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CHM092

TUTORIAL CHAPTER 4A
5.14

The atmospheric pressure at the summit of Mt. McKinley is 606 mmHg on a


certain day. What is the pressure in atm and in kPa?
(0.7974 atm; 80.79 kPa)

5.15

State the following gas laws in words and also in the form of an equation
Boyles Law
Charless Law
Avogadros Law
In each case, indicate the conditions under which the law is applicable and
give the units for each quantity in the equation.

5.22

A sample of air occupies 3.8 L when the pressure is 1.2 atm.


(a)
What volume does it occupy at 6.6 atm?
(b)
What pressure is required in order to compress it to 0.075 L (the
temperature is kept constant)
(0.691 L; 60.8 atm)

5.24

Under constant-pressure conditions, a sample of hydrogen gas initially at 88


0
C and 9.6 L is cooled until its final volume is 3.4 L. What is the final
temperature?
(-145.3 0C)

5.32

Given that 6.9 moles of carbon monoxide gas are present in a container of
volume 30.4 L, what is the pressure of the gas (in atm) if the temperature is
62 0C?
(6.24 atm)

5.34

A certain amount of gas at 25 0C and at a pressure of 0.8 atm is contained in


a glass vessel. Suppose that the vessel can withstand a pressure of 2 atm.
How high can you raise the temperature of the gas without bursting the
vessel?

5.38

A gas evolved during fermentation of glucose (wine making) has a volume of


0.78 L at 20.1 0C and 1 atm. What was the volume of this gas at the
fermentation temperature of 36.5 0C and 1 atm pressure?
(0.824 L)

5.40

Calculate the volume (in liters) of 88.4 g of CO 2 at STP.


(45.02 L)

5.54

Methane, the principle component of natural gas is used for heating and
cooking, the combustion process is
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
If 15 moles of CH4 are reacted, what is the volume of CO 2 (in liters) produced
at 23 0C and 0.985 atm?
(3.7 x 102 L)

5.59

What is the mass of the solid NH4Cl formed when 73.0 g of NH3 are mixed
with an equal mass of HCl? What is the volume of the gas remaining,

measured at 14 0C and 752 mmHg? What gas is it?


(107 g; 54.51 L)

5.62

Ethanol (C2H5OH) burns in air:


C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Balance the equation and determine the volume of air in liters at 35 0C and
790 mmHg required to burn 227 g of ethanol. Assume that air is 21% O 2 by
volume.
(1718.4 L)

5.63

(a)

What volumes (in liters) of ammonia and oxygen must react to form
12.8 L of nitric oxide at the same temperature and pressure?
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)
(12.8L; 16L)

(b)

What volume (in liters) of propane and water vapor must react to form
8.96 L of hydrogen at the same temperature and pressure?
C3H8(g) + 3H2O(g) 3CO(g) + 7H2(g)
(1.28 L; 3.84 L)

5.44

At 741 torr and 44 0C, 7.10 g of a gas occupy a volume of 5.40 L. What it the
molar mass of the gas?
(35.08 g/mol)

5.47

A 2.1 L vessel contains 4.65 g of a gas at 1 atm and 27 0C


(a)
Calculate the density of the gas in grams per liter
(b)
What is the molar mass of the gas?
54.5 g/mol)

(2.214 g/L;

5.48

Calculate the density of hydrogen bromide (HBr) gas in grams per liter at 733
mmHg and 46 0C.
(2.98
g/L)

5.68

A 2.5 L flask at 15 0C contains a mixture of N2, He and Ne at partial pressures


of 0.32 atm for N2, 0.15 atm for He and 0.42 atm for Ne.
(a)
Calculate the total pressure of the mixture
(b)
Calculate the volume in liters at STP occupied by He and Ne if the N 2 is
removed selectively.
(0.89 atm; 1.35 L)

5.70

A mixture of helium and neon gases is collected over water at 28 0C and 745
mmHg. If the partial pressure of helium is 368 mmHg, what is the partial

pressure of neon? (Vapor pressure of water at 28 0C is 28.3 mmHg)


(348.7 mmHg)
5.72

A sample of zinc metal reacts completely with an excess of hydrochloric acid:


Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
The hydrogen gas produced is collected over water at 25 0C. The volume of
the gas is 7.8 L and the pressure is 0.98 atm. Calculate the amount of zinc
metal (in grams) consumed in the reaction. (Vapor pressure of water at 25 0C
is 23.8 mmHg).
(19.79 g)

5.82

The temperature in the stratosphere is -23 0C. Calculate the root-meansquare speed of N2, O2 and O3 molecules in this region.
(470; 440; 359)

5.90

Under what set of conditions would a gas be expected to behave most


ideally?
(a)
High temperature and low pressure
(b)
High temperature and high pressure
(c)
Low temperature and high pressure
(d)
Low temperature and low pressure
(a)
A real gas is introduced into a flask of volume V. Is the corrected
volume of the gas greater or less than V?
(b)
Ammonia has a larger a value than neon. What can you conclude
about the relative strength of the attractive forces between molecules
of ammonia and between atoms of neon?

5.92

5.110 Consider the following apparatus. Calculate the partial pressures of helium
and neon after the stopcock is open. The temperature remains constant at 16
0
C.
(0.164 atm; 2.066 atm)

5.126 Which of the following molecules has the largest a value?


(a)
CH4
(c)
C6 H 6
(b)
F2
(d)
Ne
12.43 How is vapor-pressure lowering related to the rise in the boiling point of a
solution?
12.50 How many grams of sucrose (C12H22O11) must be added to 552 g of water to
give a solution with a vapor pressure of 2 mmHg less than that of pure water
at 20 0C? (The vapor pressure of water at 20 0C is 17.5 mmHg)
(1350 g)

12.51 The vapor pressure of benzene is 100 mmHg at 26.1 0C. Calculate the vapor
pressure of a solution containing 24.6 g of camphor (C 10H16O) dissolved in
98.5 g of benzene. (Camphor is a low-volatility solid)
(88.64 mmHg)
12.53 The vapor pressure of ethanol (C2H5OH) at 20 0C is 44 mmHg and the vapor
pressure of methanol (CH3OH) at the same temperature is 94 mmHg. A
mixture of 30 g of methanol and 45 g of ethanol is prepared (and can be
assumed to behave as an ideal solution)
(a)
Calculate the mole fraction of methanol and ethanol in the vapor above
this solution at 20 0C.
(b)
Calculate the vapor pressure of methanol and ethanol above this
solution at 20 0C.
(c)
What is the total pressure of the mixture?
(Mole fraction EtOH=0.511, MeOH=0.489; VP EtOH=22.469,
MeOH=46; 68.468)
12.56 An aqueous solution contains the amino acid glycine (NH 2CH2COOH).
Assuming that the acid does not ionize in water, calculate the molality of the
solution if it freezes at -1.1 0C. (Kf = 1.86C/ m)
(0.5914)
12.58 The elemental analysis of an organic showed it contained 40% C, 6.7% H and
53.3% O. A solution of 0.650 g of the solid in 27.8 g of the solvent diphenyl
gave a freezing point of 1.56C. Calculate the molar mass and molecular
formula of the solid. (Kf of diphenyl is= 8.00C/ m) (119.9)
11.92
B
P

A
C
T

Above is phase diagram of water. Predict what happen as a result of the


following changes
(a)
Starting at A, we raise the temperature at constant pressure
(b)
Starting at C, we lower the temperature at constant pressure
(c)
Starting at B, we lower the pressure at constant temperature

EXTRA QUESTION
1. A balloon contains 0.128 mol of gas and has a volume of 2.76 L. If an additional
0.073 mol of gas is added to the balloon (at the same temperature and
pressure), what will its final volume be?
(4.33
L)
2. An automobile tire has a maximum rating of 38.0 psi (gauge pressure). The tire
is inflated (while cold) to a volume of 11.8 L and a gauge pressure of 36.0 psi at
a temperature of 120C. While driving on a hot day, the tire warms to 65 0C and its
volume expands to 12.2L. Does the pressure in the tire exceed its maximum
rating?
(Yes with 41.307 psi)
3. A weather balloon is inflated to a volume of 28.5 L at a pressure of 748 mm Hg
and a temperature of 280C. The balloon rises in the atmosphere to an altitude
approximately 25,000 feet where the pressure is 385 mm Hg and the
temperature is -150C. Assuming the balloon can freely expand, calculate the
volume of this balloon at this altitude.
(47.4L)
4. A piece of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) with a mass of 28.8 g is allowed to
sublime (convert from solid to gas) into a large balloon. Assuming that all of the
carbon dioxide ends up in the balloon, what will be the volume of the balloon at
the temperature of 220C and a pressure of 742 mm Hg?
(16.25 L)

5. A gas mixture contains each of the following gases at indicated partial pressures:
N2 = 325 torr; O2 = 124 torr and He = 209 torr. What is the total pressure of the
mixture? What mass of each gas is present in a 1.05 L sample of this mixture at
250C?
(Ptotal = 0.877 atm; N2 = 0.51 g; O2 = 0.22 g; He = 0.047g)
6. The hydrogen gas formed in a chemical reaction is collected over water at 30 0C
at a total pressure of 732 mm Hg. What is the partial pressure of the hydrogen
gas collected in this way? If the total volume of gas collected is 722 mL, what
mass of hydrogen gas is collected?
(0.054 g H2)
7. The zinc within a copper-plated penny will dissolve in hydrochloric acid if the
copper coating is filed down in several spots (so that the hydrochloric acid can
get to zinc). The reaction between the acid and the zinc is as follows:
2H+ (aq) + Zn (s) H2 (g) + Zn2+ (aq)
When the zinc in a certain penny dissolves, the total volume of gas collected
over water at 250C was 0.951 L at a total pressure of 748 mm Hg. What mass of
hydrogen gas was collected?
(0.074 g H 2)
8. Automobile airbags inflate following a serious impact. The impact triggers the
following chemical reaction:
2NaN3 (s) 2Na (s) + 3N2 (g)
If an automobile airbag (N2) has a volume of 11.8 L, what was the mass of NaN 3
(in g) is required to fully inflate the airbag upon impact? Assume STP conditions
(22.84 g NaN3)
9. Hydrogen gas (a potential future fuel) can be formed by the reaction of methane
with water according to the following equation:
CH4 (g) + H2O (g) CO (g) + 3H2 (g)
In a particular reaction, 25.5 L of methane gas (measured at a pressure of 732
torr and a temperature of 250C) is mixed with 22.8 L of water vapor (measured at
a pressure of 702 torr and a temperature of 125 0C). The reaction produces 26.2 L
of hydrogen gas measured at STP. What is the percent yield of the reaction?
(60.47%)
10.A 118 mL flask is evacuated and found to have a mass of 97.129 g. When the
flask is filled with 768 torr of helium gas at 35 0C, it is found to have a mass of
97.171 g. Was the helium gas pure?
(No)

11.A new boron hydride, BxHy has been isolated. To find its molar mass, you
measure the pressure of the gas in a known volume at a known temperature.
The experimental data collected are:
Mass of gas = 12.5 mg
Pressure of gas = 24.8 mm Hg
Temperature = 25 0C
Volume of flask = 125 mL
Which formula corresponds to the calculated molar mass?
a. B2H6
d. B6H10
b. B4H10
e. B10H14
c. B5H9
(B6H10)
12.In each of the following pairs of gases. Tell which will effuse faster
a. CO2 or F2
< F2)
b. O2 or N2
N2)
c. C2H4 or C2H6
C2H6)

(CO2
(O 2 <
(C2H4 >

13.You have a 22 L cylinder of helium at a pressure of 150 atm and at 31 0C. How
many balloons can you fill each with a volume of 5 L, on a day when the
atmospheric pressure is 755 mm Hg and the temperature is 22 0C?
(645 balloons)
14.Exactly 500 cm3 of a gas at STP has a mass of 0.581 g. The composition of the
gas is as follows: C = 92.24 %, H = 7.76 %. Derive its molecular formula.
(C2H2)
15.180 cm3 of O2 effuses through a porous plate in 30 sec. How long it would take
400 cm3 of CO2 to effuse through the same plate under the same conditions?
(78.15 s)
16.The reaction between CCl 4 and HF produces Freon, CF 2Cl2 and HCl. How many
grams of CCl4 are required to produce 16.0 L of Freon at 27 oC and 912 torr?
(120.12 g)
17.

a)
b)

What is the molar volume of an ideal gas at STP?


Calculate the molar volume of CCl4 at STP, given that:
van der Waals constants: a = 20.4 atm L2/mol2 and b = 0.1383
L/mol.

18.State whether each of the following statements is true or false for an ideal gas.
a)
There are no attractive forces between the gas molecules.
b)
There are strong repulsive forces between the gas molecules.
c)
The volume occupied by the molecules is negligible compared to the
container volume.
d)
The gas behaves according to the ideal gas equation.

e)

The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the size


of the molecules