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Pervious Concrete – Effect of Material Proportions on Porosity

ABSTRACT
This paper describes the effect of size of aggregates and proportions of cement, aggregates,
admixture and water on porosity of Pervious concrete which is the main feature of pervious
concrete. Different sample blocks were made in lab with variations in mixture to see the porosity
for final conclusion
INTRODUCTION
Pervious concrete is a type of concrete with high porosity. It is used for concrete flatwork
applications that allow water to pass directly through it, thereby reducing the runoff from a site
and allowing groundwater recharge. The high porosity is attained by a highly interconnected
void content. Typically pervious concrete has water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) of
0.28 to 0.40 with a void content of 18 to 35%.
The mixture is composed of cementitious materials, coarse aggregate and water with little to no
fine aggregates. Addition of a small amount of fine aggregate will generally reduce the void
content and increase the strength, which may be desirable in certain situations. This material is
sensitive to changes in water content, so field adjustment of the fresh mixture is usually
necessary. Too much water will cause paste drain down, and too little water can hinder adequate
curing of the concrete and lead to surface failure. A properly proportioned mixture gives the
mixture a wet-metallic appearance.
Pervious concrete is used in parking areas, areas with light traffic, residential streets, pedestrian
walkways, and greenhouses. It is an important application for sustainable construction and is one
of the techniques used for ground water recharge.
General Properties:
Void content : 18-35%
Strength : 28-281 kg/cm2
Infiltration rate : 80-720 liter per min per sqm
Cement : 267-415 kg/m3
w/cm ratio : 0.26 – 0.40
Coarse aggregate : 9.5 – 19mm
Little to no fine aggregate (less than 10% of wt. of total aggregate)
Just enough cementitious paste to coat the coarse aggregate
WHY DO WE NEED PERVIOUS CONCRETE?
A larger amount of rainwater ends up falling on impervious surfaces such as parking lots,
driveways, sidewalks, and streets rather than soaking into the soil. This creates an imbalance in
the natural ecosystem and leads to a host of problems including erosion, floods, ground water
level depletion and pollution of rivers, lakes, and coastal waters as rainwater rushing across
pavement surfaces picks up everything from oil and grease spills to de-icing salts and chemical
fertilizers.
A simple solution to avoid these problems is to stop constructing impervious surfaces that block
natural water infiltration into the soil. Rather than building them with conventional concrete or
asphalt, we should be switching to pervious concrete or porous pavement, a material that offers
the inherent durability and low life-cycle costs of a typical concrete pavement while retaining
storm water runoff and replenishing local watershed systems. Instead of preventing infiltration of
water into the soil, pervious pavement assists the process by capturing rainwater in a network of
voids and allowing it to percolate into the underlying soil. In many cases, pervious concrete

It also reduces the bad impact of urbanization on trees. From this mix design we filled 8 cubes each of type A and B since wastage was also there in filling the cubes. aggregates.33 kg Admixture: 1% by weight of [cement + fly ash] = 120 gm The admixture used was ‘Sika Viscocrete 5001’. The cement-water slurry settled down and it might have happened due to high quantity of admixture. The top surface of cubes was closed to prevent fast evaporation of water since it is porous. The cubes were opened the next day and put in water for proper hydration of cement. reducing or eliminating the need for traditional storm water management systems such as retention ponds and sewer tie-ins. Greater the density. This made water release from cement particles. Generally for a given set of materials. For a given rainfall intensity. These cubes were not perfectly pervious. 1: Mix design for 10 cubes: TYPE A – Cement (PPC): 10 kg Fly Ash (P-63): 0 kg Coarse aggregate: 52 kg (10 – 40 mm) Water: 3 kg Admixture: 1% by weight of [cement + fly ash] = 100 gm TYPE B – Cement (PPC): 11. Sample no. EXPERIMENTS: Different sample blocks were made by using different proportions of cement.75 kg Coarse aggregate: 52 kg (10 – 40 mm) Water: 3. ponds and rivers. . Its base and sides (up to some height) were flat and smooth.25 kg Fly Ash (P-63): 0.roadways and parking lots can double as water retention structures. the strength and infiltration rate of pervious concrete are a function of concrete density. the amount of runoff from a pervious concrete pavement system is controlled by the soil infiltration rate and the water storage capacity available in the pervious concrete and aggregate sub base under the pervious concrete. Pervious concrete also naturally filters water from rainfall or storm and can reduce pollutant loads entering into streams. So in this way it helps in ground water recharge. A pervious concrete ground surface allows the transfer of water and air to root systems allowing trees to flourish. In all of the tests I have not used sand at all. higher is the strength and lower the infiltration rate. admixture and water.

6.no Weight of cube (Kg) 1.4 Strength (MPa) 3. 6.1 192.43 8.3 days cube testing: TYPE A S.55 .64 Load (kN) 77.15 2.

85 7.5 Strength (MPa) 6. Since these cubes were not perfectly pervious.no Weight of cube (Kg) Load (kN) Strength (MPa) 1.16 33.no Weight of cube (Kg) 1.34 7.97 TYPE B S.2 729.34 TYPE B S. 6.01 Load (kN) 142.65 2. 7.no Weight of cube (Kg) 1. 6. 6.04 TYPE B S. 6.87 32. 7. Mix design used was of TYPE B since its strength was comparatively higher than that of TYPE A.no Weight of cube (Kg) 1. Sample no.51 19.12 2.60 2.6 Strength (MPa) 5. 6.2 755.2 41.74 2. 6.1 58. 7.61 7 days cube testing: TYPE A S.9 431.3.58 Load (kN) 41. I made another sample of 3 cubes with 3 different proportions of admixture. 7.47 531.64 425.34 According to these results it seems that as the density of cube increases the strength also increases.82 gm Water: 510 gm .4 18.42 Load (kN) 123.40 2.35 3.23 gm Coarse aggregate: 6117 gm TYPE B1: Admixture: 0. 7.7 177.no Weight of cube (Kg) 1.2 Strength (MPa) 1.2% = 2. 7. 6.60 25.9 Strength (MPa) 5.52 2.6 165. 2: Mix design for 1 cube as per TYPE B: Cement: 1323 gm Fly Ash: 88.62 3.2 562.1 23.72 14 days cube testing: TYPE A S.90 Load (kN) 127.64 3. 7.70 930.

Sample no.52 For the next sample we sieved the aggregates and then used aggregates in the size range of 10 –20 mm. 4) I neither did compaction nor used vibrator while filling the cube.40 3. 3 days cube testing: TYPE B1 S.2 kg Admixture: 2.38 234. 7.0 10. Sample no. The cube had shining appearance. 3: Sample of 3 cubes: Cement: 3. Although I used low % of admixture then too it was not perfectly pervious. 6. 4: Mix design for 1 cube: (w/o compaction) Cement: 1 kg Fly Ash: 0 kg Coarse aggregate: 5.64 gm Water: 460 gm After opening the cubes on the next day. 7.4 7. It might have happened due to large size of some aggregates. in the next sample (sample no.no Weight of cube (Kg) Load (kN) Strength (MPa) 1.31 kg Admixture: 7 gm Water: 1.23 179.60 191.7 10.75 kg Fly Ash: 255 gm Coarse aggregate: 17. It was porous from the sides but not from the base.44 230.4% = 5.02 247.no Weight of cube (Kg) Load (kN) Strength (MPa) 1. 7. TYPE B2 (with 0.8 8.3% = 4. Fortunately this time the cube made was perfectly pervious.97 2.36 kg But this time also when I opened the cubes I found out that its base was flat and smooth.2 10.TYPE B2: Admixture: 0.no Weight of cube (Kg) Load (kN) Strength (MPa) 1. 7 days cube testing: S. 7.33 gm Water: 380 gm .3% admixture) cube was found to be the most pervious than the rest but it was also not perfectly porous. Also I further reduced the amount of admixture in the next sample.99 TYPE B3 S. Water was flowing from the base also and its finish was also good.23 gm Water: 480 gm TYPE B3: Admixture: 0.25 Now since after so many trials and reducing water & admixture quantity I was not getting perfectly pervious concrete (due to settlement of cement-water slurry).

no Weight of cube (Kg) Load (kN) Strength (MPa) 1.398 lit So. Also the density of this concrete is less than the normal one because fine aggregates were not used. 5. The samples in which aggregates above 20 mm were used were not porous from the base because of larger voids the cement slurry settled down.3175 lit Volume of coarse aggregate: 3. (w/o compaction) Cement (PPC): 2 kg Fly Ash: 0 kg Coarse aggregate: 10.75 42.4 1. 5: mix design for 2 cubes. So finally the conclusion is to use aggregates in the range 10 – 19 mm and not to compact it while filling. It is not composed of fine aggregates since they will fill the voids between the coarse ones. sample number 4 and 5 were the successful ones.88 Sample no.4 kg Admixture: 4. volume of the mix: 3.66 gm Water: 760 gm So in all.07% 3 days cube testing: S.375 lit + 0.718 lit Volume of the mix: (volume of cement) + (volume of coarse aggregate) Volume of cement: 0. Its strength is lower than the normal concrete. CONCLUSION The Pervious concrete allows water to pass through it. . Also in all those cubes in which compaction was done the cement slurry settled down and thus made a flat bottom surface.343 lit = 3.Calculation for % voids: Total volume of the moulds: (volume of 15×15x15 cm3 mould) + (volume of 7×7x7 cm3 mould) 3. These were made with low w/cm ratio and w/o compaction. the % voids came out to be 10.715 lit Since wastage was also there while filling the cubes and if we assume 10% wastage.

Pervious concrete – An overview (2010) 4) Pervious concrete mix proportioning by Grace construction products 5) William Gunter Goede. Ambuja Cements Ltd 2) Handbook for Pervious concrete certification in greater Kansas city by CPG 3) Karthik H.2011 winter vacation. 2nd year undergraduate student of Civil Engineering department. Mumbai to carryout this project work on Pervious Concrete during my internship in Dec. Investigation into structural performance and evaluation of the applicability of existing thickness design methods (2009) . REFERENCES 1) Ambuja Knowledge Centre Library.ACKOWLEDGEMENTS I. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. Obla. Dhawal Desai. gratefully acknowledge the support and lab facility provided by M/s Ambuja Cements Ltd.