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Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines, Inc.

v People, GR # 147703, April 14, 2004

Thus, the civil actions referred to in Articles 32, 33, 34 and 2176 of the Civil Code shall remain
separate, distinct and independent of any criminal prosecution which may be based on the same act.
Article 33, Civil Code of the Philippines:
A civil action for damages entirely separate and distinct from the criminal act, may be brought by
the offended party. Such civil action shall proceed independently of the criminal prosecution, and shall
require only a preponderance of evidence.


G.R. No. 145022, September 23, 2005
Hon. Florenz D. Regalado,[14] differentiated jurisdiction and venue as follows: (a) Jurisdiction is the
authority to hear and determine a case; venue is the place where the case is to be heard or tried; (b)
Jurisdiction is a matter of substantive law; venue, of procedural law; (c) Jurisdiction establishes a relation
between the court and the subject matter; venue, a relation between plaintiff and defendant, or petitioner
and respondent; and, (d) Jurisdiction is fixed by law and cannot be conferred by the parties; venue may
be conferred by the act or agreement of the parties.
This is not to be because the case before us is a civil action where venue is not jurisdictional

G.R. No. 160351, April 10, 2006
Article 359 of the Revised Penal Code provides:
Art. 359. Slander by deed. The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period
to prision correccional in its minimum period or a fine ranging from 200 to 1,000 pesos shall
be imposed upon any person who shall perform any act not included and punished in this
title, which shall cast dishonor, discredit, or contempt upon another person. If said act is not
of a serious nature, the penalty shall be arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos.

Slander by deed is a crime against honor, which is committed by performing any act, which casts
dishonor, discredit, or contempt upon another person. The elements are (1) that the offender performs
any act not included in any other crime against honor, (2) that such act is performed in the presence of
other person or persons, and (3) that such act casts dishonor, discredit or contempt upon the offended
party. Whether a certain slanderous act constitutes slander by deed of a serious nature or not, depends
on the social standing of the offended party, the circumstances under which the act was committed, the
occasion, etc.[32] It is libel committed by actions rather than words. The most common examples are
slapping someone or spitting on his/her face in front of the public market, in full view of a crowd, thus
casting dishonor, discredit, and contempt upon the person of another.