Process dynamics and Control seborg Solutions

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Process dynamics and Control seborg Solutions

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8

23.1

Option (a):

Production rate set via setpoint of wA flow controller

Level of R1 controlled by manipulating wC

Ratio of wB to wA controlled by manipulating wB

Level of R2 controlled by manipulating wE

Ratio of wD to wC controlled by adjusting wD

Options (b)-(e) are developed similarly. See table below.

Option

a

Production

Rate Set With

wA

wA

wA

wA

wA

wB

wB

wB

wB

wB

wC

wC

wC

wC

wC

wD

wD

wD

wD

wD

wE

wE

wE

wE

wE

Control

Loop #

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Type of

Controller

Flow

Ratio

Level

Ratio

Level

Flow

Ratio

Level

Ratio

Level

Flow

Ratio

Level

Ratio

Level

Flow

Ratio

Level

Ratio

Level

Flow

Ratio

Level

Ratio

Level

Controlled

Variable

wA,m

wB,m

HR1

wD,m

HR2

wB,m

wA,m

HR1

wD,m

HR2

wC,m

wB,m

HR1

wD,m

HR2

wD,m

wC,m

HR1

wB,m

HR2

wE,m

wD,m

HR2

wB,m

HR1

Manipulated

Variable

wA (V1)

wB (V2)

wC (V3)

wD (V4)

wE (V5)

wB (V2)

wA (V1)

wC (V3)

wD (V4)

wE (V5)

wC (V3)

wB (V2)

wA (V1)

wD (V4)

wE (V5)

wD (V4)

wC (V3)

wA (V1)

wB (V2)

wE (V5)

wE (V5)

wD (V4)

wC (V3)

wB (V2)

wA (V1)

Solution Manual for Process Dynamics and Control, 2nd edition,

Copyright 2004 by Dale E. Seborg, Thomas F. Edgar and Duncan A. Mellichamp

23-1

total of 8 options can be developed.

Each option is equivalent in the sense that 5 control loops are required: 1

flow, 2 level, and 2 ratio. Since there is no cost or complexity advantage with

any option, the production rate should be set via the actual product rate, wE ,

i.e. option e.

WB

RC

2

FT

1

WD

V2

RC

4

Ratio

FT

2

B

Ratio

FC

1

V4

FT

4

FT

3

WA

WC

LC

3

V1

V3

LT

2

LT

1

LC

5

R1

FT

5

R2

WE

P1

P2

23-2

V5

23.2

a)

The level in the distillate (HD) will be controlled by manipulating the recycle

flow rate (D), and the level in the reboiler (HB) via the bottoms flow rate (B).

Thus, HD and HB are pure integrator elements.

Closed-loop TF development assuming PI controller:

I s + 1

GCL ( s ) =

(

I

)s2 + I s + 1

Kc K p

Relations:

I

= 2

Kc K p

I = 2

Initial settings:

K c = 0.4

I = 10

Final tuning: changed to proportional control only to obtain a faster response

K c = 1

b)

flow rate (R), and the bottoms composition (xB) via the vapor boilup (V).

Use a step response to determine an approximate first-order model

(calculations are shown on last page).

xD

0.0012

=

R 2.33s + 1

xB 0.000372

=

V

2.08s + 1

23-3

K

s + 1

1

Gc ( s ) =

(1 + )

c K

s

G (s) =

Choosing c =

c)

1

, the settings are:

4

xD - R loop

xB - V loop

K c = 3333.3

I = 2.33

K c = 10649.6

I = 2.08

The reactor level (HR) will be controlled by manipulating the flow from the

reactor (F).

HR is a pure integrator element.

Using the same relations as in part a, initial controller settings are:

K c = 0.4

I = 10

After tuning:

K c = 1

I = 5

23-4

0.3408

xD

KR

DxD/HR

KRz/HR

1

s

3

F0

5

F

Integrator z

1

s

flow sum

Level integrator

Sum-z

4

z0

F0z/HR

F0z0/HR

Dz/HR

1

HR

23-5

23.5

xD

Hs

Hs

xD

y (i+1)

x(i-1)

HD

HD

Top 13-20

x(i-1)

L

yi

V

LF

H

xi

xi

y (i+1)

FeedTray 12

x(i-1)

yi

Hs

R

F

5

V

xB

3

xB

HB

Bottom 1-11

4

HB

23-6

600

300

280

260

560

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

580

540

240

220

520

500

200

10

15

20

25

180

30

460

10

15

20

25

30

10

15

time (h)

20

25

30

280

260

440

240

420

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

400

380

360

220

200

180

10

15

time (h)

20

25

30

160

23-7

0.955

xD (mole fraction A)

1250

1200

R (lbmol/hr)

0.95

1150

0.945

1100

1050

0.94

0

10

20

30

20

30

10

20

30

20

30

20

30

0.02

1750

0.018

0.016

V (lbmol/hr)

1700

1650

0.014

1600

1550

10

xB (mole fraction A)

1800

0.012

10

20

30

0.01

time (h)

560

260

D (lb-mol/hr)

240

HD (lb-mol)

540

220

520

500

200

10

20

30

180

340

500

320

480

10

300

460

440

10

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

520

280

10

20

30

time (h)

260

time (h)

23-8

xD (mole fraction A)

1160

0.952

1140

R (lbmol/hr)

1120

0.948

1100

1080

0.95

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

0.014

V (lbmol/hr)

0.013

1650

0.012

1600

1550

0.011

10

20

30

0.01

540

240

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

530

220

520

200

510

500

10

20

180

30

290

470

285

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

475

465

280

460

455

275

10

20

270

30

1020

2440

2430

HR (lb-mol)

F (lb-mol/hr)

xB (mole fraction A)

1700

0.946

1000

2420

980

960

2410

10

20

30

time (h)

2400

time (h)

23-9

xD -R:

A step change in the reflux rate (R) of +10 lbmol/hr is made and the resulting

response is used to fit a first-order model:

K

s + 1

x

0.9624 0.950

K= D =

= 0.0012

R

10

G (s) =

672489

4
432427
7243
44

0.632(xD ) = (0.632)(0.012) = 0.007584

= time( xD = 0.957584) = 12.33 10 = 2.33

xB -V:

Similarly, a step change in the vapor boilup (V) of +10 lbmol/hr is made:

K=

xB 0.00678 0.0105

=

= 0.00372

V

10

0.632(xB ) = (0.632)(0.00372) = 0.00235

= time( xB = 0.00815) = 12.08 10 = 2.08

0.966

0.964

0.962

xD (mol fraction A)

0.96

0.958

0.956

0.954

0.952

0.95

0.948

10

15

20

Time (hr)

23-10

25

-3

11

x 10

10.5

10

xB (mol fraction A)

9.5

8.5

7.5

6.5

10

15

20

25

Time (hr)

23-11

23.3

23-12

0.96

R (lbmol/hr)

xD (mole fraction A)

1300

1200

0.95

1100

1000

10

20

30

40

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

V (lbmol/hr)

0.014

1600

0.012

10

20

30

40

50

0.01

700

400

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

650

300

600

200

550

0

10

20

30

40

100

50

340

500

320

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

520

480

300

460

440

10

0.016

1800

500

xB (mole fraction A)

2000

1400

0.94

50

280

10

20

30

40

260

50

2480

HR (lb-mol)

1200

F (lb-mol/hr)

2460

1100

2440

1000

900

2420

0

10

20

30

40

50

2400

time (h)

time (h)

23-13

xD (mole fraction A)

0.955

R (lbmol/hr)

1150

1100

0.95

1050

1000

10

20

30

40

50

0.945

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

-3

11

V (lbmol/hr)

xB (mole fraction A)

1700

1600

10

1500

1400

10

20

30

40

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

200

500

150

450

100

10

20

30

40

50

50

290

470

285

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

475

465

280

460

455

275

10

20

30

40

270

50

1000

2410

2400

HR (lb-mol)

F (lb-mol/hr)

9

8

50

550

400

x 10

950

2390

900

850

2380

10

20

30

40

50

2370

time (h)

time (h)

23-14

23.4

The flow controller on F, the column feed stream, should be simulated in

MATLAB as a constant flow. The controller parameters used are taken from

those derived in Exercise 23.2.

0.952

R (lbmol/hr)

xD (mole fraction A)

1140

1120

1100

1080

10

20

30

40

50

0.95

0.948

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

0.011

V (lbmol/hr)

xB (mole fraction A)

1610

1600

0.0105

1590

1580

10

20

30

40

50

0.01

200

500

180

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

520

480

160

460

440

140

10

20

30

40

120

50

340

500

320

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

520

480

300

460

440

280

10

20

30

40

520

3000

HR (lb-mol)

500

2800

480

460

260

50

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

a)

2600

10

20

30

40

50

time (h)

2400

time (h)

23-15

Using the approximate relation (23-17), a +10% step change in F0 will result

in a reactor holdup of:

z0

0.90

=

= 2800 lbmol

1 1

1

1

k R ( ) 0.34(

)

506 960

F0 F

HR

F 0 z 0 Bx B (506)(0.9 0.0105)

=

= 2910 lbmol

(0.34)(0.455)

kR z

HR =

The value taken from the graph (2910) matches up with the expected value

from the equation without the approximation.

3000

2900

2800

HR (lb-mol)

b)

2700

2600

2500

2400

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

time (h)

23-16

50

23.5

a),b) Feedforward control is implemented using the HR-setpoint equation:

H R (t )

z0 (t )

1

1

)

kR (

F0 (t ) F

not exact:

H R (t )

z0 (t )

+ 70

1

1

kR (

)

F0 (t ) F

This adjustment matches the initial values of HR (i.e., with and without

feedforward control).

Parts a and b are represented graphically.

23-17

R (lbmol/hr)

xD (mole fraction A)

1120

1110

1100

1090

10

20

0.95

30

xB (mole fraction A)

V (lbmol/hr)

1600

1590

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

0.0095

0

10

20

30

190

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

500

180

490

170

480

0

10

20

160

30

490

300

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

480

290

470

280

460

0

10

20

270

30

500

2500

HR (lb-mol)

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

2400

400

2300

300

200

20

0.01

510

450

10

0.0105

1595

470

0

0.011

1605

1585

no control

FF control

2200

10

20

30

2100

time (h)

time (h)

23-18

c)

The controlled plant response is much faster with the feedforward controller

(~10 hours settling time versus ~20 hours without it).

d)

Disadvantage: Have to measure or estimate two flow rates and one

concentration, therefore significantly more expensive.

a)

simulation).

b)

Use ratio control to set F. The ratio should be based on the initial steady state

values (960/460). Therefore, as F0 changes, F will be controlled to the

corresponding value set by the ratio.

23.6

Parts a) and b) show very different results for the two alternatives. With

alternative # 3, feedforward control is necessary to keep the level in the

distillate receiver from integrating. However, in alternative # 4, the control

structure without the feedforward loop is superior to that with feedforward

control.

Responses are displayed with controlled variables adjacent to their

corresponding manipulated variable.

23-19

1500

HD (lb-mol)

R (lb-mol/hr)

2500

2000

1500

1000

20

40

40

60

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

0.016

V (lbmol/hr)

0.014

0.012

20

40

60

0.01

0.52

D (lbmol/hr)

z (mole fraction A)

600

500

0.5

20

40

60

0.48

2800

HR (lb-mol)

1100

1050

F (lbmol/hr)

250

x B (mole fraction A)

20

2000

2600

1000

2400

20

40

60

2200

1

x D (lbmol/hr)

F0 (lbmol/hr)

520

500

0.95

480

460

40

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

2500

950

20

300

3000

400

350

500

1500

500

60

550

450

No control (a)

FF control (b)

1000

0.9

0

20

40

60

time (h)

time (h)

(+10%) at t=10

23-20

400

1200

300

HD (lb-mol)

R (lb-mol/hr)

1300

1100

1000

20

40

100

60

20

40

250

60

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

x B (mole fraction A)

V (lbmol/hr)

0.02

1800

0.015

1600

0.01

20

40

60

0.005

0.98

D (lbmol/hr)

550

x D (mole fraction A)

600

0.96

500

20

40

60

0.94

3000

HR (lb-mol)

1100

1050

2500

1000

950

20

40

60

0.6

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

520

500

480

460

2000

z (mol fraction A)

F (lb-mol/hr)

40

300

2000

450

20

HB (lb-mol)

500

1400

350

B (lb-mol/hr)

550

450

No control (a)

FF control (b)

200

0.5

20

40

60

time (h)

time (h)

(+10%) at t=10

23-21

23.7

simulations into one to compare the results together. To compare how the

alternatives match up, in terms of the snowball effect, a set of arrays has been

constructed.

All arrays are of the form:

D

F

0

D

z

0

HR

F0

HR

z0

or z0.

In the notation below:

S represents the occurrence of the snowball effect (>20% change in steadystate output for a 10% change in input).

A represents an acceptable response (~10% change in steady-state output).

B represents the best possible response (no change in steady-state output).

Alternative #1

S B

S B

Alternative #2

B S

B A

Alternative #3

A A

B A

Alternative #4

A A

B A

characteristic, but in HR instead of D. Alternatives #3 and #4, on the other

hand, eliminate the effect altogether.

23-22

400

R (lb-mol/hr)

1400

HD (lb-mol)

300

1200

200

1000

20

40

100

60

60

Alternative #1

Alternative #2

Alternative #3

Alternative #4

300

20

40

250

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

40

60

1800

xD (mole fractionxB

A) (mole fraction A)

0.02

V (lbmol/hr)

2000

0.015

1600

1400

40

HB (lb-mol)

500

450

20

350

B (lb-mol/hr)

550

0.01

20

40

60

0.96

D (lbmol/hr)

700

0.005

600

0.94

z (mole fraction A)

500

400

20

40

60

3000

HR (lb-mol)

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.92

2500

20

40

60

2000

1200

500

1100

F (lb-mol/hr)

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

520

480

460

time (h)

1000

20

40

60

900

20

23-23

300

HD (lb-mol)

R (lb-mol/hr)

1150

1100

200

1050

1000

100

20

40

60

40

60

Alternative

Alternative

Alternative

Alternative

290

280

20

40

60

V (lbmol/hr)

1700

1600

1500

20

40

60

11

#1

#2

#3

#4

0

-3

x 10

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

40

60

10

9

8

0.96

D (lbmol/hr)

550

270

xB (mole fraction A)

xD (mole fraction A)

460

1400

20

HB (lb-mol)

480

440

300

B (lb-mol/hr)

500

500

0.95

450

400

20

40

60

2600

2400

HR (lb-mol)

z (mole fraction A)

0.6

2200

20

40

60

0.9

2000

time (h)

1000

F (lb-mol/hr)

z0 (mol fraction A)

0.5

0.85

0.8

0.94

20

40

60

950

900

850

20

23-24

23.8

CP

d ( H R (TR TRef ))

dt

1

Q = UA(TR TC )

dH R

= F0 + D F

dt

1

dTR

=

[ F0CP (T0 TR ) + DCP (TD TR ) UA(TR TC ) H R kz ]

dt

CP H R

It is clear from the following figures that the temperature loop is much faster

than the interconnected level-flow loops. This characteristic allows the

reaction rate multiplier to settle before it can affect the other variables.

23-25

616.45

Thermal model

Constant temperature

616.44

z (mol fraction A)

0.55

TR (R)

616.43

616.42

0.5

0.45

616.41

616.4

30

40

50

1300

596

1250

595

1200

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

TC (R)

1150

593

1100

592

1050

591

1000

590

30

F (lb-mol/hr)

597

594

30

40

50

60

0.341

950

700

650

D (lb-mol/hr)

0.3405

KR (lb-mol/hr)

0.4

60

600

0.34

550

0.3395

500

0.339

30

40

50

60

450

Time (hr)

simulation does not include a thermal model)

23-26

616.45

Thermal model

Constant temperature

616.44

z (mol fraction A)

0.55

TR (R)

616.43

616.42

0.5

0.45

616.41

616.4

30

40

50

0.4

60

600

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

1000

F (lb-mol/hr)

598

TC (R)

596

594

950

900

592

590

30

40

50

60

0.341

850

550

500

D (lb-mol/hr)

KR (lb-mol/hr)

0.3405

0.34

450

0.3395

0.339

30

40

50

60

400

Time (hr)

does not include a thermal model)

23-27

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