You are on page 1of 21


9-1. Relief Concepts
Can gate valves be placed between a vessel relief and its vessel?
Only when tied to another relief, so the vessel always
Has active relief.

This design may be necessary if relief line plug frequently.

9-2. Definitions2
Describe the process of creating a vacuum in a storage vessel as a result of condensation.
Develop an example to illustrate the potential magnitude of the vacuum.
Example of process conditions
creating a vacuum in a storage
Ambient temperature
320 F

a)Open v-1 and v-2
b)Connect steam line to
v-2 to steam out volatiles

9-3. Location of Reliefs
In the future it is anticipated that insurance rates will be set as a function of the safety of a plant.
Illustrate the kinds of plant statistics that you would cite to reduce your insurance costs.
Data which should demonstrate the effectiveness of a company
safety program may include:
a)OSHA recordable accidents per year
b)Lost time accidents per year

c)Insurance claims due to injury or
plant damage.
d)Effectiveness of safety program
(i)Special safety features in plant
(ii)Maintenance program to ensure safety
features work adequately
(iii)Audit results from surprise safety audits
9-4. Relief Types and Characteristics
Give four examples of situations requiring a combination of spring-operated reliefs in series
with rupture discs.
When to use this type of relief system:
a)When handling very toxic vapor,
when minor weep through
spring loaded device could be
b)Very corrosive service where fumes
could easily damage the spring
loaded device.
c)When relief occurs at some pressure,
but it is desired not to relieved all
the way down to atmospheric pressure.
d)When vessel contents cannot be contaminated
with air, The rupture disk gives absolute
isolation from atmospheric contamination.
9-5. Relief Scenarios
PSV-2 of Figure 9-6 is a relief to protect the positive displacement pump P-1. If the fluid being
handled is extremely volatile and flammable, what design modifications would you make
to this relief system?

even from pumps. Relief Systems Problem: If a scrubber is installed after PSV-1b and it has a pressure drop of 30 psig. may require control devices such as condensers. 9-6. c)An interlock to ensure agitator and cooling water is on before monomer is added d)An alarm (also a monomer shut-down) when the cooling water value is open 100%. Data for Sizing Reliefs Problem: One defense against runaway reactions is better process control. you would design for a P of only 5 psig from the scrubber to the vessel. flares. A balanced bellows might also be included. carbon adsorbsers. incineration. qualitatively describe the algorithm you would use to compute the relief size for this system. b)RPM indicator to alarm when agitator fails. Reliefs. Answer: An algorithm might be developed as follows: a) Develop relief scenarios (i) Full steam into the reactor (ii) Full nitrogen into the reactor (iii) Full cooling water into the reactor . Using the system illustrated in Figure 9-6. For example: a)A flow device to alarm when cooling water fails. etc. because the the pressure drop across it is low. 9-8 Problem: Referring to Problem 9-7. how would this affect the size (qualitatively) of this relief system? Answer: It would increase the size of the relief value area needed.Use cooling water to volatization and the chance of ignition. e)Temperature readouts throughout the reactor (top to bottom) to ensure temperature profile is normal. 9-7. Note: Others may be developed by the students. what control features (safeguards) would you add to this reactor system? Answer: In this example. In this circumstance. Safeguards would ascertain the proper functioning of the cooling system and/or mechanisms. scrubbers. a runaway would occur if there were a loss of cooling.

and determine the locations for relief devices.(iv) Full pump capacity to the reactor (v) A runaway reaction under worse case conditions (vi) A fire around the vessel b) Acquire appropriate data c) Size reliefs for each scenario. . drum. and reboiler. d) Choose the worse case 9-9 Problem: Review Figure 9-14. Answer: Relief locations for figure 9-14 a) PD pump discharges. b) On cooling water lines (expansion) of l charge. c) Distillation column. choosing two phase flow when appropriate (runaway). and determine the locations for relief devices. d) On steam limes (If low pressure steam developed via regulator from higher pressure system) 9-10 Problem: Review Figure 9-15.

b) Relief value (liquid service) c) Relief value (liquid service) d) Safety value for steam 9-13 Problem: Review Figure 9-14 and Problems 9-9 and 9-11. d) Safety value for steam 9-12 Problem: Review Figure 9-15 and Problem 9-10 to determine what types of relief devices should be used at each location. Answer: a) Rupture disk followed by safety relief. Use balanced bellows if scrubber in-line. Answer: a) Relief value (liquid service) b) Relief value (liquid service) c) Rupture disk followed by safety relief. Answer: Total containment System for Distillation: The type of containment depends on the toxicity and/or flammability of the relief: . Use Balanced bellows if scrubber in-line. and make recommendations for total containment systems.Answer: Relief locations for figure 9-15 a) On the two vessels b) Discharge of the 2 PD pumps c) On the cooling water line between the exchangers d) Steam lines next to the vessels (If low pressure steam developed via regulator from high pressure system) 9-11 Problem: Review Figure 9-14 and Problem 9-9 to determine what types of relief devices should be used at each location.

then the system would be based on the cost performance analysis of various types of containment systems. determine the relief scenarios for each relief device.e. the condenser is hit with a full stream of hot vapor. and make recommendations for total containment systems.) c) Check 3 scenario: (i)No value is opened full. 9-14 Problem: Review Figure 9-15 and Problems 9-10 and 9-12. non-toxic. b) Size for following conditions: (i)cooling coils are filled with water (ii)cooling water values are both shut (iii)steam added to reboiler and feed stream (under these Conditions. vent to the atmosphere. i. yet practical containment system. It hazardous itself. Water and steam relief would go to ground. 9-15 Problem: Using the results of Problems 9-9 and 9-11. scrubber flare. c) Water relief and steam relief would go to ground. b) If flammable and/or toxic.a) If non-flammable. The engineer could use a simple condenser and cooler System. etc. regulator fails so high pressure steam enters system. catch tank. Answer: Total Containment System for Extraction: The answer is roughly the same as for problem 8-13. condenser. incinator. Possibly more hazardous than a simple catch tank containment system. however. and infrequently vented (which is the normal case). so column sees pressure of source at rate computed by choked flow (ii)Full heat on feed stream and reboiler wit all exit lines blocked in (iii)Fire d) Steam feed values stuck full open. Notice: try to design a simple. A component change might Be appropriate. Don’t make The operation of the containment system too complex. and a block value or steam . Answer: Relief scenarios for each device: a) Size relief for pump on and block values turned off. followed by catch tanks.

If steam goes to jacket. c) Assume water is blocked into exchangers and the exchange is hit with live stream d) High pressure regulator fails and high pressure steam enters the line (If this is pipe. 9-17 Problem: Develop sketches of reactor vent systems for the following four cases: . Relief is necessary to protect the jacket. Answer: Relief scenarios for each device: a) Check 3 scenarios: (i)Nitrogen value fails full open (ii)Steam line breaks in vessel with value full open (iii)Fire b) Full capacity of pump with discharge line blocked via values. therefore relief is not required. relief may not be necessary) If steam goes into the reactor jacket. the high pressure may not be high enough to burst the pipe. pressure will probably not burst the pipe.trap is fully closed on the exit line. the high pressure will very likely exceed the jacket pressure rating. determine the relief scenarios for each relief device. 9-16 Problem: Using the results of Problems 9-10 and 9-12. Therefore. If the exchanger is pipe. relief will be required if Psteam > Pjacket.

5 1 b/ ft 3 dia= 400 microns .04 1b / ft 3 μ=0.Answer: 9−18 p v=0.02 cp pv=64.

9-18 Problem: Determine the vapor velocity inside a horizontal knockout drum for the following three systems: Answer: Pv=0.01 cp )2 .0 – 0.03 1b/ft3 (1b/ft3)3 (ft3) = 1.95 x 108 cp2 (0.7 x 103 (0.0 lb/ft3 μ ¿ 0.84 x 10-4 ft)3 (64.03) (1b/ft3) (9.84 x 10 -4ft m C(Re)2 = 0.01 dia=300 micron a) The obscissa of figure 9-13 found using equation 9-2 C(Re)2= 0.95 x 108 cp2 pv d3 p (Pc-Pv) (1b/fr3) fr3 = (300 x M2 ) 10-6 3.28ft = 9.03 lb/ft3 Pv=64.

15 ¿ 63.84 x 10−4 )¿ = √¿ ¿ =6.68 ft/sec b) pv=0.17 ft /sec 2)(9.Using figure 9-13 the drag coefficient = 2.02 cp2) .95 x 108 cp2 (1b/ft3) ft3 =1380 (0.15 (32..28 ft = 1.0 Equation 9-1 applies: ρv −ρ v √ gdp(¿) ρv C ud=1.95 x 108 cp2 ρv d3 p ( ρv (1b/ft3) ft3 μ2 dp = (400 x 10-6) - ρv ) 3.971 b/ ft 3 ¿ 1.04 1b/ft3) (0.5.04 1 b /ft pv=64.04 1b/ft3)(1.5 1 b/ ft μ=0.31 x 10-3)(64.31 x 10-3 ft m C(Re)2 = 0.02 cp 3 dia = 400 microns 3 The abscissa of figure 8-11 is found using equation 9-2 C(Re)2= 0.

0 / cp2) = 3600 Drag coefficient = 1.05 1b/ft3 μ=0.04 1 b /ft 3) ud=1.05 1b/ft3)(1.051 b / ft )(1.25 ft/sec c) ρv = 0.31 x 10−3 )(64..15 x 10-3)(50.17 ft / sec )(1.7) = 5.3) = 6.17 ft / sec 2)(1.15 3 ( 0.15 √ ( 0.01 cp ρv = 50 1b/ft3 dia = 350 microns = 1.3 Equation 9-1 applies: (32. assuming various maximum heat intensities at ground level at the specified distances from the flare.7 2 −3 3 (32.05 1b/ft3) (1b/ft3) ft3 (0. the drag coefficient = 2.36 ft/sec 9-19 Problem: Determine the height of a flare.15 x 10 )(50−.15 x 10-3 ft C(Re)2 = 0. for the following three cases: .Using figure 9-13.05 1 b/ ft ) √ ud=1.04 1 b/ft 3 )(2.5−.95 x 108 cp2 (0.

5 ( 120 )( 2 ) ¿2−¿ ¿ √¿ Hf = -120 + 0. “960” is actually a constant “960 btu/1b” In this way.5 (328) = 44. dimensions are correct.0 ft 2 10 ¿ −(960)(70.5 .5 √ ¿ Answer: (Note: M should be considered dimensionless.000) √ 30 ¿ ( 4 π)(2000) ¿ a) Hf = -60(2) + 0.5 ( 120 ) ( 3 ) ¿2−¿ ¿ √¿ ft Hf = -180 + 0.5 (429) = 34. ( Hf = ft - BTU BTU ) ¿/( 2 ) 2 f t −hr f t −hr ¿ √¿ 2 5 ¿ −(960)(60.000) √ 60 ¿ (4 π)(3000) ¿ b) Hf = -60(3) + 0.9-19 Equation 9-4 applies: 2 4 πq X f −960 Qm √ M 120 df ¿2 πqf ¿ Hf =−60 df + 0.

(b) Maintenance is simple. See Grossel and Louvar (2000). These disadvantages are also true for spring operated reliefs.5 ( 120 )( 5 ) ¿2−¿ ¿ √¿ Hf = -300 + 0. (c) Pins are easy to replace. Disadvantage: (a) Once open the value stays open.5 (636) = 18. (b) When it opens first and completely (Under same circumstances This may be a problem). even if you need to change The rating of the value. (b) The seals must be resistant to the fluids being handled. i. Answer: Advantages: The set pressure can be very close to the operating pressure compared To conventional and balanced bellows values. periodically check to see that the pin is in place and that it is not corrodes.0 ft 9-20 Problem: Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a buckling pin relief valve.2 5 ¿ −(960)(80. See Grossel and Louvar (2000). √ 9-22 Problem: Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a rupture disc followed by a spring-operated relief valve. 9-21 Problem: Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a pilot-operated safety valve. (c) The seals and values must be appropriate maintained . Answer: .e. See Grossel and Louvar (2000). Answer: Advantages: (a) The pin buckles at a precise pressure. Disadvantages: (a) The process fluid needs to be claim.000) √ 80 ¿ ( 4 π )(4000)¿ c) Hf = -60(5) + 0.

and Installation (1994). Sizing. Selection. Also add a management audit to be sure the check Is conducted daily. therefore. what pressure losses are recommended? See API 520. (b) The spring-operated value closes when the pressure decreases below the blow-down pressure. That is alarmed when the pressure increases. and Installation (1994). Answer: Solution: Not more than 3% of the set pressure. Disadvantages: (a) The pressure device between the rupture disc and the springOperated relief needs to be installed and checked frequently. A non-fragmenting rupture Disc must be specified. This prevents the continued release when only using a rupture disc. Selection. 9-25 Problem: The outlet piping of a relief system is normally supported to resist two mechanical stresses. . 9-24 Problem: When designing the inlet piping to a relief valve. a pin-hole leak in the rupture disc double the required relief pressure. What are these two stresses? See API 520. Describe several methods to satisfy this requirement. used When handling toxic materials. e. Answer: Solution: (a) Add this required check to a daily operating check list. Sizing.g. 9-23 Problem: When using a rupture disc followed by a spring-operated relief.Advantages: (a) The rupture disc gives a positive seal. it is important to periodically check the pressure gauge to be sure that there is no pinhole leak in the rupture disc. pressure indicator and alarm. (b) When engaged a fragments of the rupture disc may plug the Spring operated relief. (b) Add an instrumented device.

Selection. and b) the addition of the reactant to the reaction mass when the temperature is mistakenly lower than the required to the imitiate by starting the agitator and adding heat respectively. Answer: Solution: Sleeper reactions are usually the result of an operator error. Answer: Solution: a) Strict management procedures should be im place that prohibits the inedvertment closing of isolation valves im relief piping. 9-26 Problem: Sometimes isolation valves are needed between the vessel and the relief. See Grossel and Louvar (2000). b) Support is also needed to resist time reaction forces during the relief. b) The procedures should require that the opening and closing the valves be done by an authorized person. . What management system is recommended for isolation valves? See API 520. and Installation (1994). 9-27 Problem: Describe a runaway reaction scenario that is the result of a sleeper reaction. Two examples are: a) the addition of two immiscible reactant when the agigator mistakenly in the of position . See Grossel and Louvar (2000). d) Isolation valves should be periodically checked for proper positioning and management.Answer: Solution: a) Support is needed to resist the weight of the relief system. This reaction force includes both static pressure and momentum (sce API 520). Sizing. c) An updated list of all isolation valves should be maintained and managed. 9-28 Problem: Describe a tempered runaway reaction.

. The vapor pressured in the tempered system can be typically characterized by an antoin type equation.” See Grossel and Louvar (2000).” See Grossel and Louvar (2000). the pressure increases due to the vapour pressure of the volatile components as well as from the generation of noncondensible gaseoves products. The reaction heat is absorbed by the evaporation of th violatile components. Under runaway conditions.Answer: A tempared runaway reacting maintain a cmatent temperature . when the energy exiting the relief device is equal to the energy generated in the reactor due to the exothermic reaction. 9-31 Problem: Identify the problems with the relief valve configurations shown in Figure 9-16. 9-29 Problem: Describe a runaway that is “gassy. 9-30 Problem: Describe a runaway that is a “hybrid. The pressure buildup is due to the genearation of nonecondensible gas such as N2 or CO2 or HCL. Answer: A system that is characterized as “gassy” has no volatile solvents or reactant. Answer: A hybrid system is the combination of a tempered and a gassy system.

Solution: .

Problem 9-31 (Continued) .


Problem 9-31 (Continued) .