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8
23.1
Option (a):
Production rate set via setpoint of wA flow controller
Level of R1 controlled by manipulating wC
Ratio of wB to wA controlled by manipulating wB
Level of R2 controlled by manipulating wE
Ratio of wD to wC controlled by adjusting wD
Options (b)-(e) are developed similarly. See table below.
Option
a

Production
Rate Set With
wA
wA
wA
wA
wA
wB
wB
wB
wB
wB
wC
wC
wC
wC
wC
wD
wD
wD
wD
wD
wE
wE
wE
wE
wE

Control
Loop #
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5

Type of
Controller
Flow
Ratio
Level
Ratio
Level
Flow
Ratio
Level
Ratio
Level
Flow
Ratio
Level
Ratio
Level
Flow
Ratio
Level
Ratio
Level
Flow
Ratio
Level
Ratio
Level

Controlled
Variable
wA,m
wB,m
HR1
wD,m
HR2
wB,m
wA,m
HR1
wD,m
HR2
wC,m
wB,m
HR1
wD,m
HR2
wD,m
wC,m
HR1
wB,m
HR2
wE,m
wD,m
HR2
wB,m
HR1

Manipulated
Variable
wA (V1)
wB (V2)
wC (V3)
wD (V4)
wE (V5)
wB (V2)
wA (V1)
wC (V3)
wD (V4)
wE (V5)
wC (V3)
wB (V2)
wA (V1)
wD (V4)
wE (V5)
wD (V4)
wC (V3)
wA (V1)
wB (V2)
wE (V5)
wE (V5)
wD (V4)
wC (V3)
wB (V2)
wA (V1)

Subscript m denotes measurement.


Solution Manual for Process Dynamics and Control, 2nd edition,
Copyright 2004 by Dale E. Seborg, Thomas F. Edgar and Duncan A. Mellichamp

23-1

In options c, d, and e, valves 1 and 2 can be used interchangeably. Thus, a


total of 8 options can be developed.

Advantages and Disadvantages:


Each option is equivalent in the sense that 5 control loops are required: 1
flow, 2 level, and 2 ratio. Since there is no cost or complexity advantage with
any option, the production rate should be set via the actual product rate, wE ,
i.e. option e.

WB

RC
2

FT
1

WD

V2

RC
4

Ratio

FT
2

B
Ratio

FC
1

V4

FT
4

FT
3

WA
WC

LC
3

V1

V3

LT
2

LT
1

LC
5

R1

FT
5

R2

WE

P1

P2

Figure S23.1. Solution for option a)

23-2

V5

23.2

a)

The level in the distillate (HD) will be controlled by manipulating the recycle
flow rate (D), and the level in the reboiler (HB) via the bottoms flow rate (B).
Thus, HD and HB are pure integrator elements.
Closed-loop TF development assuming PI controller:
I s + 1

GCL ( s ) =
(

I
)s2 + I s + 1
Kc K p

Relations:

I
= 2
Kc K p

I = 2

K p = 1 for both HD and HB loops.

12345 = 1 for a critically damped response


Initial settings:
K c = 0.4
I = 10
Final tuning: changed to proportional control only to obtain a faster response
K c = 1

b)

The distillate composition (xD) will be controlled by manipulating the reflux


flow rate (R), and the bottoms composition (xB) via the vapor boilup (V).
Use a step response to determine an approximate first-order model
(calculations are shown on last page).
xD
0.0012
=
R 2.33s + 1
xB 0.000372
=
V
2.08s + 1

23-3

Using the Direct Synthesis method:


K
s + 1
1

Gc ( s ) =
(1 + )
c K
s
G (s) =

Choosing c =

c)

1
, the settings are:
4

xD - R loop

xB - V loop

K c = 3333.3
I = 2.33
K c = 10649.6
I = 2.08

The reactor level (HR) will be controlled by manipulating the flow from the
reactor (F).
HR is a pure integrator element.
Using the same relations as in part a, initial controller settings are:
K c = 0.4
I = 10
After tuning:
K c = 1
I = 5

23-4

Figure S23.2a. Simulink-MATLAB block diagram for case a)

0.3408

xD

KR

DxD/HR

KRz/HR

1
s
3
F0

5
F

Integrator z

1
s
flow sum

Level integrator
Sum-z

4
z0

F0z/HR
F0z0/HR

Dz/HR
1
HR

Figure S23.2b. Simulink-MATLAB block diagram for the CSTR block

23-5

23.5

xD

Hs

Hs

xD

y (i+1)

x(i-1)

HD

HD

Top 13-20

x(i-1)
L
yi

V
LF
H

xi

xi

y (i+1)

FeedTray 12

x(i-1)

yi

Hs
R
F

5
V

xB

3
xB

HB

Bottom 1-11

4
HB

Figure S23.2c. Simulink-MATLAB block diagram for the Tower block

23-6

600

300
280
260

560

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

580

540

240
220

520

500

200

10

15

20

25

180

30

460

10

15

20

25

30

10

15
time (h)

20

25

30

280
260

440

240
420
HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

400

380

360

220
200
180

10

15
time (h)

20

25

30

160

Figure S23.2d. Step change in V (1600-1700) at t=5

23-7

0.955

xD (mole fraction A)

1250
1200
R (lbmol/hr)

0.95

1150

0.945

1100
1050

0.94
0

10

20

30

20

30

10

20

30

20

30

20

30

0.02

1750

0.018
0.016

V (lbmol/hr)

1700
1650

0.014

1600
1550

10

xB (mole fraction A)

1800

0.012

10

20

30

0.01

time (h)
560

260

D (lb-mol/hr)

240
HD (lb-mol)

540

220

520

500

200

10

20

30

180

340

500

320

480

10

300

460
440

10

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

520

280

10

20

30

time (h)

260

time (h)

Figure S23.2e. Step change in F (960-1060) at t=5

23-8

xD (mole fraction A)

1160

0.952

1140
R (lbmol/hr)

1120

0.948

1100
1080

0.95

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

0.014

V (lbmol/hr)

0.013

1650

0.012

1600
1550

0.011

10

20

30

0.01

540

240
HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

530

220

520

200

510
500

10

20

180

30

290

470

285

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

475

465

280

460
455

275

10

20

270

30

1020

2440
2430

HR (lb-mol)

F (lb-mol/hr)

xB (mole fraction A)

1700

0.946

1000

2420

980
960

2410

10

20

30

time (h)

2400

time (h)

Figure S23.2f. Step change in F0 (460-506) at t=5

23-9

* Calculation of First-Order Model Parameters for xD and xB Loops


xD -R:
A step change in the reflux rate (R) of +10 lbmol/hr is made and the resulting
response is used to fit a first-order model:
K
s + 1
x
0.9624 0.950
K= D =
= 0.0012
R
10

G (s) =

672489
4 432427 7243 44
0.632(xD ) = (0.632)(0.012) = 0.007584
= time( xD = 0.957584) = 12.33 10 = 2.33
xB -V:
Similarly, a step change in the vapor boilup (V) of +10 lbmol/hr is made:
K=

xB 0.00678 0.0105
=
= 0.00372
V
10

Use 63.2% of the response to find 


0.632(xB ) = (0.632)(0.00372) = 0.00235
= time( xB = 0.00815) = 12.08 10 = 2.08
0.966

0.964

0.962

xD (mol fraction A)

0.96

0.958

0.956

0.954

0.952

0.95

0.948

10

15

20

Time (hr)

Figure S23.2g. Responses for step change in the reflux rate R

23-10

25

-3

11

x 10

10.5

10

xB (mol fraction A)

9.5

8.5

7.5

6.5

10

15

20

25

Time (hr)

Figure S23.2h. Responses for step change in the vapor boilup V.

23-11

23.3

The same controller parameters are used from Exercise 23.2

Figure S23.3a. Simulink-MATLAB block diagram

23-12

0.96

R (lbmol/hr)

xD (mole fraction A)

1300
1200

0.95

1100
1000

10

20

30

40

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

V (lbmol/hr)

0.014

1600

0.012

10

20

30

40

50

0.01

700

400
HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

650

300

600

200

550
0

10

20

30

40

100

50

340

500

320

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

520

480

300

460
440

10

0.016

1800

500

xB (mole fraction A)

2000

1400

0.94

50

280

10

20

30

40

260

50

2480
HR (lb-mol)

1200
F (lb-mol/hr)

2460

1100

2440

1000
900

2420
0

10

20

30

40

50

2400

time (h)

time (h)

Figure S23.3b. Step change in F0 (+10%) at t=5

23-13

xD (mole fraction A)

0.955

R (lbmol/hr)

1150
1100

0.95

1050
1000

10

20

30

40

50

0.945

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

-3

11

V (lbmol/hr)

xB (mole fraction A)

1700
1600

10

1500
1400

10

20

30

40

HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

200

500

150

450

100

10

20

30

40

50

50

290

470

285

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

475

465

280

460
455

275

10

20

30

40

270

50

1000

2410
2400

HR (lb-mol)

F (lb-mol/hr)

9
8

50

550

400

x 10

950

2390

900
850

2380

10

20

30

40

50

2370

time (h)

time (h)

Figure S23.3c. Step change in z0 (-10%) at t=5

23-14

23.4
The flow controller on F, the column feed stream, should be simulated in
MATLAB as a constant flow. The controller parameters used are taken from
those derived in Exercise 23.2.

0.952

R (lbmol/hr)

xD (mole fraction A)

1140
1120
1100
1080

10

20

30

40

50

0.95

0.948

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

10

20

30

40

50

0.011

V (lbmol/hr)

xB (mole fraction A)

1610
1600

0.0105

1590
1580

10

20

30

40

50

0.01
200

500

180
HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

520

480

160

460
440

140

10

20

30

40

120

50

340

500

320

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

520

480

300

460
440

280

10

20

30

40

520

3000
HR (lb-mol)

500

2800

480
460

260

50

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

a)

2600

10

20

30

40

50

time (h)

2400

time (h)

Figure S23.4a. Step change in F0 (+10%) at t=5

23-15

Using the approximate relation (23-17), a +10% step change in F0 will result
in a reactor holdup of:
z0
0.90
=
= 2800 lbmol
1 1
1
1
k R ( ) 0.34(

)
506 960
F0 F

HR

Using the exact relation (23-6, rearranged):


F 0 z 0 Bx B (506)(0.9 0.0105)
=
= 2910 lbmol
(0.34)(0.455)
kR z

HR =

The value taken from the graph (2910) matches up with the expected value
from the equation without the approximation.
3000

2900

2800

HR (lb-mol)

b)

2700

2600

2500

2400

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

time (h)

Figure S23.4b. Step change in F0 (+10%) at t=5

23-16

50

23.5
a),b) Feedforward control is implemented using the HR-setpoint equation:
H R (t )

z0 (t )
1
1
)
kR (
F0 (t ) F

Empirical adjustment of the feedforward equation is required because it is


not exact:
H R (t )

z0 (t )
+ 70
1
1
kR (
)
F0 (t ) F

This adjustment matches the initial values of HR (i.e., with and without
feedforward control).
Parts a and b are represented graphically.

23-17

R (lbmol/hr)

xD (mole fraction A)

1120
1110
1100
1090

10

20

0.95

30
xB (mole fraction A)

V (lbmol/hr)

1600

1590

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

10

20

30

0.0095
0

10

20

30
190
HD (lb-mol)

D (lb-mol/hr)

500

180

490

170

480
0

10

20

160

30

490

300
HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

480

290

470

280

460
0

10

20

270

30

500

2500
HR (lb-mol)

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

2400

400

2300

300
200

20

0.01

510

450

10

0.0105

1595

470

0
0.011

1605

1585

no control
FF control

2200

10

20

30

2100

time (h)

time (h)

Figure S23.5a. Step change in z0 (-10%) at t=5

23-18

c)

The controlled plant response is much faster with the feedforward controller
(~10 hours settling time versus ~20 hours without it).

d)

Advantage: Faster response.


Disadvantage: Have to measure or estimate two flow rates and one
concentration, therefore significantly more expensive.

a)

Use a flow controller to keep F constant (make F a constant in the


simulation).

b)

Use ratio control to set F. The ratio should be based on the initial steady state
values (960/460). Therefore, as F0 changes, F will be controlled to the
corresponding value set by the ratio.

23.6

Parts a) and b) show very different results for the two alternatives. With
alternative # 3, feedforward control is necessary to keep the level in the
distillate receiver from integrating. However, in alternative # 4, the control
structure without the feedforward loop is superior to that with feedforward
control.
Responses are displayed with controlled variables adjacent to their
corresponding manipulated variable.

23-19

1500

HD (lb-mol)

R (lb-mol/hr)

2500
2000
1500
1000

20

40

40

60

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

0.016

V (lbmol/hr)

0.014
0.012

20

40

60

0.01
0.52

D (lbmol/hr)

z (mole fraction A)

600

500

0.5

20

40

60

0.48

2800
HR (lb-mol)

1100
1050

F (lbmol/hr)

250

x B (mole fraction A)

20

2000

2600

1000

2400

20

40

60

2200
1
x D (lbmol/hr)

F0 (lbmol/hr)

520
500

0.95

480
460

40

HB (lb-mol)

B (lb-mol/hr)

2500

950

20

300

3000

400

350

500

1500

500

60

550

450

No control (a)
FF control (b)

1000

0.9
0

20

40

60

time (h)
time (h)

Figure S23.6a. Alternative #3 (with and without FF controller). Step change in F0


(+10%) at t=10

23-20

400

1200

300

HD (lb-mol)

R (lb-mol/hr)

1300

1100
1000

20

40

100

60

20

40

250

60

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

x B (mole fraction A)

V (lbmol/hr)

0.02

1800

0.015

1600

0.01

20

40

60

0.005
0.98

D (lbmol/hr)

550

x D (mole fraction A)

600

0.96

500

20

40

60

0.94

3000

HR (lb-mol)

1100
1050

2500

1000
950

20

40

60

0.6

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

520
500
480
460

2000

z (mol fraction A)

F (lb-mol/hr)

40

300

2000

450

20

HB (lb-mol)

500

1400

350

B (lb-mol/hr)

550

450

No control (a)
FF control (b)

200

0.5

20

40

60

time (h)

time (h)

Figure S23.6b. Alternative #4 (with and without FF controller). Step change in F0


(+10%) at t=10

23-21

23.7

Parts a) and b) can be satisfied by combining two or more of the previous


simulations into one to compare the results together. To compare how the
alternatives match up, in terms of the snowball effect, a set of arrays has been
constructed.
All arrays are of the form:
D
F
0
D
z
0

HR
F0

HR
z0

where the response of D or HR is analyzed as a result of a step change in F0


or z0.
In the notation below:
S represents the occurrence of the snowball effect (>20% change in steadystate output for a 10% change in input).
A represents an acceptable response (~10% change in steady-state output).
B represents the best possible response (no change in steady-state output).
Alternative #1
S B

S B

Alternative #2
B S

B A

Alternative #3
A A

B A

Alternative #4
A A

B A

These results indicate that Alternative #2 still exhibits a snowballing


characteristic, but in HR instead of D. Alternatives #3 and #4, on the other
hand, eliminate the effect altogether.

23-22

400

R (lb-mol/hr)

1400

HD (lb-mol)

300

1200

200

1000

20

40

100

60

60

Alternative #1
Alternative #2
Alternative #3
Alternative #4

300

20

40

250

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

40

60

1800

xD (mole fractionxB
A) (mole fraction A)

0.02

V (lbmol/hr)

2000

0.015

1600
1400

40

HB (lb-mol)

500

450

20

350

B (lb-mol/hr)

550

0.01

20

40

60

0.96

D (lbmol/hr)

700

0.005

600

0.94

z (mole fraction A)

500
400

20

40

60

3000
HR (lb-mol)

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.92

2500

20

40

60

2000
1200

500

1100

F (lb-mol/hr)

F0 (lb-mol/hr)

520

480
460

time (h)

1000

20

40

60

900

20

Figure S23.7a. Step change in F0 (+10%) at t=10

23-23

300

HD (lb-mol)

R (lb-mol/hr)

1150
1100

200

1050
1000

100

20

40

60

40

60
Alternative
Alternative
Alternative
Alternative

290
280

20

40

60

V (lbmol/hr)

1700
1600
1500

20

40

60

11

#1
#2
#3
#4

0
-3
x 10

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

20

40

60

40

60

10
9
8

0.96

D (lbmol/hr)

550

270

xB (mole fraction A)
xD (mole fraction A)

460

1400

20

HB (lb-mol)

480

440

300

B (lb-mol/hr)

500

500

0.95

450
400

20

40

60

2600
2400

HR (lb-mol)

z (mole fraction A)

0.6

2200

20

40

60

0.9

2000

time (h)

1000
F (lb-mol/hr)

z0 (mol fraction A)

0.5

0.85

0.8

0.94

20

40

60

950
900
850

20

Figure S23.7b. Step change in z0 (-10%) at t=10

23-24

23.8

Begin with a dynamic energy balance on the reactor:


CP

d ( H R (TR TRef ))

dt
1
Q = UA(TR TC )

= CP F0 (T0 TRef ) + CP D (TD TRef ) C P F (TR TRef ) H R kz Q1

This model can be simplified using the mass balance:


dH R
= F0 + D F
dt

And, rearranging to get an equation for modeling the reactor temperature:


1
dTR
=
[ F0CP (T0 TR ) + DCP (TD TR ) UA(TR TC ) H R kz ]
dt
CP H R

It is clear from the following figures that the temperature loop is much faster
than the interconnected level-flow loops. This characteristic allows the
reaction rate multiplier to settle before it can affect the other variables.

23-25

616.45
Thermal model
Constant temperature

616.44

z (mol fraction A)

0.55

TR (R)

616.43
616.42

0.5

0.45

616.41

616.4
30

40

50

1300

596

1250

595

1200

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

TC (R)

1150

593

1100

592

1050

591

1000

590

30

F (lb-mol/hr)

597

594

30

40

50

60

0.341

950

700

650
D (lb-mol/hr)

0.3405
KR (lb-mol/hr)

0.4

60

600

0.34

550

0.3395
500

0.339

30

40

50

60

450

Time (hr)

Figure S23.8a. Step change in F0 (+10%) at t=30 (Constant temperature


simulation does not include a thermal model)

23-26

616.45
Thermal model
Constant temperature

616.44

z (mol fraction A)

0.55

TR (R)

616.43
616.42

0.5

0.45

616.41

616.4
30

40

50

0.4

60

600

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

1000

F (lb-mol/hr)

598

TC (R)

596

594

950

900

592

590

30

40

50

60

0.341

850

550

500

D (lb-mol/hr)

KR (lb-mol/hr)

0.3405

0.34

450

0.3395

0.339

30

40

50

60

400

Time (hr)

Figure S23.8b. Step change in z0 (-10%) at t=30 (Constant temperature simulation


does not include a thermal model)

23-27