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LM2500GasTurbineEngine

AstheNavyproceedsintothetwentyfirstcentury,gasturbineshipswillbecomemoreandmoreabundant.
GE'shighlysuccessful,wellprovenLM2500aeroderivativegasturbineisdirectlyderivedfromGE'sCF6
familyofcommercialaircraftenginesandGE'sTF39militaryengine.TheCF6familyisusedonDC10,
MD11,A300,747and767aircraft,whichhaveloggedmillionsofflighthours.TheTF39militaryengineis
employedontheU.S.AirForce'sGalaxyC5A/Btransportaircraft.Currentlymorethan870LM2500gas
turbinesareinserviceonavarietyofcruisers,frigates,destroyersandpatrolboatsformorethan24
internationalnavies.
Inearlyapplications,theLM2500wasratedat21,500bhpfortheU.S.Navy'sDD963andDDG993class
destroyers,theCG47classcruisers,andtheFFG7classfrigates.GeneralElectricupratedtheLM2500to
26,250bhpfortheDDG51destroyersandtheAOE6classfastcombatsupportships.EachDDG51shipis
poweredbyfourLM2500gasturbineswhichareinacombinedgasandgas(COGAG)configuration.Each
reductiongearcombinestheinputoftwoLM2500enginesratedat26,250brakehorsepower(bhp)foratotal
outputof105,000bhppership.TheLM2500wasagainupratedin1993foruseontheUSNavy'snewest
Sealiftgasturbinepoweredships.TheuprateincreasedtheLM2500U.S.Navymilitaryspecificationrating
to29,500bhp,withtheengineactuallybeingratedat32,000bhpintheSealiftships.
TheLM2500+isanupratedversionofLM2500whichprovideslowerinstalleddollarperhorsepowerand
lifecyclecoststhantheLM2500.The3600rpmLM2500+hasbeendesignedfor39,000brakehorsepower
(bhp)withasimplecyclethermalefficiencyof39%atISOconditions.TheLM2500+achievesincreased
powerovertheLM2500primarilybyincreasingthecompressorairflow23%,withaminimalincreasein
combustorfiringtemperaturebyaddingacompressionstage(zerostage)tothefrontoftheLM2500
compressor.Thetemperaturecapabilityofthehotsectionwasalsoincreasedbyaddingathermalbarrier
coatingtothecombustor,upgradingturbineairfoilmaterialsandbyimprovinginternalcoolingdesigns.
TheLM2500gasturbinesdrivescontrollablepitchpropellersthroughaconventionalmainreductiongear,
shaftandclutch.A16stageaxialflow(airtravelisparalleltotheshaft)compressorincreasesthepressure
andtemperatureoftheworkingmass(air).Inthecombustorsection,fuelisaddedthroughfuelnozzlesand
combustionoccurs.Atwostagehighpressureturbineontheexhaustendofthecombustordrivesthe
compressor.Thecombinationofthecompressor,combustor,andhighpressureturbineareoftencalledthe
gasgenerator.Theexhaustfromthehighpressureturbinepassesthroughalowpressureturbinewhich
extractstheworkrequiredtodrivethemainreductiongearandultimatelytheship'spropeller.TheLM2500
moduletotallyenclosestheLM2500toprovidethermalandacousticinsulation.Atophatchandasidedoor
(DD/DDG/CG)ortwosidedoors(FFG)provideaccesstoandviewingoftheengine.Themoduleisshock
mountedtoreducehullbornenoisetransmission.
LM2500GasTurbineEnginehasa16stageaxialflowcompressormadeupofa16stageCompressorrotor
ofmovingbladesdrivenbythehighpressureturbine.TheCompressorstatorcasingcontainsonestageof
InletGuideVanes(IGV),sixstagesofVariableStatorVanes(VSV)and10stagesofstationarystatorvanes.
TheIGVsandstatorvanes16arevariable,meaningtheyarevariablegeometry.Theangleofattackofthe
bladescanbechangedtopreventcompressorstall.Bleedairisextractedfromthecompressorforuseinthe
ship'sbleedairsystemandforinternaluseintheengine.
Thecombustorisanannulartypewith30fuelnozzlesand2sparkignitors.Oftheairfromthecompressor
approximately30%ismixedwithfueltosupportcombustion.Theother70%isusedtocoolandcenterthe
flamewithinthecombustionliner.
Theignitionsystemproducesahighintensitysparktoignitethefuel/airmixtureduringthestartsequence.
Oncetheengineisstartedtheignitorsarenolongerneededandwillbedeenergized.
Highpressureturbinesectionextractsenoughenergyfromthehotexpandinggassestodrivethecompressor
andaccessorydrive.TheHPturbineisatwostageaxialflowtypewhichismechanicallycoupledtothe
compressorrotor.TheHPturbineusesapproximately65%ofthethermalenergyfromthecombustortodrive
thecompressorandenginemountedaccessories.

Theaccessorydriveassemblyisdriventhroughthecompressorrotorshaftviatheinletgearbox,radialdrive
shaft,andtransfergearbox.TheAccessorygearboxprovidesmountingforthefuelpump,lubeoilpump,
air/oilseparator,andpneumaticstarter.
Thepowerturbineisasixstageaxialflowtypeturbine.Thepowerturbineextractstheremaining35%of
useableenergyandusesthistodrivethemainreductiongear.Thepowerturbinedrivesthereductiongear
throughahighspeedflexiblecouplingshaftandclutchassembly.Thehighspeedflexiblecouplingabsorbs
theradialandaxialmisalignmentbetweentheGTMandthemainreductiongear.
ForiegnObjectDamage(FOD)isamajorconcernofgasturbineengines.FODissimplydebrisofoneform
orotherwhichcandamagetheinternalcomponentsofagasturbineengine.Propulsionandelectrical
generationturbinesarenodifferentthanaircraftenginesandthehazardFODrepresentstotheoperationof
theseenginesdemandstheattentionofallpersonnel.Onaflightdeckperiodic"FODWalkdowns"keepthe
operatingareasclearofdebris.ForshipboardenginesFODscreens,wiremeshmoistureseparators,andif
operatinginahighairparticulateenvironment"Scott"foampadsareusedtofilterincomingairandkeepthe
engineoperating.
Anadvantageofagasturbineengineisitsabilitytoberemovedfromtheshipforrepairinashortperiodof
time(approximately72hours).Asetofrailsispermanentlyinstalledintheintakesofeachengineandaset
oftemporarilyinstalledtransitionrailsallowthedisconnectedenginetotransitfromitsmounting
attachmentsinthemoduleontotherailsintheintakes.Craneservicecapableofextendingoverthesoft
patchesintheintakesisrequiredtopulltheengineuptherailsandoutoftheship.

SourcesandMethods
62N116LM2500MarineGasTurbineEngine
62N116LM2500MarineGasTurbineEngineSlideShow
GEAircraftEngine'sMarineandIndustrialDivision