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, ; 'Th~

RCA ·R.AD'IOTRO,N

MAN "UAL

'-m-

TECHNICAL SERIES No,. R-10

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The P,-ICA Rf-\l)IO'TRON MANUAL has been prepared especially to supply technical information regarding the characteristics and operation of RCA Radiotrons to those who work or experiment with radio tubes and circuits.

Careful consideration has beer) given to the selection of material which presents general and specific tube information in the. most 'useful and helpful form.

Tube types 11&Ve been arranged in numerical sequellce on the basis of the last t\VO digits of model number designations. This is in accordance with our program of generally utilizing a two digit system for identifying tubes as evidenced by the new type numbers, i.e., 4·6'1 516, 57, 58, and 82. Eventually, the two digit system will be extended tOI practically' all of the older models by dropping the first digit of the present three digit designations ..

This Manual will 'be fOU11d valuable 'by radio service: 111 CO, radio technicians, experimenters, radio amateurs, and those who have an interest ill the technical aspects of radio tubes.

Commercial En,gineering Section RCA RADIOTR'ON CO., INC,

Harrison, New }erse'Y

Static Characteristics Dvn arnic Characteristics

" Amplification Factor, Pia te Resistance, Mutual Co nd uctance

R .o\D]'O' Tu l'_J, E A' ']:':'PL'[C \ "T"l0 N

" " ,I, D ,",J: I ,.II. .j~, ,; , • e- '.

E,Lk:C-l'RONS ANb ELECTRODES <

'.

+

Cathodes, Diodes, Triodes, 'Tetrodes, Penrodes NfAN'UFACTURE 01" R,CA 1:Zf\DI0'TRON7S

RADIO' TUBE CliARACTERISTICS

+

..

Am .r,b Iicatio 11

\JtQltage~ Power, Super-Control, CJass B Detecti on

Grid Leak Method, Grid Bias Method Oscillation

INSTALLATlION ,

+

Filarnenr and Heater 'Circuits, Plate \! oltage, Grid Voltage, Scr+:'en \f oltage, 8bie]din g, Outp ut Cou p li n g' De vi ces

SOGKTIT CONNECTlONS 'CHARACTERISTICS CHART ~ MAXIMUM OVERAI L DIMENSION S

~rYp'E

\VD'~ 11

VlX .. ] 2;

R.CA .. 46 R'CA, .. 56 R.CA"57 R!CA,~58 RCl\,,82. UX"l ] 2~A lJX",120 , [JX .. 1 r~] .. l\

U\71199 . ljX~ 199 . iJX~200"l"\ UX~lOl~l'\ . RCA<~lO lJX .. 221 . tJY ~224".l\ LJX .. 226 - {JY,227.

RC·"'IA 2'"'0

.'. ". ~ . j

RCA .. 231 R,CA .. 232

PAC IE . (On Chart) 40 " (OlD C-hart) 40 62 fi9 + 71

7'31

81

25 27 "6, 83 83,

'.

'RC,A.,233 RCA~234 R_iCA .. 235 RCA~236

RC ~ . ~

, ~A"23 !

RCA",~238 I~CA .. 239 UX~240 . lJX, .. 24.~ .. RICA,,247 UX .. 250 . UX .. 280

U'X' '18,11

.... ;;_"'.II.

UX .. S41 . R,CA .. S52 I{Ci\,;864 R(~A,,'865 RCA, .. 866

IJ CA'" 868

, '\. I,,'" ,

UX .. 874 , UV .. 876 UV,,886

. (On IChart) 40 22 24 28 19 31

33

37

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PAGE 1

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12

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18

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39 40 42

PAGE

44 46 4.8 .. 1 ),

53 55 5"

. (O'n Chart) 40 6,0

66 68 78

80

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Inside Back Cover Inside Back: Cover Inside Back: Cover Inside Hack Cover Inside Back Cover Insid e 'Back Cov,e r '. (On Chart) 41

. (On Chan) 41 " (Oln Chart) 41

RCA Redtotron MANUAL

Electrons and Electrodes

'The radio tube is a marvelous device. Although it appea.rs to 'be a. fragile affair constructe d of metal an d glass, In reality it is a rug g e d in stru m e nt t ha t m akes pos- 81 ble th e P erf orrnin g 0 fop e ra tio ns, am a ti n g in co ncep tio n ~ wi th a P Fe cision and. a. certainty that is astounding. It is an exceedingly sensitive and accurate instrument-s-the product of coordinated efl"Q'fts of engineers and craftsmen. Its con .. struction requires materials from every corner of the earth. Its use IS world .. wide, Its future possibilities, even in the light of present day accomplish rnents, are but dimly for,e8een~ for each development opens new fields of design and application,

The radio tube. consists of a cathode and. one or more additional ele,ctrodea-all enclosed in an. evacuated glass bulb-s-with their electrical connections brought to exterior terminals. The: cathode supplies electrons w hile the, other electrodes

co ntrol and. co llect them.

"if h . (1:..;1 • b I" . · b .~ " - 1 ~ ,. tl

.Ll, e importance at the ramo tube res m ~,ts a _'lH.ty to centro tU1TIOS.t rristan y

the Hight of th e mnlkDTIs of electrons supplied by the cathode. It accomplishes this with a in ini m urn of con trol en e r gy '" Beca use it is alm ost in stanta n e 0 us in its action, the radio tube can operate efficiently and accurately at electrieal frequencies much higher than possible with rotating machines,

An m atter exists in. th e solid ~ liqu id, 0 r gaseous state. These thre e fa r ms 0 f.

HI atter co. til sist entire 1 y 0 f In i n ute d i v is 10 n 5 kn ow n as 1110 I e cules, Mo 1 e. cul es are' ,a.8S11Imed to be composed of atoms. According to a present accepted theory, atoms have a nucleus which is a positive charge of electricity Around this nucleus revolve tiny charges of negative electricity known as "electrons." Scientists have estimated that these invisible hits of electricity 'weigh only 1/46 biUion~ billion, billion, bHHonths of an ounce since they may travel at speeds, of thousands of. miles per second.

Electron movement may be accelerated by the addition of energy + Heat is one form of energy which, can be conveniently us-ed to speed up the, electron. For exam ple ! if the temperature of a metal is gradually raised, the electrons gain vel .. o(i~y'. \Vh.en the metal becomes hot enough to glow; aornc electrons may acquire sufficient speed to break away from their nuclei. This. action :[8 utilized in the: nadia tube to produce the ne()t:ssary electron supply"

CATHOD,BS

,A cathode is an, essential part oJ a radio tube since It supplies the electrons. necessary for tube operation ~ In ,gen era], h .. eat is the form of energy applied to the cathode to release the electrons. The method of beating the active material of the cathode may be used to distinguish between the different forms of cathodes; f or exa m ple, . a. dire cd y" h eate d. ca th o:d e, or 6 l,attle11't-,cathode'i lis a wire 11 e at ed by the pass,age: of an electric .current. A.n indirectly .... heated cathode, or he:al:te.r''''C'3thod.e; co nsists of a fila men r, or hea ter , en closed. in a metal sleev e. Til e sleeve card es th e active material on its outsid .. e surface dind [s heated by radiation and conduction from the heater.

A, .. ,m] a m en t- ~ ,0 ~ d,irecdy .. heated cathode" rna y be f urth e r classi b.ed by Id en dry in g the filam.ent or electron ernittin g material. The materials in regular use are, tun,g~ sten, thoriated-turrgsten j and metals 'W llich have been coated with alkaline earth oxid:s, TlLngslen filarn.e.'nts are made from pure metal, Since they must operate at high temperatures (a daazling \\1 hite) to emit sufficient electrons" a relatively large amount of fihHn,ent power is required. Thoriated ... tungsten. filaments axe dtat:vTI from tungsten ~Jtl.gs 'whkh have be'e'n impregnated with tho-ria. Due to

THE RCA. RADIOTRON 'MANUAL

the thorium, these. fJ laments liberate electrons .at a more moderate te m perature (a bright yellow) and are, therefore, much more economical of filament po\v,e:r than. are pure tungsten ii~,an:u~n.rs. A1k.aline earths are usually applied by coating a nickel alloy' wire or ribbon with a mixture containing the materials. This coating, which is dried into a substan eial layer on the. filament, req uires only a very low temperature (a dun red) to produce a copious supply of electrons. Coated fila .. merits operate very eff ciently and req uir e relatively little fil a merit power. However; leach of these cathode materials has specio advantages whjch deter mine the choice for a particular application, In ge-ncrat tubes made with ·filall1.en't"'cathodes or heater-cathcdes and desi gn ed for use in radio receivers, utilize the coated constructio n.

SU PP'ORi WIHE

- CATHODE

INISULATIED IN5,ULATED

HEAlER HEATER

(--\

1--)

I"

01 RE.CTL Y HE~~ TiE D CAT HODE S (f!"ILAME:N TYPE.)

~NDtiR£CTLY HEATE[) CATHODES (HIEATER. TYIPE)

Filament ... cathode types of tubes are particularly well suited for operation f rom a steady source of filament supply voltage such as a 'battery. Tubes, for this service can be designed with cathodes which give economical pro. ducti on of electrons and, consequently, economical set o peratio n, Tu bes constructed primarily for economical battery operation are not very satisfactory for use \vithaltern.ating current filament suppl y, due to the variation in electron e mission and potentia] in the space charge region. 'which occurs with each alternation of the current. This variation is amplified by the tube and produces hurn .in the loudspeaker, When filarnent .. cathode types of tubes are to be used on a ... c filament supply, special pre" cautions are taken in the die-sign to red uce hum disturbances to a point where the hum \\o'iil not be trou blesorne. These precautions include SoU ell features as the ut.Hization of massive fila.:me nts which minimize temperature fluctuation s, the. Use of filaments which have sufficient excess electron emission SD that a very la.rge temperature than ge ]5 required to reduce the e n1.1Ss10n be 10\,\1 the value: needed for normal tube operation, and the pro portion in g of tu be parts to minimize the electrostatic and magnetic effects. produced by a .. c. on the filament. TJ-H~' "26 1S an example of a filament-cathode type of tube particularly' useful f01" operation on a.c:

Rea te r ... ,or in d:i.rectl y ~ hea tied cathodes, cern p d se a n .. iSS C TIl bl y 00 fat h in m e ta! sleeve coated with active material an d a heater contained within and separated from the sleeve" The heater is made of tungsten wire and is 'used only for the purpose of heating the "l eeve and its coating to an electron-a mittirig ternperatu e. The tungsten wire is operated at a moderate tern perature an d su P plies the energy

for heating the sleeve. .

_ The heater-cathode construction IS \.~en adapted for use .i.n radio tubes intended for operation from a ... c power lines, The use of separate parts for emitter and heater functions" the electrical insulation of the heater fro.m, the ern itte r, and the shielding effect of the sleeve rna), all be ut]h~ed. in the design of the tube to 'pH~" vent the a-c heater supply from causing hurn, Representative types are the i24~ A) .., 27, and ., 3 .j " F rorn th e viewp oint 0 f circu i t d esi gn, the h eater-oath Q de co nstructio n offers advantages in connection flex.ibiHty due to. the electrical separation of the heater fro m the sleeve and active cathode surface, This feature; in conj unction with the fn~edonl fr'~,~n electrical disturbances which might he; Introduced 'through the. filament supply lines, has led also to the use of this construction in a series of tubes {~j6"'39) designed particularly for automobile or d-e line radio sets,

-2~

THE RCA R.ADIOT·R.ON MANUA'L

E lie ctro ns are of nov alue in a rad i 0 tube u nl ess th.ey can be put: to work. A radio tube is designed with the necessary parts to. utilize the electron ·flow·. Thes-e parts consist of a. cathode and one or more supplementary electrodes. The simplest form

f di b . . ] d !r~ 1 d ", d ~,. ~ "I'

o ra .•.. 10 tut e. conta ns two of; .ectroc es, a catnoce anc a JPJLa:h~

d· f '11 d ~'~d" d 'n" h f '1 . . f , 1- ,II- d

an is C),, ten ca ,e.. a, ,10: e, t '.' e tamily name or two-e ectro re

tubes.

DIODES

F I!LAMENt

PLATE

The electrodes are enclosed in a bulb with the necessary connections brought out through air .. tight seals, The ai ~ is removed from the bulb to allow free. move .. men t fo r t h e eJ e ctro n 5 a n d to pre ViC nt inj u ry to the e mittin g sur fa ces. \V h en the cathode is heated, electrons leave the cathode surface and form an in visible cloud ]11 the space around it" Any positive electric potentia] within the evacuated bulb win offer a strong attraction to the electrons (unlike electric charges attract; like charges repel) r In a diode, the. positive potential is .applied to the second elec .. trode, known as the anode, The, potential is supplied by a suitable [electrical source connected between the, plate. terminal and a cathode terminal, Under the Influence of the positive plate potential, electrons Ilcw from the cathode to the plate and return through the external. plate battery circuit to the cathode) thus completing the circuit. This How of. electrons is known as the plate current and may be. measured by a sensitive current rueter.

If a negative potential is supplied to. the. plate; the free electrons in the space surrounding the cathode win be forced back to the cathode, and no plate current ·\",,.],11 flow. Th 1L s, the tube permits electrons. to flO\JJ from the cathode to the plate but not from the pla te to the cathode, If an alternatingvoltage is applied to the plate, the plate is alternatin gI}. made positive an d nega.tive" Plate current flo\.v;s, only during the time when the plate is positive, This phenomenon makes the tube useful as a rectifier of alternating current, that is, to provide a current flow always in the same direction. Rectifying action is utilized. in a-c recei vers to convert a. c. to d .c, for sup plyin g HB/" ··~[C,"'" and. screen voltages to the other tubes in the receiver circuit. Rectifier tubes may have +~--·-.......=-x·---"'~l~Ci~

one plate and one cathode. The '81 is of this 0 Of PIlTEf,!.

f 0 I'm an d ~ s c alled a. lla.U-·':;lfa-ve re cti fier- ~ si n ce -tt b-e voi, i..-..G£

current can flow only during on« ... haH of the ol'---_~~~~~ ::~:~I.~~ .. alternating-current eye' e. When two plates and one or more cathodes are used in the same tube, current rna v he obtained on both halves of the: a-c cvcle The '80 is an

..J .:t'

example of this type and is caned a fuU-w.av,e rectifier"

NQt at 11 0 f th e electro n s emitted by th e cath 0 d e rea ch the pla te. Some retu rri to th e cathode 1;;V hile others remain in the. space between the cathode and plate for a. b rief P erio d to for ill an effect kno wn as space-charge. This charge has a re p ell .. ing action on other electrons which Ieave the cathode surface, and impedes their .passag.e to the plate. 'The extent of this action and the amount of' space .. charge is greatly dependent upon the cathode temperature and the plate potential. The high e r th e plate p ote n tial, t ~.1 e . '] ess is, th e 'toe n den cy fo r th e space electro 11 s reo mainling to repel others. This effect may be noted by applying increasingly higher plate voltages to at tube operating at a fixed cathode voltage, U nder these con .. diticns, the maxirnu .. m _nunl ber of a vailable electrons is fixed, but increasingly higher plate "voltages will succeed in attracting a greater proportion of the 'free eJectrons.

Beyond a certain plate voltage, however, additional plate voltage has little effect in .in c re asin g the pl ate cu rrcn thee ause all 0 f t.he electrons e mi tte d. by th e. ca th od €:: are being drawn to the plate, This maxim um current is ca]led saturation current,

FULL-WAVE RECTIF1CATION

and because it Js an

mdicarion of the total number- of elecerons emitted, it ,IS also

k ] ~,. '1" I

nown as en E eOUssH),U. current, or, SJ ill P Y j enussion. n

most tY'pe's of tubes, it .1'8 impossible to obtain this value by measurement, since the current flow is suffie.lently large to chan ge the emitting conditions or; to da,:rna,g'f! - the tube, . As a result, emission value sin p raoti ce are d eter min ed at 501ne. lower voltage which. will not harm the tube. Diffefle;n.t results will be obtained if a diflerent cathode voltage or temperature is chosen; since the cathode temperature de ... te rm i 1.1 es t 11'~ n 1JJ ill ber 0 f avail a hi e electro 111 s +

f I ,
~~.lI~~t~'i~ PQ~iJ:

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F
- _, - ~
I
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T
..# /1 I' If space .. charge effects were not present, it follows that the same electron illlow could be produced a:1: a lower plate voltage. One method of reducing the space" charge effect j,s utilized in several types QI! rectifier rubes, represented by the mer" cury .. yap or feet Hi er 82:; Th is tube con Edlin s a small 8. mo U IT t of m er cu ry whic h is partially va porized when the, tube .is operated. The mercury vapor consists of

· . .- ~ 1 ,', id u· b lb 'T- li b

• "_ -.-", "1"". 'I' "." .' .~ .. ---p = ~:--:;- ',~' ".- - _"( - -. ' - .. :- ,", .. ; I I'- '1- "'_ 1'[: I ',' ," u ee . -'1: '. i _," I' ...... - .. ~

nny mel cury atoms permeating t re g"pace InS1 .e .. ae . U I· • ,. iese atoms are . om

barde:,d by the electrons on their w,ay to the plate'. If the electrons ,are moving at a sufficiently high speed, the collisions win tear off' electrons from the mercury atoms. When this happens the mercury atom. is said to be "ionized, H that is, it has lost, one 0:( more: electrons and, therefore, is charged positi ve, 'Wilen icniz .. , aeion due eo bombardment of mercury atoms by electrons leaving the iiJa:ln,e,nt occurs, the: space-cbarge is neutrali4ed. by the positive, mercury ions so that increased numbers of electrons. are made available" A. mercury-vapor rectifier has a

11 1 drot b·' - .' h - d -. d . ·1' - (". b· . 1·' 5 - - '1· .) Th :' d ~

· . :. :. . "!' .. I " : ". I . 1-" • ' . "'l . 01· [ ":"': ... I': . I:' -~ .. I I .' '. .;. I I I'·: - ,- '. . ' .

S,flJla v 0 rage _. Fopetwee.n cat O"I.E~ an. pate diout . VQ, ts .. ' '. . IS .1 op .IS

P racticall yin d e pen den t 0 f CUFte n 1: teq uirernen ts up '1;;0 th e Iim 1 t 0 f erniss 10 n '0 f electrons from the 'filament but is dependent to some degree on bulb temperature.

TRIO·· D· ·ES'·'

• .. ~ . I ,:., :. : I . _ . . .. ' .... . ,

Wlil e nat hird ele ctrod e ~ can e d the grid.) IS place d _ n e xt to th e edith od e l' the tube IS known as a "triode." This is the family name £o:r th ree-electrode types", The grid usually consists of a wire mesh O( gratin gi< the appearance of which suggests its name, Its construction allows practi cally unobstructed fl:~ght of the electrons fro ill th e ca eho d e to th e plate '"

.1 When the grid .of a tube, is made positive or negative

I~ ...• , .•..•.• ,·: ... _·.:,· .•...• , .• ,·:.:.",'., ..... · •..• , ~vitlll r~ s pect to the death 0 d e j' theTPh'] a tie ~d'u r~-eF..i.l· t c:orrd'~s p om d:'

~~ lng y Increases 01,",ecnE:,ase.s. .e gnc IS ocatec mucn

nearer the cathode than the plate so that a small voltage

'~T" change on the grid will have the same effect on the plate current as a larger voltage change on the plate" ,/\ grid

rIL';;"ME'Ni GRitl' !"'LA1E: ' l' 1 . I 1

' ., . , .. -_ .., requir es very Itt e p uwe r:o se I"1011n. 15' mere Y a s a valve to

control the plate current,' -

A negatively charged grid tends to for'ee the space electrons back toward the fi] am en t" Til is action deere ases the pla te cu rre n t, Pla te curr e n t, i n fact, ru ay be. re d uce d to ,4€ to (cut .. o H)< by rnaki n g the neg ad ve grid ell arge suffi cien tly To, r g e '. On t.h:E: other hand, when a positive charge is applied to the grid, the electrons a re a cce] e ra te d an d .1 n ere ase d p] ate c urre nt res uks"

It 8 h 0 uld be note d that this, COD trol actio n of the g ri d permits the use of the tu be as an a ill plif er . A small g rid voltage ch an ge pro duces a ill uch lax g,e r p] ate current than would th,€'; same change in - plate voltage. Typical three ... electrode

· b . h ''''10 '2~ 1t.;iC d " ~ 5' .

tu . '(::s an.~, t ',e L· ')- ,~: 1 ~ j '!.}, an_. "1' _ .•

'The conrrol grid. circuit (input circuit) includes any device or devices connected bet\~een the control grid ;i;lil,d cathode of a tube For the purpose of i.mpressing an input or signal voltage on the control gr,id. It IndY consist of an antenna coupling ceil, a transformer secondary, or any unit having one or all the factors of indue .. ranee, resistan ce and capacity, Sirice it is usually desirable to. maintain the grid at some negative. voltage (c~Ued grid bias) with respect to the cathode, the grid circuit will, in such cases, also in dude, ,3. source. of V'o,ltage ,5u,p,ply for that purpose. 'The g'rid b·ias supply I( C~'su,pply) way be ,a batte'ry or other source of d~c volta.ge.

THE :RCA RADIOTRO'N MANUAL

Th e o~t.put' (:i~uit is C OJ)! si de re d to in clud e the parts 0 f th e circuit co nnecte d be" t\ve e n th e plate an death od e T.

The de ctro des .0 f a radio tub e f orm an e le ctrostati c syste m, each electro d e a ce ... ing as .011 e plate of a small condenser, For a three-electrode tube the capacitances are known as mnter-el,e\ctfiodk!, capacitaeces and ate those existi ng between the grid and plate, the p'~ate and cathode, and the grid and cathode, Of these, the capacity between the' grid and plate is generally of most importance. In high-gain radio" frequency amplifier circuits, this capacity may act to produce undesired coup'ling between the input and output circuits and" thereby, cause uncontrolled regeneration,

TETRODES

The e ffect of gd d ... pia te capaci tan c e in causing excess reg en era tion ill a.y he muum i z€'d or eliminate din a num bet of ways, 0 ne sch e me re quires: the use 0 f co ill" ,plica:n:Jed circuit arrange,m.ents which set up counteracting effects to counterbalance the action of the grid-plate coupling, The second and preferable In erhed is to eliminate as much as possible the grid .. to-plate eapacitance in the tube itseH. This ]8 accomplished 'by employing a fourth electrode in the tube 'which. is known as the screen, The screen is placed 'between the plat,€; .aJ1Ld the grid and thus makes

iF'l LAME.NIT

a four-electrode tu be, or "tetrode , ~,~ With this type of tube, [ntr icate circuits and balancing difficulties may he eliminated. , Since the screen voltage largely determi n es tn e electro n 'fl (iW" Sill all chan ges of plate vol tag e have: little e ff ect 011 pla te current. This is de:sirab]e. from the viewpoint of ,stability'., The screen is constructed so that the flow of electrons is not materially obstructed, yet ,it serves to establish an, electrostatic shield between the plate and grid; The screen ,15 operated at some positive voltage lower than that of the plate and is. by-passed to the cathode through a condenser. This by-pass corideriser etl,ectiveiy gr,ou.n.ds the screen for high .. fr,equcncy currents and assists in reducing grid~1)hlte: capacitance to, a muum U In value. ~ n g e n era! pra cti ce th'e gr,l d-plare cap aci tan ce is, ted u ced fro In 810. average of 8.0 micromicrofarads (~,q.tf.) for a triode to 0.0 1 jlt~L or less for a screen grid tube. The. reduction permits the attainment of stable amplification from screen grid tubes many times as high as that possible -ftorn three electrode eu bes. Tubes of this type are represented by the '124,.. A~ ~ 32 and ~ 35.

P')gNTODES

In all radio to bes, electrons striking the 'plate, may" if moving at sufficient speed, d islo dg e -0 the r el e etta-a s. In two an d th ree electro de ty pes, these va gra n t electrons usually cause no trouble because no positive electrode, other than the plate its el f j s p res e nt to a ttract th e m S~) th at th ey a re ev en tu ally drawn back to th e plate. Emission fro rn 'the plate caused by bornbardment of the plate by electrons from, the cathode is called secoridary e~mssjoll." because the effect 1<5 secondary to the 00 ri ginal ca th.od e ele ctro n s. 111 the cas e 0'£ sere e n ,g rid tubes j th e proxi m i ty of th.e postive screen 'to the plate 0 ffer'S a, strong attraction to these secondary electrons and particularly so if the plate' voltage swings lower than the screen voltage. This effect lowers the plate current and limits the permissible plate swing for tetrodes.

The plate current limitation is removed when a. fifth electrode, known as the suppresser, is placed in rhe tube between the screen and plate", The Iamily name for ·6.v;e .... electrode types is, "pentcde. "I't The suppressor is usually con nected to the

~$--

TH'E RCA" RADllT'OTR(1N M"A' NU' ~ if

.-'1 :."_:'" .... ···I.J,:.,,·.. .... t. .. :: ••.••• Al,

C~ th ode. Because. of its negative potential with respect to the plate, it retards the flight of secondary electrons and diverts. them back to the plate, 'where they can.

cau.se .no. trouble, .

IF IL1~M:LNT

GRID

Th e suppressor is utilized at the present tirne in pentacles des:igned for t\VO different functions. In power output pentodes, the suppressor makes possible a large power output with hj:gh gain, due to the Iact that the plate sw:~ng can he

d ~. T' b f h" . _11 b I ~']!'1' "''18 ..JI "49

rna every iargc. u ses 0' t 18 type are. r·epres,e:nteu.·y t le o o, .J :.' 3..11 U. . s ,

In radio-frequency amplifier pentodes, the suppressor permits of obtaining a high 'v ol ta ge a ill plifi cati 0. nat m 0 d era te val u e S 0 f plate. volta g e, In. fat ct, th e. plate 'volta g e may be as lou, as or lower than t:he screen voltage without serious Jess in the gain c a p.a b i lities 0 f th is. ty p e ," 'Re P rese n tati ve 0 f this type are. th e ~ 3.4 and ., 3'9 , Fu rth e r adv.a.nt.ages in. adaptability of tube design and application may be obtained by pro .. vidin g the suppressor with its own base: terminal, With this arrangement, it is possible to obtain special control features by variation .0 f the voltage applied to the: suppressor. Typical tubes of this type are th e 57 and 58 .

.....

P ts A' ''b]' ,jI' h ' 1)4' iI; 'ar .s '. s,s·emu~Y Ol' t. e ,,," = ... ~

~6·-··

Manufac.ture of RCA Radiotrons

The' ,age in ~\1 hich we: live is vitally Influeruoed by

I ] ,,' b \''\ .,' 1.l - 1'- " ...:a.-

the t rerrmornc vacuum tu -,e,.lV rthout rrus u,e:Vl1CE:!,

the ra pid strides 'W hie h have b een made in radio development would H,Ot have been possible, In a fc\;v short years, the radio tube has entered Int~ ~ our h 0]1) es, offi c es~, f acto ri es ~ and la borate ries as an inte g ral and ess enti aI part 0 f rn o d ern li 'lin g ..

To meet the de.tnand:s and exacting- needs of this 'vast 6 e 1 d.:) un ceasi ng d ev el o p:m en t of tubes. and CO]] ",' ti n uous i m p roverne n t 0 f tu b e In an u f acturmg eq ui p.r merit has been. req Hired, AO'lOlnafjc tube: making machinery has been developed [:0 the stage where it now enters into practically every phase: of' our

f . -"'. S h " .'

. - I - , . I 1-·' - .. """ ,""',' _ r" ~ "", "' ""_ " ~ -_ "_" --:" .. 1 - .. ~ ,- -,.

manu. actunng actrvrtres, ,lire., equipment is par,

ticular ly w'en ad a pte d for p rod Dei n g Ua.rg-c quan ~ ri ti es o f tu bes uni form in. ch ar a ere ristics.

C"nh·,,;1/ 6.''"4,,_, __ .. _p,,___"" C¢nm-~t/i(;:j'"j

.scro,:!"j'/ ... 6.Fr.d

CQ..,!:f''i1! C:r.0I

In attahll:ing this uniformity, each component part o f the tube structure must be, precise in dimensions and f:fEE: [rom impurities. Many of the part.s are ga.uged to thousandths of an inch. SOITI e p,a rts r eq u ire very rn u ch gre ater ace u racy" The constituent materials of these parts are used only a f te r th e y II ave p assed ex acti n g chemica 1 tests. The need for this care may be appreciated when it is known that. the active coating on some £lam.ents weig hs as ] itt] e as 2 1 ten:' mill 10 nth S 0 f ,a po 1JJ n d .

The: same care which is used in the selection of individual .parts is representative of the general manu[acturi ng proce d u re fo r each 0 f o 1lJ r typ es ~ 0 f these types, the ~2'4~'A is an excellent example for explaini ng the details of tube manufacture.

The in i tial step in the process consists ,1 n the making 0 f th e 0 are, The: flare: IS the in ter,i 0 r gl ass section through '''i_V hich passes the connecting wires fro ill the bu lb ] n teri or to the base pi ns 0 f the com .... plered radio tube. Standa-rd lengths of glass tubing are fed into a machine which grips each one and moves it through a series ;Qt gas flames of increasing intensity. Whe,,[l; the lower end assumes a bright yell" low color (" at this tern per-a ture th e gl ass is a b ou t as soft as warm wax] a whirling cone rises to gently sh ape th e In olten ed ge 0 f the tu bin g . in to a flange or flare. Afte:r the operation has. been completed, the' machine: transports the flanged tubing through additional gas flames which play upon it at HI. point to ,give;' the co rrect le n g th, for th e fi nished fl are, ,A rotating glass cutter swings down, into place under the tubing, then rises 'within it to cut off the secdon at the heated portion.

After i nspe cti 0 n, the flare is sent to th,e stem, machine, The tlare is placed in, the' stern machine: where the: 'wire supports and connections are in- 5 e rted _ Correct sp aci n g between. wi res is ,1 nsured by a metal f orrn 'which holds them in. the, ,pro per POSl ti 0 n to be sea led in to the ,glass,. * Each wire

SeaJ,ing the Stem

,*It is inte.resting eo kT.'J:Ow dl;;J.iI: bc:f ore ;fLi~Y '[iJ1,cta.l enters into the: cOIi!Structfon of a ~ ube, :U'E nmst he ~'ho'rf}tjg"bly cleaned, This, I~, ~GCO ~fip1 isned 'by neadng dle m~t<IJ I .-:!It a h igb te m'" perae ure in ~I n atmosphere of hydrogen. The process cl eans ¢'Ue most tarn ished m€n:~ ,',

,~7,~,

THE RCA RADIOITRON MANlAL

consists of three sections \velded together into a. unit. Th e se cti OTIS co ns ist 0 f nick t:] and copper with a small Jength of special metal called dumet fused between them at a point where the molten glass is pressed about the wire. When the wires have been inserted within the flare! a length. O'I glass exhaust tubing is automatically ]0\1.)'''' ered into the center of this assembly. The:

Bare arrangement is then carried progressi vely through fialnes which play upon it and melt it at a point where the glass is to be pressed together. Metal jaws

,~relding Mourrt ~A.s3ernlbly firmly squeeze the molten glass around

the wires, thus Fusing the parts together in an air-tight seat or press. The assembl y then moves into position under an air jet which supplies compressed air to the exhaust tubing In order to' blow a hole through the hot soft glass 'below the pinch. It is through this opening that the bulb is evacuated in a. later operation. The entire part, kno,"vn as ehe stem, is removed f ro m th e machi n e an d. all neal e d to preven t glass str ai n s. A f te r ins p e cti 0 n I the annealed stern is sent to the stern ~

forming machine, where the wires are ben t to the. pro p er sh ape to ta k e the parts to be 1l10U nted thereon,

, ... ;\f'te:r a. careful inspection. has heen _ made, the stem is ready for the fitting of the: additional parts, such as the plate, cathode, grid and screen, These parts are formed with accuracy by automatic rnachinery which operates more rapidly than the eye can follow. As these parts are mounted, they are electrically welded to insure permanent construction. First, the pl ate is mounted and weld ed to its respec ... tive supports. The gr id and screen

are next f astened in their positions. Bu] b Bea.U ng and Exfrau st i n g

T he outer section 0 f th e sc r een con-

sists of a nickel mesh cylinder) while the inner section is a helical coil 0 f fine wrre. The sections are connected and held tog'ethcr at. the top by do meta'! disc. The cathode is then inserted and v.le1ded to the proper terminals. The cathode consists of a heater wire enclosed in a. metal sleeve from which it is electrically insulated. 'Great care is exerted :i -) ap pi yin g the active material to maintain exactness of coated area and thickness. After the sleeves have been sprayed ~ they are baked and caref ully inspected.

Following the grid-assembly operation) the connecting wi re 'which later is passed through (he top of the glass bulb to the Iamiliar metal cap, is wel dcd to the control grid support. The "getter" cup~, which contains pellets of magnesium: is then fastf:ned eo the grid support.

The unit, composed of a stern and attached parts, is known as the rnou nt, It is inspected ~ tested for short circuits and transferred to the sea],~'nR ... in and exhaust machine. Here it is placed on a rotating support! known as the sealing head ~ and a glass bulb is lowered over

Electr'uc.al In spectfon Te~ L~

-8-

TH(E' R···'CA"··· RA"D'IO"TR' 0'""N" MA'lo.."r'·'"

,_ ::_' ,," _"I J.~,'., ",' .... ', ; ru~ U,At

it. He,a~ is app]ied both to the J u nction 0 f the flare and b ulb The seal i n g head ~ con stan tly IQ" tati ng j' moves the tube in to in." creasingly hotter zones where the glass is s o f te n ed by the fires, The glass- around the control g:rl d lea d is sealed Imme diatel y after the flare and bulb june .. t],O-D 1.8 mad e. The en t1 r e glass bulb is annealed in the process, af ter which the . tu be is transf,e:rrif~d to the exha ust section,

of the rnachi ne w'h en;' it is con-

nected to fheexhaust pumps, Pr(,i('i,ring Lire arrd Q.u,aIU:y

'The atmosphere is dra wn from

the 'bulb in 5 u ccessi ve ope ra tion s, To ins ure a rn ore complete exh a ust the p rincipal metal parts 0 f the tube are hea ted by powe r f ul h:i g h ~ f re que nc y currents, induced by an external coil that automatically \Jm-1f)'ps around the bulb" The intense heat, ere a ted .11'1 the me t al by in d ucti on" f re es the gl ass an d meta U:~ c tube parts, of occlu d ed gases \cv hich are immed ia tel y re m ave d from the bulb by the exha ust pumps" The getter is flashed O[ vaporized .. ~fter. the: exhaust is nearly corn,ph:ted. The flashing is accomplished by means 'Of inchl:ction Irom a movable .high-Fre .. q uency coil whi ch is d rap P ed dow n aro und the ou tsid e of the glas8' bu 1 b. . The current induced in the getter cu p is great enough to provide the necessary heat to vaporize th.€: getter. The' vapor absorbs residual detrimental gases to. make a better exhaust, and condenses in a silvery' film on the inside of the ,glass, bulb, This condensation acts as a vacuum keeper during the useful ljfe of tile tube. When the ex: ha list process has b~en com pi e ted, the tube is au toma ti cally seal ed o:ff, disconnected from the vacuum pump and transferred by belt to the basing machine.

Here the: c.on]l ecti 0 n wi res 0 f the tube a re pro perl y threa d eel in to' the 1] ve pins of tb e base, The: tub e an. d bas e are' passed th rou g h an OVCll ~ \v hi en hard e ns the cement on the inside edge of the base, thus fastening the, bulb firmly- .to the base, P ollowi ng the b Min g operatic n, pro] ecti ng en ds of the wires. are, cue 0 if flu:sh wirth the ends of the pins and soldered. A small met-al cap is secured to the top ~)f the bulb by m eans 0 f cement and sold e red to the gd d ie,a d.

The tube 1.$ once more examined for short and open d:rcu:its, and then, placed 0:11 ,at "seasoning rack H where 'Voltages are applied to the electrodes. The tube is allowed to "seasori" fo:r a length of time sufficient for its characterietics to 'become sta bilized r-

After the tube is seasoned, it ]:5 again tested for short and open circuits as, wen. as for plate current, cathode activity [emission y~ a-c output, gas and leakage, 0'l1 some types, of tubes additional tests are made, E:xtn;;mely accurate instruments are used: for these tests. The completed and inspected product .ls hn,a:ny wrapped in a co ttl],gate d hold e r a n d packed in its dis-tin ctive carton, read y fo r de] i very to the purchaser.

Prom beginning to end, this brief story of one type of tube is indicative of the manufacturing skin! pains-taking care: and precision precesses employed in making each diff e ren t: ttl be described in this MAN U A L.

{'''II

---- "7 =--.

R d T b

1 ,- _

a-' 10 ," u-·e:

The term ~~CHARACTERIS.TECS.I''I is used to identify the distinguishing electrical features and values of a radio tube, These values may he: shown in curve form or they may he tabulated" When given in curve form, they are caned clll,'2l.racteristic. curves and may be used for the determination of tube perform,ance and the calculation 0";- ad (bti 0 nal tube ,facto rs,

Tube characteristics are 0 brained from electrical measurements of it tube in various circuits under certain definite conditions of 'v[)]tages., Characteristics may be further de-scribed by denoting the conditions of measure merits. For exam ple, Static Characteristics are the val ues obtained with d]:H e ren r d ~ c P oten tials a p plied to' rhe tube electrodes, while Dynamic Characte r mstics are the: values obtained, with an a-c voltage applied to the control grid under various conditions of. d .. c potentials on, the' electrodes, The dyn.amic characteristics, therefore, are indicative 0f the performance capabilities of a tube under actual working conditions,

PI:a;:te ,cI-1!.ara;cter1:sti,c curves and nl:utua.~ chaeacteristic curves both give Information on static characteristics, These curves present the same information), but in two di ff'ere n t form s to i r~ ere ase its usef ulness, T. h e pla te ell aracte ristic c u rue is obtained by varying plate voltage and measuring plate current for different control g rid bias volta ges, w h il e th e m utual cha racte ristic curve is 0 btai ned. by va ryi n g control grid bias, vol tage and measuri n g' plate c urren t for d i fferen t plate: vt: lta ges, A, pl ate characteristic family 0 f curves is iU ustrate d by Fig. 2.. Fi 15 . 1 gi ves th e. mutual characteristic family of curves for the same tube.

I

,12

'I

IP.I Ld ,e::: ~ S~·==~~~4----4~~--~---~

Ii :::1: ~

1b-=~----I!-~~l---------,1~~...,J-..-4 i~ ~ G .. ~-~q._-----li----P.-~-F~~

:~

I

I,

~ 3,0 -;8'(!i - ~o

GRID YOI)..'T$

Fig. 1

.;;.. ~'

WO 11:5,0

!PLATE: 'VOLTS

2:100

Dyman-l[le, ,cflar~ct,eristics 1 n clu d e a m pli n ca do n facto r ~ p I ate re SJ stan ce, and mutual co n d ucta n ce, an d rna y be sh own l. n curve Io r ill for vari ations in tu be 0 perati n g conditions,

The amplific,.a:tio'I][ factur; or u, is the ratio between a small plate voltage chan ge and the g·rid. voltage (:hang,e '\"1 hich produces an eq ual plate current variation. ,In other words, a voltage variation in the, grid circuit has the same eH,ect on plate current ,charlJ,g.e: as a plate voltage change equal to the gdd volta,ge dme.s the amplification factor. For exam ple, if the grid voltage chan ge is. j. volts for a change in plate current of one milliampere, and if a plate voltage change of 30 volts is also re q uired to pro c1 ~ ce a c ha n ge in p late curre n t of on emil] i amp' ere" th e am pi] fi catio n Factor is 30 div,fded by 5 ~ i.e., 6~

The amplihcation factor ()1) ~ IS useful for calculating stage gain) as illustrated on ,page 12.

'TIle plate resistance of d.,_ radio tube is the resistance of the path bet\\ieen cathode and plate to the flow of alternating current, It is the ratio of a. small change in plate voltage to _the corresponding change in plate current and is expressed in oh.ms, the urdt of resist-an ce. Thus, if a change 'oJ 0.001 ampere is produced by a plate voltage _ variation of 20 volts" the plate resistance {rp) is 20 di vid'ed by OJJ01,~ i.e., 2,0000 ohms,

-- 10--

T- H-.··E-'· R··'.C·,.··:A r ·:···· RJ\·.:········D.I··O·:·:T·. ·'R·,'·O·.·N~.·· M·'· ... ,·.A'·",.N .. ··iU'AL

. . ., • _' • .• ,_. _'. _ _ .1 .~ " •

The mutual eondueranee, <or grid ... plate transconductance, is a. factor which com, .. hines in one term the amplification Iactor and the plate resistance, and ~s. the ratio of the first to tJ1.e second+ Thus~.if the amplification factor is 10 and. the plate, resistance is 10000. ohms, the mutual cond uctance (gm) is, 10 divided by I 0000 equals 0'.001 mho. A mho is the unit of conductance, the reciprocal of resistance; and was named by spelling ohm backwards, For convenience, a millionth of a mho, or a micrornho, is used to. express mutual conductance, So" in the example, 0.00.1 mho times a million, equals ]000 micrornhos.

Mutual cond uctance « gm) is strictly defined as the quotient of a small change in plate Cl!.UIC;.nt caused by a small change in grid voltage. This terra is a very useful one. for comparing tube performance ca pabilities, especially when tubes of similar characteristics axe compared, but it has, limited application for the cornparison of tubes Intended Ior differe.nt functions. For example, the 112 .. A has a mutual conductance of 1 700 micromhcs a-t 180 volts on the plate and ~ 13 ,.5 volts. on the grid" while the '71 -: l\ has. a mutual conductance of. 11. (520 micrornhos at 180 volta, on -. the p.late and. ~40. 5- volts. on the: grid, As a power amplifier ~ however ~ the: "'?l .. A is capable of furnishing three times as, 111 u ch undistorted power to a loud ... speaker as the l12 .. A. On the other hand, the ] 12~'A is an excellent detector and 'Voltage amplifier" services [or which the 17'!",A ,is unsuitable,

TYP'ICAL TUNED IR.AOIO ~ fRE:.QUENCY CIRCUIIT ,2~VOLT PI.LAMENT TYPES

['

·'·".·,R[ ~~~----~--~~~--~~~~~~"\ .

-:) 'TO -2'2. $1,1,

C, :: n - If gy~PASs. CONIDl£:N5!ER (CUD I J-iif.)

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L = RAmo ... F,DJ;QUE.NCY eric k.E'

r:I.~!E v01..,1!J MIE: CO'N TE1:QL P·OT~ NT.iOM!: iER A= B- [6+

Res]stance Strip == Th@ val ues of the resp-ec.ti'Ve r-esf ator-a in th is strip shoutd be chosen to g'Ive the ind]c.a.ted vOltn.S"0S at the va.ri.QUs taps; as measured wtth a high re;s.istance voltmeter. The total re~ ststanc'8 in the strip should ha.ve a. valu.e ,such that the, ble.·ed.[EH~ cur-r e'nt w iIl be appr oxtrna te.ly. S. n] iHi.arnperes.

C ;:; .E!!''f-AAS·:$· [CO~D. c NstR (1,,,0 PfJ

.q ::::: IR~ I' e!1'(-!PASS CON DENS ElR (0 .• 000 O.;?,·5 jolt)

~ ~ SlOe!K..I NiG CONIDEJtSE:R (0 -OO's·]iJf. TO o.O·5~f') R ~ COOPLIIN G; RiE.s. S 1iOiR (1,1)0' 000 OHMS)

C' ) ~NPU_T.~

IR~ ~ GRI[li L.~A.K RES,IS1QR.O. S MEGOHM'

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d b 1

Ra io Tu.·.e Applications

The. applications. 0-£ a radio tube are numerous, hut they can be grou.ped broadly into three classes, according to operation .. These are: Amplification; detection, which is a special form of J["ectification~; and oscillation. Although these operations rnay take place at radio- or audio .. frequencies and may in,volve the use of dHfe·rent circuits and diHerent supplemental parts, the general considerations ()f these applicaDons are basic and hold for all conditions,

,A~'L,IFICA TION

As ,8.. voltage attiplin,cr'" a radio tube is used to reproduce voltage variations, in the pl a tie eire ui t, These va dati 0 ns are es sentially of th e sa m e f 0 rrn as th e i n put. si.gn,a! voltage impressed on the grid! but of Increased amplitude, This, is ac~ complished by ope,rating the tube at a suitable grid bias so that the applied grid input voltage produces plate current variations proportional to the signa'i swings. The use o f tubes 1 n this' rna riner is broad I y id e n bfied as Class A. se rvi ce, Since the power controlled .in the plate circuit Is much ·1a.rger than that: required to swing the grid potential, amplification of the signal .is obtained. Fig. .3 gives a graphical illustration of this m.~t.0~4 .. .9:f amplification and shows, by means of the grid voltage vs, plate current characteristic, the effect of an. input signal (.s) a P' plied to the grid of a tube, (0) is the resulting amplified plate current variation .

•• _* I.". ~ c~~'- ~,o;;'!.,,!-I'"

!i~, -, .. ,.~

" - t- - +'1 '. . . .' . . I -

.:. i l ,. I

. -;-'1"-""'---' -'_. --~~-__:.~ -_.

. ~ . +

I

INiPUT' .:51(;·1'\1;"1...

I I NI~U T 51 C.I'o.'IA~ I

(,S) it' 1

'c;i

I '

( - I ·1

LOAI!) RE 51 STOR • iR

Ii--------_,-' _ i II: I' I- T~~~-.....ij' II ~ I ~ 1II1 6-!~~---!I

c. E!.

,Fig. 3' F'lg'" 4

The plate current flowing through the plate load resistor (R) of Fig. 4· causes a voltage drop which varies directly with the plate CUrrent. 'TIle ratio of this, voltage variation produced in the load resistor [0 the grid input voltage is do measure of the. volta.ge amplification, or gainj of the tube stage, This ratio is not the same ,as the amplification factor of the tube! but is determined by the combined effects. of P late resistance, _!old resistance 'Or impedance, and the amplification ·fa.ctor. The voltage amplification pe.r stage due to the tube is expres-sed by the followin g convenient formulae:

(Am plH1.c-B t~ on facto r ) X (' P _,a ee loa d re sisrance ) ~olt~g€ .~~plificatio~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

(P late Ioa d re siseance) +. [Pla ee re $;1 stance)

( M utu;al cern dut e~mCif ,(n m i.c,Iomh(5) Y' (:P t'l.· c: re,s.l::stance) 'X (, P late ~oad. :res ~$.~a rt,C;f ) 1 000 0 O~ X' {Plate re si stance + Plate load)

Load resistance an d p]ate resistance values should be expressed in the same units, either o hms or megohms.

These formulae apply equally well 'to all types of amplifier tubes. If the load resistance is made increasingly large, the voltage amplification per stage approaches the amphficarion facto:r of the tube as a limiting value, Fig..5 shows that gain increases with larger loads, . Since the load resistor lowers the a vailable plate voltage due to plate current flo\v'ing through it, the plate voltage swing obtainable is likewise reduced" This drop may be avoided by replacing the resistor with an

THE RCA RADIO"TRON' MA'NU&

il.lductan,c~. An ~nducta:~ce can, be d,esign,ed to have a high impedance to the ~Hgnal and also to have a, low resistance to direct current, T'ne Inductance, depend ... ing upon circuit requirements, may be an air-core coil, an Iron-core choke, or a

I • . "

transformer prrmary.

VOLTAGE AMI~UF'LCAi'IO' VS,LOA.D [RE.~ISTANicE. F«)Fl TIHlEQ R Eli H~, AlL 1 fi.OiJE tf1A ..... 1 N(E:

Pl. Ai i;;: FtE 3 rsr AHlC E ~ 10.000 O'H M So

.AM f' L I FICA iT ~Q!N F A'~ 'OJ~ ii'~O M'U!;:·1I"I·AI.. eo NIDUCl A N'CE :;::; 10,00 M' I C!'l'O~ H!O:S

The method of applying the input signal to the grid 1-5 important. It 18 possible to Use an input circuit of 'high impedance, since the grid input impedance of radio tubes is very high as Ion g as the grid bias is negative. If an input transformer is used the secondary impedance. is made as high as other design conditions permit. In resistance-coupled circuits, the grid resistors usually range in value from Yz to 2 megohms, depending upon the type of tube and the circuit. ToO' high 3 resistance may result in instability! while too [ow a value of grid resistance may result in low gain. .The most suitable value will usually be. determin.ed by experiment.

As a power 3!rupIi6er; a radio tube is used in the output stage of radio receivers to supply relatively large amounts. of power to the loud speaker. For this applicatiou, large po-wer output. is of much greater importance than hIgh voltage arnplification, so that gain possibilities are sacrificed in the design of power tubes to obtain power h an d lin. g ca pa hi' ity, P ower tu bes 0 f th e trio de typ e. are cha ract erized by comparatively high p1ate current, large grid bias" and low plate resistance. Power tu bes of the pentode type give large power output 'with go-od sensitivity.

Either pu~t'h ... puU or p,ar,aUei operation of power tubes may be em played [0 to btain increased output. The parallel connection (see FEg. 6) provides twice the output of a. single tube without an in crease in grid signal voltage; while the push .. pull connection (see Fig, 7) \\ in give twice the output at the same grid bi as, bu t req uire s twi ce to e input si g nal. a utpu t ali g htl y g re ater th a n twi ce the: single tube value can be obtained from the. push .. pull connection by' Increaaing the bias. "Thfs is permissible since the push-pull connection balances out 2n.d harmonic dis.tnrtion~-tbe usual limiting factor. In the latter case, the output ".13 limited aim est entirely by 3rd harmonic distortion.

@ ,

B _. A'- C F I LJl.M~NT SiJl"t'PL If

FIg. 7

- 1.3 -~

THE RC.A RADIOTRON lvlA'N'U'AL,

The operation of power tubes so that the. grids run postttve is inadvisable except under conditions, such as are. discussed later in. this section for Class B amplifiers,

Power (t'm pli.pe'r outpu:t. for triodes can 'be calculated without serious error from th.e plate family of curves by ass'Umh1J_g ·G. pure resistance ]oad.. The proper plate current, grid bias, and optimum load resistance, as well as the per cent 2nd har .. · monic distortion, can also be determined, The calculations are made grapb.ieaUy an dare i]Justra ted by Fig. 8 fo r gi ven (0 n d ida ns, The p roc e dure is. as Io 1. .. 10w'S~: A str ai g h t lin e X Y is d r a \l.J non th e P la teo fa rnily 0 f curve s inte rse cti n g the plate voltage at a trial value of plate current at a point (:P) and having a slope corresp on dill g to the load resistan ce chosen, Th e s.lo'pe 0 -f X·Y is dere r m i ned by adjusting the line 50 that the plate voltage intersection at zero plate. current di 'lid e d hy the plate ell rren t in te r se ction at; Z'E:rQ p la te volta g e is eq ual to rh e trial load resistance value; or" as is sometimes more convenient, by drawing line XY through point {P) parallel to some other line AB which has the proper slope.

fa cal cul atin g P ower ou tput, it Is ass ill m e d th at th e P eak altern a tin g g ['1 d. vol ta g e is j ust sufli cient to swin g th e grid :f ro in th e 0 peratin g hi as val u e tOI zero bias on the p osiri Vie swin 15. a nd to a val ue twice the '0 xe d bias [)t.IJ. the n ega ti ve swin g' " I den ti f yin. g' th e. maximu m an d min i In 1!J In. val U if! S 0 f plate vol Cage and plate curre n t fo r t he grid v oltag e swi n g as E max., E min .. " I max. l' I ]111:0., the powe rout put is given by the f orm ula:

(I max. ~.r ID]:O],) X "E mal:, _. E ~ni~'~;) Power Output = .. -------~~-------

r f E iO!l in volts and I in .m illia m pe res, powe r out.P ue ].S in mini w~tt;5.

Pet' cent second. harmonic distortion is given by the foUo\;vi.ng formula in which 10 :;;;;;: the tria]. value of d-e plate current,

I max. -+ I min .. ~-----~-Io

Fig. 8

x .~ 00

Ex~nlp.~~ Determine the undi S~Ol'tcd: [:l'I:)we:r. .1) ucput of ~. 3o .. electrode tu be at a p,j ate yQ,lta.ge of 250 voles; ~ p'l:ite current of .3 4 m Ulia.m peres, a. nc:gati'ye

g:rid vo ltage of j!O voles and .11 :iP [i.i:t'e

~oO a (l of ) 9.0 0 oh m s; :g rven the plate o;h ara c:~e I:i.st~ c: (: !JJjrve:s, a s ,s!hown ..

Pr.OOOdUN! Dra w th rcugh point (P) which. represente prop.oud o.pcr;;l.hl:'!!g. eondieions, ]jne XV wi:dJi slope corre spo n ding; to j 9 0 () ohm. load" Thi:s tn a.Y 'be don e by d.rawing XY. p ara llel ro line A B. The line 1\ B ~ s d.fa wn b~twlt!en. point (M) 1iI;t 150 volts .and ,~eFO eu rrent, ~ nd poit~t (Q)o at otero voks. and. ,C:lJJlnen. t equal to 2. 5 () 'Ilo]ts dh'i Jed b"J plate load of 3900 oh ms, t.e. • 250...;.. 3900 = 0,064 .:Hnpcre or 64J. Ml.i ~ lia mpcree.

(66~7) X (3()O-13 o.}

Po wf:.;r 0 utpu t ...... ~~~~----~ ;:;:;:;: 1 7 a 0 .m ill i warts

CU)66 -1- 0.007 ---~-~- -O .. OJ·~·

2

X 'II........ 4 "I (., .!I .u v = .~1()

(J .. 066 - 0-0101

THE RCA RA.DIOTR'ON' Mi\NUAL

It is customary to make the final selection of load resistance such that the distortion as calculated above does not exceed 5 per cent, a value whi.ch experience has shown to be permissible .. " Several a pproximations of load resistance may be. necessary to obtain the optimum value for the trial value of plate. current, Ordinaril Y j. th e plate 10 a d resistan ce for ·0 ptim U in co n diti 0 n s is app roxi rna tel y equal to rwic e th e plat e resistan ce "

To check the trial plate current, calculations should be made for d-e plate currents above and b!ZJ ow th e trial value. Thcrn 0 st suitable. val ue 'with 1 ts con: esp on d .. in g grid bias can then be selected, unless the value is higher than that recommended for the tube. In this event the. maximum permissible value is chosen ..

. A. super-control ampiifi.er tube is a modified construction 0'1 the screen grid type and is de.signed to reduce cross-talk and cross .. modulation in radie-frequency stages .. Cross-talk and cross-modulation are the effects produced in a. radio receiver by 311 inte.tfeting station ~~.r]din g through ~., on the: carrjer of the station to which the

receiver is tuned. This effect is caused by the :radio~fr~quen.cy amplifiers acting partiall y as d etecto r s where v e [-y .p,owe.rf ul signals a re recei ved or \-v here the grid bias h as been ] n ere ased to reduce volurn .. e. The. offending tube is usually the first radiofrequency _~.mplifieil:"~ although other _ stages may corrtribute to the trouble, particularly if the set selectivity- is poor, The characteristics of. super-control types are such as to enable the tube to handle both large and smal 1 in put 8i gnals with mi nim urn d istortio n fiver a wi de ran ge. Thi 8 feature is obtain €.d. by a s pecial tube stru ctu re w hi ell rna kes p ossible variation in am plificatio11L factor with a. change in grid bias. A cross-section of the structure of a typical super-control tube is shown in Fig. 9. This type. diflfe-ts from the u-5,ua], screen grid tube chiefly in th,e construeti on 0 f th e co ntrol grid w hi ch is wou nd with CQ urse spa cing at th e mid dle am. d clos e sp acin g: at th e end s. W hen weak si gnals an d low' gd d bias are: a pplied to the tu be, th e. e if e ct 0 f th (;. n o n ~ II nifo r 111 ttl rn sp acin g of' tile grid on cathode emission and tube characteristics

is e ss e ntially th e sam e as fo r a. u nif 0 r m spa cin g. As the .grid bias is made more negative to handle larger input signals, the electron flow from the sections of the cathode end osed by tb. e ends of the ,g'rid Is, eli t 0 £f . Th e plate current and other tube characteristics are then dependent on the electron flow through. the coarse section -of the. grid. This action. changes the tube characteristics :5·0 that large signaJ.s may be handled with minimum distordon due to cross-modulation and modulation effects. F]g.

10 shows typical grid voltage vs. _plate current curves for

a. screen-grid and a super-control tube) respectively, It __

will ben ote d th at while the cu rves a re aLIi k e at sm all ,g rid -"'"--~~iE::'G-- A-'. :r-'i V-:E-G-R-~D~\IOoE;_· ;__L--U--.s==="

bias volta g<e:5'j the plat e curren t 0 f th e su p e r-eo n trol tube drops quite slowly with la:r.ge values. of bias voltage. This slow change makes it possible for the tube to handle large signals satisfactorily. Since su per-control types can handle. a large signal range, they are particularly suit .. able for use in sets having automatic vo]ume control.

Class. B power amplifiers for audio applications are a new development of' much inte rest wh ere: larg e po\ve.r output is req uired, In Class B se rvice th e tube is 0 perated so that the plate current is practically zero with no grid excitation. When a s1 gn al 0 f s uffi ci e 11 t m a gn itud e is a p plied to' the gri d ~ th e teo will be no plate ell r ren t flow over a substantial part of the negative haU..-cyde. In other words, platte current fl ows only dud n g th e least n e ga tive excu r si 0 ns 0 f the .si gnal volta g e.. A co nsid erable amount 0'£ second and higher even-ordered harmonic distortion. is thus i ntroduce d

(rrid.

Cathode

Outer .Sctec·u

!fwter Screen

IL:!J Ii. .:'.f

J Ili.

Fig. ]_~

-15--

THE R·,C··.A· .... ·: R'A····D·:I··O··.···T,R':O· •.• N:···· M·· .... ·A r ···: .. N:··UiAf

- _'" "_ .. ,", ... "_ .. _._. ..~

irrt;o t.b e power 0 u tp ut of a sin g le tu be. H owe ve r, with two tubes in a balan ce d. p ush .. P ull circuit, th e even harmonics atilt; ,eB:m in a ted £ ro in th e .p owe r 0 u t put. In SHe h a. circu itj th e re f ore, two tu bes mat y be e ill p I oye d as Class B amp li fie r s to su p pl y virtually uridistorted output ..

]n Class B service, ,it is possible to drive the grids of the t\VO amplifier tubes positive by a certain amount and sbU obta.in reasonably undistorted output, provided that sufficient input power is available to supply the grid current req uired by the positively charged grids, This power is conveniently supplied by the usual power am.pEfier feeding the grids of the output tubes through a push-pull transformer hav .. in 15' t b e p ro p er ell. ara ere r istics, U SlIdJ 1 y th is tra ns [or m eo r h as a ste P" down ra tio,

By designing Class B amplifier tubes with a sufficiently high amplification factor, it is possible to operate, them with zero grid bias, and so dispense with. biasing resistors whose effect would be to' produce considerable loss in sensitivity because of d,egeneration. Since provision. for grid bias is un necessary with such tubes! the entire voltage of the, rectifier is available for plate supply,

D istin guish in g features 0 f th] s class 0 f s e [vice ar e th a t ve ry high outp u t of go 0 d q uali t y ma y be 0 brained with fairly s m an tub es 0. peratin gat relati vel y 100Vl plate voltage: and that unusual overall economy' of power consumption Is possible because the ,plate' current is, very low 'when no signal is applied to the' g'r.id. To givlc these a d van ta ges, the IClas5 B am plifier ci rcu It requires th e use O'I two "tube s in a hal an ce d (Hltput stage preceded by a driver stage capable of delivering considerable undistorted power: and the: use of a power su pply capable of rnaintainin g good vol ta ge r e gulati 0 n re ga to] e 58 0 f the va ria tio n 0 f do vera ge P 1 ate curre nt with sig nal inzeriairy. [t should be noted that the distortion. present in the powe:r. output of Class B amplifiers is usually negligible but is always somewhat higher for t_he or .. din ary ran ge 0 f . si gn als th an th a t 0 btai ned wit h usual m et 1.) od s of au clio am p] i fi ca 60 n employing much larger tubes capable of the same: maximum power output.

Class B at m p li fiers, h owev e r, h ave th e d istinct ad va n tage 0 f provid 1 n g) wi th re I a ~ ti vely S in a 1. [ tu bes, a rese rve or p ower .. d eli verin g abili ty to' meet require. rn e nts for a n

extended volume rang~", ..

.DET'ECTION

Dete ccion is the s e parati on of speech or m usi c fro in rh e in co min g r a dio wa V e.

This '~v it ve consists 0 f a ra dJiOI .. frequency carri e r which has be en mo d u la ted at th e transmitter by sounds (audio freql!Jencies)., The effect of mod ulation is to vd:ry the am phtude, of the carrier wave in proportion to the audio inputvariatio.ns., Since th e ca rrie r wave is al te rna tin g,~ it may be co n sid e red to consist 0 f two h a lv es, each of which is affected equally by the audio modulation. The audio com ponent in one- half of the carrier wave is continuously offset by the do udio component 10 the other half of the, wave at a rate equal to the carrier frequency~ a frequency much to 0 h] gh to a {f.eet an y au 0.:1:0 syste m ~ ] f.; how .. ever, one,,·ha]f of the car-der wave can be elim] nated ~ th e a ud i o variati 0 n s in th e other half o f the carrier may be utilized to operate a pair of headphones or a loudspeaker (Fig, 11)t '.

Th e elimin arion 0 f the n eurralizing e ff'ect 0 f one-half of the carrier wave is the function (;f the d erector, It rectifies the carrier and extracts I rom th e. re ctified output, th e a 1Ll clio coo mp onen t or si gn al. The h.i g h" f re.q u ell cy ra clio com p'o ne n t is usu ali y by" passe d f fa m the pld1te circuit of th e' detector tube by IDe:SLt:i8 of a small condensert wh.ile the audio· com,pone:nt is fed to the aud.io a.m,pHfier stag,c,.

Two d.ifferent medlods of detection with radio tube.s ate commonly ,employed. These are. known as the grid bias method .and i[;h~' :gdd leak and conciens,er m,ethod.

...l! d

5j OVl PUT :S,~C.N'AL

~ I'.'~GA riiv ir C'1R11D VQ !..·l·S ~~-~ ----..J;_

i I,,, .

17'l- 1·11 _1 1. g ... _~.

T- H--E R' CA' R"AD'-IO' TR- -- O' 'N: li.~'AN- -. -'-UA' L

_-: .<', .. - ..... ,Ii, ,,' :"_'-,' .'_ ... '" ,JLV.!ll,~,.'.- .•. 1 ..• ···.- .. -

The gTid hias method makes use of a tube which is operated. with a grid bias such t ha t th e P la te curre n t. with no sign al is p:ra ctically zero. \V hen a si gnal j s ap P 1 ied to the grid, rectification of the carrier occurs, since only the positive half is a mp lined" Fig. 12· Hlustrates this circuit,

, T h e grid. Iea.~ .a no co nd ens,er meth od is 80 mew hat me re se n srtrve th an t'h e grid bias method and gives its best results on smal 1 signals, This method. uses a. grid ] E" a k an d cond en Bier in til e grid circu it (as shown in Fi g" 1. 3 ) .' Th -e' _g rid 1 eak estab ... lishes the grid bias to 0 bta.in rectihcatiori while the condenser off,eros a low resistance path to the grid fot the radio-frequency input. I'll this circuit a high value of grid resistor gives greatest sensitivity! but improved tone and stability a re obtain ed with lower values.

FHF 'CHOKE;

CATHODE BiAS RE!.SI-SiO'l'!!

R-F' i3.y~

IN Pu T F'Jl.iS5 C,QN- 'OOTP!!fl D~N:S:ER:

"8~ J!'ASS. --"

,= CON DENSER

1

A- ft.+B~

:F'ig. 12 Fig. ] 3-

Autom.adc volume contro'l of recerver volume is obtained by utiliz.ing the, detect~:ng or rectifying action 0-£ a tube, to su,pply' grid bias voltdl,ge for the radio .. freq ue:n_cy amp Ii fi er stages, In. th is a P pli ca tion, an in crease in. ,{J, ud i 0- sign al pro d 1] c~s' a n I, ncreased rectHiled current, which is utilized to increase the grid. bias '0,]] the, radiofrequency tubes so that _ the 'volume 1.$ reduced to normal, _This_ function ,~ay be combined with audio detection in one combination of t~]be elements, alebough greater flexibility in circuit design can, he obtained hy using two or more sets of tube elements, each operating under tb e optimum, circuit conditions for its, purpose.

'OSCIL,lA,T]ON

As. an oscillator, a radio tube can be employed to generate a contirruously alternatin,g volt~ge. In present .. da.y r,adio- broadcast receivers, this application is Errd~ed practically to its use: in superheterodyne receivers for supplyin g the, _ hete'rodynln_g Ire que n cy . S evera 1 circui ts ( re presen ted ] n F ig. 14 ) rna Y' be u tj li zed ~ bu t they a11

... F,ig,14 ~

B~ lH~A J E:R' I!H

T f'tAH-Sf'OPMIE.R

depend on feedin g more energy [rom the plate or output circuit to the grid or in p ut ci rcuit th an is re qui red to e q U 211 th.e: power 108s in the tube" F e'e d ~ hatc:k may he produced by electrostatic or etect'I;O,'inagl1ct:ic coupling between the input and output circuits", 'When sufficient feed .. back occurs to' more than equal the tube [osses, the tube, 'win oscillate. _ The action consists of regular surges of power be:twe e n th e pl ate and th e grid circuit at a, frequen cy depen d en ton th e circui t constants of inductance and capacity. By properly choosing these' values, the frequency may be; adjusted over v,ery 'wide' limits,

-17-

The .in.staUation of radio tubes requires care if high q uality performance is to be obtained, From the associated radio circuits, Installation sug gestious and pre'" cautions which are generally common to all types of tubes are covered. in this sectio n. Caref ul ,0 bs ervance ,0 f these btl g g e stions will d o m 1JJ ch i 11 11 e.l pin g the experimenter and radio technician to obtain the fun performance capabilities of rad 1.0 tu b es and circuits. Ad d itio rial a n d p ertin ent ,1 n for m ati .0 n ~ s give n un de r

each. tube type on pages 2'2 to 8 j . =

FILAMENT AND ,HEATER, POWEFt SUPPLY

The voltage supply for the filament or heater of radio ru beg, may be a, battery (or other direct current source] ~ Or the alternating current po\ver line, depending: 'On the type of tube. Frequently, a regulating resistor is used. with the d,,'c supply to adjust; the tube voltage: at the 6.ia"nl,ent terminals of the socket to the correct value and to com pensate for battery voltage. variations. Ordinarily, a step .. down [ran sfo rmer is 1..1 sed with a- C su P ply to p ro vid-,e th e p roO per vol tage a t the fila m e 11 t terrmnals. The ,p,d,nl,(Jl:ry of this transformer n~ay be tapped to per mit of adjust .. ment far line voltage 'variation.

The design of radio tubes allows for a small variation in voltage sllJppUcd to the filament or heater, but most satisfactory results are obtained frorn operation at the rated value. When the voltage is low, the temperature of the cathode is below normal, 'with the result that electron emission, is, limited+ This may cause reduced ,~.if"e and unsatis £ a ctory 0 peratio n. On th e oth e r ha n d ~ h] gh ,fi 1.0. m e nt v 0 Ita g e causes evaporation of cathode material and shortened. tube life. The filament voltage sh 0 u r d b e ch e ck e d at th e so cket terrnin als by m ean s of an accu ra te v Q Itm et e r wh i 1 e the tube is in operation,

For voltage ,adjustment with d-e supply) a variable or a fixed resistor ,~S used .in series \.'iJitn the 6].arnent (or heater) and the pow'e.r source. In the case of dry battery supply, it is also recommended that an accurate voltmeter or milliameter he P Erin an €'ndy in statU e din th e re cei ver to insu re op eration o f. th It tu bes at th ei r rated filament voltage. Turning the set on and crff by means .of the, rheostat is advised to prevent over"vo],tage conditions after an off-period. The voltage of dry-cells recuperates during off periods, In, the case of storage :battery supply, d:,]r~ceH. [b,aue:ry supply or d .. c power supply, a fixed resistor is permissible. If an adj useable resistor is used, no further ad] ustment is necessary a·ft,e:r thE iriitial setting by mete r test,

The si ze 0 f th e resistance req uire d for an Y' P articula r co n ditio n ca 11 be: de te r mi n ed easily by a simple formula; (a'h m 's law).

:S~~,p'pl'f' vo in ~ Rated vo 11tS of !tllJibe type Required R~si8tancc (ohms) '= -~~===.=~~~=====~ T oral raced lila in ene curre f!, t of tubes

T h !UJ.s~ i £ it is re q !J i red to op erate fro rn d l"y b atteri Its .a rece i v e r usin g t h r e e ~ 3 2 I S,~ t\'VO ~ 3 OiS~, and two ~ 31 's, the series resistor is equal to. 3 volts, {the voltage from two dry cells in series] min us 2. vo 1 ts (v 0 1 tag e. r a tin g f or th es e tub e s ) di vi d e d by 0.,) 6 ampere (the sum of 5 X 0..060 ampere + 2 X 0.130 ampere) ~ i.e., approxi .. mately 1.8 ohrns. Sinc.e this resistor should be variable to allow adj ustment for 'battery depreciation, it is advisable to obtain the next larger commercial size; 8.1 ... tb,()tlgh any value between 2 and :3 ohms win be quite satisfactory." Where much po\ve r is. dissip a te d In the resistor, the wa ttag e ra tin ,15 sho ul d. be .s!JJ $1, cien tly ] a rge to P reve n t overh e ati n g '. Th e powe E' d i ssi p arion ] n watts. is equal to the vo 1 tat g e d ro p in the resistor In ultiplied by 'the total ti~,JJ.m,ent current: in amperes. Thus, for the exa m ple above ~ 1 X O. 56 ~ O. :; 6 watts ~ I n this case ~ the valu e iss 0 small th at any commercial rheostat having suitable resistance will be adequate.

Se:des, operation of the heaters of the "13 6~, '1'3' ~ ~3 8 and '39 is permissible for receivers which operate, on direct current power lines U rider these couditio ns, tlre resisto r re qui red in series \.vith the tube h ea tiers is eq ual ito the :Ii n e volta ge Inin us the .sUfn of tb,e tube voltages divided by the, heater (JlJrre.nt (in arnperes.) of a sin,gJe 'tube. Ofher types 0 f ttlbes rn.ay be operated '-\lith £larnent~j 0,[" b,e;at.e:r.s in, se ri~sl'

-,1.8-

TH' E,,' R·.···iC·.··.·A···< R····A···:··D····.···!·O· ··TRi no ·.·N··::· M··:····tt,."l'UI·' IA·······:····L ..

~ .1 . '. ~ .. '_ . '.' _.","" _, ~ . " .. , ru "'" .

'but It .IS im portant that the filttl]1C,nt or heater current for tubes so connected be of the same rating.

A~c ji~a~n'C::Ht suI) ply is ordinarily obtained from a step .. do\vn transformer, Preca uti 0 n s s11 Q uld he tak IE n to- is e e tha t th e. ] i ne v olta g e is the same as that fo r whi en. ehe primary of the transformer is designed, The line, voltage may be determined by III e as U re ment wi th a n a- c vol tmeter « 0 .. 1 :3 0 volts) of goo d quality,.

I f th e lin e vel tag e rn easures in ex cess <0 £ th at fo F 'w hich the tra ns [orme r is designed, a. resistor should he placed in series with the primary to reduce, the [ine voltage to. the: rated value of the transformer prrmary, 'U nless this 15. done" the excess input V()h;;;IL,ge will cause proportionally excessive voltage to be applied to th.e tubes. £'1.rry radio tube may be damaged Q[- made inoperative by excessive operating v 0 ~ t a ;@·cs.

Co' ,

If th e Ii n e v olta g e i~ CQ nsiste TILt] y bel QW tha t fo r \tV hich the p ri ID.,a ry o f the transjorrner is deaigried, it may be necessary to install a booster transformer between the a-c outlet and the transformer primary, Belor,€; such a transformer is installed, the a" c lin e fllH,:t u atio na sh 0 U ld be very care f uil y n oted ~ Man y radio sets are e q 'U 1 ppe d with a li ne voltage switch w h.i ch per mits ad j ustmen t Q f the power tra usformer primary to the li:n;e vQhag~,. When this switch is properly adj usted, the series-resisto r or bocster-transformer method of controlling line volta,ge is, seldom required.

P,L"ATE, YOL'fA'GE SUPPLY'

The plate volta.,ge fO'r radio tubes ordinarily rs obtained Irom batteries or from. a rectified a-c supply" The maxim urn plate voltage value [or any tube type. should not he exceeded if most satisfactery performance is to be obtained. Plate 'Voltage: should not be applied to a tu be U~1ile.5S the corresponding recommended grid voltage, - .... lso "'~ 'I PP" ]1' ed 'to' th e g""r' ~jJ

18 ~L ~~_ .. "':1'-11."1 :.11. ~.: I.I!... 1,,' . ,I .Il.U.~

,GRID \tOLT'AGE, SUPPLY

Th e reco rnrn end e d gr.id vo I tag es f 0 r di fF e ten t -0 P erati I1 g conditi ons ha ve been care f ull y d eter ill j ned to gi ve t.h e m est sa ti~ fa ctory perf orrnance _ Grid volta g IE rna y be obtained from a separate C,.battery~ a tap on the voltage divider of the high voltage d ... c supply, or from th e vQlta,ge drop across a resistor in the cathode circuit. This ]a.st is called the "self-bias" method, .s-inc€: the cathode current of each tube is utilized to produce the bias vo[ltage. In. any case, the object of the connection is to make the: grid negative with respect to the cathode by the specified

, 'J"~' "\"'ii.l." 1. 'C bat '" "'I~ ,.~~- ·il~.,,· .. ,~,~',~~ b '".'~"i" . ",'" .:» , ,~~ ., " .,lI 'r"" t'h

v 0 ,ta,g e ,.'!.IV ]. tn .'. ,·..a tte ry oS Up];.H "f,. t.ll.le ne g au \: e • 'dJ. tte t.) te r m 1 n,LY. .15 co nn e cten ",0 .' .e

grid return. "The positive terminal is connected to the n egative til,arn.en.! socket terminal, Q[" to the: cathode terminal if the tube is of the heater ... cathode type. [f the: filament is supplied with alternating current, this connection is usually made to the ce n te r ... ta p of a low reei stan ce ( 2.0 .. :5 0 -0 hms ) sh unted a cross the fil amen t terminals, This method. reduces hom disturbances caused by th,e a-c supply" If bias voltages are obtained frcm the voltage divider of a high voltage d .. c supply, the grid return is ti!;:d into a more .nega:tiv,e tap tha.n th e cathod,e.~

~ 1.9 .-~

The .sel.f·bia.si~~,g method is accomplished by utilizing the. voltage drop produced by the cathode current i1o\vi:ng through a resistor (Fig, 15) connected between the' cathode and the negative terminal of the B ... supply+ The cathode: current is, of course, equal til) the' plate current for a triode or [0 the sum of the. plate arid screen current for a. tetrode and a pentode, Sin,ce the voltage drop along the resistance is increasingly negative with respect to the cathode, the required negatlve' grid b:i.as voltage can. be obtained by connecting the grid return. to the negative end of the resistance

. ... - - - - ~

. The size of the reaistance for self- biasing a. single tube can be determined from

the following formula;' -

Desi red grid bias "0 Ita B:re X 1. (I 00 Resistance {ohms} = ------------~ Ra te d p I are curre nit in m j Iliam peres

ThtJS,~ the size of resistance required to produce 9 volts bias for a tube which operates at j milliamperes plate current is 9 X. 1000/3, :::::: 30)0 ohrns. If the cathode current of more than. 'One tube passes through the resistor, the size of th:e resistor will be determined by the total current, As indicated above for screen grid tubes or pentodes, the cathode current is the sum. of the screen and. the plate current.

Gria v1o!tage v.ar'atfon for the r-f amplifier stages is a convenient and frequently used method for controlling receiver volume, The. variable voltage suppl'ied eo the grid is o btained either from a bleeder circuit by means of a potentiometer, or by th e self .. bias me thod usin g a va ri a ble resisto r . ~ n erthe r c ase, it: is irnpo rtan t d1J:.a.t the. control be arranged so that less than the minimum recommended grid bias voltage cannot be applied to the g·dd.. This, requirement m~y he met by a stop on the potentiometer or by a fixed 'resistance .in series 'with the variable section. See Fig. 16.

Ek

t:I~ .... '

,A,+. A=

Fig~ 16

F~"'g 1'1(

, ~ .. . [I;

Fig,. 18

SCREEN 'VOL T AGE SUPPLY'

Tll:.€: posinve voltage for the screen con nection of a radio tube is. usually ob .. rained frolD a tap on the B.-supply. The screen voltage of screen grid types of the four-electrode (O'r tetrode ] construction, should be obtained by conriectin g the

screen either direct to the proper voltage tap or through a. potentiometer connected across, the Bvsupply, but never through a series resistance to a high v oltage supply" This latter arrar gement will not usually be satisfactory because of scree l current 'variations. Tubes, of the pentode construction, however ~ may utilize the series resistor a rrangernen t, since this construction makes possible greater uniformity of the screen, current characteristic. See Fig. 17.

Screen vo~tage v.ariat:iolt for the .r,~£ amplifier stages is sometimes used for volume control of the receiver, Reduce:d screen voltage Iowers the. mutual conductance of the. tube and results in decreased gain per stage~ The v oltage variation is ob .. rained by means of a potentiometer shunted across the screen grid voltage supply.

S P' 11-8 -

'" ee rrg. .1,',.

SHIELDJN'G

'Circuits e mployin g tubes ha:ving high gain capabilities, particularly screen grid types, require shielding by metal enclosures if stable operation and high, gain pe,r s.tage is to be: obtained, In multi .. tube, r-f amplifier circuits, it ,is, necessary to shield co mpletely and effectively each stage and to ,inch .. ide within the stage shield the coupling device Unless the coils and condensers of the various stages are, 51 ielded fro m. each other, the amplification possibilities of the tubes and their circuits cannot b e redlh~e.d +

Since coupling between stages can. occur not only from, interaction of stage coupling' devices, but also from a common voltage supply circuit, it is advisable to employ fiJte.rs, in all voltage supply leads enterin g the' stage shields. A filter, in order to be effective, should have a high impedance to the [requencies handled by the stage. Radio-frequency filters require the use oJ high ... grade by .. pass condensers for most satisfactory results. See Fig, 19 for various filter arrangements.

O'UT'P;UT' C,QUPLING' DEVICES

.::-\n output: coupling device ,is used in the plate circuit of a power output tube to keep its co rnparativejy high d .. c plate current from the winding of an electromagnetic speaker driving u - it, and to. eransfe power efficiently fr-om, the, output .stage to a loudspeaker ..

OUt~UT TRANSFORM~R

,_

. '

_,

- .

----;$ ,1:-: -_~~~ __ ....... - ...... l.

... ilblm r"

~

'CHO KIE:, C,O U.. METHOD

F]g .. 20

o utput coupling devices are of two types" (1) choke condenser and r( 2) trans .. former, The choke-condenser type consists cf an iron-core choke coil with. an inductance of not Iess than 12 henrys which is placed in series, witb the plate. and B.-supply. The choke offers a very low resistance to the d~'c pI,at<e current but oppose s th e fl ow of th e H uctuatin g si g nal v olta ge. A by .. pass co 1Il denser 0 r 2 to 4 uf. supplies a path to the speaker winding [or the signal voltage, The transformer ryp e is con stru etc d 'with two sep arate wind in gs, apr i mary an d a 8 econ d ary woun d on an iron core, This construction permits of designing each windi[]J,g to meet the requirements of its. position in the circuit. Typical arrangements of each type

1 li dev 1!... 'F" -,

QY coup .1ng nevice are SuOW!]!. in flg·,. 20,

,~21-

Dr -' Rn . rdlotron ~,c.;- ,I-IJ!_ '

D'ETECTO,R, ,A'M'PLIFIER

The 'Ot- A is a. three-electrode storage battery tube, for use; as a detector and. as an. amp lif er .

CHARACTERISTICS

1 '':I ""

.!I., oJ:;) i1l1lX"

,-9

Volts Ampere

Volts Volts

Mini amper es Ohms

FILAh1ENT 'VOLTAGE (D. C.) ~ ~ , + '. ! ' •• ' .' •• -u .. ;, .' '. + ••• ,

FILA~IENT ICURRENT ~ ...... ' ... ~ .. ~ .. ' .. , " . m ... + .... ' ....

PLA'f,}1 VOLTAGE ~ ' •.. , " . ~ . " ~ .. '", . ;, '. . 90

GRID V'OL Tl\GE ~. m •• ~ • " ~ • ., • ; ' '. ~ -,4.5,

PLATE CURRENT . ~ . ~ ~ .. ' .. ., . ~ ' ' •. , 1.5

PLATE RESISTANC.E ~ ~ ... '. " . +. ••• + '. ; '. 11000

AMPLr.FICATION FACTOR ~ .. , ... " ' ... ' . ; .. 8

MUTUAL COND'UCTANCE + •••••• ,' '. ; 725

G RU),~PLATE CAPACITANCE ~. + ~ .' ... ~ • 8.1

GRID.,FlLAM.EN"r CAPACITANCE + •• , •• ," 3.1

PLA T'E'" FJLA.f...1 E N"r CAP ACI 'r AN GP. .,."'. ~ '2. '2

MAXIl\lUM, OVERALL LE'NGTtI +,.". ~ •.•...• ' • , .' ... ' .... " •• , ~ •

MAXlhliUM :DKAMEl'ER .' .. ',.' ... ~ ~ •. , .. , ~ " .. ' .. • .. , .' .' '. ~ .. " .. ~ .

Bu L.B (See p~;tge 4- 2! Fig. 8,) . + .. • ;, , • .. • " .. • .. • • .. + • " '. .' + .. • ~ • • ~

B,A;SE !i' II!! 1101 • Ii! • m .. it ~ '. i' ~ 'Ii ill ~ '. it. ~ '. !t ti CiII' +. !I' ~ ... '!- .1 •• 1 •• oil +. i + ~ ., ,Il ... ;Il •• II!!I ~

5.0 0.25

3.0 10000 S 800

.

·'Lr' h

,J..y.!.:~,cr 0 mn os

p.~f. ~Ltf. ~~iL

4111.11-;";

1 t;1n~·~ S,~14 Medium 4,~Pj'~.l

INSTALLA'TION

The ha:Se pins of the ~'O] I A fit the, standard fO'UPcpntact socket. The socket should he mstalled so that the tube \v.iU operate in a vertical position. Cushioning of the socket in th e d etecto r stag e m at y bed e sir able i f ill icrop h on ic distur ban ce s are encountered. For socket connections, see page 3 9 ~ Fig. 1.

The filament in the "'Ol",A is intended for operation Irorn a 6'~vo1t storage battery, A £ xed or var ia bl e resistor 0 £ s uita bl e value ] s req uire d to re d u ce the batt e ry voltage to 5.,0 volts across the £laTne.nt terminals at the socket. At this voltage! the most satisfactory operating ,perfoTma:nce will be obtained.

,AP'PLICATION'

As a detector, the 'oi ... A may be operated. either with grid leak and condenser or wi th g tid bias. The recom m en d e d pIa te vo it a ge for th e fo r In er In eth od is 4 5 v'o I ts. A g nid It;'3Lk· 0 f ,fro m ] to 5 me g oh.ms used with a g rid co n d enser 0 f 0.,0002 5 uf. is suitable, The grid circuit return should be connected to the positive ,filament terrn inal. For grid bias detection, plate voltages up to the maxim.urn value of 135 volts may be used with the correspon ding negative grid bias voltage (] 3;.5 volts approximately) .

. l\s an, amplifier, th,e ';'O:l ~A is applicable to the audio- or the radio .. freq ut;,nc.y stages 0 r a receiver, Plate voltages and the corresponding' g-rid 'voltages for audio am pl.ifier service sn ould be determined from the tabulated characteristics and the, curves in, crd er to obtain optimum perf ormance and freedom frotn distortion. The high.e-:r.- plate voltages will be found advantageous under conditions where the impressed signal is. large at where maxim urn voltage output is desired.

When the >;Ol,,,,A is used as a radio ... frequency amplifier, little is gained [r om the use of plate v'{)ltages. exceeding 90 volts. 'The)O 1 .. ,./\ is 'W(;U adapted. for use as an interstage audio .. frequency amplifier but at pO\)i'er output tube is recommended for the final audio stage.

Volurae control of the recejver may be; accomplished by variation of either the grid bias or the plate voltage applied to the radio, Ireq uency stages.

-- 22--

THI'E' Re .. ,·C····:A·.'· 'R" A:' D' ,]"'0"; ·>.'T:-· R: O··-···.'N··I· M'" AN······· UAL·····I

'. I . .' '! " '. .,:: ,:.... . _" _ ...• . .. r . '. .'.;. _ . .' . :. .' '.ce .. ' I .:_. _:;; .. __ -.: :...:'. '. _.

I

I

.Ii!i IliJ fl. --a:: !liii ~.

~ .;j(:

.J ..!!

2 41~--~--~--~~~-h~~~~~~~~~~~-*~~~~~~~~--~---~1

!I.i.I

,h= .0(

. ...1 ~.I

io.

,2~1----I~--~~~~~r,~~~~~=T4=~~~~~~~--~==~+====r~~

.. I

A\fEFiAGE CHAHAC,. E,R i S1" i CS AVER.AGE C~t..gARACT E R 1ST I CS·

I!Qj ~~--~-+~~~~~~~~

....!I ~.

1f----f---+---+---+----+----I+----1----IIiaOQ· ;;,i

I-' ::;;

::to

o 2. ..;, ie;; 8 1'0 !;~.

pu,. T ~ MIILL lAMP E.iRES

AVERAGE IP'LATE (..HlARACl E R 1ST !CS

~ , i ~

ry·~~."IO

.. t f =7;' 5 WL:rS 1),(.

o?J:

';;;';,'_': I ~

"Y. 1#

'V······f(1 .... f)

,rtlll . V;f/ /'_1 ~~/ /V/)V .,

., ", ... / 11,,/ V V ~. '/~" 1./ V' .,.;[\~

J'~' I ~I" __..: I; ... ~., I .: .. r.'"1·V "11 .~ e: '" ~;;~ .

. / . ..,., . i/ ' .' ;' ...... V'"'..,..;i' .. '.' .' """ .~ .,lo;o"'"

RCA Rndlotren R~CA~210

rc Y\ orE' R" A'\' ,fP'LIFIER" 0" '8- C' "]LLA' TOR

r' '·\'V. , ··l.vl·' .1',' 11 .. · •. "_,·,,.:._ .' :__;" 1 .. 1,.

The type ~ lOis a three-electrode ]li,gh -vac u urn tubesuitable for' power amplifier use. As an audio .. frequency amplifier, lit is capable of delivering large undistorted out .. pu t to. the loudspe aker,

CH·ARACTERISTIC.S

FILA.MENT \l'OL T AGE {A,. c~ or Dl.. C,.). '" .. ' ... , + , • ~ .. • 7" 5

FILAMENT' CURRENT ~ '. ~ .. a + + •• ' , ••• ' .. ' .... ~ •• ' ••• ' + ••• ' ' •• ' L 2 5

PLATH VOLTAGE .',' ~ + ,F .' ~ ' •• ~ ~ .. ~ •• ~ + • 250 3,jO' ,425 max.

Oam VO,LTAG.'H* ~ ' •• " * •• ' .... * .. '. ~ ~ '" .. • -2,2 -,31 ,-:39

,PLAT'E CURR.EN''! ~ .. ;, .. '. " ~ .. ; ' •• ' ... '. ~ .. 1.0 16 18

,PLA'f'iB RESH~TAN{:=B " e. ~ ' •• ' ~ ' ••• ~ '. ~ ~ '. '. ~ 6000 5.li 50 5000

AM P'LIFICA.T.i[ON F ACTOR ~...' + '. • r ,. • ., • 8 S. .8

MUTUA.L CON'nUCTANCE ' •. ' .. ~ .' .• , .. , ., ,. co 1 j 30 ] 55,0 1.600 Micrornhos

LOAD RE$i$TANCE ~ '. , .' ~ , ,. +. ' •• ' ., ••• , ~ • -e- 1300{) li 1000 1.0200 Ohms

lJNDISTORT'ED POW,EJR O'U'Tl:}'UT , ..... ~ 400 900' '1,60'0 Milliwatts

GRHJr"PLA.TE lCAPACITANCE .' ... , .. m , • • 8. ~~f.

Gnm-Pn . .A!U~N'T 'CAPAcrrANCE, •.• ' ~ ' •• ' 5- Vu-J.tf.

P,:lATE ... .FU:"Al1.U3NT 'CAPAC[,,[,AN'CE, , .... ,. -4 ~M~l

M- O' L i5,t',ri'

... ,' ·A.XFMU1;.{ .' ···V:SRALL E'NGTH,~ • '. , .. ' ... ,. '. ~ ~ ... ' .. '. ~ .. '. ~ + • • ... ~ .,. ~. 78

M- D' )3~l/';I'

. . AX],~;l UM ",. IAl\1 ET.E.R. .' ,. .. .' .. • .' '. ,. . .. • '. . ~ .. co • " • " .. .' ., '. • + '. • • • .e .. ..., '716

BUl.B ,( See pag'e 42" Fig, 10)., ' .. ~ ~ '. ' .... ' .. " .' ~ . ~ ~ ' + •• ' .•• + ~ i S .. ' 1 'j

B,;;,\s'p' .• ' .. ' ... ' •• ,. + •• ' , •••• " •• " ' .... ~ '. ~ .. ,., • '" ~ .' ~ ' •• ' .... ' .. ' ~ " .' " • ~ Medium 4 .. Pin, Ba'yonet

* G:r'd voh,ages. ale g]v(.· with respect ro the m.id,"PQif1lt of :6]an11'e:nt opc_ aeed on a. c. U d.c. :1.8 used; each stated value of' grid voltage ,sl, ould be decreased hy j. 'IS, volts and should be referred to the l'1legad ve end of the m],a menr,

v 1

olts

Amperes Volts Volts.

~lli am peres Ohms

INST,ALLATION

The has€: pins of the '10 fit tb,e staudard four-contact socket. The socket should be ] nstalled so tina t th e tu he '''i,V ill 0 pc rate in a verti cal po siti 0 n with th e base d o~ .. vn, For socket connections, see page 39" Fig. :1.

The .filaJn-ent of the type "'1.0 is usually operated. from the a-c line through a, step .. d own tra nsf 0 rraer . Mo st sa ti.sf acto ry op €:ra:tin,g per fo rrn an ce 0 f eh e tu be w]l ~ be 0 bta in e d at the rat e d fila En e nt v 01 tag e .e

With an a-c filament supply" the gnd and the plate return should be brought either to a mid .. tza. p ped resistor o f 20 to 4.0 oh ms across ch e filam e nt win dan g j -0 r to a mid, .. tap on the filament winding' itself. With a d-e filament supply, the grid and. the plate return should be made to the negative filament termina].

Grid bias; for the type '10 may be. obtained from ,2 ,r..,.,su,p.ply or by means of' the' voltage drop in a resistor con nected in the negative plate return Iead, 'The latter method is known as the self .. biasing method, since the plate current determines the drop,. It is not, however, generally applicable, to battery .. operated receivers.

As an audio power ampli fier th its. tu he: sh 0 0.1 d he operate d. un d e r con d itio n 5 as given under CrlARACTEF.JS-TICS. To prevent overloading and. distortion, the recommended grid bias should always he used. Average plate characteristics [curves} an; giv e n on th e pre cedin g pa ge.

RCA Rodtotron U,X~112~A

DETJEC'" <T·O·" R' A" "M'" p' 'LI'PI"E'R-'"

': ,~ ,-, .', , " ,'." I ' .... ,~ -: , ". .~' .. ' . '

The 112 ,'"A is an improved storage battery tube, It js sensiti ve as a detector and excellent as a three-electrode radio .. f requ.e ncy and. :a;udio" f requency am pli fier .

C- HARA cr -'C'R'IS- 'rrc 'C" o " .:-. ::.::~' '~'."':" _,- Q . _" ~ - _i' _ ,: ." .. ~~

F]_LA~1ENl' VOl'fA,G.E (D. e .. } .. ' + •• + •• ' ' •• ~ •• ' ' ••• ~ '. "' • ~

FILA:kfE'NT 'CURRENT ... ~ .••. ' •• '. '. ~ .. i, ' ••• ~ ••• "' ' .... '" • ~

PLA~l',B VOL"I-AGE, , •. " ~ .• , •.. , ' ' 9"0 13.5

GRID- V'OLTAGE ' ~ ••• ' + •• ' ' •• ~ ' ,. ' •• , ,-4; .. 5 ~9

PLA TE CURREN1' ' .... ~ ' .• ' ' .... , ••• ' ~ , •• ' 5-.2 6.2

P '~A", T' 1il R" "'"" '!i."[ S'rA' '. 'i'.,1 ,..., '~1 !to ,';' t"i.' '. 0.':,'" ~-,~.: ?'.', ",f\ .. :.,: .. '

L.. .II::. ,. ,.!C;.-Q. ' ' " ,··1--; ·~I.!L III r. Ii ~ '. ~ •• 1 ~ •• 'il a. lil • .} UU'lI J.1 UU

AM:PLIFICA,TION FACTOR ., .. ~ ~ •. ' .. , .. , ~ " ,8".5 8..:5

MUTUAL 'CON.bUC'fANCE .,"' ~ •. ~ ... ' .• , '1500 1600

LOAD R,ESH5,TANC:E ., ~ .• ' "' •• ~ ~ •. , ' ••• ' ' •• ' 5600 .8 700

UNIHSTORTED PO\VE,R OUTPUT +. ~ ~ • 30 11,5,

G:EUD,~Pl.,ATE CAPACITANCE .' + •• ' ~ '. " + " 8,1

.G,'" n ro- f"J"I.' A: 'M E'NT'T' C- A· . ''['',I A'· C,'[T,·1< N' (""'J:l' 4,' • 2"

_' ~ ... ~ ~I_, _...:. ___:. _ "," .:. Ii'~_ ~ n ._v~ •. ~ • II!!I.!" •

PLATB,~Fn.A~rENT ICAPAGITANCE ,. ~ •• ' ~ Lr'li

MAX]'~fUM' OVERA1.L ,L'E,NGTH .',. + -e + '. '. , .' + ' ... ~ , ~ ' .... ' •• ' ~ •• , ,. ' ••

1viAX],M·U M: :DIA'M E T E lit ..'..,.' ~ • .' + .. • .' + + , .' '. " ,. + • • " • + ~ '. + , • + ~ •

~lULB (g'ee- page: -42,,; Fig. 8} + •• ' .. ' •• ' •.•• ' ' •• ~ .• , + ' •• ' .. '. " + •• ' .... ' " '.

BIA SE. ~,., '!l • .1 • .. '!II • Ii!!' '!II 'I!! !i' .. !I' .. oF. 'r. iii' + '. ii' ~ '. ~ ~ i 'F. i fo Ii ~ ill 'F. ~ 't. ~ -t. 'f ~, 'il i ~, + • ~. 'il

IN.s~r ALLA'TIO,N

5.0

Q 2· ...

I .'.":

.,c' :>

'1 0'10'" m A _""

.. 0.1,,' ,-"-'~'P

1 ':l: I~

=J:l. ~I,F.;;

76

5 i'P; 010' ':',

u····

C! 5:-

[o~ .. '

1.7'00 '10-800 260

V'olts Ampere V'Qlts

Volts

MH 1.1 a.n[p eres Ohms

_ ~~ _ J __ ~

Micromhos Ohms 'Mi]liwatts ,~~,t

J!.!J1:f.

~~f.

A'111!lDr,' '"'f..ll. 7JtifD.

.11~i8r!

S~ 14 Medium -4" Pin

'T- he 'L., '. " ,.,.:., "". ." f the ~ 1 ? .. A> ,(:: the .', --;l.,. -Ai f " ,""" ... ,.', r·.- ',., k" .'

_ ' ,., I;; Dase pUIS- :0, . e .:L .... , u t t .e ~ta,n ua,ru Q ur- COn tact SO'c" et,

t, iuld L -: .. "- talled '.' ("} ~ t-,},,- .j. t.. ':0 ,,'~T] .' .-.-', ,.--ii-. ,'",.. '.' f-~ , 1 ... ,.".,'.'

SuOUl', [.)C 1I18·;ii,.lLe·, SO u. la:'Ir I re tune WIJ! operate UJ, a vercrca posrnon,

0'£ the socket in th e d e teeter stage rna y be desira ble if micropho nic are en,COD n tered . ,POl" so cket conn ecti 0 ns ~ see, page 3 '9 ~ Fig. 1.

The coated 6lau,)"e;nt employed in the 112,,,,A may be, operated conveniently from a 6 ... volt storage battery. A fixed or variable resistor ,oJ suitable value is requited to' reduce the battery voltage to j .O volts across the fita.rrlen.it terminals at the socket.

AI- f'h'~'" volts '·Y' the .« est ::', t.',,·f·· .- t·' ',' .' ',":'. "-' ~," ,',C' ", ,·,"'-f··' ',' ,"., . " .- c· ':: '~1 b .,", .b .. :"·' t . . d

.c tr IS . 0 rage, ne mos sa. IS act ory operadng ,pel[ ormance wiu ,. e 0 tame .

,A.PPLICAT.IO,N'

'The ,s,ock'ct 'Gus hie> nin g distu r ban ces

,As a detector, the ] '1 2, .. A :ill a y be ope ra te d ei th e r wit h gri d le a.k an d co nd en ser 0 r with grid bias .. , The recommended plate voltage for th,e former method is 45 volts. ,A" ,15 6d ~ eak 0 f from 0,,2,5 to .5 megohms used with a ,g'[] d con denser 0 f 0,0002.5 JJ."f.. .is suitable, The grid circuit return Slil011Jd he connected to the positive filament term i]] al .

F (I r gr,i d bias d erection ';, pi ate volta ges up to th e maxirnu rn value o f 1, 8. 0 volts.

In.ay be used. The corresponding grid bias should be adj usted so that the plate current, when no signa] is being received) is about: 0",2 mini amp ere:", Usually, a plate voltage of 1 'j 5 volts with a ,grid bias of approximately ,~1. 5 'volts. will be satisfactory.

,As an attl,p,l~6.eJ;', the 112. .. A IS ap pli cable to the audio- or the radio .. frequency stages of a receiver. Plate voltages and the corresponding g:dd v'Qltag~~s for audiO'

] - h'· - ~ Id b d:' . ] f· . "1 . bId 'b . -; d" 'I

. l' . '. " I ',' . . ,.,,' .~. . .",' .. ... I' . . . ... _. I ", i··1 . . - ," .. , , . .• ['" ,". I I~ .. : ,', " . , . '.' . : " I - __ . " ....,~' 0 - ~.'. ,- - .1. •. I" ,"", .

a,mp~l.".er sel, VIce S )Ou,e "eterml:nec 1 Gm t 1(: ta.· u. "ate. c. ,aractenst1cs an,. tle

curve.s in .order to o'bta,iB opti,rnum p.erformance t1J,nd freedolfi ftorn d.istortion.. The

-25--

THE RCA RADIO'TRO,N' 'MAN'UAL

higher plate voltages will he found. advantagecus under conditions where the impressed grid ,signal is large OJ!' where maximum power output is desired .. ,

Wh.en the 1] 2. .. A is. used as a. radio-frequency amplifier, little is. gain,ed from plate voltages exceeding 90 volts, .If the I 12 .. A .is substituted for the '~Ol .. A in radio-frequency circuits, it may be, necessary to readj ust the nel.:ltral:1z,:,ing condensers or to increase the value of the grid suppressor resistors to prevent oscillation.

vo,mume Control of. the receiver may be accomplished by variation either of the grid bias or the plate voltage applied 'to the radio-frequency stages.

Ail EIRAGE, ,P'l A. TiE CHAR ACT E R, 1ST ~ G So

, II "I

'T y p~: ~ ~:2,~,;A;,

r=: lE:t:i:i, 5.0 V(:l~,TS iD;.Q",", •• ,=IP-~-I-~--4----1I---+---+---+---+----1I---+---+----11

I Vi,~"'oJ,/ / .t 'fTe~'~ .. '--! .... " 1i7"'~: Y'

ls- I' .. ,,' I . ... . j'o;.,_,... ,~,I e :~ .. " .,.. ?, .... ,

, ." "I .............. , ;'i."D

G6~V /" r i/ .... c·.c ::" V·:·"c"II/~~',. o~

7 .... . . .K. /_ ",',1~

I,~ 116<0

'Pl,;I\ if!!:: vii) D.. ,'S

AV E.IRAGE, CHARA.cr ER ,I 5T res

.A VE"R:,A,GE CHAR:AC T'E R 1:5 r I C~,

iI'rlPE:: ~~2'~,A

E:r =.:$,0 VO!,.,To) e.c,

I J' 1 ~I ,- f 1
T''I'IPE;; !!:l'-A
E.r:: 5.0 VOL is ElC 1 I
I J 1
.1
- I
"'" " ~/i
<\I" e
..... '" ~
~ I ,~
!.L'.
-i
~ "I~ ~ ~ 1-
I I
iJ..'
.' t: I ,~
Ii J
~ l! I I I
I!
, r,
I I I V' l ~I- I
, ijo' '
L I 71j
-
i I
I I 1.1 I t I
'I
- - -, 4~' -.;2 0 -16, ,-t2 - is ~_ 0 ~!Ri e vOl!. T.:::;,

U'X" -t 2'·""0,.'

. '- _. ... -

POW',E,R ,AMPLIfIER,

The "20 is a three ... electrode", hlgh"'Vd!JCllUm, power ampli .. fier tub e designed for opera tion from dry .. cells, It is intended fat use in the. last audio stage of dry ... battery-

opera ted receivers using the ;'99 an d lor '22. ':,'«

CHARA.C,TE,RlSTI'CS

F,n.,AMENT Vo.L TAGE. (D. C",) ' .. ;, , .•. ' , .. ' ~ '. , ~ '. ;; F.U: .. AMHN',]" C'URRENT "., .. ,. ~ ". ~ .. " + ,. ' •• ' ~ '. i • ~ '. "

PLATE V'OL T AGE ~ , ... ~ '. ,. , '. + '. ' •• ' '. 90

GRID 'VOL,'TA.GE ;, , , ~ ' .. ' ,. " ~ ~ ' .. ' ,. ' •. ' a. ~ ~] 6. 5

F'LA T'E ICURlE NT ~.. ~ " .' .' " .' ~ .. .' ~ .. • .' ~ 3 .,0

P"LATE R' ''OS" ~;;:"TA" N(-"'t:! 80" 00'"

_ . . . _ _ .. ', J,L.:.~" 10' . _ '_, ,_ ': L ~ !. ~ .!II II!!. I· ~ .!! ~: -Ii '.' !I. ~ r;~, : .... ~.. . .. : .

AMPLIFICATION FACTOR ~ .' ~ ' •. ~ ~ . ;, ~ '. i 3..31

MUTUAL. CONDUCTANCE ;; '. '. 0 .' T. r '. ' •• ' 415

LOAD RESISTANCE '.' ~ .. " ~ '. '.' ;; ~ .. ' T. •• ,.. 960'0

UNDI8TORTED ]?OW,ER OUTPUT .. ~ .. ' ~ 45

'GRID'~ PLAT,B 'CAPAGITA N GE ;;. '. . ;; ,. . .' ~ -4.1

GRID ~'.F.I LAM EN'T 'CAPAcrr A.NCB '..' ~ • . ~ '2; 0

P1ATE",PIl.AME.NT CAPACIT A I-H:: 'B .,. ~ .. , 2.'3,

MAXIM:UM 'OV,ERALL LENGTB .", .• ' ~ .•.• ' •. ~ ... ~ '. ~ ~ '. ' .• ' 4 .' ~ ' •• ' ~ 1v1AXI~l U M DIA,M E T E.R '.'.' ~ i '" '" ,0, ~ .. '" i, .; .. ;, ~ • ~ ~ • ., " • .. ~ • ~ '. " .' • .' .. ~

BU,LB (See pag(~ 42", :Fig. 1) .,', .. ' , ~ . ~ '. , + ~ '. ~ '. ' •• ' ~ .'

B',: A" <0.'1;r,

. 0 I:. • i ~ 'Ii .' ,~ iii' + 'Ii iii' ~ 'ill iii' ~ • • III • II!! ., rill • II!!! I. II!! • -iiI rill • II! II!I • ~ II!!! !II II!l -!II • I!' ~ !I' !to of. I! ... ~ '.

'oo.! 01 ... '"j 3'·

,~ + U :Ji ~ ~-

....

0, 125' .. '0', '13'·'2'·',

o!' -;. 'r. " - .

1.35 'max.

2"') ,E;r

- ~.J

6.5, ,f: 3".' 0'" 0""

U., ..

:L3 52.5 6500 .l10

Volts Amp'e're:

, Volts

Volts'

MIl Ira ~ peres OhIns

INST,ALLA,TIO'N

Th e base pin,s of til, e 1'20 fit the sta n dar d four .. contact so ck et. The socket she uld be installed to operate the tube 111 a vertical position. For socket connections, See page :;,9 ~ Fig, 1.,

The, 6.lame.fi't in th.is tube is de~sig,[],ed for operation with three No. 6 dry .. cells connected in aeries, In m ulti-tube receivers the use, of six or nine No. (l' dry .. cells, con n e cte:d 1.0, series- parallel to gJve -4,. ,," vo Its will deere ase the cu trent drain per cell an d give a more sta b le so t1J rce of fila ill e n t power, ill f sto ra ge battery operation is P ref e rred, a fo u r-volt " sto ra g e batte ry m a.y be used. In an y case ~ a fi lamen t rh e ostat s h ould be p rovide d to main tat n th e voltage a ppli e d to the fila men t. within the stated range,

AnpU"C" A'Y"IO' .. .'N·····

.r."_ :,"', '-. :. ", "' ... ' :" '_, ".

For po'w,er ampn~e,r service, the '''20 wi]!, give greatest power output when oper-

d ] ,. f '1 "1 c' 1 d h d ' id bi f 2' 2 It:' f.

a-te _" at a p .. ate vo.(tag'e 0" .ss YO, ts an, ' t e correspon lng g,t! :,nas 0' ,-:' _ J volts.

,At: 90 volts on th e p Ia te and with a corres p ondin g grid b ias of ~-l6.5, vol ts, good quality 0 f re pro d ucd 0 n m ay be, obtai ned at a lower -1 ev eJ, 0 f powe r o utp ut,

In receivers employing tubes of the 'j ," 3, vole fuJ,am,ent type; the use 0:£ the, 'i.O in the' output stage win be: found desirable.

-27-

RCA It,

. '. . . .

: ,-_odl'otron·

seRE,E,N GRID R,ADI'O~F,REiQ,UEN'C'Y A,M:PLIFIE:R

The '22 is a screen grid tube designed particularly for radio-freq uency am plifica tion in dry- ba ttery-operated re .. rei vers em ployin g .3 '"' 3 vol t 61 am e. n t tubes,

FI LAM E NT 'VOLT i\,(_[ E ( 1). C,.). ~ ,. . .' '. .' ~ ~ . " . . ~ 3 '. 3

FI LA1¥fE NT CUITu:,un-rr ~ '. .. '. '. . " '. .' 4 ,p, ~ .. ~ '" • '. .' ~ '. O. 1:3 2,

PiLA.TE VOLTAGE ~ ~ . ~ .' ~ • ~ ... ' ~ '. ~ ~ 4"~ ,., 135, 'li 3,5 T1HiX"

GRID VOL TAGE ~ •. , '. ~ ' •• ' ' •• + ' •• ' + ' •• ' ~ ' •• ' -LS ~L.)

Sea E E N 'V 0 L'F hG E +..' + • a ~ • ~ -e • .' ~ • '", ~ -4 5 * 6 j' - S. $ $:

P l,A 'f'E C UlRRE'NT +, '. +. .' a. ;; '. '" ;; • • ~ • '" '. • 1. 5 :3.."j

SCREEN CURRBNT .• ' , .... , . "' '" ... ~ • + + •• + " , + • Not over }j, of

PtA'Tl.E RJESIST.'.ANCE .,.'"."'. '" ,. "' '. ~ .' ' •• ' .. 8. 50000 600.000

AMPLlFICAT,ION 'FACTOR ' ... ' •• ' .' ~ ' •• ' + ' •• ' ~ 300 290'

M UTU.AL !CONDUCT ANCE ~.,."' ' •• ' ' •• ' ~ '.' j .5 0 480 Mic romhos

E,Pf'EGT1VB G'.tHO ... P.LA '"fE CAP,ACITA NCB ~ 0.02 5 ~y.tax£~-n'!o!lt i-1i-tf.

INPUT OAFA;(~I.TANC.E .... ' .. ' •• ' .. " .' + + ' •• ' ~ 3.. 2 uuf.

OIUTPUT 'CArA.crTAN'CE "",' ~ ~ .. ' + • + ' •• ' 12 ~~t

'OVE,RA.l1.JL :LENGTH .. "' •. , .. '. " ~ ' ... '. '. " ~ ~ .' .• + ' •• ~ •• ' '. " , ' ••• + • ;, .' " 42~~2;f to 5~~,,2'j!I

M- or D' ',' '~ ·1,3".-_L1- e"

.::, AXJ,M'U'}.-{ ,'-!A:MBTER, ' .... ' •• ' .' ' •• + .. ' •• ' ~ .' • ' •• ' ••• ' + , ... ' ...... ' ••• ' + ; lL l'

BULB ,( Se,e; page 42~ Fig, ] 1,) + • ~ ' •• ~ ' •• ' .' ' •• ' '. ' •• ' + , " ' •• + +. •• ' ' •• ' + " .' 8 .. 1.4

CAP . ~ '. . . .' . .' '" • . ~ ,. • ~ '. .' + '. a. .. '. .' ~ .. '. .. ~ e ~ '. .' a. '. , + • .' .. • • .. • .' + • a + S mall Metal

:SASE •... , .• ' •. '. " •• ' •• + .... ' ' .• ~ ' .. '" .. ~ ' •• , ~ .• ;; ' •• ' + , .' ' ••• ' ' •• ' .' '. , + Medium .4, .. Pin

'Volts ~mpere Vo.lts Volts Volts

Milli a rn.p e res p~,ate cur rent Ohms

:$ M:ax:hn u m value of g..rid resistor 1S 5 _ 0 ffiiE:gohm$+ * * M'a,:d.m.uF:Il value of 'Q::dd :re~islt:o.r is. 1" (} megohm.

INST.ALLATION

'T h e :baiSJe: pin S 0 f th e 'j '2 2 fit th e stan dar a f OlJJ r ~ con tact so ck et. 'The' socket should be iristalled to hold the, tube in a vertical position. Cushioning of the socket may be: desirable to. avoid microphonic disturbances" For socket connections, see page 39':; Figure 4~

For :fiIament 0 pe:r2JJ tao 11." refe r to I N S T AL 1LA,TIO N fo F typ e ~ 2 O.

APPLICJ.\,TIO'N

,As a radio-frequency ampmifier' in III ulti .. stage circuits, it is, necessary to shield care full y each sta ge and to inc] u d e with.i n th e sta g e sh.i eld all 0 £ the co m P onent parts .0 f that sta ge. 'U nless this. is do n e, th e arnpl ificatl0 n lP ossibil it. e s of th e '"22 can not: he realized '.

A s an alldiQ,"lreq~ency ~p,Rrier, th is tub e may be o p e rated with ei th er the sere e n ~ grid or- s,p,ace:.o",,;::h.arg,e;'grid. cormectiou, 1n either case, the value of plate coupling' resistor should be of from 100000 to 25 0000 chrns, \Vith the screen-grid arrangernent, a plate . supply voltage of 13 j to ] 80 'Volts applied through the coupling resistor is. recommended. U nder these conditions, a screen voltage of 22~S. volts and a negative grid voltage of O. "1',5, to 1.,;:) volts are suita ble, For the space-chargegrid connection, the inner grid is operated at 22 .,S volts, while the, outer grid he'~ comes the control grid and Is biased n'egativ-dy by from 0 to 1,.5 volts, depending upon conditions of operation.

,-28,~

'The '24, .. ·A 'IS a screen grid amplifier tube containing a 2",$ volt uni ... potential heater-cathode which permits operation from, alterna ting current This tube is recornmended for use primarily as a radio-frequency amplifier in carefully shielded circuits especially designed for it. The '~24"'A may also. 'be 'used as a screen grid detector or audio amplifier,

'Dr.l Ro d i Iotro "0

~,,_' .. II'.·",,':

uv 2"24A

' '~""'~.:

... .....!,' "._

SIC,RE,E,N GRID RADI10 .. FRE'QUE.N'CY· AMP'LIFIER,

C'HARACTERISTICS

HI1r.' "'l"1r.i'D- V", of"i;l.TA'·G· 1i':' ('A"" IC" " D',I ·C· ,.). ' .... ,.".,1:'".

r.J..1i\.l-1.." L.[\;, ',' V ·-:.,,-··.n ",_ :', ';;: <'.".!!!! air "_"i' ·.~·.-'r,.1 !t! 'II! • i!' III ••• '!Ii II!!' III ,!II • ill'i!! .L ~

H:BA'f:BR Cu RRJEN'T '. ~ .. '. .' ~ ,. .' .' '. '. • ~ '. .' .. . ,. • .. '. . '" . . " . " .' '1 , '7 5

PLATE VOLTAG,E:t' '.' ... '.' ~ ~ '" '.' ~ .e •• ~ ~ ,. ~ ,,180 25-.0

GRID VCH ..... rAGE '.' ~ '. ~ a. ~ • " ? •• ' ' ••• ~ •• ,,-3 ,-3

SCREEN 'VO'LTAC:E '. + '. , • ' •• '" ' •••• ' •• '. • 90 90 m;!Jx,.

P,LATE C'URR,E~ NT,., + " • .' '. '" • '. • • n • • ;, " • 4r 4-

SC[?;"EEN CURRENT .... ;' .. ' •• ' ~ ' •• ' ,. ' •• " " . , • + '. ~ ~ 'N,ot:: over % of

PLA.TE R E,SJSTA NeE .' + -e , ..... '. • ,. • " ... , • ,,40.0000 600000

,A}'1 PLI PlCA TION .FACTOR.. ., '. .' .' '. • . ,. . • ., ,4-00 615,

MUTUAL COND-UG'fA.NCB ' ..... ' •. <; •• ' <; 1000 102,5

E:FfECTIVE. GRID,,'PLA TE CAPA.cI]""A,NC.E.. 0.01 maximum

INPUT CAPACITANcn .' +. '. " ., " •• '" ••• " • 5.0

OUTPUT CAPACITANCE, .' .. ,. ;1 ' •• " " • " '. • 10,0-

OVE:RA'li..L ,L,EN'GTI~1. ., ~ .' .. ' •• ,. ,;, '. " . ' .... ~ . ,. + ' u •• , .. ' ••• " • ' •• ' •• " '.

MA,X.]MUM DIA,ME,TE:,R. " ... ,. ... , •... ' •.• , " ,. " ~ ~ .. ~ .. ~ , ~ .. ~ '. " " ,

BULB (See p';3J,ge 42~ Pi,g'., 1'1) ""., ' .. ~ + '. ' •• ' ' ••. " '. '. ~ " • ,. ' •• " ' ••• '.

lGA p. 'Ii ill 'Ii .., !ill ii!1 .. Iii 'i • II!i e. il I@I • .iI .. I!jI IIjI ~ ~ r! i!'l If! '!I' ~ ~!II ..... '! II. III !l II!! '!II II!!' 01. ,II • '!l '!oJ • -!!' ~ • ,!'

V'olts ,A,mperes V'olts Volts Volts

Milli amp eres plate curren t Ohms

INST ALLAT'ION

T-rH: base pins of the "i24"",A £lit the standard five .. contact socket, TtH~~ socket may he installed to operate the tu he in any position" Fit)! socket eonnectione, see page 39" Fig. 9.

The h.€'ater of the '~24~ A ,]S intended for operation, from a 2.,5 V(o]t \"Q,inding of the 'po\ver transformer. Thee voltage applied to the heater terminals should be the rated. value of 2".,5 volts under conditions of operating load and average line

voltage. . -

Th,e cathode connection, to t hie h eate r sho uld be mad e ('1) to th e ill ovable ar ill o f a~ po tentiorneter conn ected a c rOS~6 th e hea ter win din g 0 f th e E? ower transf ormer ~ or ( 2. ,) to a mid -rapped resisto r across. the hea tee win ding ~ 'Of (j,) to the mid "P oint of th'e heater winding itself. Recommended practice is, to. have no voltage dif .. · terence: between heater and cathode. If this practice is not followed, the heater may be made negative by not more than 45 volts.

The positive screen vo~ta.,ge' 'for the '24 .. A m,ay be: obtained from 3 fixed or variable rap on a voltage divider' across the high voltage supply, or across a. portion. of the supply,

Co In plete shielding in all sta g~:s 0 f th e. circuit ] s n e cessar y ] f maxim 11..] m gain. per stage is to be obtained.

THE RCA. RAD.IOTRO'N lvIANU'AL

APP.U'CATION

.As a. radi.o,w'frequency 3lnp~ifi.er:~ the ~·24~·A should be operated at the voltages ,gi ve n U nder CfL.A..RA.C'f,ERI'S TICS" Plate voltage and. sere en vol tag e are. _ n at critical. In general, properly designed radio .. frequency transformers are prefer-able: to inter ... stage coupling impedances, especially In cases where a high impedance: B"':5'Up'pl.y ma y cause oscillation below rad i 0) £ r-eq uencies.

As a detector, the ~ 2 4 .. A m a:y he o pet ated eith e r with gri d Ieak an d co n de nse r or 'with g'dd bias (see. page ] 6) ~ POl' g-rid bias detection suitable operating con"

. ditions are! plate: supply voltage of 275, volts 3pp,Hed through a plate coupling resistor of 2S,00(lQ ohms, a positive screen voltage of 20 'to 4$ volts, a"nd a negative grid. bias ( a pproxi matel y 5 - vol ts ) so ad j uste d th at a platte. current 0 f 0 ~ 1 _ milliampere is obtained with no a-c .input signal, For grid ']e,a,k a.nd condenser det;ecti.o·n~ suitable: operating conditions are: plate supply voltage 27 s- volts applied. through a plate coupling resistor of 250000 ohms, a positive screen voltage of 2.0 to 4,; volts, at grid lea-.k of :2 to 5, megohms, and a grid- condenser of OJ)0025 p,t

As a sere eng rid audio-frequency ,8:1l1 pH-tier ,j n :r-e.s,ls:tan ceo coupl e d circui ts, th e 1'24· .. A may be operated 'under the following c(rnditJ.,Ofl$: plate supply 'voltage 2$0., grid. bias ,-1 volt, scree n voltage 2.5 volts, P la .. te cu trent 0....5, millia m,p er It t( ap p ro ximate}, plate load. resistor 0,.1 to O. 2';, megohm, and a grid. resister Qf 0:2$ to 2.0

megohms, . -

-40 :5'0 ~2Gi 'tJfiiQ 2CIi!l)i 24 (II .~I8'Ci ~:E:Q :ild5;{)1 -40· Gi 4";,'0 ,4,80 !i20

P'!l."AT'E:. YO LT~

~- 3,0 _-

""1: ••

....

,-

',RCA" .",'" D ,0" d "1-"10";:- "'t---r-lo"-' '0'

_ ,~--, 1'\aJ, ' _- " ", _', ,[

'The ~26 is an amplifier tube containmg a filament de" signed for operation on alternating cur-rent. It :18 usefu! as a. radio" frequency' amplifier and as a transformer" coupled audio .. frequency' amplifier. The ~26 is not. ordinarily suitable for use as a detector or power output tube"

U'X':,",'., • .,.2-2- 16,

" " . " . '.'

,AMPLrf~ER

CHAf{A,CTE,RIS'T.ICS

F'tLA11'ENT \TOLTAGB (A. C" or D. C+)l .. , . ,. '. , ., .• + . ~ ., 1.5

FILAME,NT CURR.ENT '.' ~ '.' ~ + '. + " + " " ' •• ' + ., , •• , ' ••• ' '" • " ' •• ' ~ .' 1.05

l')LATB VOLTAG']J. ~ +. , • ;, ' •• ' '. ' •• ' ' ••• ' " '. , '. 90 1.15 180 ma.x.

GRrD VOLTAG:n* . ~ ~ . ~ ~ . '" ~ ' .• ' '. ' .. , .' ~ . T ,~, -to -14.5

}'}LA,TE CURR.ENT ~ ' .. , ~ '. " .' '. " m •• ~ ~ •• ' " 2, ,.9' .5.5 6.2;

PLATE :RE,SISTANC-E ~ ~ '. " " " ' •• ~ .. , " ' •• ' ~ 8900 7600 73,00

.l\.M' PLn~ICAT.ION FACTOR ~ ,. . " • . .' " " . .' + g. 3 8.3, .8" :3

MUTUAlL CONnUCTANC,E, ., ~ ~ ., '.' ~ '. ~ ~ '. 93,5 '],1.00 l 'li 50

G RJD,~,P:tA T E, CAP A:Cl'r AN C:B ~ '" .' " " '. .' .. '" .B '" ]

G !UD'~ FJ.LA~f E NT CA F'AC&T'A N (;':8, ",. '. .' ~ '. 3" 5

PL- AT-!' -g', .. F'l1fA'fI;"j"t'i'Nr: - r' '""-P:A-' [ .... 'IITA-·,''i<''ii'C'--'-E' '2" '2>

;', .c" .II .. !1...< ;·Jm'l,~,i. " UA., ".l..~~"'" ·1''1" .'"' 'I" iii rill ii' ~ '11 .

MAXIM UM OVBRAJ .. ,L ,lEN 8TH: -e ~ ~ " .' ~ • • .' '. '. , " • • .' '. • + , -e .' '. .' + •

1vlA :x.F~l 'U'M: VIA'M lB T E·R ,~., ~ ,. ~ ~ '. " ~ ~ .. ~ ~ • .. " .. . " " '. .. ,. .. • + • a '. , .' '. •

BULB (See page 4-1:~, F'ig+ 8:) .... ~ ~ .' ~ ;; ' .. ' • n, •• ' ;, •• ;, '. , ,. ' •• ;. '. " .' '.

':Blh SE ~ II!! ~ i' iii Ii' ~ [ill Ii ~ '!II !II II!I [!II !!l .. i. ,II " II!I I! !Il Ii! ll. j !i! •.• II!!I !Po • 'ii ii' !ill • Ii! 'il 'i! !i' o!o !' !!!, 'I- 'I' !Ii' + 'Ii

Volts Amperes Volu Volts,

MilE a m P eres Obms

INST A.l.LATIION'

The base pin S 0 £ the ~ 2 6 fit the stan dard four-co ntact so cket, Th e SiO ck et shu uld '[be .in stalled so that tJ1A~ tube will op e ra te in ;;3" vertical position, Po r socket co n ne C" tions, see pa ge 3 9 ~ Fig, ~ '"

The coated 'hhlUlent of the ~26 should be operated at the ratied voltage ,of 1..,5 volts from the, a-c Hue .through a step-down transformer. 'For certain .a p,pUca.tiO'!h:S~ it may be operated 'with a d .. c filament power source.

When the filament 15 a-c operated, the p-]at.e and grid return lead should be brought (] ') to, ,th'e m,Qv.a'b]e ar-m of a 20 to 40 ohm potentiometer act'o-S$ tJ1e :fil.a .. rnent windin g; or (2) to the mid-tap of the. filament win,din,g itself. Wh,en d.c. :~,$ used to 0 p crate the D 1..a,111 e,[,l! t~ the ,g rid an d plate, retu r n s s h 0 td d be co 1li necte d. to the ne g'ati ve - :6J amen e terrnin al.

,APPL,ICA,TlO,N

As an audio .. frequ~'i1cy a.rnp,~i6,er,~ th.e ~'26 should be. used with transformer coupling

in -0 rd e r to secure the gre.: atest am pRi.fi cation per sta g e. -

As a ,r,a.dio-frequen,cy ampIifi,er', th e '~2 6. rna y be 0 p e ra ted at plate V.Q Itag C,S as low as 90 volts with good results.

AV E,R AG:E P l.A T'E CHAR A C TIE FU ST J C,S

,L I!-I -___'~-if n, ~Y,fL.~_"t·~-··· _+: r/==" :._ .... ~-. __ . -4:~ /- -'=:' '=' -- =:. -J-i ~~~V_----I_~~4·!~_·~_·~···_'-· --+....,.~iW~_.!.· ,~:__- :_:_'-t-lI"_'-' --=--1~W

~ ~ -'~7'.~ V I

~ - / /.,-' V' ::: :/_ .. _/ "'/ -t~V

'0~! .. ' .. -' , _ __/ ;// _ ~z:__

i.JJ

il...

:~

..::{

~6r--+~~~~-+--+~~~~~

-:l

~: ' ~~-&-_,+-~~~~-+-~

!Oll--- -4-----+-~

TyPE ".26

IE .... = Us. VOLTS D.C.

AVERAGE. CH ARAC T ER I S1! C S

so 00 'IOO~ 12,0 140 160 I,B-O PLAT£ VOL 'rs

32-

.... . ....... - . .

(

",

t

"

. . f

I I

I

The "27 is a three-electrode general purpose tube. can" raining a 2.5 volt heater .. cathode of the equi-potential type which permits operation from alternating current.

CHAR,ACTERISTICS

H·EA,1'E.R. Vur, Ti\G~ (A. C. or D. C.) ~. + .•.•••••.•••.•• ,.

HEATER CURRENT .++. ~~ •• ~.~.~ •• ~.+.~~~~ .. ~ .. ~

P LA TE V 0 I" T AG E * . + .• • •. ,. • .' + '. 90 1 3 5 180

C'RIO VOLTAGE '" ~ ..... ~ . ~ ~ . -6 ~9 -13 .. 5

PLA'rE CURRENT ~ +. .•• + .•• + i • ~ 2.7' ~t5 5.0

.PLA TE RlESH3'Y ANGl! ... + .•••. ~. 11.000 9000 9000

/\.MPl.JFlCATION FACTOR '9 9 9

MUTUAL CONDUCTANCE .. ,.. g 20 ]_ 000 10.00

GR].D~.Pl.ATE CAPACITANCE ., ... ~ .••• ;; 3.3

G'Rn)~CATJ"I ODE CAPAcrr ANCE . ~ ~ • + • l . .s-

F'LATE ~CA THODE CA.PACrr ANCE: +" + " • 3.0

M.I\XI1\fUJ\I OVERALL LENGTH . ~ ~ , + • , ••• , , ••• + ., • + •• + •• ' .' •• ~

MA.XIM UM DIAME,'-rER •• + ' ••• ' ••• ; .. ~ , " .' • + ••• ' ••• ,

BULB (See page 4, 2~ Fig . .8) ., ,. ' .. ' + ' ~ ••• ' •• ~ ••• ' .•• ~ ••• ' .••• ~

BiASe . Ii Ii- i: • , •• ;ii, 'f! iI Ii- l •••• !!I • ~ ~ • iii, • '!!II !to ~ '. i iii 'II • ill ••••••• ~ ! 04- + il .. 'r •• II' 'II ....

2.5 L75 1,50 ·-21 5.2 9250 '9 975

'V'Qlts Amperes. Volts

Vo]ts Milham pte res Ohms

Microtnhos JtjiJ.J.

l!V..f .

~~f.

41'111: ", , 7J6

11' RI_ 11" '7l.'6

S'" 14- Medium 5., Pin

INSTALLATION

The base pins of the '2? fit the standard '0 ve .. contact socket, The socket may be mounted to hold the tube in any position. For socket connections, see page, 39~ Fi,g. 8 ...

'The ilea·tel·· ()f the ~ 27 rs intended for operation from do 2.,5, volt winding of the power transformer. The voltage applied to the beater terminals should be the rated value of 2.,5, volts under conditions of operation and average line voltage.

The cathode connection to the, heater should be made -( 1) to the movable arm D f a potentiometer connected across the heater winding of the power transformer, or (2) to a rnid-ta pped resistor across the heater 'winding" or (.3) to the mid-point of the heater windin g itself, Recommended practice is to have no potentia'! difFerence between heater and cathode. If this practice is n-ot followed, the, heater may be biased preferably negative, but allowably poaiti ve, with respect to the cathode. by i1IQt more than ,45 volts a,

APPL,ICAT'ION

• .:"\5. an ainpI~,fier, the ~2 7 is applicable to the audio- or the radio-f requency stages

of a receiver. Recorn mended plate and grid voltages are shown 'under

CHARACTERIST]'CS.,

.li1s a. detector, the "2'7 may be operated either with grid leak and condenser Or with grid bias" The recommended plate. voltage for grid leak and condenser detec .. tioris is 45 volts (see, page 16). ,A grid leak of from I to 5 megoh rns used with a grid condenser of 0.00025 uf. is suitable. For grid bias. detection, a plate volt-age of 250 volts or less may he used. The, corresporidin g grid bias should he adjusted so that the plate current 'when no signal is bein g received is approximately 0.2 milliampere. For the conditions of 250 volts on plate and transformer coupling j the grid bias \~~HI he approximately -30 volts.

-~. 33-

T.HE· RCA RADIOITRON 1v1A.NUAL

AVERA.GE PLATE CHARA.C. iTERIST~ CS

0. 40 80 120 I ikJo 200 2.4'01 PL.-A Tlit vo IJ.. TS

v.J ~ 1: o

.c"12000

o,

b

.,._,.'

W o Z

~ 8001

til"

LJ Ct:

!,oJ. .... 00· 'Ot---:-I--I---1---+--t---I--~ t- '~~. ' ..

-c

ci

.M! ERAG E CHA RA~ T ER I ST lC S

10

TYPE!';n I
. E,=2.::;' VOLliS

fr> J i Il
(. fu ......
Ii II j ~l ~
l;J ~.' ~?i
'0-
.r~· ~ I~I~ . ._
f..:.. -;
B
til II 11
~I 1 / 1
.
1/ 1 J 'L
/ II I
, .
I I. V / L
i_ . 'n'
. o;:j
.I l( / 1 1/ 1 ~1_
r:.
/ V L I L V L
.
I / V' .. I 'f Q -2B -24 -20. =1.;1 ~12: -@. -·4

GR I D 'VOLTS

0.

60 so 100 120 140 ~60 ISO PLATE VOLTS

RCA Rndtotron RCA~230

DETECTOR~. AMPLIFIER

Fhe '3,0 is a detector and amplifier tu he of the rhree-electrcde type, It has a coated filament which takes. as little power as PQS'" sible consistent with satisfactory operating performance. This fea .. ture makes the .; 3 0 particularly suitable in' battery-operated radio receivers ern ploying th e "3 2~ ~ 3 ·4! ~ 3,1 i and.! or 'iI.33 where econ 0 OJ. Y (I f

fi.lanl en t current drain ]8 .ir.n portant. .

CHARA.CTERISTICS

FrLA.M:iENT '!OLTAG.E [(D·, C,) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ + .• ~ 2.0

.F i.LAM 13 NT Cu R.RE NT.. • ~ .. . ~ ~ .• • ~ ., • ~ 4' , ~ + • ;; " • , , •. ~ .• • 0.060

P'LATE\TOLTAGE .~~,~ .. "".~ ~.. 90 13·5

G RID VOLT AG E ~,. + • • • • • • • • • ~ ., ~ •. -4 .. 5 ~9

PLA'f E· C UllaE NT ~ . . ~ • + •.• • ~ • ~ ~ • • • • •. 2.. 5 3 .0

PL,'\TE RESISTANCE • ~ ....• , ,., 11000 10300

Al'..fPLJ:lFllCA l'ION F AG']I"OR " .• e. ~ + ., ~ .. 9.3 9. .. j

MUTUAL CONDUCT. ANCB. . ~ ••. ~ ,. ~ 85:0 900

,GRID"PLATE CAPACITANCE .•. ~ , , . 6_0

GRJ.D .. F',rLAMENT CAPACITANCE ,. ~ . . '3 .. 7

PLATE,flLAM'ENi CAPACI1'ANCE ., ..... ~ 2.1

MAXI}.,,{ 01\,,1 OV.ERALL LENGTH ~.'" ,. ~ •. , ~ •. ~ . ~ .. , + ~ • '" ~ •. " " ... ~ i

.MAXI M'U M D'IA M' ETER ..,. ~ .• ~ .. ~ . ~ .. .• • '" , .. '" .. . .. ,. .. • + .• .. • • • ~ .. , .. .,

BULB ( Se·c .p a ge 42, Fig. <6) ;0 ,. Of 4 .. 4 '" .. .. ,. ~ .. 4 • ~ • • .. .. • .. ~ •• ~ .. ~ ,. ..

B .-\S E .1 III • it '" ,I! Iil • .1 • I. :. ~ ! 4. lIo 'e • III ,! • + Ii • r. fII • ~ .. -t. 'r • ~ .. iii • !Ill • • ... 'to !! + II • .' !II •

180 max .. -13.5

3· .1 103,00

9.3 900

Volts Ampere V'olts

Volts Milham per es Ohms

INSTi\LL.A:TION

The base pins of the ~30 fit the standard [our-contact socket. The socket should be installed so that the tube. will operate in at vertical position, Cushioning of the socket i[1 the detector stage may be desirable .if micrcphcnic disturbances are en co un te r ed, .F 0 If socket co 11 necti oris, :::N!C page 3, '9 ~ Fig. 1 ..

The coated filament of. the "30 may be operated conveniently from dry ... cells, Irorn at single lead storage .. ,cel]~ or from an air .. cell battery. 'For dry-cell Qpen'.ation~a fila .. merit rheostat may be used together with a permanently installed voltmeter to insure the proper filament voltage, For operation ftQID a 2tvolt Iead storage-cell, the '130 requires rio filament resistor. Operation with an air-cell battery requires a fixed resistor in the :6J.a:rnent circuit. 'This resistor should have a value: such that with a new air ... cell battery ~ the v 0. ita ge a P plied a cross th e filame n t te r minals 'W ill not initiaUy' exceed 2.15 '\ olts. S,eries 0 per·at.ion of th,e' fila·ments of th.ese tubes 1S 11.ot r·e. c () m ~n,e'n oed.

A.P.PLI'CATION

.;;":\'5 a detector, the '130 may be operated either with grid leak and. condenser or 'with ,Rrid bias, The. plate voltage for the former method should preferably not be more than 4..5 volts. A g d d 1 ea k of from ] to .5 .m e g oh ms use d with a g rid co n" denser of .0 .. 0002.5 ~t is satisfactory. The grid return should be. connected to the positive filament socket terminal, .F01~ grid bias detection, plate voltages up to the maximum value of 180 volts may be used, The corresponding grid bias should he adjusted so that the plate current is about 0.2 milliampere when no signal Is being received.

As an an~pfi.fier! the' ., 3 0 is applicable. to the audio .. and the radio .. f req uency stages of a receiver, Plate voltages and the corresponding grid voltages should he deter .. mined from ~h~ C~.ARA~TERI~~'ICS. .~nd. the curves in. order to obtain optimum per ..

f orrna I.) ce an d freed 0 m f ro m disto rtro n, ;

As an osc~Uator, this tube may be used at plate voltages not exceed ing 45 volts ..

THE R,: C-"A' 'RA'- D'~IO: ':-T' RO' "'N' M····· L1l\TU··A·L

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POW,ER AlvfPLIFIER

The ~3 I is a power amplifier tube of the three-electrode type,' It has a coated. filament which takes as. little power as pi~s~ible consistent with satisfactory operating performance. This feature . makes" the ~31 particularly suitable in batteryope~dt~d radio recervers employing the ;30.; ~32~ andyor ~34 where economy of filament current drain is important.

RCA Rodlotron R[CA~'231

CH' A: R'.-·'A::·cr;'II'ERI> S:··:··TICS······-·

•• r, :_" • ,',' I .... ':._.' '_'.'

Fi.E.4M·'l!;l'N· T-;-' V:·' '0' I' ·T'A····;f"··lIi!' ,('D" ·C·'" 2e .. ,,0'

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F]L.A:MENT CURRENT • + •• ~ • ' •• + ' •• ' ,. " ~ ., •• ;, ~ •• ' '. , + + • ~ 0.l3 (1)

PLA rEV 01. TAG E ..' + , m • • .' ~ • .' ,. • ~ • • .' '. 1.3 5 '

GRlD VOLfAGE ~.,; ...... ' .. , ... , ~ -e + '. '. ~ -22,5

PLATE C:URR'ENT ., , • + , .' " '" • ~ •• ' ~ •• , ••• ' 8.0

PLATE RESISTANCE ...• ~ , ' •. '. , .• '. 4100

A,;t..{P'L]F]'CATION F.ACTOR ~ , .• + ••• ~ • 3,.S.

MUTUAL CIiJ'N.DUCT ANCl! , .. + ' •• ' , ••• , ., ' •• ' 925

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UN DISTORTED POW'1!R 10 UT iP'U T. !.' ••• ' ], 85

'GRID .. P,LATH CAPACiTANCE ' •• ' ~ '. ; . , .. ~ .5.7

GRID--FILA.1;~,ENT CAPAClTANCE , .. ~ • " ~ 3..7

PLATE~F]t.AMEN~Jr CAPACITANCE .' ' ..• ' ~ 2.2

MAXI}.1 u }to·t Ov F RA I . L L E. N G T H • + '. " '. • ~ • + ~ • ~ • '. .' • ., ~ • • ,. '. • .. • " •

MAX n& U }.·f D I' AM ET E R ~.. ,. ~ '. .' • .. . . ., • ~ . .' .. , .' ~ .. . ~ . . . • + '. • .. '. • ~

BULB .( See page 427/ Fig. 6) . ~ ' ... ' ' .. + .... ' , ..... " ~ , •• ' • " " ••• , '. +

IBA~',E1. '

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180 rnax. ~30

12,3

3600 "'J' '8

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1030 5700 375

Vohs Ampere 'Volts

Volts 'MiUiampe:res Ohms,

M.icrotnh,os Ohms Milli watts J!,J,tf..

lJ-lJ.f.

~~'f.

4'~j '-,,' ~4f

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8 .. :12

Small 4,~P.in

IN'ST,ALL,ATION

The b~tse pins of the ~ 31 fit the standard four-contact socket, The socket should. be; installed so that the tu he win operate in a, vertical position, Alchough the ~ 31 is very free from microphonic a isturbances, cushioning of its socket may be desirable. Foi socket connections, see page 39, . ig. 1..,

The coated 61am,en.t ,of the '~31 may be operated conveniently 'from dry-cells, from a s",ngle: lead storage-cell or from an air-cell battery. . Far dry .. cell operation, a filamerit rheostat may be used together with a. permanently mstalled voltmeter to insure the proper filament voltage. For operation from a 2 .. 'Volt lead storage ... celt the '~31 requires no fihJlfnent resistor. Operation with an air-cell battery reqi ires a fixed resistor in the filament circuit. 71:1I,1S resistor should have a value such that \.vith a rue'w air-cell battery, the voltage applied across the filament term in als will not initially exceed 2. 1.5 volts. Series oper'ation of 'th.e fila~ne-nu of rh,t;$,r:; tubes fs not yc:cornmended.

,A.P'p1LIC,A'TION'

As a pow'el· amplifier, the: ; 3 l should be operated as shown under CH,ARAC'" T E RI S 'fICS ,.

Grid voltage fOl" the "3, 1 may he obtained from a C .. battery, or by use of the voltage drop in a resistor connected in the negative plate. return lead, The latter method Is known as the self;bia.sin g method and. is required where a. grid resistor ( maxim urn value I. megohm} is used.

If more output is desired than call be obtain ed from, a single ~ 3, 1 I' two "'3 1"5 may be operated either in parallel or ,pus,h.-pull. connection, ,Average plate characteristics (curves] are g]ve'n on the precedin g page,.,

R.CA,~232

RA:·· D'lO'I' P- -- R''-'' E'Q''- UE-N" iov A:"-M"'- P':L- IFill I;' . R'

. . . _ _ _ ". . .- . . _ .':. . -, '-.-'.' .. ', . -'. I .1. _ ..I I .

The ~.3 2 is a scree 1 grid tube recommen ded primaril y fo.r use as a radio .. frequency amplifier. It contains a coated filament which takes as little power as possible consistent with satisfactory operating performance. 'This feature makes the

~32 particularly suitable in battery ... operated radio receivers employing the

, '!J - 1 d/' ., 'lL_ f £.1 d .. .. .

3.4~. .3 I, ant -' or 3 3 wnere eCOn0111 Y' 0.-" n ament current .':_ rain is Important.

Micrornhos u .. u u f.

~ . I. "' r

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113':;' .»

r.lL6

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S HI a 11 Metal MediuIll 4 .. Pin

CHAR.ACTERISUCS

F]:LA1.~ENT VOLTAGE (D". Ie") ~ . ~ ~ . ,. , .... , ... ~

PlLAME'NT CURRE.N"f .•..• + •• ~ , ,. ~ '. ; ••. + + • , •.•• " , ...

PLATE. VOLTAGE , ••. ~ , , .. , , + ~ • • 13.5-

SCREEN VOL TAGE. .. , ..•.•••. ~ • ~ " . ~ '. ;. •. . -67 . .5-

IGRJD VOL iAGE ~,. ~ .•...•..• ' ; , .' ., .' ~ .•• ' ·-3

PLATE 'CU'RR.~N·1 ' •• ; ..... + ••.•••• ; .• ;. ; ..• , 1 _7-

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P I A- - T E- R· iH:OI 01' _'" ""-:'feE' 0 ~ '0 00'0-

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AMPE-.-IFlCA l"'ITON FACTOR , •..... ~ . ~ .. , •. ~ 610-

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Efl~ECTIVE. ,GIUD .. PI ATE 'CA.PA.cITAKC·E.

INPUT CAPACITANCE ,' , ~ , ..

O 'If rr P'U 'If' C-' '" IJ ,It C·' ~J 'l'AN-' ..... ''[].

~,I [JI. .n ~~. , " v.w +. + I: 01, + ••••• 1 !to

OVERALL LENGT>[ ,. '.' ; , .. " " . , . " + .• ; .

MAXI M U £..1 l)IA ki E T E-JR ,M..'·.·... ," . . . . . .. . . . . . " .

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CAP <... i'i' +. • .;. ... + ... • II • .' II 'I r _ -e - ~ ", a: _ ;r • • 81 II o! eo o! • II. • II '.' 'fl 'I' II i'i 'r ; ~ + ;;;; ;II ,I.

2 .. 0 0.060

180 max" 6".5 nldX.

1.7 10 J.

. -= iii

1200000 780 650 -0.015 ma.;dmu·m 6.0

1.1.7

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Volts ..A.]1[1 pere Volts Vo'hs Volts

Mi 111 am peres Mini amp-ere Ohrns

1 NSTALLA TI'ON'

Th e base pi ns of the ~. 32. fit the. stan d ard f.o-u r- co ntact so eke t. The socket shou 1 d be installed so that the tube 'will operate in a vertical position. Although the. "32 is very free from. microphonic disturbances, cushionin g of its socket may he found. desirable. For socket connections, see page 39 ~ Pi.g .. 4.

The coated tiIam.ent of the '32 may he operated conveniently from dry-cells, from a single. lead storage-cell, or from au air .. cell battery. For dry-cell operation, a fila.m'ent rheostat should be used together with a permanently installed voltmeter to insure the proper filament voltage. For operation from a 2 ... volt lead storage .. cell, the ;, 3 2 requires no filament resistor. Operation with 'an air ... cell battery requires a. fixed resistor in the filament circuit. This resistor should have a value such that wi·tIl ,21 new air ... cell ba tte ry ~ the voltage applied ac ross the fila.iuen t te rm in als wil 1 not rnitia]_ly exceed 2.l:) volts. Series op,e-r,a.tion of rn,e- jilam.ents of thc:'se- tubes is 110t "fe,commended ..

The positive screen voltage may be. obtained fronl a tap on. the plate battery or a bleeder circuit across the supply battery .in part or .in full. N,ev'e:r attempt to -0 b rain th e screen volta g'e f Or the ",. 3 2 by con n ecting th e sere e n thro ugh a seri e. s resistor to a bJgh voltage source, The results will not be satisfactory' because of voltage drop variation produced by the different screen currents of Individual tub-es.

Voluttl·e contrel may be very satisfactorilv accomplished by 'variation of the screen voltage ben'"' een 0 and 67..5 volts. The variation must, however, be accomplished

(Con.ti'nue·d on P.age 4:-3.)

~ 3--8-

These socket connection diagrams are to be used in conjunction with either the text, or the co nsolidated CHARACTERISTICS CH ART. The correct socket connection for each tube is identified by a ligure number which. is ,given under INSTALLATION of each tube description and under Socket Connections of the C·H.ARACTERISTICS C·HART.

G·R;IO CQNN;ECin(l~-MlE.TAL CAP 'TOP F'lG.A

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·600000

, I

. ,,", FOT GrldA..:;ak D(;to:;!c~i~~pj;l';:t ' .. a~t<.l 45 jitrid r.e!!;~~-r.T.I 't(~ + fL'I'~L'I1i"-'mt -or to, ~:;gt'boo~. t bppli~~ ~hroul?h pll;l'l'!!! 00'i.!!p1~1l!lI reaistor QIi' .] s.OOl)lill 'flbjY"~,

·Sl;;I!:i!!(L current '1:1'.101; () .. '~ ;J of plllit~ current.

~ AI:" pl'i.o!:!cl I:lll'tl 'IIi g h 'P·l a r; e ~ 0111 D~ iD a re s ~t or (:0 f :5 a n (I iJ cll ens,

~~.App.ji~.d il.hoou~ plate OOlJl!'li!'!.'i! P~:)~:jwr. (.if :~ S!ll!lliDiD obms or SOO h~r:r (:lLC,::ik@ shunted by. 0.~:5 mC®.J'hm. :reSistOT. XApp_['~d! ~hroulfl,l1: plate rou~~liil,'il: ['<1!::'~!'li:.Ur. i:lf lolliDiDO!D ohms.

POWER AM.PLIFIERS

PO\'i[1I:

JiMPmli:R

J'IG.7

• L ~ I' "1 (.

13.5

~.5i)} 350 ~25

18,.(1' 2,].1]1.

3.=j"Q

9..9- 13 .. §,

16.5 ~'2 .. j

~Vl) J.1 .. 0 3.9..'1}.

i(Ji" !l) 6JD ill 0 1330 S • d 1J~OO

16. (Ii s 15(1l Ui 5 [I' 8.0' i 1000

18, il) 500l!) l (ill)(I' :3 , 0' 1'1),200

i!j .• 2 !1..:i.OO 1{~ s.s 8700

'7. ij, soot) i:i'OO a. s ] (!®i]ii)

3.0 ~ 4H 3.3 I 9ljOO

6.:5 6300 5·2 S. ;3" 3, d;;~IjI(1I

tiJowEiF: ,\'!.-If,,I,,LFI'EIl:

fll~. I

7.5

1 .•. J50

I ,8.0 ·n 00 '9~'~ ;a.,.:B iOOI)

12 a. 3 J501J1 1 Ul5.-U1 J,.;.8 SID!)

las. J.;'·5_

1(:)\··233

FIG. J

flUlYlfi1flT

5.(1

0.25

J3,5-

1<'10., $ 3.1ll1 .5!1l(J;OO i~.59. 70 iOOO

700 I

IP!)W~R' .l.t.!1'1.1 f! EIS

'!.MUL ;:j,·Pill\I

rIIG,. I

9.0 2.5 W2000 97.5 i(itill 13500

F!IIJ. !JI

1 'L ....

I (.

F II L AA'I [11iT

:2.0

()"UI)

Hi,:Ut ?$Iit

J.J. . .'111 ·.:H!i .. 5.

034.5 21.0 l'9Q@ 1.I~:~O ,3'" 5 :~5DO

50.0 34.0 l!'{Si) ZOOO a.s 3900

780 'UiOO

IA: G A _ 46,

j.!!li!.\!(II: j;IYlF'urll~n Uti.~~A'IiI'

Ifllt .. '1

1ft'·

:31.5-

PO'!'llEfj: .1iMP!U!i'IEii [I;: L 11.'5..'1' D. iii

fll~. 7

s -""

..

~ ~ i[iJ ~i(:

Il]o (II FO.r these eba:ractocl1ist.iC'S, :r'de,r to !.~t '13-00 :I: ,M ill ill

Ill! jJ, 00 46 lrll Mi!iI.nu;;.~ ],'1-50 '~!1!)'!}.Il!(l!

lNI'o!fE!lfl Ililil ill! rJ IEIt

.r I. LIliM ElHJl

RCA~247

F1[I· ... 'EIR !!J'Il""! 11 ~R:

F'I LiME 11

Ii 1;;' er I) C

1f1,i'lL·W;I.\I1[ ii £C.'liII~IEll'

II'I Li!iM [Jl;l

450

A·C VOitilg!; i~-r :P1-i1it""t:· (volt~ :RM:s) ....... , J.~ 0\100 .~ 5.10 FI;,Il' tU.;;:: Ql;!t[plJ.t ...... 0 L ta:g-c-. ~I!IJeii' to

D.C Oil.1:~'il'i: Cu.Tl"ell~ {l'jJ'A:.;.illm,lm MA.).... :n 2$. ]] 0 ] as c. l".'~~ ~jj, Mi~[lI~'I'..

Tl~~ 550 wit i'ilHClig ]5 j)~-n"t1!i~jb.le fJ~ly wit.! fIJ'l.tGi." dj'euit~ h:a.· .. 1[~ .&ill inpu~ cl:wk!!: Il~ at L':;J::;~ 20 henries,

IflilU··Yt'i'I."1; seen nes

l!;I'm I IU I'd 4 ·[P II II!

2.0

RECTI[F,~ERS

A·C. p'atc- Voltage (.Mi:O::lInl.1m Volts RMS) ...... roo For d-e ouil:pu~ 'l."Or iai<:e deJjve~ro to fi~bL'T(I~ :::yp~eam

D-'C OiIJitDU't CU.rrollt '(M;ro::in'.I!.Jm MA.)"._ ... _._". es ~~tifill::.T d~III,'it '~~e~ ro C1.U"VU lrl Man1l3!.

RCA,'·, 32

2.:5

a, (I,

:M;!;!l!:!m!!l,m Ji,.-C y91t~F..e ~r ;Pl,[~t~ .. _; _ :5QCi" "Vo:,:il~;¥, RMS M3:o.:~I~~tlm Peak Il~,,~r:;-e: V'I)~ta'~ ,,1400. V01b

.M.m.irn.u[[t. D.C C)l.ltrrl,]1;: C\1roe::llt. c.::~1~t[tUGlU~ .•. 125 .Mi.m;~t't.I~~~ M·sJ'::1nrurtl. :P~alt PLi!bi::' CI,I.r~nL 'lion M:i Li.j,\m~",c;:

A:ppi"OXlmiJ:t~ TU!JI'!' VQl.'tag~ DJ"Op 15 Vo.1t!!l,

MEIDI!.l."I .:l·PIN

!fIUI';IlE!!fli

FIU!;I;ENT I

M3jf~f1mm Peal:: Inverse Voltage.; .. _ ... _ .. _ _ ... J'S,!}!} '{oR's !for .&odaitional ~llfoi:':fnilti0n refer to

Ma:f.!itIH1.1:1':1 Peak Plate CliIw::nt _ _._ _....... O. is Amper'f.:: T~et.l:1:ic.f!Jl iEh.lillel::b"].

,ipP-wldrn:::tte Tube v'ottBi~ Drop _...... Ui VQlt~

REGULATORS

8. ,,!,

'" L •

.~ 1

ni!=!'ilgni!!d to insure constant ;:Jip~t to power oj;l::rated ea die !l' ee C"i'!,l'~s despi ~ e ~ u ctu S! ~ Lo ns ~!] I ~I1O:;: .... 0 t.EIlIr.'~.

Di!~~gl1~ to. __ e'~p output voltage of :B·EJiminato.rs constant when. J5f:Tcr';::l1.t values '01 liB" '!::.Ir~nt. ·~re suppiir:d.

Opcn1.t~rJ"i Vl;l.t,~!e:e:. ; ~ ; 90 Vo~ts DC

St,f,~rt;b:g V91~3g~ _ , ,.... 125 Vo t:3 D C

Oi:ll!'j'3~~ng CU;rfCElIt _ i (it.;.O MH~i..f!!m;:.::res

~~~ItI1M to, i:ll~~I'~ ..;:g:~:;~;a,ut 'i.ilpuil. i::0 ]lfl'.:I'~r tl11~l':lJ~OO ~~di~ iI'~. ive·r::;, cl~$p]~;@ jlllctlJa~:"i:l,a ~['L Enif: .. 'o!lt~g~;

Op:::r.i:litil1ll':, C1ur·ent •.•.•.•.•.•.•. ~............. 1. 'i A~·ILP;:;:I.'l;:~

V.oLU!.:,p'~' R!iln:II':::-._ _ .•.•.•. _ .. _... 4(t.·Gij Vcl~$

ii:;iJll'I~EJHT

P.;~~!JLA1r[[I~~ l'II!liii U L

~ULL~:H' !W!l~:'

'OI~ri~Hljl!!. Ct:!fi'~lt ~: • 'Os. Amp;2t1i!s.

Vl;1ll.'Lg..e R3lLg.~._"._ _. __ r ;o .. 0\10·60 Volta

For ot.h er l{C..:i\ Ra.dfot.r-orrs of apeeiu.l interest to the 1'3.i110 arna.teur, rerer to j.n[side of back coy.er.

Maximum Overall Dimensions of RCA Radiotrons

This chart of overall tube dimensions ]8 to be. used in con] unction with the, text.

Th e. corr ect bul b re f e ren ce n urn ber for each tub e is given \J n d er i ts C H ARAG'f E. RI S T rc s.

The pre:n:z: letters 01' the bulb desigaanon jndkaJte tbe bulb shape: as S fQ1" •• s.t.raigh& side , , T for 4;tul:rub:r,"" ,:.u'tJd ST for a comb 'n~t~QI) oi tubular and straight side Of .4 dome type." The suffi:l'l:: filum bees of the bul b dle.s.i g nations ~ ndicaee the no m ina] m:::J!.KLm ~~.Iin d j' ~ ~ne¢..e.~' of the. bulb in Ifighth3 of Inches, ,J .e. .• , the diameter of the. 8 .. 12 i:::, 12 eigh~hs; or 1 ~tz,";"

'5-1.2,

,SMALL 4- P~N

OR ......",~~

SMALL, 5~'l?jN

f11G.6

", !

,

I I

i

s -rz

.... '----"- M.E.D,IIUM 4-PIN

fIIG,_,,5,

MIEmUM 4~PIIN o~ MEDIUM 5=f1N

M EIDIUM 4-FIIN OR

M E[HUM 5~PIIN

SMA L IL. 4'-lPIIN Of:!:

SMALL. :5 =f'~N·

MEDWM 4-PIN OR

MED~UM ;5 -P~N L........,~~I_-...:L.

!FIG,,9

~I"? .. _ .. A I

M!;;"IL,ilIIUM ''"'iI',=PlrN

nG., 12

1

S-'U4

fIG,,8

FI,G" U

THE RCA RADIOTRON MANUAL

," b hi h

by a potentiometer shunted across the screen voltage supply and not y a ':1g'",,'

resistance rheo star,

Complete 5hieId.~ng of all stages is recommended if maximum gain ])e:t stage is to

be obtain 'ed . " ,

As a. ,radio-,:f,~equ.enicy am.p1ifier, th e ",!! 3'2 is operated as sh own un der CH' ARACT Elt ... [STIeS" N either the plate voltage nor die screen 'Voltage is critical. In gie'[lend,~ properly designed radio-frequency transformers are preferable to Interstage coupling

; d • ] I ' h"' l":" .. h.' d-' ]B' '] '1

" _' ::',' [ _" :'"0" . ,","'-"1 '~' - '. ':' -:, '~' ,:- _',-''F ,- . -:- ,-,ro. . ,- .. ~ -; -" ,','_, :.. I: :[ .... _'. '.' ."'.' ':'~'.'~ i :.:/ :'1 .... .' "I·.j ' . ." ,", '. I', ..•. :., ~

Impe . ances, espeCla, y In cases w e.re,a, ugr JlUlpe ranee I. supp . .y may cause OSC1

I a don be I ow rad io Irequen cies,

As a deeeceoe, tb .. e ;',j. '2 may be 0 p e ra ted eith er with grid leak a nd co n dense r or with. grid, bias. Po r grid bias d ete coo n ~ suita hie operati n g co nd itions are: PI ate

, -, ,1" . ,.,1~, ..... ", 1i'''l',!'t: .... ;' ... - """,'1';' d throuah "",']",110" ,," I,·lt,,"rr 'i' ,"'t"1 '.,' of lIf'llIQ.irilO"J1;

supp y VO.llIL,age~ lL.J J 'V 0,1 115, apE U~"' .. rroug I a p .}a,,!I,!e Cou,p,ln~" resrs ance o~ !i.)" v 'V'

ohms or an e q uiva 1 e n t i ill, P e d ance; ]:H)siti ve screen voltage ~ 6 ~1' . 5 v olts: and a n e _g ati ve gri d. ~bia:5' (a P P ro xi ma tely 6 vo ],tS)i so adjusted that a plate eurre nt 0 f [). 2 rnilliarnpere is obtained with no a-c input signal, For ';grid leaJit and condenser detec .. tion, su:itahleope:rating conditions are: Plate supply voltage, ] 35, vo::ntg, applied through a plate cou plin g' resistor iof 25000.0 ohms, a positive, screen voltage up to

At;;'· . ~,P,., """ " • d ' . ' d " , 'f: 0 0:"0··· If'll 2' 5' 1 I ,Jf" ",,;~. -, "d" 1 ~ ... k .. £ 11 'if--. ~ ,...." . h' , " ;

,..) VOlLL-8!, a gn" (-on"'f!.nser ,D. ..' .. '" v . - ,~;E,.~ and ,a ,g.[1", ~ea· Of JL 11.00 .J' me,go .bms.

I d ., .. t 'i! " 2 d . '" d + L]" 1_ f

:0. ",e's'~ ,g ni n g' ell' cuits to U~H~ the ""l .. as a c erector, .1 t l s:"'CS.1:ra ~ ,ft to war K ro m

th ," d ",II- '" if- :" ,,'iI- ,;"', dir zcrlv '''. ,;1.'"" the , .... "" I'll- i.t I""

" ,I,e ... erector stage ... irecr y. into !I. e ,power curpu ... stage,

A _;i" f' l~fi" - + 1 d . . h l' ':t! "ii b"

S! an ~l1}Ulo ... ,:,r,e',!que.ll'cy· ampli :_,er in resistance coup eo crrcuits, t e. ":~ :~, may" e

operated under the 'f~)lkrwing conditio,n~~ Plate suppl y voltage, '180 volts applied throu gh a plate cou plio g resistor of 1 00000 to 25:0000 Oh.KlS (or a 500 henry choke shunted by a 0.2$ megohm, resistor); plate current, 0,'25 milliampere (ap-

>:''','''',''': ate] u"i',d ,.::,,].r., '''" -·1" ,1:']"'" and ",', zrid .~'"iI'-:. flI2:',5' to 'in '"," rhme. proxrrnat e J' g'n v 0 rage, ,,\ 0 t; an a gric reSIS!!.)Jr, v." . Q L .. I.) Fuego. :r08_

A.VERA.GE, PLAT.E: CHARAC.TE R 15T.ICS.

100 !.a:~ U~{10 ~ 1,~'

1?'l,A TE: V'QIL't;S,

4"" _, :"'_

,"'"

POWER AMPLIFIE·R PEN'TO'DIE

The ":3 3 is a power am plifier pentcde for use in the output stage of battery-operated receivers, The low' filament current requited by th e " 3. .3 makes, th.is. tu be particularly a p pli ca bl,e f 0 r use, in corn ..

b ':f-~ • 'L I ''I! ']I 0: " ') 2 d/ ~''l A' d ," I

! nan 0 n Wi tn t 'll,e .3 ~',:; 'ji', ~ an,' 'or ',Jl "" .l n ra ,10 se ts '\J;l nere e co no in r

'Of battery consumption is. important,

The.' ' 33, is capable of producing grea.ter power 'Output than three" ,elettrodepowe:r amplifiers of the same plate current drain, Furtherrnor e~ this tube

h ' h desi f' f I lf " h· ·'bI· h Ieci d

as the uesign i eature 0.: greater am p .1.;' cation t an 1S P-OSf:H,! e m a u ree .. e .ectro €;:

amplifier without serious sacrifie,e in power output, .

The power .. handling ability of the, ',33 is made possible by_ the addition of both a suppressor and a. screen between the grid and plate. The sup pressor 15 placed next to the. plate: and is connected inside the tube to the 'fjj]ament. This design practically eliminates the secondary emission eff.ects which li mit the power output from, four e electrode screen grid tubes, See page 5.

S,CR.EE,N CURRENT ' •. ~ • , • ' ••. ., . " , •.• ~ ' , , .....•

P'LATE RESIST"ANCE .' '. + + •• '" ..... ; • + .. ;- • " ' •••••• ' ... , +

AM PLI fICA."no N F.ACTO R ,...' ,. . • .. . . . '. . .. . . . . . . . • 'f + • .. MUTUAL CONDUC"r ANCE +,. '" .• , '" ..... , .•. ~ .• ' ' .... + '. ~ '.

Loxn R"ESIS-'fAKC.E +" •. ,. ' •••• , • ~ " , .•. '. ' •• + • + '. • + • , .. ~ • ., ,.

P,Q,W" .... nR: O:ll)'fl:'T)T ..',

", '" ,~. '.' '. r: . .. III ••• ~ •• !!! + 'Ii Ii' ... II .1 JII'I ••• III !I' •• ' r. - III •• ,II '. iI'

IE:FF:ECTIYE 'GRID"Pl .. ATE CAPAClTANCE 0,9

,~N:P UT CAPACITANCE, .' , + • ~ •• + .. '. .. 8.9

OlJ T,FUT C_,,\PACll'ANCE w , , + + •• "' ' •• ' ~ 11.1

M'AXIM UM 'OV,l!RALl, L,ENGT 1 i ~ .. ' ' " . ~ " . + ' ••• + , ..

'MAXIMUM D~:AM'ETER .' ... , .• ' ' ••• ' .. ' " • '" , . + + ' .... + •• ' " •• ,

BULB (See page 42, Fig" S) + + '. " '. , .• , ,. " • , •••. ' •• ; • + • + + • ~ • ' ••• , '.

B;;.~SE, ~ 'J! i .... r ~' 'I' II II [I • os • "'. -3 ~ ..... 'II [11 ••• !!I II!!' IF ~, .. iii .' + !! !!i .. + r. + r. II II" +. !II ii' or. • [11

CHAR.AcrERifSTICS

FILA:tt.ffNT \T01. TAGE. (,D. C.} ' ..... ' ~ ~ , .. ,. ~ '. , ... + ••.•••.

rs-Iv 'M:i'J' CUR' ~ '0';.' 'I'

JI.' l.·A, ENT ''', "",.l\.£NT +, ,. ~ .' .. '. ~ " " ...... +. ••• , , ••• ' '.

PLA,T,E VOl. 'fAGE • '" + , • , .' ' .... '. '. ~ .. ~ •• ' ' ••• ' .. ' •• ~ , .' ..

Sc REI!: N V.()L l' AG E ,,,.... '. " .' +. .. , .. • ,. • .. .' • • .. • • '" ,. • ., ~ • + ..

!G BJD V'a L T A G"E .. '. ,. . + +. " .. ,. '. •. .' ~ " ,. " •. .' .. '. • , .. • ., ,. , • ,. • + ..

P'LA T E C1U RRE NT. !I! + + Ii ri' • • • ... !!! !II_ +. 'Ii iii' Ii, • • iI.!' ill • II' [II • • F ! .. I! ~, + ..

,

~ ~.

"2' 0

..• ,I "

0,,260

\f olrs ,{\mpere. Volu

\i"olts

Volts MiHiam pc res Milliampe res. Ohms

135 max. 135 max. ~13.5

14 .. S.

3 500.0.0

70 1450 7000

700

Micromho6 Ohms Milliwatts

~t~L

~Jlf.

1-L!1f.

41 1Ii6 u

1 ]J~iie/i

8 .. 14 Medium 5 ~ Pin

INST'AL,L,A "fIO'N

'The base pins of the ~ 3,:; fit the standard fi ve-contact socket. The socket should be installed 'so that the tube will operate in a vertical position. 11 some cases, cushioning of the socket may be found desirable", For socket connections, .see page ? 9, .. , Fl·g~' 6

c ,'-, .... -~, . • .•

For fiJanl:e·,~t operation, refer to. INS'TA,LLATION for type ~32"

A,PPL-ICA TION

For the power amplifier stage ,of radio receivers, the ,t j 3 is recommended either singly or in' push-pull combination, More th.an one ~udi? . stage preceding the _~ 33 is undesirable because of the possibility of microphonic disturbances resultin g f rOlll the: high level ,of amplification.

THE RCA RADIO!T'R'ON MAN .. At

If. a sin gle ~ 31 3. Is op erated self i' b&ase.d_, the self- b iasi n g re sister s ho uld be. a ppro xi, mately '770 ohms. This resistor should he shunted by a condenser of 4 to 20 ~f.. to avoid degeneration ,e;.tT·lects at low audio frequencies. The use of two ;'3:;"g in push ~ pull elirnin ates the necessity of by .. passin g tn e resistor. Th e s el f., biasin g:

~esistor required. for the. push-pull 'stage is approximately 385 ohms,

Any conve ntiorial type. of input Coup.!lng may be' used, provided that the resistance added, to the circuit by this device is not too high. Transformer 0:( impedance coupling devices are preferable, When the in put circuit of the ; 3:3 is resistan c e ~ cou pled to th e P re c edin ~ stage, se] f-bias sho ul d he em ployed .. The.g rid resistor should not exceed a value of more than 1.0 megohm under self .. bias condi .. tions; without self .. bias, maximum value is 0.5 megohm,

An output trans -, former- should 'he used to couple this tube to the w'.inding of th e reproducing tmit, The optimum load resiseance [or the output device is ?'OOO 0. lIDS. Por best results. the ire pedance in the plate circuit of the "33 should be as. uniform as possible over the. entitle audio ... freq uency range,

AVERAGIE PLATE. CH.AR:AC TIER 1ST KS

-2'.~

-.r:i;7

~IZ L~,~'

-16

..-" ..

"-c . .'

... - _.., -.c-' .

_' ~..--,

- 1 ~

.20

100

rae 14{lo 1601}

F'L A. if E VOL li .,s,

Ill:

II--___,l---Jo----t--t----+-~,......,~OO ~

o n,

~4.5-

RCA Rodiotron

RCA,~234'

The ~3i4 is 1:1 super-control pentode recommended Ior use pri .. marily as. a radio .. Irequency amplifier and mtermediate .. [requency ampli f er in. battery .. opera ted receive rs em ployin g th.e ~ 3 O!, ' j ] ~ ~ ;) 2, .and/or ~j 3· where economy of .6b,ment current drain is im pcrtant.

The '.i 3,4 is very effective in reducing cross-modulation and. modu-

lation-distortion over the usual range of signal voltages without the use of antenna potentiometers or auxiliary volume conrrol switches, (See Super'ContrQI amplifier 'p,age 1.:L) This super-control characteristic makes the tube uniquely adaptable to the r .. f and i ... f stages of receivers employing automatic volume control.

The use of a suppressor is an impntt:an't feature of the ~34. In comparison with the usual type, 0'£ screen grid tube operated under similar conditions, the ' 3 4- hag. a m uch higher plate. resistance and a considerably incre.a.sed range of. voltag,e swing, Furthermore, a high value. of mutual conductance is maintained,

The suppressor is connected inside the: tube to the filament. During operation of the tube, the suppressor eliminates, the secondary emission e:ifects which limit the voltage swing permissible in the usual scree I) grid tube at low' plate voltage, that is, at a plate voltage approximately equal to the screen voltage. The suppressor' .i'n the '34~ thel"ef.{)tc:;I makes possible efficient operation (If this. tube at a

I ~ relatively low plate voltage. This may be greater than, equal eo, or slightly less than the recommended screen voltage ..

[CHARA.CTE.RlST.ICS

F ILA!>.1 E NT V O.l T AG E ( D . C~) ~... ~ . .. .. .. . ,. . + ~ •. ,. • ~ ~ • ~ 2 .. 0

FILA1,j[ENT !CURREN;<r ,+.,. ~ ~ ,. , ' ~ , • + • , , .••• ~ •. •. • • 0"060

PLA.TE V·OL'fAGE. .e •. ,.,.+~ ... ,,~.+.~~ •. ~, ••. 67.5** 135 !80max.

SCREEN ·VO.tTAGE (Max.'*-) . ~ ~ ,. ,. .. ~ ., 67.S. 6'.5 67 .. 5

[GRID VOLTAGE~ Variable (Minimum) -3 ~·3 ~.3

PLATE [CURRENT " ~ , .• ~ ., .•. " ~ ~ ... r ~ .•• ~ 2/7' 2.8 2.8

SCREEN CURItENT ,. , ~ .... , •.• , .. , + ••..•. , ., 1.1 1.0 LO

PLA,:TB RESISTANCE ~." ~ 4 ... w • + .• " ...... ,if 00000 600000 1000.000

AM i?'LIPICA '['JON FACTOR ~ .. ,. _, .. ' . .. .. . . 224 360 ,61.0

l'v1'UTUAL CONoueTA NeE . , ... ,. .. , + +. .' • 560 6.00 62.0

MUTUAL CONDUCT AI. GE~. at -12.5 volts bias. 1. 5 ] 5 15·

EF,FECl'IVF. GRl.D .. P.LA.TE CAP','\CITANCE 0.020 m,axim·um

INPUT 'CAPAC]TANCE ~ .••.. ,., ~ • ~ .•.. ~ ., ,6.·4

O'UT.P'UT CAP'ACIT A.NCB .•.. , ., ..... , ~ . •. .. .. 1.2.8

o V'E RA l L L B N GT H .....,.," 5 •• • ,. 'F • • .. • • + • + • • • • • ,. • • + • •. + " • + • •

MAXlM U M D.IA.M ETER '.. ~ . . , ~ . . • ~ . . m ••• ,. • ,. .. • + 'F ••• + • .• • •

BULB (See page 42. Fig; 11.) ~ . ~ ~ 5' ' ••.••• ~ ••. ~ , ,. ,. + •.••• m •

CAP !II.!. ~ '. i 1m •• '!l !! •• ' [II • + ii .1 iI ... '" of! III iii !Iii " IF .. , •• i!' + !iii !i' 'II !iii ~. +. ••• ' • ~. ~ i!! a, .Jl

Bj.~ 5 E ·f i • !II! ~ or. e [I 'II, II • i! il iii' • • It 'J! !!! +. ~ • .J • iii !. • .. 'r. II ~. + • • til • ... -!II ii' • [I] ~ + ... • ii!l .'

Volts Ampere V,ohs

Volts Volts

Milli am pe H:S M] IH.an1 pere s Ohms

Microm hos

M··'· h

1Cr011) .,' os

I-tl-t f.

,1J,.J.jf.

" f

,!-i,1A •

A 91~'L;; . . ~111 ,J' "'t ... ~'32 to.J· 782

11.~. 'E)""

S. .. 14

Small Metal Medium 4 ... Pin

•. Undee condi t ion $ of maxim um iP late current.

**' Recommended values fQF use ~'n portable receivers.

INSTALLATION

The. baSIB pins of the. 't34 fit the standard four .. contact socket, Although this tube is quite free from microphonic disturbances, cushioning of its socket may sometimes be desirable. Fer socket connections, see pagie 39.,. Fig, 4.

J:~ f I f "1 '1

For h!JJam·ent operation, refer 'til NSTAI..lLATION tor ty,p,e .J.:...

-- 46---

T,HE RCA RADIOTR10N ,MANUAL

The screen voltage may he obtained from a tap on the: B,supply battery or {rom a blced,er circuit across the battery ~ as a" whole or in part. Due to the screen current characteristics of the '!I34,; a resistor in series 'with the BEsnpply may be emplcyed, if' desired, for obtaining the screen voltage, providing the maximum voltage between screen and filament does. not exceed 100 volts under conditions of reduced plate current.

Stage shielding enclosing all the components of each stage is, in goe neral, n eccssary Iot multi ... stage amplifier circuits.

APPLICA TIOIN

As an ~·~f or i~'£ anlpl~:fier; the ~34 is applicable in receivers designed for it_ Plate" screen, and minimum grid voltages are given tmder CHhAAGTER]ST.ICS for anum" bet of opera-til g conditions.

Volume co,uttol of the receiver is. accomplished e:tfe'ctivei)r by variation of the negative voltage applied to the grid. In order to obtain adequate volume control, an available grid bias voltage of approximately -22 .. 5 volts will he required. The exact value will depend upon the circuit design and operating conditions. This. voltage may be 0 brained, from a pore atiometer, a bleeder circuit, or a separate source, depending on receiver requirements.

Owing to the fact that, the super-control Ieature of the 1134 req uires a cornparatively larg,e grid bias change, the screen and plate voltage ,may vary considerably for various volume settings depending on receiver design. ]t.is recommended therefore, that design f.eature:s be incorporated in the receiver so that the screen voltage will .0.0, exceed r67.5 volts under conditions of minimum grid. bias. and maximum plate current, WIih a design arrangement of this kind." the screen voltage at decreased values of plate current may reach a, value higher than ,67 . .5 volts but should not exceed 1 00 volts. It should be recognized that under the condition of screen voltage above '67.S volts at low plate current! an increase in the grid bias voltage supply must be, provided for adequate volume. control.

_l\S tile first detector in. superheterodyne circuits, the ~ 34 maybe. utilized to ad ... vantage. In such service, the grid bias mayor may not be made varia ble, With variable bias in the first detector, the. peak' oscillator' voltage should be preferably about one volt less than. the lowest operating grid bias, This practice will eliminate the possibility of cross ... mod ulation caused by the 'first detector drawing grid current. W ithout variable bias on the first detector" the; oscillator peak voltage should be considerably less than the grid bias to prevent grid current. on very strong signal swings. It should he noted that by. varying tile gdd bias on the first detector in conjunction with that on tile. radio .. frequency and! or the intermediate ... f req uency stages, additional control of volume may be. accomplished.

AVE.RAGE PbAT'~ C.HARA.CTERISTICS

f'c"pE ')4-

'Er:;:; ;2.0 VOl. lLS I)_;[. :,ll'CHEEI).,~ VOLTS.:;; ifi "'.:5

'160

<;o.O-.gAQ ;f! 60 3,20 '3,6.0

F,I'L, A.T E VO L.T S

·~47-

The '~3, 5 is a. super-control screen grid am plifier tube containing a 2,5 volt heater-cathode of the equi-potential type;, It is recommended as a radio .. frequency amplifier and an interrnediate-fre .. q uency a.m~pHfier in a .. c receivers, Tile' 3.5 is very effective in reducing cross .. modulation and modulation-distortion over the entire range of received signals, Its design is such as to permit easy control of a large range of signal voltages without the use of local-distance switches or antenna potentjorneters. This su per .. control feature makes the. tu he adaptable to circuits inco [PO' rating automatic vclu me control. See page I 5 fur Super-Control feature,

RCA, Rod· otron

Re,· '·'A:::·····.I'2·, 3·· 5-

- -', - ,. .,' .,

SUPER .. CO'NTROL, RA1)I() .. P,REQUENC'Y AMPLIFIER

CHARA'CTERlSTICS

J-IEATER VOLTAGE (.i\, C. or D., C.)., .. + + • " •• + •• ~ , • 2,5 \Tolts

HEATER CURRENT • ~ ~ ...• , .....•.. , .•..... , .. + ' ••• " • •. • 1. 7 5 Anlp~res

PLATE V'OLTAGB* .. ~ •....• , ... ," . + • 180 2.50 Volts

SCREEN VOL ThGE ". + , •••.• , ; ' •• ~ • '. • • 75 90 rna,x \'olts.

G.RID VOLTAGEA, \iadable (l'v1.ini:murn)., ·-,1.5 ~3, Volts

I, PLATE CURRENT ~ .. ' ,n • + .' + • "' • ; + .••• ~ • $,8 6.5 Milliamperes

SCREEN C~URRENT [Maximum ) .. ' 7 '" 2.5 2 . .5 Milli.ampe:res,

PLATE RES],STANCE . ,. + , ~ ~ •• "' , ;. '" • " ~ 350000 350'000 Ohms

.. A1\1P1.1FlCATION FACTOR i.'.""'" •• , ,n j 8 5 3 '7'0'

MUTU AL (~ONDUCT ANGE, ..•••... ,. '. •. 1100 lO 50 Micrornhcs

l!. AU"" C·.n {At ~40 volts bias ,3, 15 Micrornhos

.LVl •. rVAL . ';'._JNDUCTANCE A'" 1., M' h'

",t -.)0 vo l ts nias 1 mi~'t. ... .r icroml 0

EFFECTIVE 'GR.:~D,~PLATf CAP)\Clr.-'\,NcI 0,010 tn.axim,1.tlJ1 ~!.~L

I N PUT CAPACITANCE ., ~ '" '" , ~ ..... ; .. . 5 P-l.tf.

OUTPUT CAPACI'f ANCE ..... ' .. , ••• ' .. , li 0 ~~L

0', E -l.L L' n 'G 4251..,,'" t·· 51...( .J I',r-

" ,r,~ RA I .L; N '. 1'l-I '". ~ ., , "' •. . .. • . " " _ . _ . .. , . . , . , , . . , . , ., . . , .. ' . /;:j2 0.· R ~3-

M· D 1 ~n !'iL r;

I A X IM U M' IA~[ETE.R .".............,.,'...,.,.. ,.. ,.. - , e- • , n • • • ' • 716

BULB (See page -42:, Fig, 11) ... ~ ... " , . " ... , ... , , ...... " ." .. , S"14

ell. P' ~."...." ,. .• . . ., • • . . . .' .. '. • . . • . , . " . • , . • " . " " . . . ., . . • . • . • '. Sm a]], Metal

B'ASE .... + .•••.•.•• ~ •• , •••• ' ••• , ; i ••• , • , •• " n , , , ••• , •• " " •••• , • • Medium 5 ... P:UIl

INST ALLATION

The base pins of the '~'l5 fit the standard Ii ve-coriract socket, The socket m.~ly be mounted to h old the tube in any position .. , 'For socket connections! see page 39~

Pia [rI

.b' :7 ,.

The heater of the ''f35 is inte.nded for operation from a 2.5 volt 'ivind.in.g of the P ower trans f 0 rm e r. T he volta ge a p pli ed to the h ea ter t'CT n:.Li n a Is 5 h 0 U 1 d he. t be rated value of 2_5 volts under operating conditions a d \vith average: line vo~tage:.,

The cathod·e c,onn,c·ctio.n to the heater should he made (1) to the movable arm of a potentiometer connected across the heater winding of the po\.ver transformer, Dr (2.) to a mid-tapped resistor across the heater winding, or (3) to the mid-point of th e h ea ter win din g its elf,

The positive screen voltage for the ~ 35 rna. y be obtai ned from" a fixed 01- variab 1 c cap on a voltage divider across t he supply voltage or a portion of the supply.

Complete shielding for aU stages of the circuit is necessary if maximum gain ano the volume-control range capabilities of this tube are to be re-<JJiz.ed"

~4g-

TH: "E R·' C' "'A"'" U AD····!I'O· "'T-"R" 0': ""N:'- M··· 'A" 'N:' UA'" L

__ .. I.. 1.·.· .. ':_: " ',' J[V"""l..'.: I:,,' . _._.". ': .... __ . ." . .:_ ... ..:. :. ,'. ~: -.", .'

APPLICATION

."'-\8 a radlo .. l.requ,cn,cy and fntermedial-e .. frequen,cy ,alnp,lifie,r~ the ~:; 5- should be operated as shown under C'HARAC'"fEP.;lST'[CS. !1,1 general, properly designed radio .. ' freque:ncy transformers are preferable: to interstage coupling impedances, especially in casee where a, high impedance: B""supply inay cause oscillation below radio fne"

q uen ci es,

Volume control of receivers de$ign.e:d for the 135 IDJ3!y be accomplished by 'vari-ati-on 0 f th e ne,g a tive g:d.d bias of th is tube, In 0 rder to utilize the f ull volume, .. control .ran,g e -0 f the ~ 3- 5,!, a n a vailab le grid bias voltage of a p pro xi ill a tel y .5 0 volts

.. :"]] 'b· "' ,. "~'I" ed den .'. dir ,- . ,-,"'" .-. ;1· "'\'1' '''t d'j·,,:, '.,.' ~'" d -, '., "., 't'· ,", ~, . d ~t·;, .,' 'Th'· .~:-

WI" oe reqi .. nrea. uepen ],ng upon rne czrcuic cesagn anc operating CO]]·l roris, ',IS

voltage should preferably - be- obtained from a.' potentiometer OT bleeder circuit. If, however, the receiver is designed so that the required volume control can be obtained without exceeding 45 vo]-ts~ the cathode-resistor method of obtaining the grid-bias control is, permissible,

As a detector wo rkin g directly into an audio -freq uen c.y am pli £] er, the ':; .5 is no t ordinarily suited, However, this tube does have a very useful application. as a first dete ctor in sup er h eterod yn e circuits+ Sui table; o p era tin g volta ges f Of su ch se rvice are: Plate voltage, 2.50 vo]ts; screen voltage, 90 volts; and. grid bias, -7 volts with. a 6 .. volt peak swing from the oscillator. By varying the grid bias on. the first, de .. ' teeter In conjunction 'with that on the radio .. frequency and/or the intermediatef req u e ncy stages i' ad dido 1:1: al co n trol 0:£ 'Vol um e may 'be a ccornplished ~

As an aMd~,o-£requency amplifier', the ; 3 5 may be. used in a single stage, resistance, .. coupled circuit when it is followed 'by not more than one am pIffiet stage~ Addi .. tional stag es o f a ttl p lin cad 0 n are not reco m men ded. beca use of th e possibil ity of noise and m icropboriic disturbances resulting from the high level 0'; ampli£cad-on. Sui table Q p eratin g voltages fo r such service are: Plate. su p pl y voltag e, 180 to '25 D-

",' " ,1,11'- .. , ',. ·:·1 ",,: ,.,] f.·h' - , ;,,1· '.' 1· ad ., -: ... "f-,"." " .' 'f' 11"f\O"O'Ii"'I,~, "'0" 0'10"0" ,01 '.' h ., '.... '. ','"', . . ' .. ··~:t·· ',' ,:

VO~II.-O:iI ap p leu: '!.o_ I (lug 1 a oa ' .. , res]'slb-or 0 UIl.)· II,} 1l.0 ~ .. ' ' 0, .m,s::; ,SCfE:e:::.n VOJL.·~ge

2 5 volts; g rid bias, -1 volt. ill n general" the high er valu e of I 0 ad resistor will per-

,·,t· ,·"····· .. .d . -, ·l .. t:···t·~,·,·: b ,t;,-]'1 ,,:~, .. , ,',', er fid '].'~''- ·T'1\· hicher .. ilate ; ···I-:-!!"

In1 increase ,a,mp inca ron 1Jl WI give poorer nee l~y. ne ,[lJ.1.ge,r p a e supp y

voltages allow increased signal swing without ci.ist(lttion, hut are not required where only smal 1. sl gn a is are to be amplified. In reaistan ce .. cou p 1 e d. circuits employin ,g

;-'1 . '~~ 5' the g' id " .sist- '. .,1,. , ld· L.'r· " .' 'LI '.' iot .' ',",':" ,d:'·,'·'··': 1 0: I ,:-;,~,

erie ~ '''' e TJ resist or snouic nav e a value no. excee _.lng ;, megonm.

AVER,AGE PLATE, .cHAR,ACrER~,S,TICS

'1''00

~~o !PLAT'E, YO L,. S

-49-

.. ...

j'

i

I

~

....

AV E RAGE C Irl.ARA.C lERU5TJ C3

AVE!RAGE MUTUAL CHA~AC.TE·Rt5ile'5

type::. 'ss SCg[;itN ·\fOL.,if~E(:2

'-.2.5 VOlTS . PLATE VOL i~~b

. 1_ _ __ - ::_______:e

I -

k2 - ~s LES$ TH',;i,.,i 1 fJ.;;t ..P a. 111\1 TlHl\S- ::>E:-GTION

~- -~ '--- --

I Tl'PIE:, -,35 f'1l.A T'E VOl!. T5 ;;; E: Ib

I E:riCI2.5 'I,;IOLlIS $CRE(N VOiL 1':3. ~ b ~~

- ~

_.-400

"

._.-

ee '0

t .lOQ1---!f-~-~

s

Z ·0

t< 2.00j,------I---+----4--. u ~ :l

fi..

::i!:

.'I!( ~n._- rJ· --+--+~~I~-+--;____.,.,._:.'if'__jf_~"l

7

-:50 ~·40 -30 -,20 -ro CONiROL GHIID- VOLTS,

=4'8 -:64 -20 .-~~ .g 12 ~'e .~ 0 OON TFI_A)lb GR'iC; \,lOLliS,

iYP:liCAL 5'UP£RHlEl'EROD'YNE RE.CE ~VER FOR A~C OPElRAT'ION

c :: !~-·.F is'(-f.d;.S:5 C(!t'{OE.NSe:r: (OJ ;I4-f-)

cy .. ese, GRIID c:ONII)~NS'ER (o,oQ,or~~fJ I~;: FHF ey~F'ASS ,CONDEN$lf:R (Q, 00 02'$ foIf. ) ~:;' R= F' ~P.ArSS _ oC!DN'DEN.srn (G .. :5 _JJi'f''>'

~:;;: CONDENSER (_'Q3.l"I:F. AP1F'iRo,x,.) -,

.R ;; ·VCii..iJit.4E CONTROL p'()'n~NTIOM~TER (~OOO OH.VIS)

JR,I.:'" FliESI'STOR {6 !i)'g.o OHMSj -

~!:! OOC.I;,J!"A"R);R; ,f)iI!ilJD LE'A~ (~{I; 1;)·00, OHMIS)

Ra" irl£:5,II:$.'iI""01R (! ",. (1,00 m~M$)

'~::: .$~- ~.IASIING RES~S T,Q;R (~J;iQQ' OJ-tMS) F.ii5!:! SELF'-iBlO!<; SiNG ruES I s1i'OF:. (SO 000· CiK'MS) .F!:f; o:! .S~l!f'· !!!I1LIi..SliNG- IRE..-S.IISTOR (22,5· OHMS)

R~;::; IPAFIT.lAlt.. ;SEL:r-'BIA:5 ~E51.SrnR 0(:1 se OHMS) RB~= R~,:5li:5T('i\Ft (10,1)00 OHMS AiP·PAiOX.)

Ril:!!!: REs~g:Tm~: (:6. 'IJO'!J.OIHMS) .

IP ::;; POT~HT!~D(MET.ER. (.20 O:HIi;AS)

'(;5;;; At-F' a~.PA.S$ C(Jf;'40~NS~R (2"-.4.~ 'f)

·~50-

RCA;2,36

RA,DIO .. PREQ,UE'NCY AMPLIFIER

, Th e ~ 30 6 i& a screen grid radio-f requency am plifier an d dete ctor for use_ in automobile receivers or sets operated from d ... c power Iines. It contains a heater .. cathode which is designed for d .. c opera"

., I' d . ··f b ~

non, ' ts ,', e.!ngn pernuts unu arm 'to "" e operation over a co m para-

ti vely '~ide ran ge of heater voltages without ap preciabl y ,a ffectin,g

, eithe:r the performance or serviceabilfty of the, tube, This feature,

together with that of general freedom from microphonic and battery circuit: dis .. turbances, makes the "36 weU suited to mobile service and. other applications where complete d .. c operation is desirable.

CHA.RACrE,RISTICS

H Hi\, TEll Vo L T A,G E (D. C.) ... '. ,. .' . " . ~ . . . .' '.' . . " '. . ~ . . 6. 3 Volts.

HE-A,T,BR . 'C,u·aal! NT' OJ ~ ~ .. ~ • ,. • ;. • • ~ ~ • .. • '. • '" • .' • .. • .. • • • • 0,.:3 Ampere

P:lA'TI~ V'OL'TA.GB ,i" .... 'I • ~ ... ' ~ •• '. ~ ~ , • • 90· 13,5 180 max. Volts

SCREEN VOLTAGE ' •• '" '" .. "' ' " ~ .' ~ .. ' '.' • S5 67 ~,5 90 max" Volts

G'RlD VOLTA.GE •• i •• ~ ~ .... ' ~ ;. ... ;. • ~l.S ~l.S -3 V'olts

PLATE CURkENT " ..... ~ "' ;. .. ~ 'I ~ ~ '. ' •• ,1.8 3 3,.1 Mil1i amp e:re.s

SCREl! N Cu RRE N T ~. ,. . .. '. .' .. • .. .' • '" .' '. • Not over ¥i of pl ate curren t

PLATE RESISTANC.E .. ~ ~ ~ ~, •••• 150000 300000 350000 Ohms

AMPLIFICATION FACTOR .' ~ ~ ~ '.' • 215 ,3 15 370

M'UTUAL CoNDUCT'A'NCE ~., .. '. ~ ~ ~ 850 lOS.O 1050

B,:PPECTIVE GRID~PL,AT,B CA.PACITANCB 0.0 I maximum

I N PUT CA.P ACIT AN-CE ......."...... '. ~ j ~'7

OUTPUT CAPACITANCE ~ ~ " 'I ••• ~ .... " '9,,2

OVI!::RA'I,.L LE,NGTfI ~, ~ ~ ~ '. "' • '. " •. , .. ~ ~, .. ' ' " ' .

MAXIMUM DEAM'ETER • '" ..... ;. ....... ' .. ' •• ~ .. ' ~ .' ' •• ' .. ~ .' ,. .. ' it ~

B U'l,8 (See page 4 Z~ F ig ~ 9) '....... '" '.' . . .' .. . .' .. ,. r .. '. • it .. • .. .. ~ • ~ ..

CAp ,.'!II"". iii .. iii rill .. .. • .. " ~ !to .. 'Ii .. 'il • ~ III ,. II!! • -II ill III • • iI- -Ii .. .. 'Ii • .. ~ ii' II! -Ii .. .. iii .. '. !I-

BASE • .' .. III .' i • • • !I! '. '. • .. .. II! .. l!l • II!!I .. ~ • ". .' .. .' !Ii '. .. .. • • 110 !ill • '. ii' .. Ii- .. !Ii i .. ~ • ito !II

Microm,ho8 JlJLt

,IlJl£ .

~~f.,

4°c "t 41''fL~'' , 1'32""' 0 '.T6:Z

- 1~'6'f

5 ... 12 Small Metal Small S~Pin

• Part1cula,rhr appUca ble to receivers designed for operation from ], 10,,'volt d. e, powu Une+

IN'STALLA TION

Th e base pin S Q f the: "- 3. 6 fi t the standard :6. ve-co ntact socket which rna y be mo u nte d to ho1 d th e tu bes in an y p ositio n, F or socket COil n e ctions, see page 39l Fig. 9"

The heaH~r of th'e~3 6 :is designed to operate satis.factor.ily from, a (J,"'volt automo ... bile :storage battery without a rheostat or :6.'l(ed resistor, despite the voltage fluctua'" tiO'DS during the charge and discharge periods. These variations in the applied heater voltage do not serio,usly a,ffect the performance or serviceability of this tube. The heater may be operated ~n eeries with the heaters of the '37,t '38, or '3·9. This feature is es peciall y desirable in receivers designed eo operate fro m d .. C house m ains. Regardless of the number of heaters connected in series, the current 'in the heater circuit should be adjusted to 0.3 ampere for t'h e no r mal ell p ply volta g e ~

Th e cathode dtcllit in most d .. c receivers ,is usually tied in eith er directly or through biasing resistors to the negative side of the heater circuit, The 'Voltage difFeren.ce' thus introduced between heater and caehode should be' kept as much as possible below the recommended maximum of 4,5 volts.

The positive screen voltag,e for the '36, may he obtained from a section of the B~battery" or from a fixed or variable tap on avoltage divider connected across the

-51-

.APPLICA,110N

THE RCA RADIOTRON MA,NU'AL

supply voltage, or a portion. of the supply," The impedance between the screen a,nd cathode should be kept as low as possible by means of suitable by-pass condensers.

Complete s,bj,eldin,g o.f all stages of the, circuit is necessary -H maximum gain 'per stage ~s- tc be obtain ed,

As a r.adio .. f:r:equency amplifier" the '36 should be operated as. shown under CH.AR~ ACTBIUSTIC.S.. Neither the plate nor the screen voltage is critical, In general, properly designed radio-frequency transformers ar-e preferable to Interstage coupling impedances especially in cases where a high impedance B.-supply' may cause, oscillation below radio frequencies,

As a detector, the '~36 may be. operated either' with grid leak and condenser or with. grid bj as, For gdd bias d etectiot1~ suitable 0 peradn g conditions are: Plate supply voltage, 135 'Volts applied through a plate - coupling resistor of 25000.0 ohms; positive screen voltage, 67,' volts~ and negative grid bias, 6 volts (approx.) , so adjusted. that a plate current of 0,,1 milliampere IS obtained wit.h no j1#C input si·gnal.. When grid leak and condenser detection is employed, a plate voltag,e: of 45 volts· applied through a plate coupling resistor of 2.50000 ohms togeth.er with a. positive screen 'Voltage Up' to 45 volta 'will be. satisfactory, A grid leak 0'£ 2 to 5 megohms 'and a grid condenser of 0.,00025 p..f.. will be suitable .

20

40

1,2.0 140 1,51ll!

PL"T£ VOL. r s

. "'

~,S2-

RCA Radiotron

DE'TECTOR, AMPLIFIER

The . <i 3 7 is a three .. electrode general purpose tube fo r use ~ n au to~o bile recei vers an d in sets operated from d .. c p ower lin es, .1 t contains a. heater .. cathode which is designed for d .. c operation, This ·f e ature to gether with that 0 f· general freed om t ro m microp h onic and ba tt,ery circuit distu rbances makes the ~ 37 well suited to mo bile service and other applications where: complete d .. c operation is

d ~ bl '

e!.ura, . ,e~

,CHARACTERISTICS,

H,BAT,E,R VOLTAGE (D., C .. ) . ~ ~ ' .. '" ~ I' ~ " ' ~

H' EA T E R Cu RREN'T 4 I' • ~ • ~ • ~ I! ~ I. • <Ii ~ ~ ,~ ,. • ~ .. I' .. ~ 'I' .. ~ ,. • ~

PLA T E VOLT AG B ~ • • 4 ~ • .. • I, ~ 1I 4 ~ • 9'0 1 3 S

G.RlD VOL TA.GE ' 4 ..... ' ... " 4' .' ~ • • ... • ~6 -9

PLAT E C URR.E N'T • 4 ~ • .. • t ~ • " " • • • • • .. + 2 r 5 4. 1

PLATE RESISTANCE • 'I " • " " t , • t t i " +, 11500 10000

A'MPI.IFtCATION FACTOR t ••• 4 " .. 4 .. .. .. • 9,,2 - 9,.2

MUTUAL CoNDUCTANCE I· ... I' .... ~ .... ,I, 800 925·

G'rup"'PLATE CAPACITA.NCE .. I' • " I' 'I • 'I • 2.0

G RID,"CA THOD'E CAp Acrr ANCB .••• I ~ • 3, , •. 5

PLATE"CATHOD-R CAPAC1TANCE ~ 4 .... I' 2.2

MAXIM UM OVERALL LENGTH • ~ i • I! • + • " ~ • ~ .. ,. • 'I • • .. • ~ .. ~ • ~ 4 • MAXIMUM DIAM:ETER .." + ... ~ • + .. • • ... " I '. L ;, .. '. ~ .. 4 ~ • • .. ~ • " ,I. • ,I •

BULB (See page 42,. P-ig4 6) ~ + ••• ~ " ~, .. ' •• ~ • ., I .. ~ '. 4 I ~ <I' .' ... ~ .. ~

SA SE .. ., . . ... ~ . !Ii .' ill iii • ,t •• 'II F .. I! .. .. .. iii ... !I .... + ill i' .. II: Ii i • ii' .. • • It .. !I' • ~ ! • of

6-.3 O~3

180 'tn,ax,. -13.5

4.3 10000

9

900

Volts Ampe,re Volts

Volts, Milliamperes Ohms

Mic rornh os ,",pI.,

1ltf1. f.

J.l. .... f.

i~:

S~'12 Small 5~Pin

INSTALLAnON

The base pins of the ·3' fit 'th,e standard five-contace socket, The socket may be mounted to hold the tube. in any position, For socket connections, see page 39t Fig. 8"

The heater of the ~37 is designed to operate satisfactorily from a 6 .. volt antomo ... bile storage ba ttery without ,a, rheostat or fi xed resistor despite the. voltage Iluctua .. tions during the charge and discharge periods, These variations in the applied heater voltage do not seriously affect the performance or serviceability of this tube .. The heater may be operated in series with the heater's of the. '3,6~ '38 or ~,39. This feature Is especially desirable in receivers designed to operate from ,d .. c house mains .. Regardless of the number' of heaters connected in series, the current in the heater circuit should be adjusted to 0.3 ampere for the normal supply voltage.

The eethode circuit in most d .. c receivers Is usually tied In eithe r directly O.iC' through bi asin g reaisto rs to the ne gative side of the heater ci rcuie. The volta g e difler,en,ee thus Introduced between heater and cathode should be, kept as much as possible 'below the recommended maximum of 4·,5 volts.

APPLICA nO,N

As it detector, the ~ 3 7 maybe operated with eith er grid Ie ak a nd co ttl de n ser or with g'ri~ h.iasl . T,h,e .. rec~mmende~ plate voltage for the grid le.~'k ~nd co~denser method IS 45 volts, A grid leak. of from 1.0 to. S.O megohms used with a grid condenser of 0.00025 IJ..f. is. suitable.

For grid bias detection a plate voltage of 135 volts together with a negative grid bias o:f approximately 1 S. 5 volts may be used. The plate current should be' ad .. justed to 0.2 milliampere with no a ... c input: signal, The grid bias. v1o'lta.ge may con ..

THE R.C·A RADI10TRON MAN OAL

• ...1 b btai d f 'L. ~-'I' ~ • L - '~ h d _j

vensenuy -e obtame trom tl.:U:_;:, voltage crop U1 a resrstor between the cat, 10' e aric

ground, - The value: of this self-biasing resistance is not critical, 75000 to 100000 ohms, being suita ble, The higher value win a 11 ow' the U~;H~~ of a 'larger in.put signal.

As an ~.p1i6er; t'he, ~'37 1S, applicable to the audio- or the radio-frequency stages of a receiver, Plate voltages and ehe corresponding gr.id. v,oHages ,for amplifier service she uld be dete l"OO i ned 'f rom C'R AltACt'EruST1CS - an d ClU:Ve s to 0 brain. <0 pti m urn

performance an d freed om from disto rtion '" -

As: an osdUa;tot; t~~.e rl~ccHll,m.e.nded conditions are,~ Platle., v~lta,ge, ,45 _ volts, .. (ap,p,ro x~,~a.t._ely ):: ,~:ndl .. grid _ b.t;a~'t_ ~I~ro_'v-0_~~~' It m.3>';r,. be ,;fou? d d e~Jr_a ble to use sb,ghrl y [ower values of plate voltage, depending upon the, circuit de's],gn"

l' .... pe'37'

, '€I"!' ~ 1~.'3. VOL is

'4~-=~~=-9-~-~---~----!!====+---~~-F===+===9=-~~--=~---!-~~

2:0

!,Oo 'I.:i!:oi} ,1.4,0 I ~(!, ~ 80 :;! Ofli 2:,20 ,2,.;]1 0 2G·;D' Z,:B,OI

[Pc.. A TilE vol:i:S,

il'Y~E ·':~/i Ig_f' ~ ~"~'vOt "Ii',$

AVE R AGE CHA:F~~ACT ER IS T ~c.s,

I.~:

1--!I-==F~Ui I

'IV ' I II

""---=!=,:,==!!;I~~~.....,....,..l]~~~===-",, 0·

~g4 ~O' ~~~ '-.:it: -,~ ~-4 i«(i "+4 .

'U! IR i j) V,(} ~ l' s

'~ 5,41--

R·C.····:A·· ~'2' ? '8,

-" - j-

The 'Ii 3,8- :ls a powe r am pb 6 er 'P e nto de f o:r us e in, the outp ut stag e of. a uto mo bile receivers an d ,j n sets .0 p,e ra ted from d -c p ower lines, ill t is ca lP able of givi ng a large p ower output :f o r a" relati vely sJffi.aH input signal 'Voltage,. The: " 3 8 contains a" heater-cathode w'hf,eh. is desl,gned, Ior d .. c operation. Its design permits uniform tube operation over a comparatively wide [a:n,_g,e of heater vo,]tag€:$ without

appreciably .a:tfecti:ng either perfonna,nce - or serviceability of. the tube. This feature, together with that of the general fn?edo:m from microphonic and battery circuit disturbances makes the tj 8. well suited to mobile service and other ap-pUc:a.tions

'~ '~d- .,. .J • 'b- ~

where co m p tete ' __ .. c ,0 p e ra tj on jjS uesrrame.

flEA!fUl V;~:~!-AG~,_ (D, C,,) ~ ~ . , ~ ~ ' .. ' ~ ' .. ' ~ ~ .. ~ .. ' ~ +. '. "

HEATER ICURREN'T .... " .•.• ~ .... ' •.• , • + '. " '. ' •• ' '!' ....... "

PLATE, 'VOLTAGE '.,,".,',' ' •• ' '. '. " .' " .• ' .' + '. li 00

SCREEN VOLTAGE ~ ' ~ ' , •. ~ ,. ,. 'liOO

G'RID 'V'OlLTAG'}~~ .' ~ ' •• ' ., + ' •• '. ' •• ' + ~ .. ,. • -9

P lLA T B CUIlRE NT .' + .' .' ,. .. a + " '. '. a. ~ a. .' ~ '. 7

SCREEN 'CURR,}!NT ., ~ . " ' •. , •• ' . ' •• '. ~ ., .' .. 2

PLATB R,ESI8TANCE (Approx.) '. ~ '!' •• 84000

A'MPLIFICA'fION FACTOR (AlPprox.) ~ '" 80

MUTUAL CONDUCTANCE , .• ~ •. ~ ., ~ . ~ .• 950

LOAD R,ESI8''fA NCE +.' + + ' ••• ' " • + ' •• ' .' ' ... '. 8500

POWER IOUTP'U'T OJ '.' ,. + ' •• ' ,. '. ' •• ' ~ '. ' •• ' ~ '. ~ ,. 200

E,FFECTI'VE GB:]])",PLATlE CAPAc:rTANC.E ~ 0.3,

INPUT CAP'ACITANCE ~ ~ •.• ' + .' + '. ' •• ~ ' •• ' -4.:li

O'UTPUT CAPACITANCB ,. '. " + '. '. + '. ~ •• ' co 8.5

OVERA'["L LE-NGT'H' .. , ' ••• ' .. , .. ' •.. , ~ , .. " " '. ' •• " ' •. " .... ' '. ' .. , .' ,. .' " ' •• '

MAXllv~U'k-:l 'DIAM:!E,TER .' + ~ , .' ' ••• ' ' + •• ' + , ' •• ' " .' • " " •• + ••• ' ,. ' •• ' " .'

BULB (See, pag,e 42~ Fig. 9) .,',. ,. , ' " .. ' ' .. ' + '. ' •• ' • " • " " ••• , •• " •

CAP II!!. i!.l ,Ii II!!I ~ I!!II ~ '!II I!II II!! til !II! • II!!. '!l ;!! ~ 'i !II! ~ ,I; ,~ • ,Ii ,~ !II! + ~ • ill Ii iii +- ,Ii ~, ~ ~ .!Ii! ~ .!II II!! '!l I. • II!! ,Il • .1

B.J:.1SE !I' + !!I' + iI + + 'I! .' ~ '!!II i !!! ,.. !i' !i' 'r 'to! !i' ' ... i !Po ~ • !io I •••• 1 '!II • Ii r. !i.! i !Ii' + !! ~, + 'I! •• I •• til,.

iCFIARACT,ER.lSTICS

6"3 0.3

n.:j 5 max. lj5 max. -1'j, . .5

9

2.5

102000

111;0"

'JV'

975 ~ : I~~OO

1, ,~"'!J J ~

5,25

Volts. Alnpent' Volts,

'Volts,

Volts Milliamperes Milliamperes IOhms

~ ITI the ~ j. g Is sel f e biased, {h,e biaslriig resiator sfuo uld b€: by ~p\as~ed hy a 1.& rge condenser", _ W kb ~el£;b]~s, the resistan ce of the gr]d circurt caupJiug sfuo~ld nee exceed ]_)) ,m€gohm'; w:L1;hQut seJ:f",:bi.a,s,. the grJd r~~]st1Elnce should il ot ex.c€€d 0, ,5 ,megohm""

I"N' . S--T" A'L- 'L- ATI- :-. 0'" N

,<_:, .. ,<, I" ,I.',r

The base pin is o:f the i' 3, 8 .fi~ the s tandard Jiv,e/ contact so cket, The socket m a y be installed to hold the tube in a.ny position. Por socket connections; see pa,ge '39"j Fig, 9.

For heater operation, refer to ]NSTALLATION for type";3'.,

The c.a,thode circuit in m ost d" c receivers is usually tied in either directl y or thro ugh biasin g res isto rs to th e n e gative S1 de 0'£ the h ,ea ter circuit, Th e p oten cia] difie'rence til us introduced between heater and cathode should be kept as much as, possible below the: recommended maximum of 45 volts,

,A,PO,PLICA TIO'N

For th,e po,w,e:~ ,unpIifier stage of radio receivers, the '~:j,8 is recommended either singly or In push-pull combination, More than one audio stage preceding the ,,~_tg ]'S u.nd esirable _ because of the possibility o f mi crophonic distu rba n ces resulting fro m

the h.igh level 0'£ amplification, .

THE' R' CA" 'R"A' n" 1'0' "'TR' O'N M"AN"'U'A"'L

.. 1,1{ ,I ""': ."'. ',_ .,"'. :_. _' ,I . :,:. ,.. .... .',.... ". ' ... ,", _

I e "'1" .. d' 1 f' b·' d'l 1 ] f b" ". . e . ". ~ 1" t ..

.[ a sin g: e .3:8 1.5 0 perated serr- mased, t 1J,e, se ," -masm g resistor '], 001" .1.,3;,), vo ts 0 n tuc;.

plate should be a"pptoximattdy 1200 ohms, This resistor should he shunted 'by a con d enser 0 f 4 to 2 0 ~ f ~ to avoid de ge n eration e·g ects at ],OW aud 100 f re q ue n cies i 'The use of two '3!8~,s in push-pull eliminates the necessity of by-passing the resistor. "The, self-biasing resistor required "for the push-pull stage is approximately 600 ohms.

Any conventional type: of in.put ,c-ou.:pnng' may be used provided chat the resis-

dd .-1' _ 'L id 'b hi d ,. hi h T'li"" f

ranee a.'. en to tne gtjJ,~, c:arc.llu,ty t '11.]$ aevice is not: too .,1_g,.' .• , rransrormer or

impedance coupling devices are preferable where the ~'j,g follows 3" ':3,:7 detector.

'!Iff id d "..JI' 'I!.. " l' 'iL... . + f

Jl' a screen g:n.'.e:te,etor is. usee, nowever, resistance COUp,.Hl_g' or a combmatron 0'"

impedance-resistance couplin g' to the ' 3,g will be better, _ A coupling condenser of '0,.005- IJ.t will he suitable in such circuits"

An . Qut.p'ut tr,an.5,£Q,tnl,e:t should be use d. to. sup P liy power to t~b.e windin g (D f th e reproducing unit, The optimum value of. load resistance for the output device is 1. 3 ,5,00' ohms for a plate voltage of ] 35- volts and 85,00 ohms for a plate voltage of lOO volts, For best results, the impedance .in the plate, circuit of the, "'3,g over the

entire audio-frequency range should he as uniform, as, 'Possible'.

-~

-~

,<4 .

o

'I

@. 10 1:2 '14 ,16 ~~ zo

L'ON!;) nE3!I~~lo'itA N c ~ -"l\HOU5A~DI5 of' OH Ml5

~56--

The '139 is a super-control pentode recommended for US'E: pri ... rnari y as at radio .. frequency amplifier, intermediate .. freque-ncy amplifier and superheterodyne first detector in automobile, recei vers and in sets operated frorn d-e power lines. It has a heater .. cathode \v hie h is d esi g 11 ed for d- c opera ti 0 n. Th [:5 f eature together with that of general freedom [rorn microphonic and battery circuit dis-

turbances makes the '39 well suited to mobile: service and other applications where corn p lete d-e .0 P e ra tion is desirable, T he ,; 3,9 is very e ff ecti ve in red 1..J d n g crossmodulation and modu]at.io.ll.'~istortion over th_e, usual range of signal vo~ta~es with';lUt the use 0 f ante n n a p ote nno meters or a. U.Xl liary vol U In e CQ n trol switch es, ( See Super ... Control feature, page: 1.5-). This super-control characteristic makes the tube uniq uely adaptable to r .. f arid i-f stages of receivers employing automatic volume control

The use of a suppressor is an j:mportant, feature of the '39 because it permits variation in tube structure 80 as to obtain a high plate resistance without impairing other desired characteristics, In comparison with the usual type of screen grid tube 0 p e rated u nd er similar co n ditio us; th e "39 has a much hi g b er plate resi sta n ce an d a co n sid e ra bl yin ere ased ran ge of v olta ge SW.l n g. Furth erm 0 re,~ a hi g h vaJ ue

f 11 d '... d

o mutual com uctance IS maintame ..

. The: suppressor is connected inside the tube to the cathode, During operation of the tube, the, suppressor eliminates the secondary emission effects which limit the voltage swin g permissible in the usual screen grid tube at low plate voltage, that _i,s, at a plate voltage approximately equal to the screen. voltage. The suppressor in the ~ 3 9! therefore, makes possible the e,fficient. operation of this tube at ,8., relatively lO'\1J plate voltage. This may be' greater than" equal to, or slightly less. than the recorn-

mended screen voltage. . .

RCA 'D'O'· d' llotron

_ ,I'-J ~ r _ ',I',

RCA~23'9

SUP'ER"CONTRO;L R,.F AMPLIFIE,R 'PENTOD'E

CH',ARAICTE,RIST]'CS

I-iEATER. VOLTAGE: (' D. C.) .. " '. +. , ,. ~ .' s- ., ~ •• ' .' ~ • ~ ~ •• + .e 6.3,

HEATER, 'C·UR.RENT' ~. ~ ...... ' ..... ~ .... ~ '" t .' ~ '. ~ .... ' .. , •• ' ., ., ~ 0.,3

P LA T:E. \10 L T AG E ,+ ~ " ~ ~ • ~ .. • '" •. .. ~ .. • ~ 90* ] 3, 5 1..srO max,

SCREEN VOLTAGE (Maximum) . r •• s 90 90 90

Gam VOLTAGE (Minimum) ' ... ~ .. ,. ,. ~ ~j -31 --3

P LA i:E C U RRE. N 'f . ~ '. • ~ ~ " ~ '. " ~ '. ~ • '. • ~ 4 ,,4 -4.4 4 . .5

SCREEN CURRENT . ,. F ~ ••• '" .' • ~ '. ' .... ~ 1.3 1.2 1.2,

1) 'L AT 'E' ·R·' 11:"~[E:'TANTC1E 37'[;:000 5· 4' OOO,'iI'"'L 7··· !tIO' 0,0"· 0"

1: . . ~ ~Q,!j , '., I ~ ~...'.,. '. • iii 'Ii .1 [. Ii ,. .. ~' . J [l .,','. U J

A1o.0?LIFICAT]ON FACTOR ~ .. , _ .. , ~ ., .' • '" .. 3r60 530 750

MUTUAL CONDUCT ANCE, ~ ,. ~ •. , ~ ~ ~ '. ~ 960 980 lOOO Micromhos

'MUTUAL CoNDUCTANCE {; at ~~?, volts ~~a:, 10 10 10 Micromhos

at -40 volts bias Very smal] but not zero

EF'FECTIVE GRID .. P'LAl'E CAPACITANCE. 0.007 maxim:,«m ~~L

]NPUT CAPACITANCE '. ~ 'I • ~ " " • ~ .. ~ .. " • 4.0 uuf,

(}UTPUT 'CAPA:CITANCB ,. F " .. '. " ~ .' ~ ., • ~ :1 0.0 !.-t~f.

0; "~'E· R'ALL LENF"T1 H"' 4'9L ,n' tc "i'17l. ;'f

". -II ". '. \"1 .. _ .j" '. ~J ~ !I' !to III II! • '. .. !to ~ I' .' + , • • .• • • • .. ~ '. .' Ii' • 'Ii S + ! i' + . i32 0 ~ 1~2

M,AXIJ\fUM DiAMETER .' .. ~ ' ..... '.' ~ " .' .. '. '! ;- •• ~ + " • ~ '.' .. ~ • " ~ , •• ~ •• m 1'%6 it',

BULB. I( Se,e p.ag~e 42 F' ~O' 9')1 S'" '12~

. .' .. ,. I, ' 10 oj ,'.' "I!I!II II!!I •• ~ of! • ;II ,II • • ~ • • I. i r. .. ~ if- +. 'f! ~, II!!' ;!JI II!!' ... '

!eA P ,. ~ . . ., . . ,. .. ~ .. ~ " .. • . ~ • ~ 'II " • .. • .. ~ .. , + '. • .. • • + ,. • • • ,. • ,. • .' '. • + S mall Meta 1

B'A S E. •. + • " • ~ .' +. , + • .' ~ .. ~ .' • ~ _ ,. .. • F .. .. • ~ • .' '. • .. • '. " .. .. ~ '. '. .. ,. • ., .. • ., ,S mall 5 ~ Pi [I

'V ol ts Ampere Volts Volts Volts

Milli a m p ere s 11i IHa m,p eres Ohms

INST'ALLATI'ON

The base. pins of the ~3 9 fit the: standard five-contact socket. The socket may be'

-. ,57-·

installed to hold the. tube in any position. For socket connections, see page :)9~

Fig .. 9'.. .

The heater of the '~'39 is designed. to operate sat.isfactorily fr-om a 6~vQlt automo'bile storage battery without a rheostat ·or a fi:xe.d resistor, despite the voltage fiuctua ... tions during the charge and discharge periods. These variations in heater voltage do not seriously a-ife;ct the. performance or serviceability of this tube. The heate 'filay be operated. in series with the heaters of the 13 6, ~ 37', or ".38. This feature is. especially desirable in receivers. designed to operate from d~c. house mains. Regard .. less of the number of heaters connected in series, the current. in the heater circuit should be adjusted to 0.3 ampere for the normal supply voltage ..

The cathode circuit in most d-e receivers .15 usually tied in either directly or through biasing resiseo: s to, the negative side of the heater circuit. The voltage difference th us introduced between heater and] cathode should be kept as in uch as possible below the recommended Int\X,IEU urn of 4,5 volts.

The positive screen. voltage fo~r the '3'9 may be. obtained from a section of the B.-,battery, Irom a fixed or variable tap on a voltage divider across the supply volt ... age, or from a portion of the supply" Care should he taken to. kc:>ep the impedance b etw ee n th e screen and ca th od e as low' as p ossib le.

WI" 1~. ''''0' lf-bi d - " " -'1 'h h"l 1 1

ren tne j::l 1S se . -eiase: '1' a resistor In series with t .. .e 'lg.1 vo tage supply may

be used for obtainin g the screen voltage, This, is. possible because of the stable. sere e n ell r re n t c haracte risti c of tn e " 3 9' pen to de. Th e r es isto r method of sec urin g the screen voltage is limited to circuits where the screen, voltage supply does not exceed l80 volts as a maximum. The value of t-his resistance should be such that under the conditions of minimum grid. bias and maxim urn plate current the screen voltage win not exceed 90 volts. A resistance of approximately 80000 ohms will he suitable.

" COluplete shielding of all stages i.s necessary if maximum ,gain per. stage is to be' obtained.

AVEHA.GIE PLATE CHARACTE'RIST'ICS

. - '

TYPE 73.'1}

to I Ef';;;; 6.3 VOLTS

5CREEN VOLTS; 90 I

" . - ... I., ' __ ." _ .....

-2'
,
1
I _"1:.
""=
_ _iI
-5
6.
_":I'
FlO,
h..-'I,S I
-2.0 :
400 500 1000

200 300

·P.ILA.TE VOLT;5..

.t-\"PPU.CA n.ON

./\5 a radio-frequency and irrtermediate-frequency atnpHfie.t; the .' 3. 9 should he 'Operated as shown under CHARACTERISTICS.. . In general, properly designed radio .. f equency transformers dire, preferable to interstage coupling irripedance.s, espe ... cially in cases where a high impedance B"'rsupply rna y cause oscillation below tad io Irequencies.

\' olume control of receivers d esig ned for the ~ 39 may he ac.COID plished by varia .. tion of the negative grid bias of this tube. In order to obtain adequate volume control, an a vailable ;grid bias, voltage of approximately 4,; volts. will be required.

-- ·58-

T:H-,E''-, R',C'" . "A'"':· R'·.A·:"'·,··D--··,IO':' ""TR":'" '0' 'I'N":' 'M',IA',"" :·N·:· ',"UiAL""-

I, [I ,~'_: _'_ .:.,' .. _' .. " , ". , .. ", ". ,". " ...... . 1'_[ ~_, __ "': _ , '

The exact value win depend upon the circuit design and operating conditions. This, 'Voltage may be obtained f:ro:r.n a potentiometer, a bleeder circuit, a variable resistor in the cathode circuit, or from 3t separate source. In ,arty .event,! the h.C;:;'dter to cath od e. .bias. f Of t he ~.3 ,9 s hon id U ot exce ed :4 57 tiO lts ~

As a detector working directly into. an audio .. frequency amplifier, the '39 ,is, not ordinarily suited, H,owe:ver~ it" does. have ,([I, very - useful application as, the first detector in, superheterodyne circuits and may be utilized to. advantage in. that position . S u itabl e 0 p e fa ti n g volta ges for such" service are! ,PI ate voltage, 90 to 180 volts: screen voltage, 90 volts; grid voltage, ~7 volts (ap.prox~) + With variable bias on the, first detector, th,e peak oscillator voltage should be preferably about one volt less tha n th,e 'rrlJ i nim u m g:r.i d. bias (a p proxim atel y 7 volts): Th.~ s P racti ce will ell rni ..

h ib t· f d 1" - d b 1.... ,t,: d d id

nate t e PO:SSL1Jity 0';. cross-mocru anon ca.l)J.se"'y tiie i:ust"' etector : ra.\Vlng gn,

eu rrent, \Vith ou t variable bias on the fi rat detecto r ~ the 0 scilla-to r peak voltag e should be considerably less than the grid bias to prevent grid. current on very stro 11 g sign al voltag e swin gs~

AVERAGE CHARACTIERISTI,CS

AVERAGE:: C 1"'1 A RACT E.R 1ST ICS

if.) ~ ,J: o

'I!io !WI

:~,

Q..2_~1-----r-=~

L, ~

ILi.i 2.01---+--:;'---+-~~.JI,,~~;;--;~ U

T Y P'IE. '~"91

~f !!!!! 6,) vot. TS $"CIR~ E:N VOl,:TS ,ii '90 ~

-4D ~~!) ,-.20' ;;atllTRCiL O:;;RIO VOLt!:i

-,20

DI!AGRAM~AT:IC SHOR1'WAV[ :RECE1VER 6,3 = VOLT 1=1 [AT E.R TYPE TU BES

I Si, lR~r S''TA~'i:, T'fFt£ '~9

C ;: p;'_ F' BY-'d'¥.SS CQNDEiI<I5E!R (0.01 }Jr') Fl, ,;; ~ ~l'IrlOI. (MfN, ~£:Si.sT, .... ID'..iv:&iEO ro -.3~" MA~.~s!ST. ID""iiOW!

oCr:; A~TENN;I;; "~~~~~".;j(; C,?NDEi;! ?ER ,(A~PROX .. ~o~p~) R! ii: GRI D LE,A!'\ 'RESiSTOR (z 'te· .5 Mi::G;QH:MS)

~;; G·j'!J D co N[;IE N-5,f:R ~ (1}_'I}O{l,~'5 FfJ ~~'::;,II'lEGENEr.;ATION' VONTRQL . .pQTE.N1TOMLTOR: (so OOi} OHMS AP't"FlOX)

q. ~ -f !s~~P""'$,$ eONOi!:NSi;1R (I, 00 O~$[!-I'f.) R,2l~C.R I 0 R~.s,i S li'O~ (~M E:OOHM MA:X,)

e,..,= COULDL I,N G CON D'EN~S~R .( O .. Q{J'S'J"";f; T'O, (I~ 0 S',IH:rJ I~';; SEL".F- .BIAS I N.o. RIE813 TOR. (2.00..0 'OHMS, AP.!J FLOX.'

~=A- F' 19","'"PAS,S CONDi[I\"S!:l~, (4~f.; 11'0 ,1i!I'¥if.) L,.. ;: Fl;.AI!:J.lO - fo'~EQLJENe,Y CHOKI;;

" c Hi,= If"L A 'fE CHOK~ (.l,i),iJo H. Q~ ~,!,'ORt)

,"{o'rt;: i!'-CiP. t,.Cu03Pit"-.~ER PJ1;C.EPll Ok ~ui9.S.T lTl:-l:!:, '::m fOR '37

RCA Radiotro,n UX,.245

POWER AM,PLIFIER

The ~45 is a power amplifier tube for supplying large undistotted output to a loudspeaker. It is for use as an audiofrequency output tube in a-c receivers using 2.5 ... volt heater and filament type tubes.

fILAMENT VOLTAGE (A" C" or D, C.) , .. ~ .. ~ + ' ••• , •• ' •

PI1A1\;f ENT CURRENl' ~ ..• , ... ~ ... ' ... ~ .... ~ ... ~ ' .. ' .. ' •• ' .

P'L <t'TI 'fl V" '0'-' LTA-,C'P 10'0' 5' 0'

n, D ' . . ~ • iii ~ of I! of ~ • '" ~ -iii ... if- I ...... ~ 0. . ~, ',I, .

G' 'RID ., TO' LT * ~ 5' 5' 0

. ,'. V' r '.,'." I • AG E· it: i3 .' !I' '!II • ii- + of! '" IF [!Ill • ~, ... !to .... -.;jI -4 II ~. - ~ ','

P L A. T E Cu RRE NT . ~ . .' + .. • • ~ • .. .. '. • " .. .. 27 3 4

PLATE RESISTANCB .' •.. ~ ' •. ~ • ;; ~ ., ~ .• 1900 17'50

AM i'~ LI F I CIA""' -Il) N 'f-;l he' T- 0" R ":I' 5 '~ 5

I!! ,'r-- .:1' I" ," ~ l1. " 1 ~,' . I'. ", of • !II! .1 ... -Iii III '. ~!I' _', .;J. .. :

,MUTUAL CONDUCTANC.E ~ + ~ • ~ ' " • • • 18,50 2000

'L '

'OAD R.ESIS'fA,NG'B .... ' ~ .... ' •• ~ • " .... ' ~ 3,500 3900

UNDI:5TORT'ED PO\VER OUT'PUT ~. ~ .. ~ 780 1600

G'=RID"~I)'L 1"- C'"" .'" ,. 'C'I ",' cr ,8;

.. , ,A.TE,A.PA _ [TAN, . E .. ~ ' '. ".' ."

GR~D r FILA~ln!NT CAPACITANCB .' , ' + '. 5

I)'LATE",PILA.MENT CAPA.CITANCE ' 3

M'AXIMUM, OVERALL LENGTH ~. + •• M •• ~ ~ • " of ••• ' •• ~ .... of •• ,.

MAXI}.,fU},;! DIAh-! ~ T E,R .'. .. ., • ;; '. .' • . .. .. .. .. . .' • . .. ~ . ,. .. • ., ,. ~ • ., . . ~ ~ ,

BULB (See p,a,ge 42, ,Pig. 10) .. ~ , " .. , ~ + ••• ' ~ • ~ ~ of· .'

BJl~ S E • If! iI' !II " ~ <II 'II ... i!l .. ii' '. III II rli. ii, !Ii III III II .. .. ill III II!! IIF - • ~ .. I!l III • '. + II! • III + I! • • • ~ II!! !II

CH'AR,ACfERISnCS

") ~

iJo ~~

1 5

. ,

27'; ma.x .. ~5'6

36

1670

3.5 2100 4600 2000

Volts;

Ampe ·es Volts,

Volts hriilIiam,pe res Ohms

Micromhcs Ohms 1vlilHw a tts Ul.U,f"

rr'[~

lJ.f.l.t uuf.

5:%'~

2*6" g"17

Medium 4"Pin

.' Referred to rf,{~d~point of a-e operated filaaien t. . Self i biae is advisa ble in all cases an d js feq,ui:red if a g,rid reslsror hnax. va lue of 1. 0 meg,~hm) ]! \!Bed.

INST ALLA,TlON'

1, he base pins of the ~ 45 fit the standar.d four .. contact socket 'which should be mounted preIrer:ably to hold. the tube .in a vertical position. If it is necessary to place th.e tube in a horizontal position, the socket. should be mounted 'with the £la" merit pin holes. vertically one above the other. This precaution locates the filament plane vertical for most satisfactory performance, For socket co nnecticns, see, pa,g,e 39', Pig'. 1. Provision should be made for free circulation of air around the tube since the bulb becomes quite hot during operation,

The coated fi~,am'ent of the, '45 :is designed to operate from the a, ... c 'Hne through a step .. down transformer although it may -be operated from a d ... c source, 'In ei'ther case, the voltage applied to the filament terminals should be thee rated value of 2.5 volts under conditions of load and normal line voltage.

As. a power amplifier, the '4 j should. be operated as indicated unde r ,eli i\Rl .... C ..

TERISTICS. When a.c, is used on t'h,e £J3merl't~ the plate arid grid returns should, 'be brought to (1)1 a mid .. tapped resistor 0,( from 20 to 40 ohms across the £b.:ment \vinding~ or (2) to the mid .. tap of. the £Jament winding itself,

Grid bias for the "'45 should be obtained by 1IJ~H~ 0'£ the voltage drop in a resistor con nected in the negative plate-return lead. This scheme is known as the self .... hjasin.g method. The proper value: of the resistor for a sin gle '1'4~) is. 1550 ohms

_, 60--'='

THE R'C.A R,A.DIOTRON MAN'UAL

for a plate voltage of 275 volts; 1475 ohms for a plate voltage of '2. 50 volts; and 127.5 ohms for a plate voltage of 180 volts,

. If more output is desit,ed than can be. obtained from a single '~'45! two ~4S~s may ~e .. ,'Operated ejt~er in parallel. or push .. pull c()n~ection. See page '1 s. 'When two .4,:,.s are operated together in the same am plifier stage, the values of the selfbiasing resistors will be. approximately one .. half the values given above for a single tube.

An output davice should be used to transfer power to. the winding of the reproducirig unit,

AVERAGE: PLATE CH.ARACTEFHS"TIC5

'f iF' It: ~'4:5 Iff ~2.:5 voi: .s 0, c. --tr+--t+---1---+----+--l---~~___+--J.___--I._~__I_-~

EO I .

~ w ,p:

I!!!l IIlL

:l: '!(

:JI 4oi---+--~~~

..II .

_ .

.l:

!.!.! !--c _J

~20~-4_+__++-~~----*--~~~-~

!PLAT ~ VOLTS

POWER A MPi!..11F" I ER

TYIP,E ~.5.

~------~. ~----~,.,-==---~

I

R::. :;o£:Lf-er.ASINQ R<E55IST'OF\ (175 OHM.~) P = CENTER -TA.F'PIE:O RESI ;Ej,TOR. (~O OH~)

rso laO 2C{:O.2 2'0 24;1') 2&0 2~Q F'L ATE VOL T.5.

·-61-

RCA, Rn " ld" ·0'-' tro n'"

i' ,_- I ' 1'1 '1 .

, '.:' '. '.' .,,", ..... " .. ", ',_

RC"A 46"

I" ,', ~:'i' .

__ :, _:' ,:: __ ."" _" - 1

DUA'L.-·GRID POW·ER AM.PL-.lFIE:R.

The '] 4 6 is ado u bl[e.- grid powe:r am plio er tu be recorn men d e d es peciall y fo r se rvi ce in. Class B- am pli.fi,er circuits of su itable desi g n, In-' such circuits an output stage is' preceded by a power :a.mplru.-frer stage d esig nated as the ~ ~ d Ii ver ." A p air of' ~ 4 6'~ is, in a Cla.ss B output stage is, capable of supplying aa exceptionally large amount

Jt. H ...--j' - d L . 11 "1·... if d _ ib.

Or virtually undistortec power; while ,9, sing e 4(;J~ operated in hie

d.d ver stag e as :a. Cla:ss A. am pli b.e·r, can d elrv e r ~uffi.ct.e.n t powe:r to drive th e p air of

'!< A _,c'!i •. 'I!... '

.~ \)·S m tu e o utput stage ~

The dual application. (rf the ~ 46 to a.tIlS$ B ~]]d to Class A. amplifier service is made. possib]e;: by different connections of the two grids incorporated in. the tube.'~'s structure. Each grid terminates in its respective base pin. For CLass B operation,

h "'...]1 be ni d 11 Thi ., h b h

t -[ e two g rt t,lI.5 m ust .. e tie .• · to get n e r .. .rus 'co rm ecno n causes t e tut . e to . a ve an

amplification factor so high that negative grid bias Is not required for its operation as a 'Class :B amplifier. For Class A operation, the grid adj acent to the plate: is, tied to the plate in. order that the eube will have a:. low amplificaeion factor. III the

1i . • +d bias! .. d t '~'"L b S' -

latter case, negative gn':. mas is require .!.\QI' prope'r operatron Of the tut e. ee

p a ge 15 fo.r dis cussio n of [Class Bop era tion,

CHAR.A'CTERISTICS

FILAt..iENT VOL TA.GE (A .. C .. OF ·D .. C~} , ~ , .. 2.5

F]'LA ~u~ NT CURRB NT ~ ~ " .,. ~ • . ". ., ~ . ~ " ~ , . ~ .. ,. ~ .• ,. . ,. . ~ . L" 5

:MAXI~iUM O;'VERAlLL L:HNG;'f1-1 .• ,. + • ,. ~ • + ~ ,. ~ 4 ••• ~ ~ ~ .. ~ , .. ~ •• ~ , •••

MAX I MUM D]· AM E'F B.R .. .,. '" ~ ., ~ .. .• ~ .• ., ,. ~ .. • ., ~ ,. ., ., ... ~ .,. ~ .. .• ., .. ~ •. ~ .• ,. ..

BULB (See pag·e 42~ Fig, 10) , .. ,. ~ ' ..... + ~ ,. ,. ., ., ~ ,. .•• " • ~ •••• , •.• .,

Bxsz

Dt'~ L ~'.II!II!I !I-~I!!III!!'I1!!'~ !I'+'~'!" ++'F.'I!I'~'+ iii,+. i·~"ofi'I~!II'!'iI'ii .'+"i i'++'!i i!"Ii! +'!i li!!'l!-l!" I!>~

As Class .B .A.~1Iilpl~6e~

ID'A' T'i:l' \1 fi L"J;-' ' G"'f;} "l 0' 0:

l!...;, .--.L '_- U J!.1\ ... · L ., •.•• , •••..•••. ~ , • ,. ., ,. ~ •. ~ ' ..... '. ,. "."'''.''

G·EJD ·VOLTA.Gl~ (Both grids tied together) a. + 0

:PLA.TE CURRENT (Per tube) ., ~ ., .. ~ ;, ~ " .. ~ ~ .. ,. ~ 4

P.BAK PlA'f:E CURRENT (Per tube] ~ ,. ~ .. '" ~ .. ... 1.50

MAX. PLATE DISSIPATION (A'vg'~ per tube)' +, 10

Lo ,-'\D R,ESI:STA NC E ( Per tub e ) T: ,. .... i ., +. • ., ~ ., ,. 1 j 00

MAX. SIGN·A.L VOLT AGE (RMS .per t-ube) ~.~ ,. . 40 MAX. .. CO'NTIN u nus POWER. O'UT PUT ('T\1ilO tubes] <[; 16

As Class A Arnplifiee

P'LA.T E v« L T.AG E ~.. m • ~ •• • ,. • • • • • ,. • • • " • ~ ., • " ,. •• ~ • • .,

Glun VOl.. TAGE (Gr.id adj acent to plate tied to plate)

P LA T E CU.RFt E NT ~ + ., •. ~ ; .' + • ,. + • .. .• • •. ., .• ~ + ., + ., ~ ,. + + + .• ~

P]I..,ATE RE,SI:STANCE .. 1 III •• 110 'il • III • II ' •• [II ' ••• 1 ... Ii' 'il iii Ii' + • til 'r. ~,

A1¥f Pt.IFlCATION FilCTO~ ",.". + ., ,. , ..•• " .... ,. " •. ~ ,. ,. ,. ••. ,.

M C'[

UTUAL ·· .. ONlDUGTANCE i .. , ... , ..• i· ~ 'i' ~ .... ,. + ~ .. .e .••. '" ., .....

LO!\lD RES-ITST A NCE (F or rnax _ un.dis't-orted .pow'e r ) ;t: * +. ,

MAX.. UN 0.[ STORTED PO\V'EtR 0 UTl~l U 1"' ,...."..."...,." •. T •

Volts Amperes

5¥.8 ,I'

2:tie/\I'

S .. 17 ·M[e-diu.rrrl 5 P' Pin.

400 m,tlX •. c

6

200

10

1.-450

4~

20

'7 so

. .;. J. max.

-3[3

22

2,-3[·8'".0--'1

, ... ,", .

~: 6'·':·

.} e ' .

2350 6400 1.25

V'ohs 'Volts

M] IHa m peres Milliam pe r es Watts

Ohms

Volts

Watts.

V'ohs

Volts Milliam pe r es Ohms _

MicromllOs. Ohms Watts

* Power .me~;5ured across Indi..::;rut:ed. val'u'E: oJ ;l;'C;S·]$Co:r irli pIa te {:.L.r~ tIIit of c~(:h. ·t i;,~[:.e, \!jj~ h h:..dk~te:d .i5;[gn~l applied t.hrough 25 0 ohm rcsllitiince in the g;r.id. dr-cuit,

0} * i\p.p.r(l,)dmatcl y' twi oe this vahle h: .recom.meu.ded for l(Ja.d of ~.ri V€t for Cl~ss l~ .~E:1Jg~.

IN' "S'T' A·'L' L-· A· ~TI-'O' "'-N'·

, ":' ... "> ',: ~'. ' .. - ~ -,",: .:

The b~se of the '1-46 IrS of the medium fivt:lpin type.. Its p~:ns fit the· stililll.da.rd fi ve·~ contact socket \Vh:lCh rnay be instaJIed to o-penl.te t:be a·u he ~~ther in a 'vertical or :i n

-6··';-

", lib!

a horizontal posinon. For horizontal operation, the socket. should be positioned with the filament pin opening's 011 e vertically above, the other. POt socket connec ...

ticns, see pa.ge :'5 9~- Fi,g~ 'I, -

The _bulb of this tube m a.y become ve ry h at un d e r certa i 171 cond iti o n S o,f' 0 per ation, Suffident ventilation, therefore, should, be provided around the tube. to prevent overheating.

The :filamne11.t is designed to operate at 2,. j V'o].cs, The transformer winding that s u P pEes the f la m e 11.'t ci rcu it sh QU.l d 0 p era te th e fi I a ment at t this recom mend e G val u e ,( as rneas u re d at th e fila :uen t ter min al s) when rate d volta ge is a P'P li e d to the p ri e ma-ryo! the power transformer operating- under average load. The :fi.h:Jlm:cnt 'wiring should, insofar as. possible, be, isolated from the input circuit of the driver stage in order to avoid the possibility of hum caused by electrostatic induction from this. wirm g .

The. ,grid an d. plate return for the driver stage should be made to a variable centertapped resistor across the filament I( or heater) au pply for minimum hum adj ustment, The use 0 f a p usn -p ull driver stage with ei th er e q 1U i- pate n tial Dr £ l8.l in e n t ty'p e t u b es \-v HI r e du c e h urn resultin g fro m the fi],a.1TI,ent sup P ]Yl; btl t is ,n;~q 11 ] re d 0 nly in

special ~ pplications, -

APPLIC'ATIO,N

Fo r Class B audio pow eli' allJLpU6,e,t service, th e '~4 6 is pa rti cu 18. rly r e co mm e 1.1 d ed because of its design+ - In th.is type ~f service, the two grids in the. tube arc (.o.JV riected together and, thus, the signal voh;ag'c is applied to both sirn ultaneoualy, No .gdd bias voltage is necessary 'with this connection as, the steady plate current at zero bias is on],y a few miljiam peres. The' design of the, ~ 4-6 permitting its o-peration as a Class B· amplifier with zero bias _ is particularly important because it prevents vari ation 0 f bias wi th appli e d signa 1 whi ell woul dot herwise exist if a 11 y sel f .. bi as arrangement were employed,

The d ir-e ct-cu rre nt Fe q uiremente of 'ChlS!:; B circu its. are S 1U b j' e ct to jffi uct uatio n un eft er operating conditions, 'The PO'\V,e:r. supply, therefore, should have as good lregulation .tJJ.8 possible to maintain proper operating voltages regardless of the current drain. The use of a mercury- .. vapor rectifier in the po'i,ver supply is recommended because It has a low and pr,a,cticaUy constant space-charge voltage drop within its 0 perating ran ,g,e;, As. 8. f urth e r In ean s 0 f 0 btaini n g' goo d re g ulatio n ~ the 61 tell ch 0 k es an d transformer windings of the power supply should have. as low resistance as pas," sible. In designing the power supply for a. Class B, amplifier, it shou.ld _ be remembered that such an amplifier may f:req uently de mand peak currents of 200 mHH. ..

am peres or mo re.

The grid of the "!I46 is ope.rated sufficiently po~,itive. to cause grid current to in its in put circuit. This [eature imposes a. [urther requirement on the preceding amplifier stage which must supply not on:~y the, necessary input voltage to the output stage, but it must be capable of doing _60 under con d itio 115, where appreciable power is taken hy the grid of the Class B amplifier tube, Since the power n e cessary to swi n g rh e grid po si tive L~ p artiall y dependent on, the plate load of the Class B tube) and. since the efficiency oj£' power transfer from the precedfng stage is dependent on transformer desi.gn, it is apparent that the design of' a 'Class 13. audio power am p] i fier requires tn at more tha n ordinar y atten ti 0 J1! be given ro the effects produced by rhe component parts .of the circuit. For. this reason, the design of a Class B a udio a.1D p Riner wit hits d riv e r sta ge, IS somewhat more in volved than for a, Class A

]n the design of Class B amplifiers, the interstage transformer is the link interconnecting the driver and th e C'! ass B st a ge It is u su all y of th e ste P ~ down, rype ~

-,63,,--

T'I"V'[ "',<$ Ef ... ;;- .. ~VCLT:S A C.

PL,>' (I[ vOLT'S, u 4~

THE R· C~ -A R' AD" TlrOTRO" N MAN'" 'U'A' L'

'-_ .':_ ':' .'_" _11'1 ,11 ;_ .-_~,I_ ,c:

tha t .1Sj, the P ri m a.ty in P ut v 0 lta g e is hig hie r th an the sew n dary volta ge sup pl ied t-o tlrH;~; gr]ds, of the pow·e:r output tubes. DeiM:;nding 1lJJ~(H'1 conditions, the: ratio of rhe prj ma ry- 0 f the i:o.te:r,st.a ge tntn s f. or m €:E' to on e- h a] f 0-£ i'ts, secondary IDa y ra t:t ge between 1 . 5 to 1 an d ), '. 5 to 1., The transf or mer ste p'" down ra tic .is d ep en dent _ en _ the following factors! (1) Type of driver rube, (2)1 Type (~.f power rube, ('3) LOI~d on power tube, (4)r Permissible distorHo:n,~ and (_5,) Tra,nsiorffile:r efficiency (peak power) .

'The primary impedance of the interetage transformer is essentially the same ,as. if th e transf ormer were to be op era ted wi th n o load, th at. is, into an open grid, Since pow',e'r is trans Ie rred, th e trans £ orrner shoul d hav,e reaso na ble P ewer eli cie ncy .. It should be; noted _th.at the pO'l.ver output _ and distortion :J:n;: rQ:ft~n critically dependent u'fl~ on the circuit constants ,"vhich should the-refolFe be made .as near .ind.e'" pendent o -fr.-eque,ncy as possible, This appH.es particularly to the ,fnte:rsta_g'e coup" ling transformer and to the loudspeaker

The: driver tub-e, should be capable of d,d,]'veri.n g -5uffi,-cient power to operate the Class lj, am plifier stag e. If low disto rti en is desi red ~ it is most i m p,o rtan t tha t th e driver tube he worked $llh:st~ntl:al1y 'below its Class ,A ondistQrted output rating, since distortion produced by the driver stage and the power sta,g,e wiU he present

in 'the Ol1tP1Ll:t_ -

AVERAGE PLATE CHl.ARAA::,TE,RI's,TEC$

o.p E R AT ~ 0 N CH AIR AC T E R. ~ S,T' lies

OL.A,SS 'B 'Of' E::RA T'! Ott;!! i61~~~==~==~==~--~r===TI==-'====r-==~~~~~i/==7.~--'---1 'TYPE: ,4,($

IE --.2 S 'Y'DLT5 ,iii;, C,

14Ib~-.:.'f_=_-__'_·"-_·' +- .. ,_. _'~' ---I' "r--' ,_ .• --!l=~-+----f--+---+~==I-~-'5---j<6~=t--r------i~

'/

I,:li:r-

'!t.i' I

F-

Fmi-I

..(

,.. ,

~ ,

:",

THE R,ICA RADIOTR'ON MANUAL

For Class ,A operation of the '46; the grid adjacent to. the plate is. connected to the plate. The grid next to the filament serves as the control grid. O'peuhtion of the tube 1S. then similar to any Class A power amplifier triode. The oncratio n of this tube connected as a Class A amplifier is not indicative of its per Iorrnance in Class B circuits and should not he confused with the latter.

'The intended application of the '1'416 as a Class A a,rnp]dier is for dri ving two 'i 46~.s .in a Crass B amplifier circuit. The tube has been constructed for this dual service in order to reduce the number of tube types, necessary in a receiver. The tabulated values for Class ,A operation of this type as given under CHARAGTER]STICS are: for its ope ration as a power output tube. '

AVE RA'GE PLATE CHAR.A'Cf,E'FUS TIC S CLMS ,A, OF'IE ~ A'1i JON

400

AVERAGE CHARAC TERIST ~CS

AVrnAGE. CHARACT.ER I;Sil.CS

CLASS A, O'PERAT rCH'i

TY:PE46 I

_ Ef'·',2 ,5 VOLTS A,C.

~.81 F'LA Tit: VOl- TS:=2;,'jO!~=~T---+------'lI li

F 1.0'1----\--," ~~-- ... -~~ ~,I:==I------...........j

~: ' -~':-:\

~ :;;I' o c:::

I.!i.I

;:

:a!

RCA. Rodlotron

RC'~ A" 2' 47'"

r • _ 1.' .'

.'. .'.:_ '.' .... -''''

POWER. AMPLIFIER PENTOrDrE

The "47 is a power amp-liner penrode for use in the audio output stage of a-c receivers. [t is capable of givin g large power output with a relatively small input sig.o.al voltage. In comparison with thre e-e] ectrod e pOV;JC r am plifiers of the same plate dissi p a tic n, th e ~ 4 7 .1 sea pabl e 0 f g rea te r power outp ut with the a d d.i tio nal f eature of higher amplification. This power .. handling ability of the ~ 47 is.

made possi ble by th e add itio n 0 £ both a suppresso r an d a s creen between th e g r.id and plate. (See page 5 for farther i rformation on pentodes. ')

CHARACTERISTICS

FILA~iENT VOLTAGE (A. C. Dr D. C.) ~ .... " e • , e ,. , • e 2.5,

FI LA.~1 E NT Cu RRE NT .. ~ ~ • • • . •. .. . ~ . . .. . " . . - . _ . . " " . L? 5

I'LATE ·VOL."TAGB ~ .••. " " , .••.•..... " r ••• - 250 ma..x.

SC.REEN VOL TAC E ~ ~ .•••.. L • ~ •• " •••• , ••• " •••• " • , • .. • 250 "max.

GRFD \r OL TAGE* + •• + • ~ •• " " ••• r •• + , + • " •• " • ; •••.• - • -16.5

P C .~ 1

I·· L.ATE .. .J,URREN·Y • , ..... + •• , , •••• " " • ,. ' •• ,. ' •• ,. , ••• , .• " , j .

Sc R E E N Cu RlRE NT. . . ,. . " 'r • , + • , ~ • + .. • • • • - .•. + • • • • • .• 6. 0

PLATE R.E srsr A.N CE ., ~ . .. ... . . . . .. . • ,. ,. , • .. . . . " . .. . • "r 60000

.li.J,.1 PLIFICATION FACTOR •.•••.• , ... , •. , ~ , . r •••.•••• , •• ,or • :150

M· . .- - U;, 'if ("'i . .-. C . '''''.:'' ~. .n.I-:ro.-

···:.U'f .t!l..L. ''4._.tU'NDUC-TA·N··E ~" .•..• ~ ~., ~ ~ .•..•.....• ··r" , .• ,.. .L.J!U

LOAD RESISTANCE ., , " ,L •••• ;. ~ i ~ .•.•••.••.•••• " •• m '7000

POVV ER O'UTPUT ~ , , •.•.... , , ~ ., • ' •. ~ ~ 25,00,

EFfECTIVE G·RID,P.LA'F.E CAPACITANCE 1.25

]NPUT 'CAPACITANt~:IE .. " , . ., i •.. , •. 8,7

rOUTPUT 'CAPACrr.ANGE. • , ~ "' ]. '3 .. 2

lvfAxu.{ Ulvf OVERAl.L LENGTH + • " .•• " •• ~ • + • + ,+ ••• , ••• ,

MAXl1.f U'1'~ D'I.AM: E;'TER • ~ i' ,. • ,. ,. '. •• .' •• ,. • ~ + ., •. .• " ,. .. .• .,. ., • ,. ., ,. •. .. 'r • ,. ..

BULB i( See page 42, Fjg·,. 10) , , ,. _ , ;. . ". s •• ,

IBIA Sl:E .1 I. rill iii 'r. _ • ~ ii' ii' ti .t, !II! 't, of. ! ~ ,t • ,,," ~ :II. Ii iI I!' • • if' e ~ 'Ii i ito 'Il • ~ <Ii '!!II '" ~ • I&. Ii< '. .. III [I! Ii

Volts Amperes Volts

Vohs

Volts. Milliam peu::s Milliamperes 01'1"m~

Mi c rom b os Ohms

Mi 11i~' aus .n.ii.f

F~~!i

~~f" I-Lt-t f ,

.5%1'

2~/ohl' S .. 1.7-

M d- ~. P:

ec rum .s-: in

* U :fiil(:Jn~ent is operated on d.e., grid bias. shou d he ~t 5.:1 volts-

INST ALL.ATION

Th e base pins 0 f the 'i 47 fit th e stand ard f v e- co n tact so ckct To;t./ h ich sh 0 uld be mounted preferably to hold t'h e tube in a vertical position. POl" socket ccnriectio ns, see page :3 9; Fig, 6.. If it is necessary to ph .. ce the tube in a horrzorital position, the socket should be mounted with its filament pin openings one. vertically above the other. Provision should be: madre for free circulation of air around the tube sino: the bulb becomes quite hot during operation.

Th e coated fi~am·e.D.t of tI, e ~ if 7 is intended for operation frorn a. 2. ;..-volt winding of the power transformer. The voltage ap pEed to the filament terminals should be the rated value 0.1' 2.5 volts under operating conditions. and average 111£ voltage.

AP···'P,··1fI·'C.· A' .T- -:-10'· 'N·"

.", .IJJ . " " . -. ~

Fo:r the power amplifier stage ,of radio receivers, the '147 is recommended either singly or in push-pull combination. More than one audio stage preceding the "'47 is undesirable because of the possibility of rnicrcphonic disturbances resulting Irorn the high level of am plilication.

I f a sin g 1 e <F 47 los 0 p e ra te d .se1£, biased, the sel f of' biasin g resistor s h 0 uld be ap p ro xj '" rnatcl y -45 O oh ms. This resistor sh.ould be shunted by a condenser of 4- to 20 !,1L

-··6r6·~

THE ,R'CA RADIOTRON M'ANUAL

to avoid degeneration effects at low audio frequencies, The use of two ~ 47-; 5 in push. ... pull eliminates the necessity of by-passin g the resistor and. IS~ in addition, effective in. re d ucin g' hum fro rn 'lte r c ircuits, Th e self ... biasi n g resisto r req uire d for th e push-pull stage is, dJ,pprQximately 22,5 ohms,

AnY' con ViC n ti o nal type of input coupling ill ,a y be used ~ p to vi d ed th a it th e resista n ce added to the grid circuit by this device is not too high. Transformer or impedance coupling devices are preferable, If input-resistance coupling is used, a grid resist-ance not to exceed 0.5 megohm may he employed under se If .. bias, conditions. Without self-bias, the grid leak resistance should not exceed 50000 ohms"

An output transformer should be used in order to supply po\.ver to the windin g of' th e re p ro d u cing u nit+ Th e 0 pti mu ill val u e 0 f loa d re sista n ce for th e outpu t device" ,IS 7000 ohms". _ For best results, the impedance in the plate circuit of the '~'47 over the entire audio-frequency range should be as lJJn.ifo-rm as possible

'The blue glow' which frequently a,pp,ears on th.e inner surface of the "47 bulb is due to fluorescence caused by stray ~:Je(:tFons [rom the filament 'tv hich strike the interior of the getter-coated bulb. This fluorescence ~'s a na.tural e .ffeet and is in no ma·n 11, e'f a 11 indica tiQfl of the' pltrr! anna rt c e O'f' the' tu:b.e .

.,. "

.. .._._ .

n~O I M ~'!)o 2'<40 28!l} ;302.0 .360 ;1,g,1J ~,;i!ji Q ;;1;$0 ~,:2 '!]

P-'LATIf: vOLTS

..

-__"...............,~-----r~ ........... ~----.2'40

AVERACE, CHARACf[,RI3T res

,AVE:,RA6E, OUTPUT O=IARACTERISTiCS

Ol~~ __ ~~--~~~~~~

-32 -'2:~ '-24 '~20 -16 -12 ~~,""4 0

C.QN'TROI.. G'R I D' VOL T$

-,67-

n,r',- 0'0: d :1- 01- fron

~I~'.I· .... ",

'UX,~2510

POWER AM'P'LIFIER

The '50 is a power amplifier tube designed for use ,pri .. marily in the output stage of an audio .. frequency amplifier employing transformer coupling. It is capable of delivering unusually large amounts of undistorted pov..re.r.,

FILA.~fEN'1" VOL 1, AGE (A_ ,C. or D+. C.,) ,. " '. ~ r •• ~ •• ' ~ ~ '. ~

FILAMBN'l' CUR.REN"[' ~ ' •. ' .' ~ • ;. ' •.. + a- + • ' .... ~ .' .. '. " ••• ' .' •

PLATE. VOLTAGE .' ;. .•• '. ' ~ 350 400

GR[D'VOli ... TAOE'$ .~,".,~ .. " .•.. ,~,.,.,.". ~'63 -70

PLATE. C;URRENT • ,. " • ' •.• ' ~ .... ' •• ' .. ~ ~ ~ 4,$ S. 5

P'LA 'f'E RE$IS1'A,NCB .' ~ ' •• ' " ' •. ' '" .• ' +. .' .' " 4 19(1O u_ 800

Al{PLIFICATlON FACTOR ~ '. '. ~ " . ~ ' •. , ~ ~ 3; 8 :3.8

lvf.UTUA.L CONDUCT.AN'CE ., '" ., ., .• ~ + '. ~ " ~ 2000 21.00

.LOAD RB:s.[S.1'A.~ClB • ~ ~ . ~ " '0 " • , •• ~ " , +. 4100 3670

UND]STORTED PO\VER O"U'TP'UT .·w.' ~ " 2400 3400

'GRID~PLATE CAPACITANCE ~ , .••... '" +. , 9'

GJuD .. Fn~AMENT CA.PAC;[ThNCE .. '. E ~ ~ ,. S

PLATE .. FI.L.Ah1ENT C,APhC-ITANCE ... , ~ , j

MAxn.1:U}..{ OVEI.tAl.L L,ENGTH .. ' •... m .... ., ... w , • + • ~ .•••••••••

MAXIM U M D I .. i\M E TER . . '. . '" ., ·W .. .. " + ~ .• ~ '" • ., " , .. .. • .• •. ~ • .. ~ • .. 'f , .' .,

BUl.]B (See page 42~ Fig. 131) • , •• ~ ~.' + ' •• ~. ~ ~ .... '". ~ +. '. a. 0 .... ,

B,AS]! ..... 'f ..... ,. * •••• ' ;, i .. ' •• + • + ... + " •• + ~ + ... ~ •• ' ,. ' •• ~ ... '. + ••.• Medium

CHARACTERISTICS

7.5

1.25,

45011tax" ~g4

55 ]8-00

j, :8

2100 4:350 460.0

Volts Arnperes 'Volts Volts

'Milli ampe res Ohms, -

The base pins of the .~ . .5 0 fit the standard four-contact socket which should. be mounted to hold the tube in a. vertical position, For socket connections, see pag,e. 39, Fig. L Provision should be made for free circulation of air around the, tube, S]TICC' the bulb beccmes quite hot durin g operation.

The coated filament Is designed to operate from a 7.5 volt 'winding >of the POV,.T€:f transformer. However, if desirable, it may be operated equally as, well from a d ... c source, In either case the voltage applied to the filament terminals should be the rated val ue of '.5. volts.

APPLICATION

As a power amplifier, the ~ 50 should be operated as shown under CH,ARAC..TER]ST!CS. Gr.id bias voltage may be conveniently obtained. by means of the volta ge d rop thr ou gh a resistor in th e plate retu rn Ie ad. T.h e prop er value of this resistor 15 1400 oh ms for a plate voltage of 350 voh:s; 127,5 ohms. for a plate potential of 400 volts; and 'li 5 3·0 ohms for a plate potential of 450 volts. The "50 is not recommended for use in resistance-coupled circuits having a grid resistor.

If more output is desired than can. be obtained from a single '50.,. tWQ ~ 50"~, may be operated either in -parallel Or push .. pull connection, See page 13,. When. two "'50~s are operated together in the same amplifier stage, the values of the selfbiasing resistors will be approximately one-half those shown above for a single tube ..

RCA Rodlotron RCA~56

SUP·ER,.TRIODE. AMPLIFIE·R

The 56 is a three .. electrode tube of the uni-potential heater .. cath.o~·e type re~om.ln.en~ed. for US~ as ~,etector, amp:Hner,. or oscil~ ator lfl. a-c recei v~r5 d~stgned ~ for it. This tube is ch ara cte rized by ~ts. 8~~U. overall su,.e., 1ta rel atl vely .low h eater power co nsum ptio n ~ l'~S high mutual cond uctanee, and its co In parativel y high am plifica ~ non factor. T~e 56 is especially useful in resistance-coupled audio .. frequency arnphfiers ..

CHARACCB.RISnCS

HEATER. VOLTAGE (A+ C .. or D. C .. ) ~ +.~ .. ,. , " , .. ~ , 2.5

HEATER. C'UltR.E.NT '" .. • ~ • , " ~ "' .. , .. ~ 1.0

PLATE VOLTA.G·E • ~ o!I ' •• ", '" F F .. ", ~ , .. • 250 max ..

GRID 'V O'L TAG E. $: .. ,. " • 'II .. ,. • • .. ,. • ~ iI ,. • '" .. " • • ,. .. ~ ., .. • .. , .. • -13 .. 5

PLAT'E CUR:!ElE NT' .. .. .. .. • .. • " ;. .. ~ " ;. .. <Ii • .• F • ,. .. '. .. , .. .. • , ~ " ~

PLATE RBSISTANC:E ,~,. + 'II' ... II ..... '" ...... , ,. ........ , .. • • .. .. 95·00

AM PLIFICA.T.EON· FA·CTOR. ~. t. ~ • .. • t, 'iI< ;. • + " • 0; • .. ,. • • ~ ~ ~ ,. • ~ :;. .8·

MUTUAL CONDUCTANCE! ~ ~ '" ..... ill ..... '_" ., ., , .• ~ • .. •. 1450

G RID·~ PLAT'E CA'P'ACIT.A NCE "' '" • ~ • ~ 3· .• 2.

G RJD"'CA T H ODB (1APAClT'ANCB ~ ••.• F • iI' .3 .• 2.

PLAT.B~CATHOD'E CAP'A'CITANGE .. '" .... ;0 + 2 .. 2

~xn,{'UM OVBRA'LL LRN'GTH' '" ••. , .•• + '" " ~ ~ .. " " ..

MAXIM UM DIAM E·TE:Q. <iii i' • • • • ~ " .. • 4 ~ .. • • .,. iI< ;. .. • • " • • ~ ., .. ,. .. ..

B·ULB (See page 4l, Fi,g. 6.) , ~ .. ,. + .. iI ., " "' ••. ". ~ .

BASB !II • II! ill <II .' • II !Ii ...... it! .. ill • ill II Ii: !II! ~ .' I! ••• ,. !ill ••• ii [II II!l :fI '" .' III •• ~ of! II<

VoID.ts Ampere Volts

Volts Milliam peres Ohms

* If a grid coupLIng: resistor iEi used i iu· madmu:m val U~ ~:tl.ou1 d Dot exceed 1" -0 megohm.

INSTALLATION'

The base of the' 56 is of the small bve .. pin. ·type. Its pins :fit the standard .five ... contact so ck et which may be installed to operate the rube. ei ther in a vertical 0 r in a horizontal position. For horizontal operation, the aocket should 'be positioned wit.h its heater pin openings one vertically above the other, For socket connections, see page .~·91 Fig. 8.

The heater is designed to. operate at· '2~5, volts. 'The transformer winding supplyin g th e h eater circuit shoul d be. desi gn ed 'to 0 perate the heater at this reeo mmen ded va~ue (.as~easurled. at the heater termin,als) when rated 'voltage is applied to the. pnma.ry of the power transformer operating under average load,

'The. cathode should be connected either to the mid .. tap on the heater supply winding or to the mid .. tap of .3; SO ohm (approximate) resistor shunted across the winding, If this practice is. not followed, the heater may be biased negative with respect to th e cathod e by not more than 4·5 volts~ When the ca thod.e is not 00'0" nee-ted d.l reedy to the heater in a .. c receivers, atten tion sh ould be given to keepin g'

h ~ d - f' b ~ · b h d h d '1 ibl U I '

t e impe ance 0 t .e circuit between heater anc cathode as ~ow as pOSS.l . e. .. ruess

t:h is. is done, h urn may arise he ea use 0 f heater to caehod e Ieaka ge ..

APp·: ·U' .,r'I 4 'TI·O·N·

. -.-,~ ..... -'

As a n ampli'er,~ th e S. 6 is, a pp lica ble either to radio .. f req uen cy or audio-I re:q uency circuits, Recommended operating ·condition,1 for service using eransformer coupling'

· d C F' , . :'11 .. ..:·' 1'" 1

are given un er .HAB.ACTERlS,TlCS" or erreuies utt~'ng resistance C·QUP lng~ typl,ea

operating conditions ate: as fOUOW8~ Plate supply voleage, 2.50 volts: grid bias voltage,

THE 'R" C" A' RAJ; . D' 1'0' ····TRO·N MA' N' . UAL

I. ". .•..... 1.-,;'..1': '., ::. . . '.> _

-9 volts (approximate}, plate load resistor, 50000 to '100000 OhU1S; an d plate CUr,.Fe nt, :1 to' 2 millia mp er es ..

. As. a d£:tecto·r;. the 56 m,ay 'be of the grid leak and condenser or grid bias type.

The plate voh.a,gl~~ for the grid leak and condenser method shou]d be about 45 volts, A g-rid leak of from 1. to ,5 megohms with a grid. condenser of 0.00025 uf, is satisf actory . JP or th e grid. bias m etho d ,O'f detection ~ th e m a x i mum 13 late sup pl y voltage of 2~50 volts may be used together with a negati V{~ grid bias voltage of approximately 20 volts. The plate, current should be. adjusted to 0..2, milliampere with no ~"C .in,put s]g:naJ voltage, The grid bias voltage may be supplied from the vol rage dro pin a re sister between cath cd e and ground, T. h e vali u e of this se,Uf .. biasing resistor is Dot critical, 100000 to I 50000 ohms being suitable, The higher val ue 'willi per mit th e ap plica tion 0 f a Iarger .in put. 81 gn al,

The 56 may 'be em ployed as a two .. electrode detecto r preferably by connecting the plate to the cathode JOt the, one electrode and using the ,grid for the other. Wi th this arran ge:tne.n t:~ a-c in put voltages as, high as 40 vo Its RMS may he ap pHe~d between grid and. cathode,

As; an oscillator, the $6 may he operated with a plate voltage of approximately '90 volts and zero grid bias. A lower value 0 f p.] a.te \70] ta ge maybe 'f Cl1!J n d d est ra b Ie in so mea pp 11 catio ns,

TYP~ 5'5 [f 5!!1' a.s 'YoU''S,

24'0 ~:2'O

PLATE V'DilT5

~RES~STANCE- COIUIPLED A~P AMPLlr~ER

INIPUIT

8,-

AVERAG,E CHARAClFERlsncs

1

H "" Gili D RE:Si,S TOR (1.(1; ME-GOHMlj• MAX)

IRI:!!! .sl!;; Lif -!l!I' AsJN'~ iRE,S !1.51'.o:l": (300;0; 0 MS)

~;;;' COUf'!l..! N{;, RES!,STOR (5QQO~ TO I.Q'OO.oC) OH M s) e = eOUiP'l.tl N!G co N DEN.,>:if::R . (o,,! flf' = !, 0 ]-Lf·)

C,..: IBY =, PA S S, CO H,D~~ Sf;R (-4 ~.'f.)

~70--

..

RCA Rndtotro "0"

- .~ ~. - ... -. _" - .. ' '.

RCA57

'. :::. ,._'. _'

I • , .. '., ,,. ....• . ... '

':. :,'1 ", .", ._.: ,_"

'T-he 5'7 is a triple- grid tube recommended especially for service as a biased d et ecro r in, a-c receiv e ra desi gn e d £.0 r its ch ara cte dsd" cs, In such service, tb.:i.s tube is capable of delivering a large audio:fr~'q uency output voltage with relatively small input voltage 'Other applications of {he 5'. include its use as. a low signal-input, screen

g:r ~.,; (J '''I m pli h er t"'! ~ 1l., ~ 'a nd "!I~. "" ... ., "" utc m .. atic '1'-""'] ~'11 m '-.' ·C".'1o ntrol tube 'T 1'1 e

, .... ~ .. ,~J!. .1 .!.H .. , 'U!,[h ... , ,J., .. U~ ,cd,J. ,;::L .. 'LI', I, I!..II. ..... \ 'LI , .... ~ I. e '. u . [ . 11. ,~c. . 1 .

5 l' is characterized by the small overall size, th,e dome-top bulb, the internal shield in. the dome, tile rigidity of electrode assembly, and the fifth electrode, or sup pressor with its own base pin terminal, :Equ.aIiy significant among its electrical features are. its relatively low heater power consumption, its sharp plate current ~"~ cut .. off" with respect to grid voltage, and its adapra biEty oJ electrode combinations to un ... usual circuit applications.

The internal shield is a distinctive feature in the design. of this tube", It. is placed in the bulb d0111€: above the electrode assembly and is connected. within the tube: direct]y to the, cathode. The dome-top bulb makes possible close proximity of the external and internal shields and, therefore, a low effective g:ri,d"'p1ate capacitance, The form of the external shield-can may he somewhat modified dependirig 'upon th e re ceiver des! gn re qu j H: m e 11 ts for 111 ird mum g rid-pla te and output ca p ad tan ce .

Micromhos I-tl-tt

~p.f.

IlP..f.

A'lliOl ,t·· 4,f)·-'.I,n· "1" :r-%7Ji'~' to, . ""0 t '3"'-;" .

,to.;.L.' .,y j'i ~,.

]w jj ,71.'f.)·

ST"'12

S mall Me tal Sm,all 6#.Pin.

CH.A.RACT,BRISTICS

H··.·,·, '. V:Y·,· '. '.', " (A': Ie,' . " D', 10":·)

.BA 'fER . OL'fAGB I,. . _ or + '_.' ., " ' •• , ........ ,; ., .. ,', ....

H E.A 1" ER C URR,E NT .". '. • .. '. .' '. ~ • • '. .' .. .. m ,. " " ~ .' .. '. r ~ .. • ..

2 . .5 '] 0" .

• J ;;. "_"

P,LATE, VOLTA,G'E ' •• ' •.• '. '. ' ...... + " '. , .• ' ... ' .. '. '. '.' .. ~ .' .. ' ... ~ .. '. " 250 max.,

'SCltB 13 N' VOL T A.G E ~.,' ~ .. .. " ~ '" .. -e. ;. ~ .. '.' .. '. a. .. .. ~ • " e. .' ,; .' .. .. ] 00 m a,x~

G = 1"""" 1;, l' f" ...... ~ ':t ..•

R,u.Jj 'V 'lJ.L T,J\v. E • II!I ~ III ~ II!!' ~ a. ! I!l '. !! .. "II 'I! ~ 'I 'I! ~ + '. !I. of. ,I! !I. " ,I! !I. ofi ~ !I. ~ .Jl

:P,LATE C'URR,ENT ' .' ' ' , .. '. " " '. ' ••.• ' .. '.' '. ,. '" 2.0

Sc .,~ ~"l7N1' 'C" ~U'8;"[:l' UNT . " . ~ ._0

. fi,L lLr", ~. ,fiJ!.~.I!.:. '''.J.!II.!Ii!! ~ ~ .!!II ! II!!. I!I I! ~ ~. '.' ~, ~ !Il !I! 'II ~ '. '" !l1 t! !t 'II! 'I! ~ '. ~ _

P'LATE R'EsrsTANcE ,. .. , .. ';, ~ . Greater than, 1..,5

A'M P.LJ FICA TION FACTOR ., ~ ... ~ •. ~ '. '. , ~ Greater than '] 500

MUTUAL ,CQNPUCTA,'NGE .. ".' .. ' •• ' .. ~ ~ ~ cO " '. '.' ,. " .' .. ~ • ~ '" " .. 1225

EFFECTI"E G'RH"~'PLA ,]"E CAPACIT,ANCE, [with shield can) 0.,0'10 ma.ximtu·j1.

]NPU''f 'CAPACITANCB ,..' ~ ~ , .' , ~ .... '. 5,.2,

O'UTlP'U"r ,CA,PAGITANCE ...... , " -e '. ,. ~ •• ' 6,.8

OVEH .. .t\LL LEN(~'TH ~, .. " '. + .' ' ' , •• ' , a. + ,. ' •• ' .. a ,. , .' .. ' ' •• '

MAX [M U M D lAM ETER ,.. '. " .. .' . ~ .' '" . ~ ,. . .. ;, '. .. ~ .' '. .' , ~ .. , .' '" '. .. ~ .' .. ~

BuT. B (Se"e page 4- 2 j 'Pi g. 7) . ~ '. ,. .' '. , .' .' ;0 .. ~ ~ • " • • ~ '. • ~ • ., '. • ~ ~ ••

C

A ,f"!!! ~! fI • .1 ~ • '!ol 'I! !! .l !I' ~, 'il .. ' 01' ,t! i !i' + • I! !I 'il i' !tI 'i 'Ii !I' of I, !I' ~ 'I! !I + ,!!! ~, " ! !! "I ! iii fI !I .1 I,

!i"f. E ~,,, ~ -t. ~,,! Ir. i +. ~'I- ~ ~'!i' •• !iJ~I'illIi'i:I. iii i' i"i .'iI + == +'i'llii fo'li!! ++. + iI !I"f.

]NSTALLATION

Volts Ampere Volts

Voh15

Volts MiHEam,peres, Milliampere

Megohms

Th.e basle, pins of the .5 to]' fit the stan.d ard 6"contac:t socket w 11 i ch ill a y be in s'taHed to hQld the tube either ,in a v~.rtkal or in ,ijt horizontal position. For hori~ontal (]perat]o,!lJ~ the socket should be positioned with its heater ,pin opening.s, one v-ertica1J.y above: the othe.r., F01' socket connections; s!ee ,page 3 9',~. Fig. 11,

For he,ater .operation and c~1thode con,nect;ioIlj, re:fer to INSTAULATION for type 56" The Kr,e'en voltage m,ay be .obtai.ned. from. a pote.ntiQmeter or bleedf:::f circuit across the B~supply source. Due, to the screen cu.rrent ch.ara.cte:dstics of the :57 ~ th.e use of a. resistor in g,erl€.s with the high volttag,e supply m.ay be employed for ohtain~ ing the scre'ell ';loitag,t;' p:rovided the c;JJ.th,ode"':resistor r:n~tb.od of bj,as CfJmtro1 is

THE RCA ,RADIOTRON MANUAL

used, Thi1'J method, however, is not recommended if the high voltage Brsupply exceeds 250 volts,

Co m,p lere ,s,hiel,din,g 0'£ d ere ctor ci rcuits em ployin g the j , is g cnerall y n ecessary ~ since considerable voltage at carrier frequency is usually present in the: plate circuit even though the latter is by-passed with. a low impedance capacitor. Two-section ,filters in, the plate circuit are lfreque,ndy necessary to prevent radio-frequency feed .. baA~k to. the input of the detector,

In receivers employing a built ... in loudspeaker, acoustic shielding ,may be nccessary to p rev e nt ,]111 era p In on ic feed ",'back when a. stron g ra dio .. f reque n cy ca r:ri e r vo Ita g e is preEH~n t on. the tube e I e men ts, Its ho uld be, noted als 0, rh at cond e nse r pla te s may ca use an audio how'! due to mecbanica] feed-back from the speaker,

APP,LICATION

As, a biased deteetoe, the 57 is particularly recommended because of its ahihty to deliver a Large audio ... f'requ,en;cy output voltage of good quality 'with a fairly small radio-frequency signal input. Recommended conditions fer the 57 as a biased detector are as follows: Plate voltage, 250 volts; screen voltage, 1.00 volts; grid bias, voltage, -6 volts [approx.}: plate load, 250000 ohm resistor, or a j 00 henry choke shunted by a 0.2:5 megohm resistor. For resistance load, the plate voltage wiH be the suppl y voltage; ro]n IJS the voltage drop in load caused by specHied plate current (adj usted to 0..1 milliampere with no a-c input signal).

Detector bias may be obtained from a bleeder circuit, from a resistor in. the: cathode circuit, or from a partial self-biasing circuit, 1'h.e cathode ... resistor method permits of higher O'illtput: at low percentage modulation, since the, input signal may be increased almost in inverse proportion to the modulation without resultin g in o bj eerie na b 1 e d isto rtion .

As a radio-frequency ~pUfi,er, the 57 may be use d particularly in a p p licatio ns 'WhC1f'e the r .. f signal applied to (:h'e gr.id is relatively low, that is, of the order of a few volts. In 8U cb cas es e 1 ther screen 0 r contro I gri d voltage (0 r both) m a y be varied to conerol the receiver volume. When larger signals are involved, a super~ control amplifier tube should be employed to prevent the occurrence of excessive cross .. modulation and modulation diseortion, Recommended operating: conditions tor a ill P H fi e r se rvice are, gi ven un d er C,H A.RACT E RISTIC.S~

,A.s a frequency converter 'Or a, superheterodyne first detector, the 57 may be employed but a tube having super-control characteristics is to be preferred) especia.lly if signals of large: magnitude are to be, received, and if supplementary volume con ~ trol is to he obtained in this stage.

AVER'AGE PILATE CH AR'AC TE R 1ST rc s

,t(,! :lId

~5~F-1~T=~~--~---r~~~~---4~~~~~--~~~--~---+--~

10::;

'~ - II.,~

~J,~( .. ~ .. ~~~~~CI~~

il;i:

·:5; '!rr-----F=r--+=~=+----+--__t~......._.if_-+_=~+=_--+_--__+_--___t.=~__I-~==1 g,

Q,--~~--~~~~b-~IIO~O~' ~~--d~~~O~~--~~~OO~~--~2d'5~O--db--~aG~lo~. __ ~ __ J 'F'IJ.A"liiE y,OL TS

TRIPLE,GRID SU'PER".'C10NTROL AMPLIFIER

RCA Rodtotron

R· C .. ·-·A·····:· ... 5··8····:

~. . " . - . !. :

The 58 is a triple ... grid super-control amplifier tube recommended especially for service in the radio, .. frequency and interrnediate-fre-

f . desi .11 f . 1 ' .' T'I!....

q uency sta ges 0 a ... c re C ei ve rs .•. esi gn eu or its C.l aracte rt sti cs. r.i e

.5.8 is characterized by the small overall size, the dome-top bulb, and the fifth electrode or suppressor with. its own base pin terminal, Equally significant among its, electrical features are the relatively low heater. power consurn ption, the extended mutual cond uctance operating range, and the ada ptability of electrode cornbmations to various circuit ap plications. The ability ·of thrs tube to handle usual signal voltage's without cross-modulation and modulation-distortion makes it uniquely adaptable to the r-f and I-f stages of receivers employing automatic volume control, Shield construction and bulb shape are discuss-eel under Type .57 i 'which is similar in structural appearance'.

'Vv~ h It n th +: su P P resso r is not: con n e cted d ir ectly to th e each 0 de) its \1 trl.i ty rna y be extended. The suppressor, in suitable circuits, provides a means for obtaining the desirable conditions of reduced selectivity for local reception. This operation al characteristic makes possible improved loudspeaker response when the receiver is tuned to. powerful nearby stations.

CH·A.RA'CT.ERIST]CS HE:.!.TE'R \'OLTAC'i1' (A' C or DC)

.. ,f1j. \l ,. . , ~.:r 1:- . '",:, . ·_.r.'1 II. . ... J.. •• + I! !! .. + !i ,., io ii .' + • i

HEATER CURRENT .. ~~~ ... ~ .. +"~ ••• , ••••••••••

PLATR \10LTAGE .. , .. + .•• ~ •••• , •• + ~ • ~ •. '" .• , , •

SCI-trl~.N VOLTAGE ...•..• + , ••• ,. ~ •••• m ••••••••••

G R"ID VOL.·T AGE ." .• , •....... '" ..•. , . , , .•.. " ..... , ..

Pr C ...

, L.i~ TF. ': .. URR,E NT + Ii '. II •• ' [II •• ~ ,II + j. •• ' .. I. 'I! !I !to -iii I! .' + •• of' ill ••

Sc RE E N C.-UI n.R· '.'R N. ~.l1

~-... ~ II. .iI'of,II~'I!+<I!.l!P.' •••• l'I!.N'I'r.=-~'r •• !Ioofl.nI'

PLATE RES[STANC.:f, , .'.T.'· •• " .•• , •••••• , •• ,,, •• , ••• ~ AM PLIF]CATION .F A.C·.ir{)]:~ •.•. + ., ;. ; .••• " ,. , + .••• " " ••.•• ,. r. M uru :1i·L (-,:0. N]) T.J "'.7'A NeE".

:1. '!.~ .. i, is- •••• !lI!'foof.' .. iiEtr.S+·!I·;t;1II1111

Mtrruxi, CO·:-.JDUCTANC:E 5 A~ -~O volts b~as. + , ••. + • +

t At -jO volts bias, .

EFFEGTIV.E G·RID"PL.ATE C,APACITAKCE (with shie]d~can) I N P U" T CA·.·· P ,I!-C]·'f.·'~ N c .. tJ

.iJ1. .I.:l ~ !++5""il.:II[II.II,.IIl'1!

'0 UTPUT CAPACITANCE ~ ~ •

2.5 'li ,.0

250 rna..x, 100 'il1tax. -3 min. .8,,2

3,0 uutx. 800000

1280

1600

10

Volts

Am lr)"""r'-" II"'~ E'- lL_ , , L,

Volts Volts 'Volts

Milli am pe res M.illi am, pe res Ohms

l\.ficrom.hos Micro.mhos lv[icromhos p1J1lo f .

~.t',l f.

~l~.L f .

.4'1 ~,}' _It t "" 421 L . .,"'·

. 13~ I u 1""3 .

,= t ~ .n" ~

··116

STd.L

SU1aH Metal Small 6-~ Pi fI1

')

~.

0.010 maxi·,n·u.m

5 '1

"ii~

6.8

01 r 101.1:'']0 Ii L L LF'N or "T' }-:r

-'f!'.l.Lr:"\.,..:"""l.' ~~ •. '-1,~ 1 rI'I. llolWi. iI'ofi I!. iii + .'ii'pp.r.1I!! .It ••••• I"''''~. oil ••• 'il jo r.1! os

MA-·X·I"-,furM·, I DIA' M'E-TE'II) .. - - ".

';,00II ~.l " . ,j&, , .!L-.... i!! ~:i + :r. • III :r. • .1 • •• • • III • II :r _ • :r r S' -+ ~ • III • • "I' r !II "I

B' lJ"lLB (S': -;. 47 F', 7)

. '" ee .page j .]g, .' I •••..• + + .••. + .. ~ + ~ ••. ~ •••

C

AP ii' if- of 'i! ~ +. • !'i '. • .J • • .1 !!II II • 110 i! !! -! !"! • "I III • • • + Po • ~ loiii • • r. • II' + • '!i i!! II .. ;a; • • Ii

BASE

II' • • III ~ • • ,II • ;I. II ;II ! -!!' Po .. 'I" • • • • • • ill • if- .. + I! i!i + ,Ii • i!!' ~ • II !Il • ill 'r ;;: .:I, '!o i!! • II

INST ALLA' .lO'N

The base pins of the 58 fit- the: standard six-contact socket which may be in.sta.llled to hold the tube either in a vertical or in a horizontal position. For' horiaontal operation, the socket should. he positioned with its heater pin openings one; verticallv above the other. For socket corinecticris, see page 39) Fig. 1 L

~

Th e heater is d est g ned ta 0 P e ra te at 2.,5 v 0 lts. Th e tra IJJ sf orrner wi n din g ,5 up ..

p .ying the heater circuit should be designed to operate the he.atcr at this recornmended value for fun load operating conditions under average [inc voltage.

For cathode co nne cti 0 n:, re fer to cadl.Qde, ty pe 56,

Control grid bias variation will be; found effective in chan gfng the yoli,u,.roe of. the recei ver T In order to (I btain adequate 'volume control, an a v.;: u]a ble grid bias voltage

"'1' .... -1.j-

(~K approximately 50 volts W]U be required. The exact value will depend upon the circuit design arid operating conditions. This voltage I11ay be obtained, dependin g on receiver requirements, from a potentiometer across a fixed supply voltage or by the use of a variable self-bias resistor In the cathode circuit,

The screen voltage n1J,ay be obtained from a potentiometer or bleeder circuit across the Brsupply source. Due to the screen current c h aracteristics of the. 58" a resistor in series with the hfgh"voltage supply may be employed for obtaining the screen voltage provided the cathode .. resistor method of bias control is used. This method, however ~ is not recommended if the high voltage B ... 'supply exceeds 2.5 0 volts. Furthermore, it should be noted that the use on a resistor in the screen circuit will ha ve an eJ£,ect on. the change in plate resistance with variation, in sup" pressor voltage in case the. suppressor is utilized fer control purposes.

The suppressor may be connected directly to the cathode or it may be made ne.garive with respect to the cathode. For the latter condition, the suppressor voltage m~l.y be obtained from a potentiometer or bleeder circuit for manual volume and selectivity control, or from the drop in a resistor in the p]a.te circuit of the autornatic volume control tube.

Shielding requirements are similar to those lor type ],7.

APPLICA TION

A$ a radio- f requency aru pJ [fie'!" , t b e 3- 8 is e sp ecial 1 yap plic a b] e to r a clio recc i v e r design because of ,its ability to reduce cross-modulation effects~ its, remote ' ... cut" 0 ff" feature} and its flexible adaptability to circuit co rn binations and to receiver design. :Recoro,me.nded conditions for the 58 as an arnp]_i6,~r are given under 'C,HARAC> T ER.IS']'],CS.

To realize the maximum benefit 01 the: long U cut-o ff'l feature of this tube, it is necessary to apply a variable grid bias and to maintain the screen at a. constant potentia! with respect to the cathode. However, good results may be obtained by using at varia bie cathode resistan ce which, of course, reduces the screen potentia] with respect to the cathode by the same amount that the bias is increased" thus hastening the "cut .. off" and reducing the ability of the tube to handle large signals, This undesirable effect may be n ullified 'by means of a series resistor in the screen circuit.

The 'IUS,€. of series. resistors for obtaining satisfactory control of screen volta.ge .in the cas e 0 £ f 0 ur .. .ele etta d e tu bes is usu an y irn p ossi b 1 e. beca USe 0 f s e co nd ary e miss 10 n phenomena. In the 5 8~ however ~ the suppressor practically removes these effeces and it is therefore, possible to obtain satisfactorily the screen voltage from the plate supply O~' from some high intermediate voltage providin g these sources do not exceed 250 volts" \Vith tbis method, the screen to catbode voltage will fall off very Ettie {rom minimum to maximum value of cathode-control resistor. In some ca ses, it rna y actu all y rise. Th is rise of sc reerr to ca tho de vol tag e abo ve th e n or mal maxim U.lU value is allowable because the screen and the plate current are reduced. simultaneously by a sufficient amount to prevent damage to the tube", It should be recognized ,in general chat the series, resistor meth od of obtaining screen voltage Irom a h,igher voltage supply necessitates the use of the variable cathode .. resistor m e tho d o f co n tr 0 llin g volu m e + Wh en screen and co 1;1 tro I grid vo] ta g es are o brain e d In. this mariner, the remote ucut"'off" adva,ntage of the 58 may be fully realized.

"t-\s a 'f,['equen,('Y con vereee 0 r a supe rlle terodyne first det'ecto'L", the :5.8 rna y be 'Used to advantage, It: Jscapa ble of producin g under the. proper conditions, of grid and local oscillator voltage, a gain in the first detector stage of about one .. th]!d that which. can be 'Obtained in an intermediate-frequency atnplrher stage, In addi .. tion, this gain can he controlled as in the case of the radio-f requericy amplifier by varying the grid bias either [rorn at separate sup ply or from a variable resistor .in the cathode circuit. This is a particularly desirable feature in receivers em ployin g automatic volume control, because it enables a m uch lower threshold input to be received without loss o'f amplification and permits the reception of high input volt .. ages without loss of control. Recommended conditions for the .58 as at superhetero ... dyne :6rst detector Iollow: Plate voltage, 2,5,0 volts; screen voltage, 100 volts,; an d

- 74,--,

TH.E .RCA RADIOITRON MANUAL

grid bias voltage, -10 volts mirumum [with 9 .. volt oscillator peak swing). With an oscillator peak swmg of 'li volt less. than the gdd bias, these val ues ate not critical and may be chosen to meet circuit design requirements.

As a grid bias detector, the 5,8 is not recommended. This is because the intenrional elimination of a definite: ~~,cut"'off~"mak:eg the 5 8 rather insensitive and rende r.5 any approach to lin ear detection irn practicable ..

AVE:RAGIE PLATE CHARACTERIS·lfmCs.

I~r--------------'---''---'---~----.----r----'---~----~---r----r=--~'

TYIFE. 5&

E:.,.iil.;I1; . ~ "lOll 1':5 SUPIPRESSOR 'li'aL.,T$;; 0

:S.CR'" "'.~ ¥D .. i .~. '.-;;; I-~" +------+----+----+----!-----+-~::-:-=I-:; ... -;;::;'T'" . .-.i-----+-t ... E-:, ,;or; -. __ ,,~~--+------l

0;;;'" ... ,.;00 "'''' epHlTRCh,. 'I;;R;L'O ·~I;H . .,i~ "

,~/~ 4 J/

10

',20

10 o

15'0 .2:00.

F'L~TE V"Ol1..TS

AVERAGE CHARACTER~STIC5

'IYF't;; .!;I,e

E: r'::,2 ,,5, VOI.TS

- iPL,Ii" T E. VOLT:;' =.2 so --.I~~--l-----.li......!.600

:5CR [E;.NI VOLTS!!!: 1 [0 O· q, :~

SuPPRESSOR VOLlS:~O ~ :t

t-----t----+----~----i3Q ::z: 1400~'

. $;) ~ 0

/ tL

~ U

r---+---+----+V--+·--'l2Q ~ 1200 i

2 ~

2: WI

- -7.. . 1'0 ~ icon ~

...•. ~ 0

.,# . c· ~ -- - 800 :=;

• ~o -~o -.:'·0' -;::..".1 0

C.ONTROL (;1"0;1 D VCl." s Z

o

II----+---+----+-----l~~ - 600 oJ -! ..;(

::i

.1~-..j----+---+----+------I+--____'l400 E:J< ;:;1

'15

.........._ ':1-

RCA Radiotron

POWER AMPLIFIER

The ~7 ] .. A is a power amplifier tube of low output impedance for use in the. output stage of audio ... frequency am plifiers,

Fn. A lvfE N T V' 0 L TAG E ( D , C.) , . , .' '. . + • • • • • • , • " • " • '" • PI LA hi:E N T Cu RR E NT'. + • ~ • , • • , • • • • '" , • ~ • • •• • • • + • ~ •

PLATE V'OLt'AGE +,; '. ~ •• , , • " • • • • • • • 90 1,35

GRID V'OLTAGE:t~ . + ' ••••• ,' , • , " ., , ". -rs.s -27

PLATE CURRENT '. _ , , . , , . - , . 12 17 . .5

PILATE RESIS'r ANCE .' ,', " , . '" . , " . .. 2250 1960

AMIPU FH~ATl()N FACTOR .' ~ .. , _ . , " . . . 3 3

l\.1UTUAl.. CONDUCTANCE • + • , • " • " •• 133,0 1520

LOAD RE6ISTA~CE . + • , ., , • + ~ •• ,"' •• '.. 3200 3500

UNDJSTOR,TED POWER OUTJ?UT " '. 125 370

G'ru[)~PLATE CAf"ACITANGE ., .. " ,. 7.4

GRID .. FILAl\-fENT CAPACITANCE ., .. '. . 3.7

PlAT:e .. fILA}I.,:D.ENT CAPACITANCE , ... '. 2,.1

'MAXI~fUr..:1 OVERALL LENCTH ~"., '" . , '. , . ~ ... " . , , · , , + " • or •

1v1.'\.xIMU:t.,.~ D'IAM,E'TE.R + + •• " ••••••• '" •• ' '. ' •• ~ , ••• , •• • • , ~ •• ~ ••

B U L.B ( See p age 4 2~, Fig, 8) .. ~ . . ,', . . , + ,. • • •• • • .' • • '. + • ., • • ., '. •

CHAR.A,CTBRISTICS

5.0 0".2,:),

Volts Ampere Volts Volts Milliamperes 'Ohms

1 80 y.na.X. -40.5

20

1850

3

1620 5350

700

+

lvfi c ro mh 0 S Ohrns 14_llEwaUs

I-t~L

uuf.

IIi i

I-tl-tf. 41~h6n

1 %.et" S"ll.4

Medium 4 .. Pin

BASE +. Ilol •• ' •• ' Ii- Ii ~ .;. .;. !"! ... to Ii of, + ~ • III •••• III •• iii !;;; ~ 'I- ~ :111 _ I'l • 1'1'1 • ~ ... !o !! ..... ~ 1'1 •

INSTALLA TION

The base ,pins of this. tube fit the standard four .. contact socket. The socket should be installed sa that the tube will operate in a vertical position. For socket connectioris, see: page 39" Fig'" 1.

The coated 6tl111en.t of the ~71-A may be operated from a storage battery or fr(nn the a .. c line th rough ~ step ... down transformer. For operation of this tube from a stora g e battery ~ a fi xed or va ria b 1 e resisto r 0 f s uitabl e valu e is n~q uire d to red u ce the battery voltage to. 5.0 volts. across tb e filam.'cnt terminals at the socket, Most satisfactory ope rating performance of the tube will be obtained at the rated filament voltage.

Oper',ati:tlg conditions are given un der CHA,RACTERISTICS. for the use of rhis tube in the power output. stage. With a d-e filament supply, the grid and the plate return should be made to the negative filament ter minal.

For a-c filam ent su pply,~ the plate and the grid return. should he brou ght either to. a mid-ta pped resistor of 2Q to 40 ohms across the filament winding, or to a mid ... tap of the filament \,v,inding. To prevent overloading and distortion, the recommended negative grid bias should always be 11lS{:d.

Grid bias for che ;'7li,.. A may be obtained from a C~'b.attery or by means of the v-oltage drop in a resistor con nectcd in the negative plate return lead. This second meth ad is known as the self .. biasin g method, since the plate current: d eterrnincs the

-7,6.',-

- .'

THE RCA RADIOTRON M.ANUA,L

Th.e for a

drop. It IS not, however, generally applicable to battery operated receivers. proper value of this resistor for a plate voltage of 180 volts .is 2150 ohms; plate voltage of 135 volts, 1 700 ohrns; and for 90 volts, 1. 600 ohms.

If more output is desired than can be obtained from a single '71, two '71"'5 may be operated either in. parallel or push-pull connection. See page 1 J _ When two '71 's are operated together in the same am,pl.dier stag€, the values of the seH .. biasing resistors will be approximately one-half the values given above for a smngle

tube.

An, output device should be used to transfer power to the win din g of the' reproducing unit.

AVERAGE PLATE CH.ARACTERISTICS

601l~--~~~---r--~----+--=~--~----+---~--~----~~--~---+--~

6,0

2.4 0

-

1201 160

PLAT,!:: VOlTs

AvERAGE CHAR.4.CTE.~ISTICS

~', ·rvv

~T7--

AVE,RAGE, CHARACTER~ST!CS

T't.P~ I''TIA /
E.eL "'5' .. 0 .V01.."TS o.c.l
I V
Iii
.ANI \ &1
......... \ r-; 7
.pj
\ It'1-~lf;-/
2000 \ ~ 7~ V
, ki. r ~
coo I V' '.~ - .
I
~~ ' .......
V ,,"i Y ~ -_BE, ~ISi ~N.c ~
~
800 /' ,()~ 7-
\ 7-
..-
V.
I
I I
eo JOO I~O 140 I ,0 IE ... .., ~'II-,

16 16 14

12

PLATE VOLTS

RCA Rodtonon

FULL .. W A V'E 'RE·CT'lliFIE:R

T-he ~80 is a full-wave rectifying tube intended for use in d .. c pO'Yver supply devices which operate from the a-c supply line,

CHAR.A,CTERISTICS

En .. AMENT \l-OL TA.GlE. (A" C,) ; .. " .... ~ ' ... ' 'r , • , ••• " " • 5_0

F C' ') 0

, Il"'\'NLENT~URRE:N T .. ' ' ...•. " .' " , .. , .' ;. ~ , . co' .. , ; • - -.

1. f A .. C 'VOLTAGe PER PLATE (,RJ:\1S) " ' .. , ... '. , '35,0

" D' C '0 U T 'i)"UT C' u RR. E 1'';: T 1.25 max,''", ,.

': " .... ",. ", ,I. J:.. . .f. I -. ',", r.,~ . III' r. ~, + ~ ;;;; -!' ,!' • iii .'" ••• I"i s ~ ~

1. ,'. A"C VOl;L~GE P'Fl-R Pl,AT:P, (R.'MS) 'r • , 'r 400 max ..

, D' ' __ ... C,' " .0" :', 'r • '1' T."! ~JT- Ie." U RR' 111 N"1i"' 11, O. ~,ma_ r x. " -

. . . . ." . I.. J .to.- t "". I •. : ,.II":'. ".]. a "I' ~ ~ + !" .. 01. .Il • • III. • ~ -t' '50 ~ +- ,11

A .. C VOLTAGE PER PLATE -( R'MS ) .. ' .. ,' ..... ,. 'r .5 SO l1'HtX"

" D .. C O'UTPUT CURRENT .. , .. ,. ' ... , .......• ,', ; • _ 135 'n,'t-etX.

M,AXIMu£..,l OVERALL LEl\iGTH ., ..•.. _ , .• _ ., _ . _ . " . " " . ; 'P ' •••••

M'AXIM UM DlAM.E.1"'Elt , co, " " •• , , '" •••••• ' •• w ~ ••••

BULB {See page 4. 2~ Fig" 10) ' .. ' + ; ~ ~ , a, '. ,. , ••••• ' ••••• ~ •• ' ..

B,i\,g E !! + + ! + ~ !! II!!' + I! ~, + ,~ !! 'io + • ... 'I' ! + of! .' !to + 'Ii ! • I' 'r! • oil' 'io '.. !! -+ I! • ;A, II • • I! • • iI -t.

Volts Arnperes 'Volts M:illiamperes Vo]ts 'M]]liampe:res 'Volts MilHa.m peres

5%U

2:'U n ,710

5 .. 17

Medium 4 .. Pin

INST'ALLA TION

The base pins. of the ~80 :fit the: standard four .. contact socket which should be mounted preferably to hold the tube in a vertical position. [f it is necessary to place t he tub e in a h 0]:' i ~(H) ta 1 POS! 60:n '; th e socket shoul d he ttl 0 u nred with both -0 f the :fil.;:ull,e:n.t pin. openi.ngs) either at th.€: top or at the bottom. This p:re.ca uticn 10 care s th e fi la [[1 e n t plan eve rtical Io r m ost sa tisf a cto r y p-e rfo r ill an ce, Po r socket con uections, see page 3 9~ Fig. 2. Provision should be made for free circulation of air around the bulb since it becomes quite hot durin,g operation,

The coated filament of the ~'80 is designed to operate Irom the a-c line through a step-down transformer. The voltage applied to the 6Ia.'ment terminals should be the rated value of 5 .. 0 volts under operatiu g conditions and average line voltage.

The approximate d-e output voltage of the "80 for "Various values of a-c Input voltages may be obtained fro lTI the curves. FoT' the d .. c voltage availa ble at the radio set, .it is necessary to subtract the voltage drop across the fih::er from the value read from the CU:rveS_ ,

The filter may be of either the condenser .. in put or choke-input type. If an input condenser is. used, consideration must be ,givle.n to, the instantaneous peak value of the a-c input voltage, The peak value is. about 1.4 times the RMS value as measured by most a-c voltmeters. Filter condensers, therefore, especially the inp-ut condenser, sho uJ d ha v e a ra tin g hi gh e nou,g h to withstand the in stanta neo us pea k val u IE ~ :i f breakdown is to be avoided When th'e in put-choke method is used, th e a vailable d-e output voltage will be 50:m ewhat lower than with the input-condenser method MOl' a .given a-c plate voltage. However, j m proved n;·guld:tion together with lower peak current "villi be obtained"

APPLICA,TION

As a. full-wave rectifier, the 'i8-0 may be operated with condenser ... input Or choke .. input filter under conditions not to exceed the rating's given under CH:ARACTERlST.[CS ..

As a haU .. wave rectifier, two ~80"s may' he operated in a Iull .. wave circuit with reasonable serviceability to deliver more d-e output current th.an can. be obtained fromone tube, For this 1IJ,Sf~\ the plates of each 1'80 are tied t()get.h'et at the. socketThe allowable voltage and load conditions per tube are the same as for ful]. .. wave

,

service.

"0<

- .Or;...._

\

THE R.C.A AADIOT.RON MANUAL

OUT~UT CHARACTt Ri.$TICS (CI ~O!K[ '1 NlPUT TO F IL TEFl)

OUT1Pll r CHA RACT(Rl ST res (CCIN Dil:: N38R ~ t<: purr' ToO F II,. TER:)

a:

W!! ~ ....!I

w: r-~--~~~~'---r--+-~---~~~20~ 0.

1- ~ .to.:.

1------b"'''-o::d-----.:::t----+---+-=''''''''-=i----112.;;] 0 .~

~

o

!IT,i II-

:""1f-----i1---+----Il~~O ,5 ;:;.

lJ

;6

40 00 !:;;1:0

b-e LOAf) MI LiUAMPIi: P:f:S

TYPICAL FULL-WAVE :RECIIF~ER CIRCUli'!

.-

TY PE '80 Oft .82'

au T P UT CHARACTERi ST I CS (CHlO K E '1 j<.,IPI!JT TO F I iL"FE f'd

LB:

·C.2 4 !:'If-

c,;.

I. ,4frllf.

~ ~

,,",FOR CHOKE ~N'Pt1T

-OMIT (:.1 -

U II 8 ~ ~

-I

OUTPUT C[LlJA RAe TERISllCS (cO~i)~I'\'lS.ER INiPUT TO FI LiE R)

TYPE 1e~

E.f" =. "'}. 5 vQl.:rs A C

- - If-ULL WAVE.. • _. ~1;---+---=-+----{l7~O

I e

'1- r--+--,_--r--7---r--~--I--~6.4Q~

I- i:

"

10

so so 130 no

D- c LOA D M IU. ~A.M IP [li:l!(.S

I~

50 00 I~O ~ ['0.

D-C ,bOA-D M I LIL. 1A.l.Vl PIE R~ s

79-

~::::..--

HALF .. WA\l.E RECTIFIER

The i8 I is a, l1a]f"vlClve rectifier tube for use in d-e socket .. ' power devices operating from the al temating current su pply line, F u li 1 .. wave rectifies tion m a y be ac com p lished by t\VO ~8 I's,

'CHARACfE'RISTICS

FILAM,E.NT \lOLTACE (A. C.) ' ... ' '. i ~ .. ' ••• ' ••••• ' • + + •• F]LAMENT 'CURRENT .' ' ..• ,. .. m •••••• , , + •• + •• ' ' •• ~ •• A"C PLATE VO~'TA"'~""'E t(R"'MS'·')

. _- JL.. ,'.)I' ~..' + ... ~, or. !ii iI • ~, • II' Ii! .. • III '. • Ii iii •

D~C OUTPUT CURRENT i ..... ~ •• ' ••• ' • " • " , ...... ~ •• ~ 85, max"

MA"'X,IM~p;li' ,0' U'l:i'~I'AL' L LEN('TH

'.. , U l'tf.l. .' 'V.I::. ,\.,' ,. . J' !l. :II. Ii ... Ii • ; ~ .11 • ;Ii ! • + ~ !! .1 .11 • :I • :Ill • ;aJ III • II. •

MAX I M 'U 11,.1 'DT AM E T B R + • + + i i + • • + • • .' .. + , .' • • ~ 7 • • 7 , , .' • • • + • • •

B1TL]3. {See pa.ge 42; Fig. 12) " ' " . " . ' ' . , .' + •

BASE .11 •••••.•••. 11. " .• ' oil • + I. ~ .. + !!! ~, + .F EIo 01 III I I' • !I III II • III •• II! ~ •• ' ' •••• +

7.5 1,,25

700 maX.

Medium 4.-Pin

INSTALLATION

T~J.,e base pins of the '8.1 fit the standard four .. contact socket which should be mounted to hold the tube in a vertical position. For socket connections", sec page 39~ Pig. :.;. Provision should. be mack for free circulation of ail" around the bulb since it 'becomes quite hot durin g operation,

The coated filament of the "81 is designed to 0 perate from the a ... c line through a step-down transformer. The voltage applied to the filament terminals should he rb e rated value of 7.5 valts under operating conditions an d. average line voltage.

The approximate cl .. c output voltage of the "81 in half .. wave and full-wave con, .... nection for various values of a ... c in put voltages m,ay be 0 btained From the curves. For the d ... c voltage available at: the radio set, it is necessary to subtract the voltage drop across the filter fro m the value read from the curves on preceding page,

The filter- may be of either the condenser ... input or choke ... input type, If.an input condenser is used, consideration must be ,given to the instantaneous peak value of the a .. c in put voltage, The peak value is about 1,.4 times the R:bllS value as measured by most a-c voltmeters. For this reason, filter condensers, especially the in put condenser, should have a rating high enough to withstand the instantaneous peak 'value, If breakdown is U) be avoided. I \\'hen the input .. choke. method is used, the available d .. c output voltage will be somewhat lower than with the input ... condenser method for a given a-c plate voltage. Howe'veTJ improved regulation, together with lower peak current, will be 0 brained.

APPL]CA,'TION

As a Iralf-wave rectifier, the '8'li may be operated under conditions not to exceed those _g,iven under Cl-IARACTERISTICS. '

I n fuU .. 'wave circuits, two '81"s. 3.'r,"€: required to rectify each half of the a-c voltage. o peratin g voltages per tube are the same as. for the half-wave circuit, but twice the d-e output current may be obtained.

For special appllcations it ,is possible to obtain a d-e output voltage approximately d ouble that: to be expected from conventional rectifier circuits, without exceeding the recommended maxim urn a-c in put voltage per tube, This is accomplished by means of a voltage. dou blin g system desi,gnt(~d for each particular a pplication,

-80-,

RCA·"

r '..,: ". Rod lotron

Pi LL~\VA\!E lvfERCURy, .. \7AP'IOR RE'CT']FTER

The 82. is a full ... wave mercury-vapor rectifier tube of the hotcathode type Ior use in suitable rectifying devices designed to supply d. .. c power of uniform voltage to receivers in which the direct current requirements are au bj ect to considerable variation. Th e excellent voltage :regu]ation characteristic of the 82 is due tu rts low and practically constant voltage drop .( only about 15 volts) for any current drain up to. the full emission o-f the 61a,ment (see page 4). The 82 is 'not inte'rch(lngeab~e with d.n)' orh,er rectifier type:+

CHARA'CTE"RIS'T]'CS

f·irL_,I;_"Ii_'.f D'e.N.-. T' V .. 'O~"LT-- .. -~ o:::.1fl' (At C' - ). 2.5:

.lI. rl_ w't.1 I!~ = rl.\..:r ~ l.ai. ~l. III I, II ,': !!I.J iii 'i 'Ii 11- • '! • III • • III • i .p • ~, • ~

FU ... AMENT CURRENT ~ ... '. ' •. '. ~ . , ...... ' •..... " .. ' .. ~ . . 3 J)

MAX[M'l1~f i\,"C \'OLTAGE PER .PLATE (RMS) ... ' ' ... ,. 500

h-.fAxIMUM PEAK. INVE.RSE \' OIL TAGE. ~ .' ~ . , ~ " , , ~ . m '" , 1400

MAXIMUM D,.C OUTPUT CURRENT, Continucus . , '., 125

MAxn,(IUM Pn,AK PLATE CU,RRBNl ;, ~. " . , " , " + , • ~ • • 400

Ttrrre VOLTAGE DROP" Approximate ...... " .... " ~ . " ~ , 15

-rv1.-\xn,,1l U'~{ O'VERALL LE NGTH ." ' •• ' ~ ' •. '" , , .' ' .•• + • , • , , , , ' •• , ••

~.x I MUM DIAM E'f E R ,.,. m , • + .. i • ~ cO '. " " .. , " '. '. • ~ • , • , " .. • .' + • +

BULB (See pag,e 42; Fig. a.) '" mi. ~ ., ' ••• ~ ., ... ' •• ' • , • '. , " ... + + •

B ,/\.S E .. I, 'I' '!!II ., • ., [. • .J I. • ., [. • • YII ,. • .' lit • .' iii Ii iii ill III I. 'il .. + 'Ii ! to III • .1 . +. i ... :!! ~ 'f • III

MERCU,RY ~ V APO'R REC,TIFlER CO NSIDE,RA TIO'NS

The 8.2 has very low' inte rnal resistance, so that tiH~ current it delivers depends on the resistance of the load and the reguLatiQn rOt. the power transformer. Suflicient protective resistance or reactance must always be used with this tube to limit its current to the recommended maximum value. If this value is exceeded the tu he voltage: drop will increase rapidly and may permanently damage the :filarn,ents,.

It is characteristic of mercury-vapor rectifiers that no appreciable plate current will flow until the plate voltage reaches (II. certain critical positive value. At this point the plate current rises steeply to a high value in a small fraction of a second. This. surge. 0 f current re-occurring each time either plate becomes positive may excite circuits in the vicinity of the tube to damped oscillation and thus. cause noisy radio receiver operation It is usually necessary, therefore, to provide small radio-freq uency chokes in series with each plate Read so that the slope. of the curt' rent wa vt: front to the filter is red uced sufficiently to eliminate im pact excitation.

INST,ALLATION

Tile b~lSe- 0 f the 82 is .of the medium 4 ... pin, type, Its pins fit t.}H~; standard .f our .. contact socket \v hich ('S~ ould he installed to operate the tube 'in a. vertical position with the base dOVH1_ [Only a socket making very good. fiJa,ment contact arid capable. of carrying 3 am peres coritin ucusly should be used. Poor contact at the filament pins will cause over heatin g at the pins and socket, J owered filament voltage! and also high internal tube drop with consequent injury to. the t ibe. For socket connec ... tions, see page 39', Fig .. 2"

-81~

THE l<'(~A RADIOTRON MAN'UAL

The bulb becomes hot during continuous operation. Provision should be. made, es p eci all y if shie idi n g IS e m plo yed ~ for ad eq ua te n a tu r al ven tila t] 0 n to P reve nt over he attn g ..

The filament is of the coated type and is, intended for a-c operation from one of the secondary windin gs of at pOXIJ'f:I" transformer. This winding, provided with a center-tap or center .. tap-resistor, shouJd supply at the filament terminals the rated operating voltage of 2.5 volts when average rated voltage. is ap plied to the primary. T-he high current taken by the filam.ent and the possibility of damage caused by applying plate voltage to the t.u he with its filament insufficiently heated make it im pcrative that all connections in the filament circuit be of low resistance and 0 f a de q ua te CD r rent .. c a r ryi n g c.a p,o' d ty,

The ,p,late supply is Q b rained fro m a cente r .. ta P P e d hi g h volta g e win di n g desi g 11 e d .g 0 th at du! m a. xim um 21;," c in put voltage per plate wi Uno tel. ce ed 50 O 'Volts. RMS under varying conditions of supply Ene voltage. The resistance of the transformer windings she uld, of CQ.U!'d.C:t be low if fun advantage of the excellent regulation capabihnes of this mercury .. vapor rectifier is. to be obtained. Since the drop th .. rough the tube is practically - constant, any reduction in rectified _ voltage when the load .is increased is due to the drop in the transformer and! or the fiiJ.te.r wind.ings.. 'The return lead Irom the plates, i.e., the positive bus of the filter and load circuit, should be connected to the center-tap of the filam.eoit winding ..

Shieldmn.g 0. f this tub e ~ pa rticu la rl y in Sf! n si ti v e receivers, 1[1 tty be necessary to eliminate 0 bj ectionable noise, Radio ... freq uency choke coils, connected .in series with each plate lead and placed within the shie[din g .if used, are usually necessary .in receivers having high sensitivity. The: inductance of the chokes should be one millihenry or more.

.A fuse having a rating approximately 50% in excess of normal load requirements should be inserted in the primary of the power transformer to prevent damage in case of excessive current which may now under abnormal conditions.

It is r,~·com·mend,.ed t.hat tn,e ,ent.ire' equipment be disconnected. from the d~C powe~r s.upplly whenever the 82 is -rf·1tlf.l,v.ed fTom or ':installed 'in its soclt et.

A PP.LJ CATION'

T be S 2 is recommended for s u pp 1 ying d ... c po we r to receive r s, pa rti c ularl y those employing C]ass. B audio amplificatioll1 (see page 15). The direct current fe'quiremcnts of such receivers cause considerable variation in the load impressed on the rectifier tube. The 82 is especially suited to take care of this load demand with ex ce 1.1 e 1'1 t reg ulatio n.,

Filter circuits of either the cond enscr-input or the choke .. in put type may be: employed provided that the maximum voltages and currents tabulated under CHARACTERISTICS are :not exceeded. If the condenser .. input type of iliher is used, consideration must be given to the instantaneous peak value of the a ... c input voltage which is about 1.4 times the R'MS value measured from platte to filament with an a .. c voltmeter, It is important, therefore, that the filter condensers (espe:" dally the input one) have a 5ufficie:ntly high break .. down rating to withstand this instantaneous peak value, It should be noted. that with condenser input to the filter, the peak plate current of the tube is considerably higher than the ]oa.d cur .. rent. With. a. large condenser in the: fiker circuit next to the rectifier tube, the p€:ak curre ntis ofte n as ill uc 11. as f 0 u r ti m e s th e ] oad cu rren t, When ~ however ~ choke input to the filter is us,ea j the peak plate. current is considerably reduced. This type of circuit, therefore, is to, be preferred from the standpoint of obtaining the maximum continuous d .. c output current from the 82 under the most favora.'ib]e (,,0 u di tjon (5.

Under operating conditions, the 8·2 has do bluish-white glow f.iliJng the space within the piates. and extending to some degref: into the surroundin g' space outside the plates. This glow, ca. used by tIl e .mer·C!JIY vapor, is an inherent operatin g' characterisric of the 82.

'!Vi i c ro m h o s 'J,~f.

~tPJf .

~~f_

X~~ry pe "99

4VR"

RI ,.t

1"'11(1

T'~B (Fig. 1)

Small 4--P:in

RCA Rodlotron

UY,.,'991 i\ND UX~199

l)E~rE(~T()RS, AMPLIPIEltS

The' ""99 types are th - ee-electrode, gen eral 'P urposc ru bes designed for dry-cell 0 peration, The low power consumption of these tubes makes them applicable to portable 'receivers and services wh ere power ceo nom y I:S i rn porrant. The two types have. different bast's,

CHARACT~ERISTICS

I, \1 (D" ,-,.) ., 0 -"j 'i

... I L A. MEN T '. 0 L TAG F. ...'. \__.,I., • ., .. • • ... • ... • • , " • , ~1, ~ ." .• "'J

FELAliI:li.EN l' CURR F.NT S • + , •• , •• ' •• ~ • " r , + • O_060,'{}_06~

PLATE VOLTAGE ~ ~ • , + ••• " ••••.•••••• , •• , ••• '" • • 90 maX ..

G'R.~D VOL TAG B '" ~ . • + • + + • • • • .. m • • .' • ;, '. • • • • • .' 'r S' -4 " .5

P·· C ")~

, l.A,11E . ~URRENT , .. , .. , . ;. ;. • + ' ••• ~ • ', .•• ; ' '. • • ~ .....

P R· '1! ~5DO

, LATE ' E:SISTANCE + •• ,' ... , ... ;,'". ~ •••• 'r • , ., , • S • •• 1./

,AMP LIF[CA 'fION FACTOR '" .. ~ ..• ~ ... ~ . " ... ' •.• '. ,. . . . . 6-6

M C 4"-',,·-- _e,

. UT U AL - 0 N D UC T A NC E. .. i t, " • ~ • .. ~ ~ • • , • • ~ • • ,. • " • - •

G'RID'" Pl.Al·U 'CAPAC,ITANCE .. ' ••• + •• ~

GRID~Pll .. A1vIENT CAPACXTANC.B + , • +

P LATE ~ FILA i\1 I~ NT CA.PACrr AN C 13 ~

..... .,.

•. ) • .JI

MAXIMUM OIVERALL LENGTH ' .•• , .. + MO\XIMUM DJ.I\M,ETER. .. S' r •• 'r • " ..... BULB (See Figs. on page 42) ,+ + •• ,.

B.-A- ~,T.!

"*-"u ~.III'II •• ~I! •• II •• "" ••••• "II."I'l!i!io<i!

') ~

..I...'! • p,o"

2.5 Typ~ '99 3Y2"

1. Ywft

T~8 (Fig, 3)

Small 4~ 1\~ u b

Volt.s Ampere Volts Volts.

MilHa mpen~~ Ohms

INSTALLATJ:Q'N

The base pins of the X~'T'y)e ~99 fit the standard four-contact socket vJbmle the '99 fits only t111 e small shell socket with ba yon et slot. Th e socket should be installed SO that the tubes wil] operate in a vertical position. Cushioning of the socket in the detector stage may be desirable :if micro phorric distnrban ((,,5 are cncounte red, For socket connections of X .. Type '99 and O'f ~99\ see page 19~ Fig. 1 and Fig. '],O~ re s p e ctivejv .

, ~

The fi~~u_n,ents, ~n these tubes ~l re designed for operation with three No, 6 dry ... cells connected ~ n series" In multi-tube receivers the 1..1 SOC 0 f six or nine No. 6 dry ... cells. connected in series-parallel to give 4_5 volts 'will decrease t he current drain per cell and give a more stable source of fil amern powc r. I f storage- battery opera ... tion is preferred ~ a four-volt storage battery may be used _ In any en se~ a 'fl1 a ment rheostat should be provided so that th e flla mcnt voltage can he adjusted to th e reccm mended operating value.

~~PPLICA'rION

As detector'S; ~99~s may be operated either v_' rth grid [eak and condenser or with. grid bias. 'The recom mended plate voltage for the former method is 4 5 volts. A 'gdd leak of from 1 to 5 rnegohms used with a grid conden ser of 0.00025 J-tf. is satisfactory. The grid circuit return should he (on n ected to the positive filalneot terminal. Far grid bias detection the maximum plate voltage of 90 volts :may be used V.l'ith the corresponding negative grid bias of ] 0.5 volts. The grid bias should be adjusted so that the plate current is 0 - 2 rnillia mpere with no a-c input: signal,

_l\5. amplifiers, t99's are applicabl e to the audio- or the radio-frcq ue ncv stages

of a receiver, Reco m men ded plate and gdd vo]tag-c5 are sh O\'.,1TL' un del'

(~H .ARAC l'E R] S T rc s,

-83~

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