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EstimationofAtomicMassfromSpecificHeatData

MichaelDoyle
HonorsChemistry
Mr.Sabur
Lab2.4
Hour2
12/4/15

Design

ResearchQuestions

1.) Whatscientificconceptsisthislababout?
ThislabusestheLawofDulongandPetit.
2.) Whataretheobjectivesforthislab?
Theobjectivesaretofindthespecificheatandthentousethattofindtheatomic
mass.
3.) Whatistheoverallpurposeofthelab
ItistoshowanexampleofhowtousetheLawofDulongandPetit
4.) Whatreasoningdidyouusetoarriveatyourhypothesis?
UsingtheLawofDulongandPetitiskeyandhelpful,but,systematicerroris
almostalwaystobeexpected,therefore,therewillbesomewhatofapercenterror.

Hypothesis
Ithinkthatwewillbeabletofindthespecificheatandatomicmassofcopperwithin
15%errororless.

Variables
ManipulativeVariables:
Choiceofmetal
Amountofwater
Massofmetal
Timespentheatingthemetal
ResponsiveVariables
Changeintemperature
ControlledVariables
Amountofwater
Initialtemperatureofwater

Massofmetal
Typeofmetal

Equipment/Materials
samplesofmetals
largetesttube
400mLbeaker
hotplate
balance
foamcoffeecups
thermometer
Safety
Anapronandgogglesmustbeworninthelaboratory
Avoidcontactwiththehotplate
Procedure
Placeabout200mLoftapwaterina400mLbeakerandplaceitonthehotplate.Heat
thewateruntilitboils
Selectametaltouseforthisexperiment.Weighoutapproximately20gramsofthe
metal.Recordthemassinthedatatable.
Copperwaspreselectedasthetypeofmetaltobeusedinthislab.
Transferthemetaltoalargetesttube.Placethetesttubeinthehotwaterbath,andletit
sitfor10minutes.
Whilethemetalisheatinginthehotwaterbath,obtainafoamcoffeecup.Weighit,and
recordthemass.Placeabout100mLofdistilledwaterinthecup,andweighagainto
determinethemassofthewater.Youmaywishtoplacethecupina250mLbeakerto
giveitgreaterstability.
Measureandrecordthetemperatureofthewaterinthefoamcup.Itisimportantinthis
experimentthatalltemperaturereadingsbemadeasaccuratelyaspossible.Afewtenths
ofadegreecangreatlyaffecttheresults.
Whenthemetalhasbeenheatedlongenoughinthehotwaterbath,measureandrecord
thetemperatureoftheboilingwater.Transferthemetaltothefoamcup.Stirthewater,
andrecordthemaximumtemperatureofthewaterinthefoamcup.
Placetheusedmetalinthecontainerdesignatedforthatpurpose.Repeattheprocedure
usingfreshwaterinthefoamcupeachtime.

Datacollection

Trial1

Trial2

Trial3

MetalUsed

Copper

Copper

Copper

MassofMetal

20.226g

20.533g

20.125g

MassofFoamCup

1.756g

1.756g

1.676g

MassofFoamCup&Water

102.070g

102.072g

98.427g

MassofWaterinFoamCup

100.314g

100.314g

96.751g

InitialTemperatureCup

21.41C

21.79C

21.30C

FinalTemperatureCup

22.73C

23.24C

23.24C

TemperatureChangeCup

1.32C

1.449C

1.94C

TemperatureHotWaterBath

99.69C

100.6C

101.30C

InitialTemperatureofMetal

99.69C

100.6C

101.30C

FinalTemperatureofMetal

22.73C

23.24C

23.24C

TemperatureChangeofMetal

76.96C

77.36C

78.06C

HeatGainedbyWater

554.0J

608.17J

785.3J

HeatlostbyMetal

554.0J

608.17J

785.3J

SpecificHeatofMetal

0.356J/gC

0.383J/gC

0.500J/gC

AtomicMass

74.18amu

68.97amu

52.81amu

Q(Heat)=TwaterXmasswaterX4.184J/gC

Trial1:1.32Cx100.314gx4.184J/gC=554.0J
Trial2:1.45Cx100.314gx4.184J/gC=608.17J
Trial3:1.94Cx96.751gx4.184J/gC=785.3J

C(SpecificHeat)=Q/(TmetalXmassmetal)

Trial1:554.0J/(76.96Cx20.226g)=0.356J/gC
Trial2:608.2J/(77.36Cx20.533g)=0.383J/gC
Trial3:785.3J/(76.06Cx20.125g)=0.500J/gC
Average:0.413J/gC

AtomicMass=26.4/C

Trial1:26.4/.3559J/gC=74.18amu
Trial2:26.4/.3828J/gC=68.97amu
Trial3:26.4/.4999J/gC=52.81amu
Average:65.32amu

PercentErrors

PercentError=((acceptedexperimental)/accepted)x100
AtomicMass:
Accepted:63.55amu
((63.5565.32)/63.55)x100=2.79%
SpecificHeat:
Accepted:0.385J/gC
((0.3850.413)/0.385)x100=7.27%

EndingQuestions

1.Howwouldacalculationfortheatomicmassbeaffectedifthehotmetalsamplecooled
offwhilebeingtransferredtothecalorimeter?
Thecalculationwouldbeinaccurate.Itwouldbeinaccuratebecauseyouarenotgetting
theentiretemperaturechangebecausethemetalwouldgiveoffheatwithoutbeinginthebeaker
thatmeasuresthetemperaturechange.

2.Whatarepossiblesourcesoferrorinthisexperiment?
Systematicerrorisoneofthemainerrorsinflictedinthisexperiment.Onesystematic
errorwasthemetallosingheatasitwastransferredtothebeakerwithroomtemperaturewater
fromthehotwaterbath.Itlostheatwithoutbeingmeasuredbecausethereisashortamountof
timewherethepieceofmetalisoutofwaterandnotbeingrecorded.

Conclusion

Ithoughtthatwewouldbeabletocalculatethespecificheatandatomicmassofcopper
within15%errororless.Myhypothesiswasprovencorrectwhenweusedtheprocedurewe
weregiven.Theresultsweconcludedprovedmyhypothesiswhenwegot7.27%errorfor
specificheatand2.79%errorfortheatomicmasswhicharebothlessthan15%error.
Therewaslittleerrorinthelab.Theerrorthatdidoccurwasallsystematicerror.The
onlyerrorthatIdetectedwaswhenthecopperwastransferredfromthehotwaterbathtothe
roomtemperaturewatertherewasasmallamountofheatlosswhenitwasoutofwater.Other
thanthat,therewasnomorenoticeableerror.ThepercenterrorsIcalculatedshowhowthaterror
affectedtheanswerbecauseiftherewasnoheatlossoutofwaterthepercenterrorswouldhave
beenextremelysmallornonexistent.
Itisveryhardtocomeupwiththeexactlycorrectmeasuremeasurementsforspecific
heatandatomicmassinthislabbecausetherewillalwaysbeheatloss.EvensotheanswersI
calculatedweremoderatelyclose.ThroughthislabIlearnedabouttheLawofDulongandPetit
andhowitisusedtocalculatespecificheatwhichthencanbeusedtocalculateatomicmass.I
thinkawaythatcouldgomoreindepthwiththislabiswecouldusemultipledifferentmetals
andcalculatetheirspecificheatandatomicmassthatwaywecouldfigureoutifweareprecise
withourcalculationsandpercenterrors.