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Chemistry Chapter 1 Review: HW

1. What is Chemistry?
a. The branch of science that deals with the identification of the
substances of which matter is composed; the investigation of their properties and
the ways in which they interact, combine, and change; and the use of these
processes to form new substances.
2. What Branch of Chemistry is most concerned with the study of carbon
compounds?
a. Organic Chemistry deals with the study of carbon and the
chemicals in living organisms. V
3. What is meant by the word Chemical used by scientist?
a. Referring to the use or presence of chemicals in a scientific theory
or experimentation.
4. In which of the six branches of chemistry would a scientist be working if he or she
did the following.
a. Investigating energy relationships for various reactions.
i.
Physical Chemistry
b. Comparing properties of alcohols with those of sugars.
i.
Organic Chemistry
c. Studying reactions that occur during the digestion of food.
i.
BioChemistry
5. Identify each of the following as an example of either the basic research, applied
research, or technological research.
a. A new type of refrigerant that is less damaging the the environment
is developed.
i.
Applied research
b. A new element is synthesized in a particle accelerator.
i.
Basic research
c. A computer chip is redesigned to increase the speed of the
computer.
i.
Technological research
6. What is mass?
a. A coherent, typically large body of matter with no definite shape.
b. What is volume?
i.
The amount of space that a substance or object
occupies, or that is enclosed within a container, especially when great.
7. How does the composition of a pure compound differ from that of a mixture?
a. Composition of a pure compound is consistent and has unique
properties of itself. Composition of a mixture always retains the properties of
what makes it up.
8. Define property.
a. A property or characteristic of a substance that is observed during
a reaction in which the chemical composition or identity of the substance is
changed.

b. How are properties useful in classifying materials?


i.
An object's properties are characteristics that
delineate it from other objects.Properties can be anything from
composition to color to ductility. Without knowing an object's properties,
it is impossible to characterize it.
9. What is the difference between extensive properties and intensive properties?
a. Extensive properties, such as mass and volume, depend on the
amount of matter being measured. Intensive properties, such as density and color,
do not depend on the amount of the substance present.
10. Define chemical property.
a. A chemical property is a characteristic or behavior of a substance
that may be observed when it undergoes a chemical change or reaction.
b. List two examples of chemical property.
i.
Toxicity
ii.
Oxidation
11. Distinguish between a physical change and a chemical change.
a. A physical change in a substance doesn't change what the
substance is. In a chemical change where there is a chemical reaction, a new
substance is formed and energy is either given off or absorbed.
12. How does a solid differ from a liquid?
a. Liquid vibrate, move about, and slide past each other. Solid vibrate
but generally do not move from place to place.
b. How does a liquid differ from a gas?
i.
Gas vibrate and move freely at high speeds. Liquid
vibrate, move about, and slide past each other.
c. How is a liquid similar to a gas?
i.
They are both fluids; individual molecules have the
freedom to move around within the confines of their container.
d. What is a plasma?
i.
An ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free
electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric
charge, typically at low pressures or at very high temperatures.
13. What is meant by a change of state?
a. Just like any substance, water can exist in three different forms,
called states: solid, liquid and gas. The state will change when the substance is
heated.
14. Identify the reactants and products in the following reaction: Potassium+Water=
a. The reaction is exothermic.
15. Suppose different parts of a sample material have different composition. What
can you conclude about the material?
a. A homogenous mixture.
16. What is the significance of the vertical columns of the periodic table? What is the
significance of the horizontal rows?

a. The vertical columns are called "Groups'' The horizontal columns


are called "Periods" The vertical columns of the periodic table are known as
groups.
17. Compare the physical properties of metals, nonmetals, metalloids, and noble
gases, and describe where in the periodic table each of these gases can be located.
a. Metals have a shiny luster, are malleable as well as ductile, have a
high melting point, and are excellent conductors of heat and electricity.
Nonmetals are generally not as shiny, are brittle, have low density, low melting
point, and are poor conductors of electricity and heat. Metalloids are solids, can
be both shiny and dull, are ductile, malleable, and conduct heat and electricity
better than nonmetals but not as well as metals. The noble gases are all odorless
and colorless. They have no physical shape. Metals are on the left side, nonmetals
are on the right side, metalloids are in a stair like shape on the right side, and
noble gases take up the far right column.
18. Suppose element X is a poor conductor of electricity and breaks when hit with
a hammer. Element Z is a good conductor of electricity and heat. In what area of the
periodic table does each element most likely belong?
a. Element X most likely belongs to the right side of the periodic
table along with the other nonmetals. Element Z most likely belongs with the
metals on the left side of the periodic table.
19. Use the periodic table to write the names of the elements that have the following
symbols, and identify each as a metal, nonmetal, metalloid, or noble gas.
a. K
i.
Potassium, Metal
b. Ag
i.
Silver, Metal
c. Si
i.
Silicon, Metalloid
d. Na
i.
Sodium, Metal
e. Hg
i.
Mercury, Metal
f. He
i.
Helium, Noble gas
20. An unknown element is shiny as is found to be a good conductor of electricity.
What other properties would you predict for it?
a. May be malleable and ductile and a good conductor of energy as
heat.
21. Use the periodic table to identify the group numbers and period numbers of
the following elements:
a. -carbon, C
i.

14, 2

b. -argon,Ar
i.
18, 3
c. -chromium, Cr
i.
d. -barium,Ba

6, 4

i.
2, 6
22. (27).One way to make lemonade is to start by combining lemon juice and
water. To make lemonade taste better you could add some sugar. Is your lemonade
sugar combination classified as a compound or a mixture? Explain your answer.
a. Lemonade is a mixture because sugar, water and lemons are
combined together without a chemical reaction taking place. The bonds of the
substances can't combine with one another, instead the three items are mixed up
23. (28).A pure white,solid material that looks like table salt releases gas when
heated under certain conditions. There is no change in the appearance of the solid, but
the reactivity of the material changes.
a. Did a chemical or physical change occur?
i.
A chemical change occurred because the gas
creates is a new substance.
b. Was the original material and element or compound?
i.
The original substance was a compound. It was a
compound because it broke into a new substance. (gas)
24. (29).Is breaking an egg and example of a physical change or chemical?
a. Physical Change
b. Is cooking an egg an example of a physical or chemical change?
i.
Chemical Change
25. (33)Question Unknown.
a. A candle seemed to get duller with no presence of oxygen which is
a chemical reaction. A boiling pot water seemed to give some amount of water,
due to it converting to gas, That is an example of physical change.