the k+1-core.

A k-shell collects all vertices with the same shell index, i.e. those vertices that are pruned at the

same stage of the procedure. Blue vertices in Fig.1 belong to the 1-shell, green ones to the 2-shell

and the red vertices compose the 3-shell that, being the highest one, coincides with the 3-core.

In Graph Theory there are many other definitions that are usefully exploited in the analysis

of social networks [3] as cliques, n-cliques, n-clans, n-clubs, k-plexes, ls-sets, etc. Many of these

notions can be, in principle, used to draw a reduced representation of a graph by means of pruning

or renormalization algorithms. The k-core analysis is particularly indicated for two main situations:

the analysis of large sparse networks, since the visualization algorithm runs in a time O(n + e)

(where n and e are the total number of vertices and edges respectively);

the analysis of networks with a non trivial hierarchical structure, since the vertices are displayed in different 2D annular shells in relation with their actual shell index, that provides a

centrality measure and a manner to gain information on the hierarchical order in the network.

The following list is a set of simple rules for a complete understanding of the visualization layout.

They should provide the reader with a method to extract information on the original graph starting

from the visual observation of the representations properties and a way to compare different graphs.

All points are illustrated with figures.

The main features of the layouts structure listed below are visible in Fig.2 where, for the sake

of simplicity, we dont show any edge. The leftmost panel displays the case in which all k-cores have

a single component, while in the rightmost one an example of k-core fragmentation is reported.

Indeed, it is possible that, during the pruning procedure, the remaining nodes forming a k-core

do not belong to the same connected component. When such a fragmentation occurs, LaNet-vi

computes the separed components of the core and displays all of them in a coherent way (see below).

degree

3

shell index

shell index

kmax

kmax

kmax1

kmax1

kmin+1

degree

3

kmin

10

10

d_max

d_max

kmin+1

kmin

Fig.2. The two drawings show the structure of a typical LaNet-vis layout in two important cases: on

the left, all k-cores are connected; on the right, some k-cores are composed by more than one connected

component. The vertices are arranged in a series of concentric shells, each one corresponding to a

particular shell index. The diameter of the k-shell depends on both the index value and, in case of multiple

components (right) also on the relative fraction of vertices belonging to the different components. The

color of the vertices corresponds to their shell index, while their size is logarithmically proportional to

their original degree.

shells (see the five different shells in Fig.2).

Each shell corresponds to a single shell index and all vertices in it are therefore drawn with

the same color.

A color scale allows to distinguish different values of shell index: in LaNet-vis images, as

in Fig.2, the violet is used for the minimum value of shell index kmin , then nuances of blue,

green and yellow compose a graduated scale for higher and higher values of shell index up to

the maximum value kmax that is colored in red.

The diameter of each k-shell depends on the shell index k, and is proportionnal to kmax k,

(In Fig.2, the position of each shell is schematized by a circle having the corresponding

diameter). The presence of a trivial order relation in the values of shell index ensures that all

shells are placed in a concentric arrangement. On the other hand, when a k-core is fragmented

in two or more components, the diameter of the different components depends also on the

relative number of vertices belonging to each of them, i.e. the fraction between the number of

vertices belonging to that component and the total number of vertices in that k-shell. This is

a very important information, providing a way to distinguish between multiple components

at a given coreness value. Looking at the two central components for high coreness values in

Fig.2 (right), we immediately realize that the bigger one contains a larger fraction of vertices.

Finally, the size of each node is proportional to the original degree of that vertex; we use a

logarithmic scale for the size of the drawn bullets.

The k-core decomposition peels the network layer by layer, revealing the structure of the different

shells from the outmost one to the more internal ones. LaNet-vi provides a direct way to distinguish

their different hierarchies and structural organization by means of some simple quantities: the radial

width of the shells, the presence and size of clusters of vertices in the shells, the correlations between

degree and shell index, the distribution of the edges interconnecting vertices of different shells,

etc. The following features are useful to extract this structural information out of the laNet-vi

visualization.

the higher cores than node x.

shell index

kmax

node x

node y

kmax1

kmin+1

degree

3

kmin

10

d_max

The thickness of the shell depends on

the neighbors with higher coreness.

Fig.3. Each shell has a certain radial width around its diameters values. This width depends on the

correlations properties of the vertices in the k-shell. The dashed lines in the figure point out the width

of the outmost shell, that corresponds to the lowest k-shell. In the second shell, we have pinpointed two

nodes x and y. The node y is more internal than x because a larger part of its neighbors belongs to

higher k-shells compared to xs neighbors. Indeed, y has three links to nodes of higher shell index, while

x has only one.

1) Shells Width

In the LaNet-vis representations the width can change considerably from shell to shell. The

thickness of a shell depends on the shell indices of the neighbors of the vertices in the corresponding k-shell. For a given shell-diameter (corresponding to the black circle in the median

position of shells in Fig.3), each vertex can be placed more internal or more external with

4

respect to this reference line. Nodes with more neighbors in higher k-shells are closer to the

center and viceversa, as shown in Fig.3. Node y is more internal than node x because it has

three edges towards nodes if higher shell index compared to the single edge emerging from x

towards inner shells. The maximum thickness of the shells is controlled by the parameter

(i.e., see Eq.1 of [1]).

2) Shell Clusters

The angular distribution of vertices in the shells is not completely homogeneous. Fig.3 shows

that clusters of vertices can be observed. The idea is that of grouping together all nodes of the

same k-shell that are directly linked in the original graph and of representing them close one

to another in the shell. Thus, a shell is divided in many angular sectors, each one containing

a cluster of vertices. This feature allows to figure out at a glance if the k-shells are composed

of a single large connected component rather than divided into many small clusters, or even

if there are isolated vertices (i.e. disconnected from all other nodes in the shell, not from the

rest of the k-core!).

shell index

kmax

kmax1

kmin+1

degree

3

kmin

10

d_max

Isolated nodes

nodes in the same shell.

Fig.3. The figure shows the clustering properties of nodes in the same k-shell. In each k-shell, nodes that

are directly connected between them (in the original graph) are drawn close one to the other, as in a

cluster. Some of these sets of nodes are circled and highlighted in gray. Three examples of isolated nodes

are also indicated; these nodes have no connections with the others of the same k-shell.

3) Degree-Coreness Correlation

Another property that can be studied from LaNet-vis images is the correlation between the

degree of the nodes and the shell index. In fact, both quantities are centrality measures

and the presence or the absence of correlations between them is a very important feature

characterizing a networks topology. The nodes displayed in the most internal shells are those

forming the central core of the network; the presence of correlations between degree and shell

index then corresponds to the fact that the central nodes are most likely high-degree hubs

of the network. This effect is indeed observed in many real communication networks with

a clear hierarchical structure, as the Internet at the Autonomous System level or the World

Wide Air-transportation network. On the contrary, the presence of hubs in external shells

is typical of networks without a clear global hierarchical structure as the World-Wide Web

or the Internet Router Level. In this case, emerging star-like configurations appear with

high degree vertices connected only to very low degree vertices. These vertices are rapidly

pruned out in the k-core decomposition even if they have a very high degree, leading to the

presence of local hub in the external k-shells. These examples are shown in the Image Gallery

(http://xavier.informatics.indiana.edu/lanet-vi/#examples).

but with large fluctuations.

with the shell index.

degree

3

shell index

shell index

kmax

kmax

kmax1

kmax1

kmin+1

degree

3

kmin

10

10

d_max

d_max

kmin+1

kmin

Fig.3. The two figures show different correlation properties between the shell index and the degree of

the nodes. On the left, we report a graph with strong degree-shell index correlation: the size of the

nodes grows going from the periphery to the center, in strong correlation with the shell index. The

right-hand drawing shows a graph in which there is the degree-shell index correlations are blurred by

large fluctuations, as stressed by the presence of some hubs in the external shells.

4) Edges

Finally, only a homogeneously randomly sampled fraction of the edges is shown. We can

tune the percentage of drawn edges in order to get the better trade-off between the clarity

of visualization and the necessity of giving information on the way the nodes are mainly

connected. Edge-reduction techniques can be implemented to improve the algorithms capacity in representing edges; however, a homogeneous sampling does not alter the extraction of

topological information, ensuring a low computational cost. Finally, the two halves of each

edge are colored with the color of the corresponding extremities to make more evident the

connection among vertices in different shells.

5) Disconnected components: The fragmentation of any given k-shell in two or more disconnected components is represented by the presence of a corresponding number of circular

shells with different centers (Fig. 2). The diameter of these circles is related with the number

of nodes of each component and modulated by the parameter (see Eqs. 9 and 10 of [1]).

The distance between components is controlled by the parameter (Eqs. 4 and 5 of [1]).

In summary, LaNet-vi makes possible a direct, visual investigation of a series of properties:

- hierarchical structures of networks;

- connectivity and clustering properties inside a given k-shell;

- relations and interconnectivity between different levels of the hierarchy;

- correlations between degree and shell index, i.e. between different measures of centrality.

Remarks and suggestions are welcome.

References

[1] J.-I. Alvarez-Hamelin, L. DallAsta, A. Barrat, and A. Vespignani, k-core decomposition: a

tool for the visualization of large scale networks, arXiv.org:cs/0504107.

[2] S. Seidman, Internal cohesion of LS sets in graphs, Social Networks 5, 97-107 (1983).

[3] S. Wasserman and K. Faust, Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications, Cambridge

University Press, New York and Cambridge (1994).

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