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TLT

SYSTEMS, STRATEGIES & RESEARCH FOR LUBRICATION PROFESSIONALS

AN

PUBLICATION | AUGUST 2016

MAINTENANCE

T R I B O LO G Y &
LU B R I C AT I O N
T E C H N O LO G Y

12 YEARS

of publishing excell
excellence
lence

4. 0

Condition monitoring moves into


its fourth decade with a renewed
emphasis on risk management.
Regulatory Trends in MWFs
And how the industry is reacting
Greases Future
Q&A with Paul Bessette
What Whacked the Wankel?
(Hint: Begins with an L)
Thin Section Bearings
Applications and advantages

The Passing of a Legend


H. Peter Jost remembered

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Contents

TLT / AUGUST 2016 / VOLUME 72 / NO. 8

16

32

38

FEATURES
FEATURE ARTICLE

20 MINUTES WITH

16

Paul A. Bessette

32

Maintenance 4.0
Condition monitoring moves into
its fourth decade with an
increased emphasis on risk
management maintenance.

This self-described chemical


tribologist discusses industry
consolidation, education,
economicsand his favorite
testing machine.

By Dr. Robert M. Gresham

By Rachel Fowler

PEER-REVIEWED PAPER (EDITORS CHOICE)

46

Effects of Oxide Layer


Formation during
Lubricated Sliding on the
Frictional Properties of
Titanium-Coated Silicon
By Dae-Hyun Cho, Jiusi Jia and
Young-Ze Lee

MARKET REPORT
LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS

22

Which came rst?


The age-old chicken or egg
riddle has revealing lessons for
those interested in the causes
of climate change.

38

Metalworking uids: Global


challenges, trends and
opportunities
How OEMs, suppliers and
end-users are responding.
By Gabriel Tarle

By Dr. Robert M. Gresham

WEBINARS

24

Considerations for thin


section bearings

22

A technical examination of these


unique components, their
applications and advantages.
By Jeanna Van Rensselar

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

AUGUST 2016

Contents
DEPARTMENTS
8

EDITOR
Evan Zabawski, CLS
Reliability Specialist
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
evan.zabawski@gmail.com

Tech Beat
RoboBees learning to perch;
monitoring of chemical
reactions in real time;
acousticsa potential
diagnostic tool for lubricants.

PUBLISHER/
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Thomas T. Astrene
tastrene@stle.org
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Rachel Fowler
rfowler@stle.org

By Dr. Neil Canter

56

This months newsmakers


include SKF, Acme-Hardesty,
Des-Case Corp., INOLEX
and more.

66

New Products
SynPrime lubricant esters,
dimensional analysis system
and more.

68

72
74

Newsmakers

COLUMNS
4

What is your favorite work of


science ction and why?

78

Advertisers Index

80

Resources

Presidents Report
The passing of a legend

Patrick Brutto
ANGUS Chemical Co.
Buffalo Grove, Illinois

Michael N. Kotzalas
The Timken Co.
North Canton, Ohio

Vincent Gatto
Vanderbilt Chemicals, LLC
Norwalk, Connecticut

Dr. Anoop Kumar


Royal Manufacturing Co.
Tulsa, Oklahoma

Coils in oils

David B. Gray
Evonik Oil Additives
Horsham, Pennsylvania

Shawn McCarthy
Ocean State Oil, Inc.
Riverside, Rhode Island

Automotive Tribology

Dr. Martin Greaves


The Dow Chemical Co.
Horgen, Switzerland

From the Editor

Cutting Edge

What stalled the Wankel?

Michael D. Holloway
ALS Tribology
Highland Village, Texas
Tyler Housel
INOLEX, Inc.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Can Stock Photo Inc. / damedeeso

Dr. Robert Jackson


Auburn University
Auburn, Alabama

Hot August Night

Front cover image Can Stock Photo Inc. / iLexx

Copyright 2016 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers. All Rights Reserved.
TLT magazine is owned and published in print and electronically by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE).
The views set forth in this magazine are those of the authors and not necessarily the views of STLE. Material from TLT magazine
may be reproduced only with written permission from STLE. TLT magazine assumes no liability or responsibility for any
inaccurate, delayed or incomplete information. For more information, contact us at TLT@stle.org.
Subscription and Single Copies: Current volume single copies are $25 (not including shipping and handling). Annual subscription
rate is $225/U.S., $290/international. Prepayment is required before subscription is started. Remittances from foreign countries
must be by international money order or bank draft drawn on U.S. bank.

AUGUST 2016

ADVERTISING SALES
Tracy Nicholas VanEe
Phone: (630) 922-3459
Fax: (630) 904-4563
tnicholas@stle.org

TECHNICAL EDITORS

Keep up to date with the latest


technical literature available in
print and online.

This Months Factoids:

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Stuart F. Brown
Dr. Neil Canter
Dr. Robert M. Gresham
Dr. Nancy McGuire
Debbie Sniderman

DESIGN/PRODUCTION
Joe Ruck

Fretting about friction

Sounding Board

CIRCULATION
COORDINATORS
Myrna Scott
Judy Enblom
(847) 825-5536

SENIOR FEATURE WRITER


Jeanna Van Rensselar

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

Dr. Mary Moon


Presque Isle
Innovations, LLC
Yardley, Pennsylvania
William Nehart
Calumet Specialty
Products Partners, L.P.
Apple Valley, Minnesota
Jason Papacek
POLARIS Laboratories
Indianapolis, Indiana

Dr. Zulqar Khan


Bournemouth University
Poole, Dorset,
United Kingdom

Dr. Mehdi Shaei


Novelis Global Research
& Technology Center
Kennesaw, Georgia

Dr. Kook-Wha Koh


Chrysan Industries, Inc.
Plymouth, Michigan

Paula Vettel
Novvi, LLC
Emeryville, California

Andras Korenyi-Both
Tribologix, Inc.
Golden, Colorado

Jeff Walkup
Gram & Juhl
Englewood, Colorado

TRIBOLOGY AND LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY (USPS 865740)


Vol. 72, Number 8, (ISSN-1545-858), is published monthly
by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers,
840 Busse Hwy, Park Ridge, IL 60068-2376. Periodicals
Postage is Paid at Park Ridge, IL and at additional mailing
ofces. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Tribology
and Lubrication Technology, 840 Busse Hwy, Park Ridge,
IL 60068-2376.

W W W. ST L E .O RG

Fresh air.

Whatever clean technologies the future brings, lubricants will


continue to play a key role. For innovative industrial lubricants
that extend service life and enhance performance, look to
lubricants formulated with NUFLUX technology from Evonik.
Aim high Let it ow.

To learn more,
scan the QR code or visit
evonik.com/oil-additives.

PRESIDENTS REPORT
Dr. Ali Erdemir

The passing of a legend


H. Peter Jost was the founding father of modern-day tribology and
brought leadership and support to our eld.
EARLY IN THE MORNING ON JUNE 7, the
world tribology community lost one of its
greatest voices and public facesprofessor H.
Peter Jost, who passed away at the age of 95.
This was a very sad day for all. Earlier I had
heard from a few friends that he recently suffered a mild illness and was hospitalized, but
I never imagined a mild illness would take him
away in such a hurry.
Professor Jost was a legend of our time
and the founding father of modern-day tribology. He assumed the patronage and leadership mantle of our eld as the president of
the International Tribology Council, which has
long served as an umbrella organization for
the broader tribology community in the world.
He was most credited for his acclaimed Jost
Report to the British government, issued in
March 1966, which documented that annually
more than 500 million pounds (500M) could
be saved through the adoption of advanced
lubrication and tribological practices. This also
was the report in which he coined the word
tribology in uppercase letters with a clear-cut
denition: TRIBOLOGY is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and of the practices related thereto.
Peter was an outspoken advocate of tribology at every conceivable stage, forum and
organization. He unequivocally attested to the
signicant cost savings, quality of life, energy
and environmental benets that tribology can
bring to humanity. He was so adamant and
unwavering in his commitment to the eld of
tribology that today multiple professorships
and centers of excellence in the U.K. are
named after him.
On March 2 Immediate Past President Martin Webster and I were invited to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Jost Report. Ceremonies started at the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers with a short welcoming
reception and then a series of speeches com-

From left to right: Peter Jost, Kenneth Holmberg and Ali Erdemir at the 50-year
celebration of the Jost Report held March 2 at Buckingham Palace.

memorating the scientific advances that


tribology has brought to our life. Peter also
took a turn to re-emphasize that what had
been said 50 years ago is still valid todayin
fact, more so than before as the impact of
tribology on energy, climate change and
sustainability has become much clearer.
At the gala reception hosted by HRH
Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, at Buckingham Palace, both Martin and I had a rare
moment to chat with Peter. As always, he was
very sharp, eloquent, humorous and also
thankful that we could join the celebration. A
little later I had another rare moment with
Peter, this time with a dear friend, professor
Kenneth Holmberg, with whom I published a
paper dealing with global energy consumption due to friction in cars. This joint paper, of
course, was inspired by Peters original report
and personally encouraged by him in Kyoto,
Japan, at the 2009 World Tribology Congress.
Our discussion with Peter was very pleasant
and cheerful due to his rare sense of humor

and extraordinarily rich personality, but when


the discussions shifted to the more serious
topic of tribology, again he was very resolute
and resilient in his convictions.
Peter was cherished and revered by the
world tribology community, which immensely
beneted from his patronage and benefactor
role in tribology. He was truly a founding father whose legacy will live with us for years
to come.
On behalf of the entire STLE family, I respectfully extend our deepest sympathy to his
family and the world tribology community. He
will be missed immensely.
Editors Note: For more on the life of H. Peter
Jost, see Page 64.
Ali Erdemir is a Distinguished
Fellow at Argonne National
Laboratory in Lemont, Ill.
You can reach him at
erdemir@anl.gov.

4 Originally the sixth month and called Sextilis in Latin, August was changed to the eighth month and renamed after Augustus Caesar in 8 BC.

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FROM THE EDITOR


Evan Zabawski

Fretting about friction

WHY DO SOME STRINGED INSTRUMENTS


HAVE FRETS? Those of us who do not play
assume they are there to mark where your
ngers are supposed to go, but that is not entirely true. Nor are frets present solely to ensure intonation. Frets serve multiple purposes,
and the foremost is allowing the player to fully
pinch the string and produce a clear tone.
Frets divide the neck of an instrument into
semitones or half steps, with each octave being
divided into twelve semitones. Classical guitars
will typically have 19 frets, but electric guitars
can have as many as 24 frets. The spacing of
the frets never changes, but varying heights of
neighboring frets can cause fret buzz.
Fret buzz occurs when the vibrating portion of the string contacts a fret other than
the fretted note. Fret buzz can be caused by
changes in the relief of the guitar neck from
natural warping, incorrectly installed frets,
loose strings or wear of the fret itself.
Fret wear is bound to happen over time,
but material choice of both the frets and
strings can hinder or accelerate wear. For
many years frets were made from German
silver, a 3:1:1 copper, nickel and zinc alloy.
Originally from China where it was called bai
tong or paktong, meaning white copper, the
alloy was imitated by the Germans in the early
19th Century to such success that the original
name has been all but forgotten.
For classical guitars, treble strings were
made with animal intestine and bass strings
with silk wrapped in animal intestine until
WWII rationing led to the invention of nylon
strings. Treble strings are now nylon, and
the bass strings are nylon wrapped with
silver-plated bronze or copper wire. Electric
guitars have commonly used nickel-plated
steel strings, but new alloys and coatings are
continually entering the market.
6

Can Stock Photo Inc. / nao

Less wear yields


fresher and clearer
notes.

One who tends to press hard or perform a lot of pitch bending will nd themselves with
more fret wear than others.

One alternative is stainless steel strings,


which produces a brighter tone but leads to
more fret wear. This fret wear can be pronounced enough to change the prole of an
individual fret and cause fret buzz. The common solution is to redress the frets, entailing a lot of manual labor: sanding (to remove
grooves and level the frets with each other)
and then recrowning (to produce a rounded
prole) and polishing each fret. After a few
redressings the only course is to re-fret the
guitar, presenting the guitar owner with the
option of selecting a new material.
For increased durability, some players
may choose stainless steel frets, but when
paired with strings of a softer material, they
will cause string wear. Worn strings will not
sound as fresh, producing a dead sound.
When the frets and strings are both stainless
steel, fret wear is signicantly slower, and the
strings tend to last two to three times longer.
Saying that, all this is dependent on how
the player actually plays the guitar. One who
tends to press hard or perform a lot of pitch
bending will nd themselves with more fret
wear than others. The worst offender, how-

ever, is the use of a capoa device that clamps


down on all the strings to reduce the playable
length of the strings. Guitar techs are quick to
note that a capo exerts more pressure that a
nger, which causes more damage and leads
to more business for them.
Of course, with any metal-to-metal contact,
one of the best solutions is application of a lubricant. Commonly referred to as fast fret, it
is usually just a form of mineral oil used on
both strings and frets. Some players rely on
the lemon oil they employ as fretboard conditioner for their lubrication needs, but due to
variations in additional ingredients that may be
absorbed into the nitrocellulose nishes, many
manufacturers will not endorse lemon oil.
With proper usage and care, a guitar
player need not fret about fretting their frets
excessively.

Evan Zabawski, CLS, is a


reliability specialist based in
Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
You can reach him at
evan.zabawski@gmail.com.

August 1, 1944: Anne Frank pens her last journal entry. She dies at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp March 15, 1945, at age 15.

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TECH BEAT
Dr. Neil Canter / Contributing Editor

RoboBees: Learning to perch


Micro aerial vehicles can now improve their endurance
and productivity.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROBOTICS AND
MACHINERY that uses human learning
techniques to improve productivity is
gaining in use. We in the lubricants
industry need to be aware of these
technologies as they are increasingly
impacting the use of specic lubricants in particular applications.
An example of how better learning
leads to improved performance comes
from a past TLT article on improving
the efciency of plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles. Researchers evaluated
the use of an energy management
system that incorporated the concept
of reinforcement learning in a plugin-hybrid electrical vehicle traveling
along a specic 20-mile commuter
route in a well-traveled area in Southern California.1 Greater efciency was
achieved through a nearly 12% reduc-

KEY CONCEPTS
The limited endurance off micro
a rial vehicles reduces their
aerial
ability
b l ty to be used
edd in many
potential
t t l applications.
appl t .
A process
proocesss called
lled electrostatic
el t t t c
adhesion enables a micro
mi o
a rial vehicle called a RoboBee
aerial
too perch below a surface.
Perching enables a RoboBee to
reduce
edu
d cee power
po er consumption
cons
t n by
t eee orders
three
orde
d s of magnitude.
gn t de.

AUGUST 2016

tion in fuel consumption.


The use of drones is becoming
more popular for a variety of industrial applications. One type that is under
evaluation is known as a micro aerial
vehicle (MAV). A MAV typically has
a size that can be as small as 15 cm.
These vehicles may be useful in a
number of applications including enabling secure signal transmission in
ad hoc communications networks and
assisting rescue workers by providing
images of a disaster area. However,
one concern about MAVs is how to
extend their ight time.
Moritz Graule, graduate student at
MIT in Cambridge, Mass., says, Two
key parameters restricting the ight
time of MAVs are the weight of their
on-board power supplies and the lifetime of their mechanical components.
Smaller MAVs exhibit less endurance
compared to their larger counterparts.
This last issue is of interest to
Graule because he has been working
with insect-like MAVs that are smaller in size than bird-sized vehicles. He
says, Insect-like MAVs may potentially be preferred for use in specic
situations where it is cheaper to deploy many low-cost MAVs in a specic
area. One example is to have them assist in the aftermath of an earthquake
where their small size will be invaluable in looking for survivors and saving lives.
An interesting strategy for improving the endurance of MAVs is to enable them to perch on an object such
as a tree, building or powerline in a
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

similar manner to a bird or an insect.


By perching, the MAV can conserve
sufcient energy to expand its mission time, thereby improving endurance and productivity.

Due to their small size,


MAVs could help locate
survivors in the aftermath
of an earthquake.

Past attempts to enable MAVs to


perch required intricate systems with
moving parts or needed a high degree
of force to detach from the perch that
could disturb vehicle stability. A new
approach has now been developed enabling MAVs to perch in a manner that
uses less energy than ying and does
not generate any destabilization when
the MAVs engage or disengage.

ELECTROSTATIC ADHESION
Graule worked with colleagues including Robert J. Wood, Charles River
Professor of Engineering And Applied
Sciences at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and the Wyss Institute
for Biologically Inspired Engineering
at Harvard University in Cambridge,
to develop a procedure for enabling
MAVs to perch underneath a surface.
The researchers used a process called
electrostatic adhesion that is similar
W W W. ST L E .O RG

Figure 1 | Electrostatic adhesion enables the RoboBee to perch underneath a leaf. (Figure courtesy of Harvard University.)

to rubbing a balloon against a wool


sweater and then enabling it to stick
to a wall.
Graule says, We are working with
an insect-like MAV that is known as a
RoboBee, which is very light because
it weighs about 84 mg. This makes the
RoboBee very difcult to stabilize and
we cannot use a complex mechanism
that could add too much weight to the
MAV.
The objective of the researchers is
to perch the MAV below a surface so
that it can still continue its function
while minimizing energy use. Electrostatic adhesion is produced by placing a lightweight (13.4 mg) electrode
patch and foam mount on the RoboBee. Graule says, The foam mount
acts as a dampener to minimize the
possibility of the RoboBee rebounding
off the surface. The electrode patch
ensures adhesion to the substrate by
inducing areas of net charge on its
surface.

The researchers conducted experiments in a laboratory environment


where the substrate is attached to
the ceiling. The RoboBee is wired to
a power source that enables it to y
toward and perch on several substrates
including a leaf (see Figure 1), glass
and unnished plywood.
Graule says, We are able to keep
the RoboBee perched on any surface
for many minutes. During the trials,
the RoboBee did not fall off any surface. Detachment took place by turning off the power supply.
Graule continues, By perching the
RoboBee, we are able to reduce power
consumption by three orders of magnitude as compared to just having the
RoboBee y.
In the future, Wood is looking to
have the RoboBee operate untethered
to a power supply, which is a step that
will bring them closer to actual use.
He says, The two primary remaining challenges are integrating power

and computation (i.e., for control) on


board.
Additional information can be
found in a recent paper2 or by accessing the website of Woods lab at http://
micro.seas.harvard.edu.

REFERENCES
1. Canter, N. (2016), Improving
the efciency of plug-in-hybrid
electric vehicles, TLT, 72 (5),
pp. 16-17.
2. Graule, M., Chirarattananon, P.,
Fuller, S., Jafferis, N., Ma, K.,
Spenko, M., Kornbluh, R. and
Wood, R. (2016), Perching and
takeoff of a robotic insect on
overhangs using switchable
electrostatic adhesion, Science,
352 (6288), pp. 978-982.
Available at http://science.
sciencemag.org/content/352/6288/978.

August 2, 1776: U.S. Continental Congress signs the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence.

TECH BEAT

Monitoring of chemical reactions


in real time
A uorescence effect potentially may be used to provide real-time
data on the condition of a lubricant system.

IN EVALUATING THE CONDITION OF LUBRICANT SYSTEMS, monitoring of specic


parameters is invaluable. Typically this
is done by taking a sample of the lubricant and running a series of analytical
test procedures. The results are then
compared to the properties of the lubricant in its original state prior to use.
Real-time monitoring can be a major benet because it provides instant
data that will enable the end-user to

KEY CONCEPTS
A new technique for monitoringg real-time chemical
ing
che
h ical
all reac
react o s uses nanoparticles
ti
tions
nanop ticles
prepared from
ffrom perovskite and
cesium lead halides.
The nanoparticles exchange
halides causing a gradual color
change
h gee in the reaction
reactt n mixture
mi t e
t at can
that
c n be monitored to follow
the progress of
of the reaction.
Potentially this approach could
m nitor the detection and
monitor
a d
relati e concentration of
relative
conta
contaminants
nt ina
in ts in lubricant
lubric
ub ca t
systems.

10

Maye. He says, A certain degree of exdetermine the condition of the lubripertise is needed to do analytical techcant. In a previous TLT article, a sensor
niques such as NMR. The time needed
device was developed that can be used
to take a sample from a reaction vessel,
to determine the viscosity of a liquid
1
travel to the location of the NMR inin real time. The approach used by
strument and wait for instrument time
the researchers was to measure parameters that can then be
converted to viscosity
through a mathematiReal-time monitoring provides instant
cal relationship in a
data that enables the end-user to
process known as an
inverse method.
determine the progress of a chemical
A similar strategy
reaction.
for running chemical
reactions also would
prove to be benecial.
also can be problematic.
There are a large number of additive
A more desirable way to monitor
chemistries used in lubricants that
chemical reactions is a sensor that can
are prepared by different processes.
In many cases, specic parameters are
provide real-time data enabling the refollowed through a sampling technique
searcher to know how far the reaction
to determine when the reaction has
has progressed. One of the best ways to
reached its end point.
accomplish this goal is through sensing
Dr. Mathew Maye, associate profesa change in the color of the reaction
sor of chemistry at Syracuse Univermixture.
sity in Syracuse, N.Y., says, Chemical
Maye says, One of the areas of our
research deals with the examination
reactions are difcult to follow over
of inorganic nanomaterials like quantime. Samples need to be taken from a
tum dots. Recently in evaluating a new
reaction vessel and then evaluated by
an analytical method such as nuclear
nanomaterial known as a perovskite,
magnetic resonance (NMR) or mass
with a unique cesium lead halide comspectroscopy to give the researcher an
position, we found out by accident
that a color change occurred in an exindication of how close the reaction is
periment where chloride contaminants
to completion.
were present in a solvent. This result
There are challenges in monitoring
prompted us to determine if perovskite
reactions in this fashion according to
August 3, 1492: Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos, Spain, with the Nina,

that case, no halide exchange occurs,


which means that no color change is
observed.
The Finkelstein halide exchange
process takes place through an SN2
mechanism. One concern is that this
halide exchange could lead to an elimination process leading to olen formation. Maye says, We used NMR analysis to prove that an elimination reaction
did not take place.
The researchers also determined
that perovskite nanoparticles can exchange other anions besides halides.
Anions that have been evaluated include nitrite and boron tetrauoride.
Future work will examine if this
uorescence effect can be used to detect cations. Maye says, We believe
that perovskite nanoparticle exchange
with cations will cause a color change
that can be detected either by the eye
or spectroscopy.
Such a detector could be very useful in a lubricant system as a means to
inform a maintenance engineer if there
is a contamination problem starting to
occur with a specic metal or series
of metals. If this information can be
provided in a real-time basis, then the
chances of taking corrective action to
remove the contaminant increase leading to improved lubricant performance
and minimizing downtime.
Additional information on this research can be found in a recent article2
or by contacting Maye at mmmaye@syr.
edu.

nanoparticles might be useful as a


means to monitor for halides or other
ions in solution, which eventually led
us to think about if a similar approach
could be used to monitor chemical reactions in real time through colorimetric analysis.

CESIUM LEAD HALIDE PEROVSKITE


NANOPARTICLES
Maye and his research associates have
determined that nanoparticles prepared from perovskite and cesium
lead halides react with organic compounds containing halides to act as a
way to monitor halide exchange reactions in real time. Transmission electron microscopy shows that perovskite
nanoparticles based on cesium lead iodides and bromides are spherical and
have diameters ranging from 10-15
nanometers.
The researchers initially evaluated
how these nanoparticles exchange halides using a series of tetraoctylammonium halides. A gradual color change
in the reaction mixture is seen either
visually or with a photoluminescence
spectroscopy. This color change starts
as the perovskite nanoparticles exchange one halide for a different halide.
Further testing of the capabilities
of the perovskite nanoparticles was
conducted through a halide exchange
reaction known as the Finkelstein reactions. A specic example is the reaction
of a cesium lead iodide perovskite with
2-bromododecanoic acid to produce
the bromide perovskite and 2-iodododecanoic acid.
The reaction is conducted at
room temperature under an inert atmosphere. Maye says, Initially the
nanoparticle containing iodide has a
red uorescence color (see Figure 2). As
the halide exchange reaction proceeds,
the color of the mixture changes over
a 90-minute period to orangethen
yellowand ends up green indicating that the perovskite nanoparticle
has completely exchanged iodides for
bromides.
Figure 2 also shows a control
where dodecanoic acid is substituted for 2-bromododecanoic acid. In

Figure 2 | Perovskite-based
nanoparticles can follow a halide
exchange reaction through a
gradual color change, taking
place over a 90-minute period in
the images shown on the right
side of the gure. Use of a nonhalide-starting material does not
cause a reaction leading to no
color change as shown on the left
side of the gure. (Figure courtesy
of Syracuse University.)

the Pinta and the Santa Maria in search of a westerly trade route to the Far East.

REFERENCES
1. Canter, N. (2012), Real-time
monitoring of viscosity, TLT, 68
(6), pp. 16-18.
2. Doane T., Ryan, K., Pathade, L.,
Cru, K., Zang, H., Cotlet, M. and
Maye, M. (2016), Using
perovskite nanoparticles as halide
reservoirs in catalysis and as
spectrochemical probes of ions in
solutions, ACS Nano. DOI:
10.1021/acsnano.6b00806.

11

TECH BEAT

Acoustics: A potential diagnostic tool


for lubricants
Input-output analysis helps to explain the generation of noise in
subsonic jet engines.
NOISE IS USED IN LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS TO EVALUATE machinery performance. One example is metalworking
where a change in the noise produced
as a cutting tool cuts a piece of metal
may indicate that there is a problem
with the metalworking uid. While industrial processes such as metalworking are loud, an extreme example of a
noise-producing machine is the turbojet engine used in aircraft propulsion.
Just as acoustics may provide clues
to lubrication problems in machinery,
ascertaining the source of noise in airplane engine exhausts requires some
detective work. Joseph Nichols, assis-

KEY CO
CONCEPTS
C
S
Jet noise is an old problem
t at dates
that
d t s back
bac prior too th
the
development of jet aircraft.
A new study uses input-output
p t-output
analysis to enable researchers
to focus only on those bits of
tu bbulence
turbulence
e ce that
th t are
arre important
to noise
noi e production
p oduction in
subsonic jets.
The researchh suggests
ts that
t at
noise potentially
potentially could serve
as a diagnostic tool to analyze
anal e
lubrication problems.
proble .

12

AUGUST 2016

Gaining a better understanding of jet engine noise has been a


challenge for researchers.
tant professor of aerospace engineering
and mechanics at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, says, Jet noise
is an old problem. The connection between sound and gas jet stage lighting
was rst discovered in 1858 by J. Le
Conte, who noted that the icker of
lamps synchronized with musical notes
during performances. Since the advent
of turbojet engines for aircraft propulsion, the complicated, unsteady ow
in high-speed exhausts is the loudest
sources of human-created noise. This
issue especially gained prominence in
the 1960s when engines for the Concorde Supersonic Transport Plane were
under development. The high degree of
noise generated by the Concorde would
not allow it to land at many airports
today due to noise restrictions.
Gaining a better understanding of
jet engine noise has been a challenge
for researchers. There is a relationship
between the turbulence generated by
jet engines and noise. Turbulence is
created when the high-speed exhaust
meets low-speed surrounding air and
the two ows begin to mix. This mixing occurs chaotically, leading to a
highly complex and unsteady flow
patternthink of the swirls of steam
rising from your coffee cup.
The way in which turbulent exT R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

haust jets produce sound was initially


explained in terms of the statistics of
these uctuating swirls of ow within
the jet. In this view, each swirl can be
considered a point source of sound,
acting independently from all of the
other swirls.
A challenge facing jet noise researchers is that less than 0.1% of the
available energy produced inside of a
jet is attributed to acoustic radiation.
Nichols says, Gaining an understanding of the source of noise is very difcult because it is hidden within the
turbulence energy created by the jet
engine.
In the 1960s, however, it was suggested that turbulent exhaust jets support ordered instability wave packets,
and these are responsible for creating
jet noise. Nichols says, This approach
provided a dynamic description of the
noise sources. Noise was found to be
originating not from point sources but
rather from sources correlated over many
acoustic wavelengths inside the jets.
Instability wave theory can successfully predict maximum jet noise
created by supersonic jets through the
use of parabolized stability equations.
However, this approach does not work
when evaluating subsonic jets typical
of aircraft used for civilian purposes.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

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TECH BEAT

With the increasing demand for air travel globally, jet noise is becoming a bigger problem, particularly with airports near major population centers. A
new study is providing more insight into how noise is generated within a subsonic jet engine.

Nichols says, Parabolized stability


equations do nd optimal modes generating noise. In the case of subsonic
jets, we have found that there also are
a number of suboptimal modes that
collectively have a large impact noise
generation. The parabolized stability
equations do not capture these suboptimal modes and this may explain
why they are not successful in this important case.
Nichols and his research associates
have used input-output analysis to
better explain the noise generated by
subsonic jet engines. He says, Our approach uses the turbulent uctuations
as input and treats the far-eld sound
as output. Our aim is to characterize
the transfer function between inputs
and outputs using techniques originally developed to describe the complex
electrical engineering systems.
The researchers used this technique
to identify additional modes that amplify noise. Nichols says, A mode is a
pattern in the jet that repeats in space
and time within the uctuating pressure and velocity elds. Instead of a
14

AUGUST 2016

chaotic sound pattern, modes are an


ordered part of turbulence and we nd
these modes describe acoustic sources
that are important for noise radiation.
The newly discovered modes can
serve as a basis of a reduced order model of jet noise generation. Supercomputing simulations that fully resolve
all details of a chaotic turbulent ow
in an aircraft engine exhaust require
millions or billions of mesh points. In
contrast, input-output analysis allows
Nichols and his associates to focus only
on those bits of the turbulence that are
important in noise production.
Nichols says, We found for a Mach
0.9 (subsonic jet), far-eld can be described fairly accurately with only 1020 modes.
Future work will involve gaining a
better understanding of how noise is
generated in passenger jets that contain turbofan engines. Nichols says,
Air movement through a turbofan jet
engine is more complicated as there are
dual air streams where some of the air
bypasses the engine core.
This research also indicates that
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

noise can be used as a potential diagnostic tool for lubricant analysis. Nichols says, Jet engines produce their own
noise signature, which is representative
of performance. If that noise signature
changes, it may be an indication of an
engine problem.
Additional information on the jet
noise research can be found in a recent article1 or by contacting Nichols
at jwn@umn.edu.

REFERENCE
1. Jeun, J., Nichols, J. and Jovanovic,
M. (2016), Input-output analysis
of high-speed axisymmetric
isothermal jet noise, Physics of
Fluids, 28, 047101.

Neil Canter heads his own


consulting company, Chemical
Solutions, in Willow Grove, Pa.
Ideas for Tech Beat can be
submitted to him at
neilcanter@comcast.net.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

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20 MINUTES WITH
By Rachel Fowler / Associate Editor

Paul A. Bessette
This self-described chemical tribologist discusses
industry consolidation, education, economicsand his
favorite testing machine.
PAUL A. BESSETTE The Quick File
Paul A. Bessette is the president of
Triboscience & Engineering, Inc. (TS&E),
and lead tribologist for Tecsia Lubricants.
He has been involved with synthetic
lubricants for more than 39 years,
including 25 years at Nye Lubricants and
three years at Ciba-Geigy.
TS&E was established in 2000 and
initially provided consulting services. Since
Paul A. Bessette
2005 TS&E has gravitated toward manufacturing lubricants for both domestic and
foreign customers with an emphasis on peruorinated polyethers.
Paul was vice chairman of the NLGI Grease Education Course for
10 years and was honored with the NLGI Fellows Award, Meritorious
Service Award, Achievement Award, Clarence E. Earle Memorial
Award and Authors Award. He also was an associate editor for
Tribology Transactions, Journal of Synthetic Lubricants and a peer
reviewer for NLGI. He is a member of STLE and ASTM.
Paul earned a bachelors of science degree in chemistry from
Lowell Technological Institute. His graduate work included polymer
chemistry at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He also has a masters
of business administration from University of Massachusetts
Dartmouth.
Clients have included Engineered Custom Lubricants, DuPont,
BP Castrol, Lubrication Technologies, Kyodo Yushi, Honeywell,
Hewlett-Packard and NASA.
Research interests include improving methods of grease
ltration, vapor pressure of synthetic lubricants, thermo-oxidative
stability, low-temperature rheology of oils and greases and
advanced rolling element bearings greases.
Paul has authored or co-authored chapters in Space Vehicle
Mechanisms: Elements of Successful Design, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc.; Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology, CRC Press; and
Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids,
Marcel Dekker.

16

TLT: Why did you become a tribologist?


Bessette: Tribology is a very inclusive discipline, and
my background in polymer chemistry was a tremendous asset to understanding the chemical and physical
nature of ingredients used in formulating synthetic
oils and greases. Since my work has focused mainly
on the development of lubricants, I consider myself a
chemical tribologist.

TLT: How did you become interested in grease?


Bessette: In 1976 I left Ciba-Geigy and joined the
William F. Nye Co. in Fairhaven, Mass. Nye was
originally a whale oil company, and when I joined we
were still selling residual inventory of various marine
mammal oils. However, management was sufciently
perspicuous to realize that new products, especially
synthetics, were necessary for the rms future success. Grease became a necessary compliment to the
companys product line, and I was tasked with making
things happen. When Nye was given the opportunity
to manufacture a sodium-thickened synthetic ester
grease being discontinued by Texaco, we installed the
necessary equipment and successfully manufactured
a rheologically challenging grease to the delight and
satisfaction of customers producing rolling element
bearings. That initial success was the impetus to develop other greases.

TLT: Do you have a favorite grease?


Bessette: No! Forty years of study, hard work and research has taught me that there are no panaceas in the
world of lubrication. Some greases may be characterized as general purpose, but for high-speed bearing

August 4, 1962: Apartheid opponent Nelson Mandela is arrested by security police in South Africa and spends

applications, computer disk drives,


sintered metal components and jet engine actuators, we must be mindful that
these diverse tribological challenges require individual solutions.
For example, peruoropolyether
(PFPE) greases possess unsurpassed
thermo-oxidative stability. In an atmosphere of pure, dry oxygen maintained
at 3500 kPa and 210 C, no exotherm
is observed after two hours. At rst
blush, one would assume that such a
grease is the Almightys gift to tribology! However, due to the discrete nature
of the polytetrauoroethylene (PTFE)
used to form the grease, PFPE greases
are problematical for bearing application where Dn values exceed 200,000.
These greases produce too much vibration and runout.

TLT: What are some of the most


important challenges in the
lubricating industry today?
Bessette: I divide the challenges into
three categories: industry consolidation, education and economics.
When one rm acquires another,
product lines are rationalized to the
chagrin of distributors and OEMs. If a
small distributor has established a business around certain product types, the
discontinuation of the product or new
minimum order requirements are often
too burdensome. Moreover, alternative
recommendations are difcult to justify
due to the cost and time constrains of
new product requalication.
From an education standpoint, the
word grease is far too generic. Lubricants
used in the mining industry or those
used in spacecraft control moment
gyroscopes are referred to as grease.
However, a molybdenum disulfidefortied calcium sulfonate grease is very
different from an ultra-ltered lithiumthickened synthetic fluid prepared
under clean room conditions. All too
frequently the choice of lubricant is
made at the completion of the design
cycle. This is done at great peril to the
timely launching of new products.
Some greases sell for less than $2
per pound while others cost more than

Paul Bessette preparing to run a weight loss determination using the thermogravimetric analysis.

$1,000. Its the application and technology that dictates grease economics. Consider a conductive plastic potentiometer where the lubricant must
function from -40-100 C, be resistant
to fuel vapors and possess a viscosity
index sufciently high that contact
hydroplaning does not occur. A linear
peruoroether grease costing approximately $500 per pound is a viable candidate for this application, but the cost
of grease per potentiometer is marginal
since only milligrams of grease are used
per unit. Even expensive greases usually have a minor impact on the overall
economics of a component.

TLT: Do you have a favorite tribotest


or tribology test machine?
Bessette: I abashedly say yes! In our
laboratory at TS&E, we have a four-ball
wear machine and a four-ball EP tribometer, pressure differential scanning
calorimeter and a control stress rheometer. However, my preferred tribochemical research tool is our spiral orbit
tribometer (SOT). Its acquisition was
purely serendipitous. The short version
of a long story is that I had invited Bob
Price to join me in Fall River, Mass.,
since both he and I were working
alone in two different labs. Price and
STLE-member Ed Kingsbury were colleagues at Draper Labs, and Kingsbury

decided to visit Prices new workplace.


I had known Kingsbury for a number
of years, and I think he was sufciently
impressed with the sophistication of
our lab that he offered to give us the
SOT along with a microbalance. Approximately 16 years earlier Kingsbury
tried to sell me the same SOT, but I was
compelled to refuse since I had recently
acquired another tribometer.
In my opinion, the SOT is a unique
research tool in that it faithfully simulates bearing behavior. Essentially it is
a thrust bearing comprised of a single
ball where friction force, electrical resistance, temperature and coefcient of
friction are monitored in real time. It is
an elegant tool to study the tribochemical behavior of greases and additives.
Since micrograms of grease are used
and lubricant life is a function of the
number of ball orbits, the number of
lubricant molecules degraded per orbit
can be determined. Im currently using
the SOT to investigate if specic solid
additives can reduce the catalytic activity of 52100 steel in contact with linear
PFPE-based greases.
Although PFPE greases possess excellent thermo-oxidative stability, they
are vulnerable depolymerization in
contact with metal surfaces producing
what the aerospace community refers
to as brown sugar. Since we can calculate the number of moles of lubri-

the next 27 years in prison on charges of treason and sabotage. He would win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

17

cant that are on the ball, its possible


to calculate the number of molecules
degraded per ball orbit. The numbers
recorded thus far are in the billions. I
call it tribomortality.
A close second instrument would
be the pressure differential scanning
calorimeter (PDSC). With this research
tool, we can quickly study the efcacy
of antioxidants and other additives on
the thermo-oxidative stability of various lubricants. Moreover, since the
instrument is used to measure heat
owboth positive and negative
the PDSC is an effective means of determining the amount of thickener in
a used grease provided the thickener
melts. Since only milligrams of sample
are required, the technique is superior
to Soxhlet extractions.

aerospace, military and automotive.


As a footnote, the recovered CFC was
used to prepare lubricant dispersions
used to simultaneously coat thousands
of small components. CFCs were more
economical and better solvents than
their replacements.

TLT: If you could have the freedom to


choose an exploratory R&D project,
what would you choose?
Bessette: There is a great deal of responsibility owning your own company.
However, this also is a great deal of autonomy. My current work with the SOT
satises my current research interest.
Paul Bessette checking the coefcient
of friction of a PFPE grease being
tested with the spiral orbit tribometer.

TLT: What was the most challenging


technical project you worked on?
Bessette: During my career Ive worked
on numerous daunting technical challenges from commercial and military
aircraft disasters, grain elevator explosions, polyurea grease reformulated
with the improper stoichiometry and
a silicone grease use in writing instruments to prevent ink from back leaking
onto everyones high-priced clothing.
In retrospect, the tribological Gordian Knot for me was nding an alternate route to the manufacture of PFPE
greases. Prior to the ozone hole controversy, PFPE greases were made using
DuPonts Vydax 1000. Vydax 1000
was a 7.5% dispersion of low-molecular
weight PTFE in trichlorotriuorethane.
PFPE uid would be added to grease
vessel and the Vydax added incrementally as the solvent was removed by
heat and slight vacuum.
At Nye, we recovered 80%-95%
solvent using the appropriate heat exchangers. The grease was usually made
on the rm side since adding additional
uid was easier than adding more PTFE
dispersion. The Montreal Protocol ended chlorouorocarbons (CFCs) and new
technology was urgently needed since
PFPE greases had made signicant inroads into a host of industries.
18

AUGUST 2016

The initial attempt was to replace


the CFC solvent carrier with isopropyl
alcohol (IPA). Unlike the CFC, IPA is
ammable, and a great deal of time was
spent trying to produce an azeotrope
that would be less hazardous than distilling IPA in an environment surrounded with electric motors that were not
explosion proof. The government did
not want us to put CFC in the stratosphere; I was determined not to put
our employees there as well! Successful
PFPE grease was made with the IPAbased dispersion, but a major problem
ensued. Trace amounts of IPA remained
in the grease that oxidized to form a foul
smelling carboxylic acid. The resultant
odor of the grease was a showstopper
and a new approach was needed.
That approach came with the realization that perhaps a solvent dispersion of the PTFE was unnecessary. After a few days of trial and error, it was
discovered that a dry approach was
a viable alternative to the traditional
methods for producing PFPE grease.
Both Gerry Madden and Richard Morgan at DuPont were instrumental in
bringing what become known a Vydax GT to market. That collaboration
surely had a profound impact on a
number of key industries including
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

TLT: What inspired you to start your


own company?
Bessette: After approximately 25 years
at Nye, I opted to hang out my own
shingle and become a consultant. I
was hired by Engineered Custom Lubricants, DuPont, Castrol and was offered minor assignments with Kyodo
Yushi, Honeywell, Hewlett-Packard,
NASA and a few others.
After six years of living out of a suitcase and constant traveling to Michigan,
Delaware and Illinois, I decided to open
my own laboratory in an incubator facility in Fall River, Mass. I could continue
to provide technical guidance to clients
but with the added luxury of having
dinner and a glass of wine with my wife,
Jean. As the company has expanded
we now have seven employeesTS&E
has gravitated toward manufacturing
our own line of specialty synthetic oils
and greases. Although our forte is PFPE-based products, we do a great deal
with PAOs, esters, silicones and PAGs
including development work with the
new Dow OSP products. In retrospect,
the inspiration emerged from a deepseated entrepreneurial bent.

TLT: What is the focus of your


company?
Bessette: To provide customers with
lubricants that are designed for the application, provide extended life under
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TLT: What is most satisfying about


owning and managing your own
company?
Bessette: There are numerous benets
to being at the helm of your own company. I enjoy the autonomy, the nancial independence and the personal satisfaction of moving the organization to
new heights. However, from a personal
standpoint, the greatest satisfaction for
me is being able to employ intelligent
and ambitious young people and give
them the opportunity to excel in a
stimulating environment.

TLT: What is most challenging about


owning and managing your own
company?
Bessette: Based on my experience,
the most challenging aspects of operating a successful small business are
nancial and regulatory. We now exist in a global economy with goods
moving throughout North America,
Europe and Asia. When a rm attains
a certain sales volume it must adopt
accrual-based accounting. Specically,
raw materials cannot be expensed until
sold. However, raw material suppliers
expect payment in 30 days. If a nished
good is shipped to Asia by sea, its approximately a six-week journey, and
customers demand 30 days after the
good arrives.
Several years ago we purchased our
own million-dollar facility. After the
transaction our accountant informed
me that the building would be fully
depreciated in 39 years. Ive told family, friends and colleagues that Im planning to keep at it for another 10 years.
Why retire when Im terrible at golf?
But our facility will not be completely
20

AUGUST 2016

Paul Bessette measuring wear scars.

written off until Im 105 years old! If


our S-Corp can keep more of its hardearned income, we can hire more scientists, engineers and acquire additional
capital equipment to maintain our current growth trajectory.
To some extent we are all being
regulated back to the Stone Age. I personally take great umbrage at some of
the new GHS labeling requirements.
To stipulate that low-viscosity PAO is
hazardous due to the possibility that it
could be aspirated into the lungs during ingestion, it diminishes the real
hazards that should be minimized in
any work environment.
Finally, small rms struggle with recognition. Its challenging trying to inform
the world that you are open for business.

TLT: What characteristics or


behaviors are important for
successful entrepreneurs?
Bessette: Necessary traits for success
in business include resilience, not being too risk averse, a sound business
model, potential clients and personal
or available nancial resources. In the
arena of specialty synthetic lubricants,
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

the gestation period from forwarding


a trial sample to receiving a purchase
order can be as long as three years.

TLT: Was there a particular


accomplishment or event where
you realized that your company
would have legs and grow over
the long term?
Bessette: I can think of no singular accomplishment that assured the success
of the company. However, Im sanguine
about TS&Es long-term viability due
to the quality of people on staff! Im a
believer in technological incrementalism. Numerous small accomplishments
eventually lead to big things!

TLT: What are your plans and goals


for your company?
Bessette: The motto of TS&E is Excellence in Synthetic Lubricants. I would
be immensely gratied if that motto
endured well beyond my tenure at the
helm.
You can reach Paul A. Bessette at
pabessette@tselubes.com.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

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any of these products, read and comply with the information contained in the MSDS, label and other product literature.

LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS
Dr. Robert M. Gresham / Contributing Editor

Which
came
first?

The age-old chicken or egg riddle has revealing lessons for those
interested in the causes of climate change.
KEY CONCEPTS
Individuals sometimes confuse the nature off cause
and effect for social or political purposes.
A closer examination of the full range
g of data might
suggest that man-made
de carbon dioxide might not be
the cause of climate change.
The tribology community should
shou d analyze th
these
situations closely before
befo e taking action.

22

ITS THE CLASSIC ENIGMAwhich came rst, the chicken


or the egg? Such enigmas or seemingly such enigmas by
their nature leave the door open for those whose logic is
awed or, more maliciously, those seeking to take advantage of presumably unanswerable questions.
So whether they believe the egg came rst or the chicken, or put it another way, whether the chicken caused the
effect of the egg or whether the egg caused the effect of
the chicken, they may for their own reasons prefer one
answer over the other. Then to negate the naysayer, they
frequently use the philosophic argument, Can you prove
it is not so? Philosophers know this is impossible, of
course, because you cant disprove a negative.

August 5, 1962: Marilyn Monroe dies at age 36 from an overdose of sleeping pills.

Scientists also like to remind us not to confuse cause and


effect. But as part of the scientic community, we know that
we are not immune from making that mistake ourselves. Citing an article in the Wall Street Journal by Matt Ridley, even
climate scientists have encountered such cause-effect confusion. This is easy enough to imagine, as much of what we
know or take as known is often based on computer modeling, which, like all modeling, is based on a set of assumptions. If there are aws in our logic in formulating those
assumptions, let alone the careful addition of biases, our
conclusions can be awed.

Perhaps carbon dioxide does not really


cause global warming! This is heresy of the
highest order.

When in 1999 Antarctic ice cores revealed high carbondioxide concentrations and temperature marching in lockstep
over 400,000 years ago, many found this a convincing argument for attributing past climate change to the emergence
of evil carbon dioxide. About 95% of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere is natural, coming from normal biological processes. In the past, carbon-dioxide levels rose as the earth
warmed at the end of ice ages and fell as it cooled at the end
of interglacial periods.
However, a few years later more in-depth analysis of ice
cores showed that the temperature changes, in fact, preceded
the changes in carbon dioxide concentrations by about 800
years. The cause-and-effect mechanism is that as the oceans
begin to warm, the rate of the dissolved carbon dioxide begins to out-gas more into the atmosphere. Since the effect
cannot precede the cause, we have to change our thinking
about this particular chicken/egg conundrum.
Temperature changes caused the changes in carbon dioxide levels, not the opposite. Or, gods forbid, carbon dioxide does not really cause global warming! This is heresy of
the highest order. So the ever-clever climate scientists came
up with a novel rationalization (or, if you prefer, hypothesis): An initial change, probably caused by variations in the
earths orbit (really) that affected the warmth of the sun, was
then amplied by changes in carbon dioxide levels. But this
makes for a circular argument as the reversal of the trend after a period of warming (when amplication should be at its
strongest) still harder to explain. Did the earth shift again?
Or if carbon dioxide is still driving the temperature upward
but the temperature is falling, then something else must be
happening and is the more dominant process.
Alternatively, with increases in temperature caused by
Mankind and all of his heat-generating activities and machines, and/or this business of the earth shifting its orbit,
W W W. ST L E .O RG

and/or volcanoes and the like, perhaps we should consider


thermal pollution as a greater problem and, thus, the cause
rather than the effect of carbon dioxide. Clearly, we have
cause and effect confusion in our climate modeling, at least
with respect to temperature and carbon dioxide. Socially and
politically, this is all idle claptrap as we as a society have determined that man causes increases in carbon dioxide, and in
turn, that will cause lethal global warming. Hmmm.
Regardless, no matter which side of the fence you choose
to come down on, or for that matter straddle, regarding global warming, the lesson from Mr. Ridleys ne article is that we
in the tribological community need to be clear headed in our
thinking. Whether you are advancing the study of tribological processes at the nano level or dealing with the tribology
of equipment-reliability problems in the eld, lets be careful
to not confuse the cause with the effect.
That having been said, I still dont know which came rst,
the chicken or the egg, do you?

Bob Gresham is STLEs director of professional


development. You can reach him at rgresham@stle.org.
Editor's Note: This article was reprinted from the July 2011 issue of TLT.

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AUGUST 2016

23

WEBINARS
Jeanna Van Rensselar / Senior Feature Writer

Can Stock Photo Inc. / Leaf

Considerations for
thin section bearings

K CO
KE
KEY
CONCEPTS
CEP S
Thin section bearings have a cross section
se ion
that is constant
consta
nstantt regardless
reg rdle s of bore
b re size.
si .
They are used in specialty applications
applicatio such
as robotics that require smooth
s
th movements
mo e entss
andd an accurate,
curatt , stable
st ble axis
axiis off rotation.
tati .
They are very similar to conventional ball
bearings but thinnercreating many
many
advantages
dvant ges andd a few
e disadvantages.
di dvant ge .

24

AUGUST 2016

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

MEET THE PRESENTER


This article is based on a Webinar originally presented by STLE University on Nov. 11, 2014. Considerations for Thin
Section Bearings and Their Applications is available at www.stle.org: $39 to STLE members, $59 for all others.
Long-time STLE-member Les Miller is vice president of engineering at Kaydon Bearings where he is responsible for product design, development and application. He received his bachelors degree in mechanical
engineering from Tri-State College and has been active in the bearing industry for 39 years. He also has been
active in the ABMA Engineering Education Committee and Bearing Technical Committee for the past 20 years
and is a member of the ASME Tribology Division. His work history includes 26 years with NSK and a total of 13
years with SKF/Kaydon in ever-increasing levels of responsibility for product design and application engineering. You can reach Miller at lmiller@kaydon.com.

LLes Mill
Miller

A technical examination of
these unique components,
their applications and
advantages.
An array of Kaydons thin section bearings. (Courtesy of Kaydon Bearings.)

THE FOCUS OF THIS ARTICLE IS THIN SECTION BALL BEARINGS. The difference between the inside and outside diameter
of the rings is much less than standard
bearings, but the cross section remains
constant as the bore diameter changes.
Generally a bearing is considered a
thin section when the bore diameter
is greater than four times the radial
cross section. The considerable advantage of the compact design is slightly
offset by a diminished load-carrying
capacity and temperature limitations
in some cases. The standard material
is high-chrome bearing steel, but they
are available in other materials such as
stainless steel.
Thin section bearings save weight,
create space, reduce friction, increase
design exibility and provide excellent running accuracy. These bearings

are available in a variety of materials,


corrosion-resistance options, separator
options, cross sections, internal t-up
choices, contact angles and precision
levels. They solve a variety of design
problems that cannot be addressed with
conventional ball bearings.
Advantages of thin section bearings
include:

Light weight
Multiload capabilities
High stiffness
A small cross section (with a variety
of possible cross sections and sizes).

Thin section bearings were originally developed for applications with tight
space limitations. They continue to be
most advantageous where space limitations and combined loading and/or

weight restrictions necessitate unique


designs. They contribute to downsizing, weight reduction and reduced
friction loss. The high accuracy of the
bearings also enables excellent, quiet
performance at high speeds (perfect for
CT scanners that require a large hollow
rotating area).
Not surprisingly, one of many promising applications is robots. Other applications include medical, aerospace,
defense and a range of industrial and
commercial applications that require
precision. Many of these applications
also require special lubricants and extreme cleanliness.
Thin section bearings are available
as deep groove ball bearings, four-point
contact ball bearings and angular contact
ball bearings. Each of these designs is
available in a range of sizes and materials.

August 6, 1962: To end the war in the Pacic, the U.S. drops the rst atomic bomb on Hiroshima at 8:15 a.m. 200,000 perish in the blast. 2 5

THE BASICS
A simple bearing is dened as a device
that supports and facilitates motion between xed and moving machine parts
(see Bearing Denitions and Terms). It
may have internal rolling elements, and
those rolling elements may consist of
balls, cylindrical rollers, tapered rollers
or spherical rollers. A thin section bearing, per ANSI/ABMA standard 26.2,
Thin Section Ball Bearings Inch Design,
is a bearing with a xed cross section so
that ...within a given series, the bearing cross section remains constant irrespective of the bore diameter. This includes ball bearings of (1.) single-row,
radial contact; (2.) single-row, angular
contact; and (3.) single-row, four-point
angular contact.
Single-row radial contact ball bearings
Handle radial loads
Have a zero-degree contact angle
Have a single ball path
Include a snap-over separator
Have a preload or clearance set
at the factory.
Single-row angular contact ball bearings
Are used in pairs
Handle radial, axial or moment
loads
Have a 30-degree contact angle
Have a single-ball path
Include a circular pocket separator
Have a t-up that can be adjusted at installation.
Four-point contact ball bearings
Handle radial, axial or moment
loads
Are used alone
Have 30-degree contact angles
Include a snap-over separator
Have a clearance set at the factory.
Common separator materials include:
Brass. Usually the standard option
for Kaydon catalog bearings.
300 series stainless steel/precipitation
hardened SST wire. Advantages include low outgassing, high-temperature and harsh-environment tolerance. Disadvantages include higher
friction than brass, more particle
26

AUGUST 2016

BEARING DEFINITIONS AND TERMS1


Axial clearance. This is the total amount of free axial movement between the inner
and outer race of a bearing. Bearings with internal clearance contain both axial and
radial clearance.
Axial load. This is the load applied to the bearing parallel with the bearing axis of
rotation, also known as thrust load.
Capacity. Dynamic capacity is the basic C rating, which represents a load that the bearing can theoretically endure for a million revolutions. Static capacity is the approximate
load the bearing can endure before permanent deformation occurs on the ball or raceway.
Deection. This is the amount of movement associated with compression or stretching of bearing components when placed under load.
Diameter tolerance. This is the range in which the average diameter of a bore may fall.
Diametral clearance. This is the total free movement of the inner race relative to
the outer race in a radial plane, also referred to as radial clearance.
L10 life. This is theoretical lifespan of a bearing under a specic set of dynamic operating conditions associated with 90% reliability.
Moment load. This is the load that, when applied to a bearing system, tends to
overturn or bend the axis of rotation in an angular direction.
Pitch diameter. This is the theoretical median diameter of a bearing, which passes
through the center of the rolling elements.
Preload. This is the amount of load placed on the rolling elements before the application of any external loads.
Radial load. This is the load applied perpendicular to the bearing axis of rotation.
Runout. This is the maximum axial or radial race wall thickness variation of an inner
or outer bearing race.

generation and poor wear properties.


Phenolic laminate (resin-coated linen
weave). Advantages include light
weight, low wear, porosity and quiet operation. They are appropriate
for the low-friction and high-speed
applications found in many legacy
applications. Disadvantages include
poor dimensional stability, especially in larger diameter bearings. They
cannot be manufactured in sizes
greater than 20 inches.
Molded nylon. Advantages include
lightweight, low wear, quiet operation and very low cost. Disadvantages include porosity (they readily
outgas), limited tooling and inability to withstand high temperatures.
Molded PEEK (polyether ether ketone).
Advantages include light weight,
low wear, quiet operation, low cost
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

and low outgassing. Disadvantages


include limited tooling and hightemperature intolerance.
Nylon strip. Advantages include light
weight, low wear, quiet operation,
low cost and the exibility to be
cut to any length. Disadvantages
include porosity, high-temperature
intolerance, open ends and a snapover style that may unzip and eject.

APPLICATIONS
Thin section bearings make the most
sense in applications that involve tight
spaces, low weight requirements, compact designs and precision. Primary applications are semiconductor mechanisms such as:
Atmospheric and vacuum robots
Wafer probers
Ion implantation
Sputtering equipment
W W W. ST L E .O RG

Test heads/manipulators
Rapid thermal processing (RTP)
Megasonic cleaning systems
Photolithography lens and counterbalance
Chemical mechanical polishers (CMP)
Die bonders
Lappers
Wafer steppers
Transfer systems (SMIF).

These semiconductors typically require a vacuum environment, low-particle generation and high accuracy.
Medical applications include:
Oncology treatment
Robotic surgery
Security scanners
Diagnostic equipment
CT scanners and baggage scanners used for
airport security.

Figure 1 | CT scanner assembly single four-point contact bearing.


(Courtesy of Kaydon Bearings.)

Bearings for CT scanners in particular require quiet operation, long life and low friction (see Figure 1). They require a
large opening for scanning (people or baggage) for which a
large diameter thin section bearing system is key. The long
service life can be achieved with the addition of lithium or
polyurea grease.

BEARING SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS


There are four basic bearing selection considerations: available
space, the degree of precision that is required, stiffness
and the internal and external operating environments.
Additional considerations include the applied load, the
degree of misalignment, operating speed, noise level, axial
displacement, mounting/dismounting factors, sealing and
lubrication (see Kaydons Lubrication Recommendations for Thin
Section Bearings on Page 30).
As far as the bearing size, considerations include shaft
outer diameter, housing inner diameter, width and cross section. Then there is the required bearing conguration: radial,
axial or combined; the dynamicswill the bearing rotate relative to the load or will the load rotate relative to the bearing;
and staticwill static load be present while the bearing is
stationary or at very low rpm; will it be constant and how
much shock load will be present (see Figure 2)?

Figure 2 | Custom bearing conguration four-point contact type:


mammography scanneroperates with axis vertical. Lower shield
also serves as belt guide and is only needed on lower side. (Courtesy
of Kaydon Bearings.)

BEARING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Given the environments where thin section bearings perform
best, bearing design considerations should factor in low torque,
low particle generation, high accuracy, high-duty cycles, high
temperatures and corrosion resistance (see Figure 3).
Low-friction torque. Lubricant selection oil vs. grease; cage
selection-non-metallic vs. metallic; internal t-up; clearance
vs. preload; external t-up/loose t-up vs. press t-up.
28

Figure 3 | Kaydons precision measurement of a thin section bearing.

(Courtesy of Kaydon Bearings.)

August 9, 1974: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon resigns following the Watergate scandal.

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Low-particle generation. Separator


selection-performance plastics and
nylon vs. steel/brass/Teon/PEEK;
race and ball material-hybrid bearings (ceramic balls and steel races);
grease selection-hybrid bearings
and oil vs. grease and dry lms;
packaging cleanlinessclean room
packaging.
High accuracy. Precision class; internal t-up-preload vs. clearance;
equipment designhigher-level
assemblies vs. individual bearings/
integral bearing designs vs. higher
level assemblies.
High-duty cycles. Bearing selectionhigher capacity vs. minimum
capacity; separator selectionperformance plastics vs. steel/Teon;
lubricant selectionsynthetic hydrocarbon greases vs. PFPE vs. organic; maintenance schedule.
High temperatures. Race and ball
materialspecial steels as required;
separator material-steel ring and
balls vs. plastics/Teon/PEEK; lubrication selectionPFPE greases
and dry lms vs. synthetic vs. organic; external t-upsteel shaft
and housings vs. aluminum.
Corrosive environment. Race and
ballsceramic balls and races/174PH steel races and ceramic balls/440
C steel races and ceramic balls; separator materialengineered plastic
(refer to compatibility charts); lubricationconsult lubrication expert;
platingsEndurakote and titanium
nitride vs. none.
Depending on the application requirements, thin section bearings can
be lubricated in many ways (see What
Can Go Wrong?). Options include lubricants designed specically for high
speed, high temperature, low torque,
water resistance and/or oscillation. Spe-

KAYDONS LUBRICATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THIN SECTION BEARINGS2


Kaydon recommends that the selection of the proper lubricant be based on an evaluation by the system design engineer of the operating conditions, including at a minimum:
rotational speed, type and magnitude of loads and ambient temperature. The three
types of lubricants commonly used are oil, grease and dry lm/surface treatment.
Oil usually provides more complete lubrication. Because of its liquid state, oil
provides better coverage of the critical surfaces and assists in dissipating heat
more readily. This is especially true when circulation and cooling are provided.
In high-speed applications where the heating effect is more pronounced, oil is
specied. Where minimum torque is a requirement, oil will usually provide lower
friction values.
Grease offers certain advantages of its own. Because it is more easily retained,
the design of bearing housings and seals is simplied. In many applications, the
lubricant itself serves to exclude contaminants when used in conjunction with
labyrinths or close clearances between the rotating and stationary structures.
For higher speeds within the range suitable for grease lubrication, a channeling
type of grease is often selected.
Dry lms and surface treatments have been used as bearing lubricants in applications subject to environmental extremes, particularly where conventional lubricants
cannot be tolerated or will not survive. A wide variety of types are available for
selection; options include tungsten disulde, graphite and molybdenum disulde.

WHAT CAN GO WRONG?


Mechanisms containing thin section bearings can lose their usefulness for reasons that
include:
Motor lock-up-high torque
Positioning errorserratic torque
Excessive noise
Contamination.
Wear particles from balls
Wear particles from ball paths in the races
Fretting between interfaces in housings, shafts and bearing faces and pilots
Sliding friction from separators or spacers
Lubricant breakdown
Lubricant expulsion.
Much of this can be avoided by incorporating bearings with the optimal size and
material for the application.

cialty lubricants such as dry lm can


be used in vacuum environments. The
optimal grease depends on the application and environment.

Jeanna Van Rensselar heads her


own communication/public
relations rm, Smart PR
Communications, in Naperville,
Ill. You can reach her at jeanna@
smartprcommunications.com.

REFERENCES
1. Excerpt from Kaydon Catalog, p.127.
2. From Lubrication and Maintenance of Reali-Slim Thin Section Bearings, Reali-Slim Bearings Catalog 300 Kaydon Bearings. Available
at www.kaydonbearings.com/downloads/catalog300/Kaydon_300_LubeMaintenance.pdf.

30

AUGUST 2016

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

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FEATURE ARTICLE
Dr. Robert M. Gresham / Contributing Editor

Condition monitoring moves into its fourth decade with

KEY CONCE
EPTS
EPTS
Asset man
ma agement
management
g
was a dom
d minant
miinant
m
ant
nt
th e at the
theme
thee LubMat
20 6 confe
2016
co erence
erence
e cee inn
Spai
Spain.

Can Stock Photo Inc. / abida

Risk managgement
gement
maintenannce
nce involves
an even
eeveen hi
h gher
higher
gh r use
see of
sensors onn critical
equip entt and big
equipment
bigg
data analyysis.
ysis.
In the futu
future
re robots
willll doo mo
more
re manufacmanuf ct ring whil
turing
whh le
le humans
huu a s
maintain the robots.

32 August 13, 1899: British lm director Alfred Hitchcock is born in London. Hed go on to direct Vertigo, Psycho, The Birds and North by Northwest.

increased emphasis on risk management maintenance.

I RECENTLY ATTENDED THE LUBMAT 2016 CONFERENCE IN BILBAO, SPAIN. This conference is
more industry focused than many conferences
in our eld and has a broad international attendanceprimarily greater Europe, the U.S., Central America and South America. At the last conference, LubMat 2014, I made a presentation on
STLEs Emerging Trends report which had come
out that year. It was well received and elicited
good questions and commentary in the halls. Interestingly, at this LubMat many of the plenary
speakers talked about and expanded on emerging trends from their various perspectives.

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

AUGUST 2016

33

Can Stock Photo Inc. / welcomia

Wind turbines and robots used in


manufacturing are technologies that
would benet from a Maintenance 4.0
approach.

There were several common themes


in the presentations and technical
talks. Predominant were the ideas of a
much improved condition monitoring,
maintenance and asset management
program. In addition, there were overlapping subjects such as wind turbines
(where the Europeans have more operating experience) and increased use
of robotics in manufacturing, which
also overlaps as it is very important to
keep the robot properly maintained to
not only eliminate downtime but also
to ensure that its manufacturing tasks
stay within specications.
Maintenance 4.0 is the new buzzword for this improved level of condition monitoring, maintenance and asset management. Twenty years ago oil
analysis was just getting going. STLE
had begun work on two new certications in oil analysis, and everyone
was preaching about the ills of reactive
maintenancewhich basically boils
down to you wait until it breaks, run
out and see how fast you can x it to
34

AUGUST 2016

eliminate downtime and reduce costs.


Of course, this approach results in
downtime or even loss of critical equipment, potential exposure of employees
to toxic materials, poor housekeeping
or unsafe conditions such as res and
explosions, not to mention delays in
supplying those all-important customers, who make it possible to pay the
bills. Further these kinds of problems
can result in regulatory nes and similar sanctions.
More recently, we began to talk of
predictive maintenance. This is the
idea that through condition monitoring techniques, such as oil analysis,
vibration analysis, thermal, etc., we
can determine when a machine or machine component is beginning to wear
or break down. This then buys a little
time to order in replacement parts and
to schedule down time to make the
needed repairs.
More recently still, we explored the
concepts of proactive maintenance.
Here we introduced the ideas of asT R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

set management along with more improved condition-based maintenance


techniques. Some of the new ideas
were to identify and rate each piece of
equipment or component according to
the criticality of it to the overall plant
operation and assign a dollar amount
as a measure of its importance. This
provided nancial justication for increased condition monitoring of critical
equipment, inventorying critical repair
or replacement parts and, most important, scheduling maintenance cycles
well in advance so key system components receive periodic maintenance to
ensure no downtime between cycles.
Now with Maintenance 4.0, the emphasis is on risk management maintenance. Some of the characteristics of
risk management maintenance involve
an even higher level of condition-based
maintenance through the use of sensors
on critical equipment and through big
data analysis to more precisely determine trends and the state of the equipment. Of course, determining the level
W W W. ST L E .O RG

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When you consider the risks and costs


associated with operating nuclear
power plants, a Maintenance 4.0
program looks pretty good.

of risk to the overall operation for each


piece of equipment if it fails, and the
economic impact if it fails, is taken to
a much higher level.
Finally, and this is critical, take
proactive steps to eliminate that risk
for that equipment or system with the
most impact. This could take the form
of statistically determining if one brand
of bearing lasts longer for a given application and using the longer-lasting
bearing regardless of cost. In oil analysis, preferably through use of sensors,
monitor not the health of the oil per se
but the critical additive system in the
oil as it begins to break down. Then the
oil can be changed before the machine
actually sees degraded oil.
An important part of Maintenance
4.0, implied above, is enhanced asset
management. In fact, there is a relatively new standard, ISO 55000, which
is an international standard covering
management of physical assets. Initially
a publicly available specication (PAS
55) published by the British Standards
36

AUGUST 2016

Institution in 2004, the ISO 55000 series of asset management standards was
launched in January 2014. In a recent
article, in Norias Machinery Lubrication, Jim Fitch characterized the standard: Asset management involves the
balancing of costs, opportunities and
risks against the desired performance of
assets, to achieve the organizational objectives. An asset management system
provides a structured approach for the
development, coordination and control
of activities undertaken on assets by the
organization over different life cycle
stages and for aligning these activities
with its organizational objectives.
When one thinks of the enormous
capital investment and the equally enormous repair expense in large wind turbine farms, a Maintenance 4.0 approach
would seem the only logical method to
manage these assets. Manufacturing
robots also can be an expensive investment which is amenable to a Maintenance 4.0 approach. Interestingly, when
you think about manufacturing someT R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

thing with complex robots, it seems


clear that the operations and maintenance departments begin to merge into
one. An operator no longer makes or
assembles things; the robot does that.
The operator programs the robot to do
what is needed then monitors the robot
to see if it does what is intended and at
the same time attends to the needs of the
robotits maintenance.
Finally, when you consider the risks
and costs associated with operating
nuclear power plants, a Maintenance
4.0 program looks pretty good as well.
This years LubMat conference was
informative. Normally, LubMat stands
for lubricants and materials. This year
it was more about lubricants and Maintenance 4.0.

Bob Gresham is STLEs director


of professional development.
You can reach him at
rgresham@stle.org.

W W W. ST L E .O RG

4XDOLW\ )RRG6DIHW\
3$1$ 2WKHUV

$2

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&RUSRUDWH'ULYH6XLWH+RXVWRQ7;
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MARKET REPORT
Gabriel Tarle

Metalworking
uids:

Global
challenges,
trends and
opportunities
Can Stock Photo Inc. / sspopov

How OEMs, suppliers and end-users are affectedand responding.


K Y CONC
KEY
CONCEPTS
TS
MWF additives comprise
co prise
i e nearly 16% of the
global lubricant additive market.
Regulatory bodies worldwide are substantial y changing
tially
changi
g ng how
ho MWF additives
additi
ddd ti ess are
labeled, traded
t d d andd registered.
regi
g tered.
Machining trends such as high-speed
high-sp ed
cutting and minimum quantity lubrication
also are strongly impacting
imp cting MWF
additives.

38

Even though metalworking uids (MWFs) account for a little less


than 6% of total lubricant volume, additives for these substances account for nearly 16% of the total lubricant additive
market. This makes MWF additives the third most important
product class in volume after heavy-duty and passenger car
engine oils.
MWF additives are one of the most challenging product
classes both for blenders and additive suppliers. MWFs are
the most treated lubricant by number of components and treat
levels. On average a removal uid has 12 components, and a
cold aluminum rolling synthetic additive pack could go as high
as 97% of total lubricant weight. Health, safety and regulations,
new machining techniques and new material technology are
reshaping metalworking uid formulations.

August 14, 1935: President Franklin Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act, guaranteeing pensions for Americans at age 65.

From a health and safety standpoint there are currently three


main regulatory bodies inuencing the industry: Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restrictions of Chemicals
(REACH) in Europe, the U.S. EPA and the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) at a global level.
The GHS of classication and labeling of chemicals, a new
system for chemical hazard reporting, was created in 2012 by
United Nations-member countries to facilitate trade while safeguarding the environment and human health. The UN-member
countries agreed to implement national systems similar to the
GHS by scrapping the material safety data sheets and replacing
them with new safety data sheets (SDSs).
The new hazard classication encompasses new symbols
intended to create a standard and uniform international way
of communicating hazard information to end-users. Though
GHS is supposed to standardize the hazard information globally, suppliers afrm that U.S. SDSs will be very different from
their European and Canadian counterparts. It is expected that
India, China and Southeast Asia together with the Middle East
will implement the GHS at a later stage.
EPA protects the environment and human health by enforcing regulations passed by the U.S. Congress. Following
the recent legislative developments, the industry has created
a new category of chlorinated parafnsthe very long chain
chlorinated parafn (vLCCP)with chain length between
C21 and C30. The vLCCPs are cleared for use by EPA and not
classied by the European Union (EU) as hazardous.
In January 2015 EPA gave two options to chlorinated parafn producers: stop selling MCCP and LCCP (C18-C21) immediately or dont sell MCCP and LCCP after May 31, 2016.
However, in September 2015 EPA delayed the ban on chlorinated parafns until mid-2017. Since chlorinated parafns
are an important category of EP additives, this development
will inuence MFW formulations.
REACH requires all chemical substances on the European
market to be registered by 2018. For the next registration
phase (May 31, 2018), manufacturers and importers are
required to submit a detailed substance dossier to the
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) for each substance
within a given period if they market between one and 100
tons of the substance per year in Europe. According to the
no data, no market principle only registered substances can
be manufactured, imported and used in Europe.
The next REACH deadline imposes an innovation barrier
due to the high cost associated with REACH registration
procedures. Blenders might have difculties getting some
products after May 2018, as some of them that are sold in
small volume might not be economically feasible for the
expensive REACH registration.
Following recent regulations, MWF additives like some
of the chlorinated parafns will be increasingly restricted.
MWF additive producers possibly will build innovation centers outside the EU after 2018 and choose not to register new
chemistries with REACH because of higher costs. The EU will
W W W. ST L E .O RG

Can Stock Photo Inc. / yuran78

REGULATORY TRENDS

Non-ferrous metals, alloys, exotic metals and


composites will continue to change MWF
formulation.
certainly lag behind other regions in terms of new chemistries,
and this could also prevent smaller niche additive producers
from entering the market. The GHS is certainly burdening the
labeling process and increasing production costs, and endusers likely will cover the additional cost. Uncertain is how
long it will take to have a functioning GHS across the globe.

MACHINING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS


Machining technique trends include high-speed cutting
(HSC), minimum quantify lubrication (MQL) and dry machining. Non-traditional cutting methods that are gaining
ground include laser, electrical discharge and water jet machining. For example, laser cutting is replacing work previously done by turret punch presses, plasma cutters, shears and
mills. An advantage of laser machining includes the ability
to machine burr-free edges. The aerospace industry, with its
emphasis on increasing quality and accuracy while reducing
costs, is a strong market for laser machining technology.
With HSC the neat oil is sprayed on under high pressure
as an aerosol. Otherwise, the air layer turning with the tool bit
would prevent the uid from reaching the tool bit. Foaming
and misting can be a problem.
In removal uids, the dominant applications for MQL are
boring and drilling. Some engineers afrm that MQL is limited
in some applications because the machine can get overheated.
In the automotive industry, for instance, machines work continuously for three shifts, and MQL cannot be used as the machines can overheat. Apart from this, automotive aluminum
alloys are used, which can be very demanding of the machine.
MQL is mostly used in drilling operations on aluminum and
other non-ferrous metals. In casting, there would be a dusting
issue if MQL is used. MQL reduces the amount of oil needed
to machine a part by 80% or more.
In forming uids microlubrication technology is successfully employed in forming operations such as blanking,
stamping and tube drawing. Technically and commercially
effective application of microlubrication requires appropriate
metering systems, tool coatings and suitably designed machines and tools.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

AUGUST 2016

39

MWF additives have worked in favor of various machining techniques.


HSC, MQL, dry machining and laser cutting have been available for a
while, in some instances reducing the
volume of uids and implicitly the
additives required. Some applications
have beneted from such techniques,
but experts agree that HSC, MQL, dry
machining and laser cutting are limited
to particular applications and tailored
to the needs of individual producers.
As general machining technology
improves with higher cutting speed
and better precision cutting, the need
for properly additized uids increases
primarily because of machine depreciation associated with wear. Factories
have to stay competitive by efciently
managing production while maximizing machine lifetime.

NEW MATERIALS
New materials continue to penetrate
the global automotive and aerospace in-

dustries. Increased use of aluminum is


expected to be a growth factor for semisynthetic and synthetic uids. Globally
there is a trend toward improving vehicle fuel economy by using lighter metals and metal-reinforced bers to keep
overall weight of vehicle low.
Lighter non-ferrous metals or alloys, such as aluminum, magnesium
and higher-strength steels, are used to
manufacture lightweight vehicles. Exotic metals such as compacted graphite
iron also are being used to manufacture
certain vehicle parts to reduce vehicle
weight for increasing fuel economy.
These new metals or alloys could result
in additional machining challenges for
the metalworking industry. For example, there is a trend away from amines
to other chemistries that are less aggressive in non-ferrous alloys.
Strong growth of the composites
in the aerospace industry, particularly
commercial air transport, will lead to
changes in corrosion inhibitors and re-

What do Acme-Hardesty and Italy-based


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moval uids. Composites do not generally have metal components, and there
is no need for corrosion inhibitors. The
most preferred polymer material is carbon ber reinforced due to its durability
and superior mechanical performance.
However, any polymer-based composite
cannot safely operate at temperatures
above 150 C, well below the high pressure turbine operating temperatures.
The high costs associated with machining the high-temperature metal alloys,
as well as their heavy weight, make the
alloys candidates for future substitution. Currently ceramic-based composites are being researched to replace
metal alloys in some instances.
Non-ferrous metals, alloys, exotic
metals and composites will continue
to change MWF formulation. From the
beginning of the 2000s, the complexity
of automotive and aerospace manufacturing has demanded different types
of uids for ferrous and non-ferrous
metals. Nowadays, weight reduction

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Its only Bio.Logical. to contact us: (800) 223-7054 acme-hardesty.com

40

AUGUST 2016

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

has prompted the use of composites


and other polymer-based materials demanded more suitable uid types.

NEW OEMS
The competition in the passenger jet
industry intensifies as Chinas first
homemade plane just started service.
Japans Mitsubishi announced it also
is entering the market. This comes in
addition to Russias Sukhoi and Brazils
Embraer each launching a line of commercial aircraft.

not so much in soluble water-based


uids. Their use is growing in India,
but in other parts of world, particular
North America and Europe, their use
is declining.
There is a growing use of bio-additives, such as those made out of palm
oil, as co-emulsiers in the MWFs industry. They are used along with watermiscible MWFs and not with straight
oils. Co-emulsiers are used mostly in
removal uids. Distilled Tall Oil and di-

acids are the two major bio-additives


used. Sulfonates had been the preferred
emulsier type due to their low cost;
however, they are vulnerable to microbial breakdown and currently account
for 50% of demand.
Microbial contamination is one
of the most widespread problems in
MWFs, and triazines dominate MWF
application with more than 50% of the
global demand. Although triazines are
the leading biocides used, they also are

MWF ADDITIVES
On the functional additive classes, regulatory drivers will have a major impact
on the future use of EP additives. In
the U.S. the transition to vLCCPs will
be more prominent in metal-forming
fluids due to their higher viscosity
compared to MCCPs and LCCPs. But
the vLCCP will be at disadvantage for
metal-removal uids where the sulfurized chemistries are easier to formulate. Both sulfurized olens and fats will
grow as a result. Phosphate esters are a
good substitute for chlorinated parafns
when the cost is justied. They provide
good antiwear and staining protection
for aluminum alloys. However, they are
used in less severe applications. From
the same class, phosphonates are good
for stain-free application.
The use of aluminum alloys have
been increasing and pushing formulators to reduce the uid pH to avoid
alkaline-driven staining. However, the
reduction of the pH generally results
in reducing the uid life when using
phosphate esters, which are food for
microorganisms. TEA could be a good
x due to its buffer abilities but only in
small volume to avoid staining. Amine
carboxylate and lactic acid have no
health and environmental issues, but
only the demand for lactic acid is growing. The demand for DCHA, a permitted secondary amine, has been growing
for a while but is subject to the hazard
label. DCHA, lactic acid and carboxylate are good alternatives to the boron
technology. Boron compounds are used
both in semisynthetic and synthetic
metalworking uids formulations and
42

AUGUST 2016

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T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

WHERE LUBRICANT CHEMISTRY MEETS

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a very effective corrosion inhibitor in


water-based uids. In Europe the market for metalworking uids is regulated
and many biocides have been removed
due to the Biocidal Products Directive
since 2006. Triazine dosages have been
reduced to 500 ppm from 1500 ppm
by EPA in metalworking uids. France
has banned the usage of formaldehydereleasing agents, which is the case for
the triazines. New biocides, which are
not formaldehyde releasers or phenols,
might gain ground in other European
countries as well.
Globally MWFs are going through

Gabriel T. Tarle

a challenging yet rewarding period.


There are costs involved both in the
upstream and downstream of the lubricants business associated with implementing the GHS. A major factor to
consider when labeling metalworking
uids is trade secrecy. The U.S. makes
it easy to claim trade secrecy, creating
a backdoor to much of the GHS labeling procedure. And the GHS labeling
would or would not be effectively applied. In such instances downstream
players (blenders) should ask for more
information about health and safety. In
Canada and the EU, trade secrets are

registered and are scrutinized by government agencies. Similar to Europe,


in Canada trade secrets need to be renewed periodically.
Regulatory changes, changes in machining technology and new materials
and emergence of new OEMs all pose
signicant challenges and opportunities for MWFs and additives suppliers.
High value-added industries such as
automotive and aerospace manufacturing are growing more demanding and
seeking new solutions. Additive suppliers who can meet these challenges will
succeed in this market.

Gabriel T. Tarle is a senior consultant at Klines Petroleum and Energy practice. He is responsible for both ad-hoc and syndicated
studies across the entire supply chain of nished lubricants and related specialties, ranging from base stocks (virgin and re-rened),
waxes and additives to automotive and industrial lubricants, as well as various process oils.
His key contributions for Klines market studies include Metalworking Fluids: Global Market Analysis and Opportunities; Global
Lubricant Basestocks: Market Analysis and OpportunitiesEurope; Global Wax Industry: Market Analysis and OpportunitiesEurope;
Global Lubricants: Market Analysis and AssessmentDACH, Romania, and other Eastern European countries; Global Synthetic
Lubricants: Market Analysis and OpportunitiesDACH.
Tarle has worked on a number of studies for Klines consulting projects related to market entry, niche market assessment, new
products/services and material demand models.

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T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

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W W W. ST L E .O RG

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PEER-REVIEWED

Effects of Oxide Layer Formation during


Lubricated Sliding on the Frictional Properties of
Titanium-Coated Silicon
DAE-HYUN CHO,1 JIUSI JIA,2 and YOUNG-ZE LEE1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 446-746, Korea
2
Plant Business Group, Samsung C&T Corporation Headquarter, Seoul 137-956, Korea

Manuscript received April 1, 2014


Manuscript accepted July 21, 2014
Review led by Liming Chang
STLE

Editors Note: Titanium and


its alloys are gaining popularity
for surface coatings; they have
good resistance against corrosion and fatigue. Predicting
some of their tribological properties is difcult since the oxide
layer dominates the surface
coating during sliding contact.
This months Editors Choice
paper details the experiments
used to help understand the
relationship between the oxide
layer and the surface coating.
The ndings underline the
importance of understanding
the role the oxide layer plays in
other titanium alloys.
Evan Zabawski, CLS
Editor

46

KEY WORDS
Titanium; Oxides; Coatings; Friction Mechanisms

ABSTRACT
The principal goal of the experiments described in this article is to elucidate the effect of oxide layer formation during lubricated sliding on the frictional properties of Ti-coated silicon.
It was found that the TiO2 layer is the prime determinant of the frictional properties of sliding surfaces coated with Ti coating. At the initial stage of sliding, Ti coating showed a high
(0.55) and unstable frictional response. During this period, the Si substrates and Ti coating
were damaged simultaneously, indicating that the wearing of the coating and substrate is
attributed to the high and unstable friction. With the formation of the oxide layer, after a
few cycles of the onset of sliding, the friction coefcient became stable and decreased to 0.16.
By analyzing the oxide layer using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive
spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy, it was found that the oxide layer (TiO 2
layer) was formed from the debris of the worn Ti coating. Adhesion tests using atomic force
microscopy (AFM) revealed that the adhesive component of the friction of sliding surfaces
was not lowered by the oxide layer. By comparing the SEM images and frictional response,
it was demonstrated that the oxide layer restrained the development of surface damage and
the frictional work was converted to the growth of the oxide layer instead of damaging the
sliding surfaces. From these results, it was conrmed that the deformation component of Ti
coating friction was suppressed by the oxide layer.

BACKGROUND
Generally, sliding components in mechanical systems require a low friction value except for some components such as brakes and clutches. To meet this requirement,
surface coatings have been widely used to tailor the frictional properties of sliding
surfaces (Holmberg and Matthews (1)). Among the surface coatings, Ti and its alloys
are considered as promising materials because of their outstanding properties such
as high resistance against fatigue, low density, corrosion resistance, formability, and
low modulus (Cheng, et al. (2);Rastkar and Shokri (3); Das, et al. (4); Cao, et al. (5)).
Although Ti and its alloys have been widely used, it is very difcult to make accurate
predictions about the frictional response on real components because the oxide layer
formed during sliding rather than the surface coatings dominates it (Bhushan (6); Savas
August 15, 1969: 300,000 young people go on down to Max Yasgurs

TABLE 1CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WHITE MINERAL OIL USED IN THE PRESENT STUDY (PROVIDED BY MICHANG CO.)
Property
Value

Specic
Gravity

pH

Vapor
Density

Vapor
Pressure

Viscosity

Solubility
in Water

Volatile
Characteristics

0.838

Not applicable

>1

<0.1 mmHg (@ 20 C)

8.2 cSt @ 40 C

Insoluble in cold water

Slightly volatile

and Danisman (7); Egaa, et al. (8); Blau, et al. (9)).


For this reason, surface coatings for reducing friction and
wear, which are widely used in dry sliding or environments
containing oxygen, can generate the oxide layer with an efcient lubricity during sliding contacts. For example, when
steel coated with diamond-like coating slides on a pristine
steel surface, the oxide layer formed on the pristine steel surface protects the surfaces against wear (Pettersson and Jacobson (10); Cho, et al. (11)). In addition, it was reported that
the friction coefcient of the CrN coating can be reduced
by the formation of a chromium oxide layer by observing
the friction coefcient of CrN against a 100Cr6 bearing steel
and ceramic Si3N4 ball with the wide range of temperature
up to 500C (Polcar, et al. (12)). The lowered friction due to
the formation of the oxide layer is generally attributed to its
relatively low shear strength (Holmberg and Matthews (1)).
For surfaces coated with Ti-based materials the TiOx species typically form on the Ti-based coating surface (Holmberg and Matthews (1)). However, the oxide layer formed
on the Ti-based coatings does not always lower the friction
coefcient. In the case of TiCN coating, the oxide layer can
improve the frictional properties of sliding surfaces (Polcar,
et al. (12)), whereas the friction coefcient of TiN-coated surfaces increases with the formation of oxide layer (Cho and Lee
(13)). The thickness of the naturally formed oxide layer during sliding is much thinner than the coating, but it determines
the frictional characteristics. Therefore, it is obvious that the
frictional characteristics of each Ti-based coating should be
understood based on the formation of an oxide layer.
In the case of the Ti coating, the oxide layer formed by
thermal oxidation has an advantage in tribological application (Bloyce, et al. (14)). However, such a superior tribological characteristic of the oxide layer was not always observed.
Depending on the oxidizing condition such as oxidation
temperature and oxidation duration, the superior characteristics of the oxide layer can frequently disappear (Siva Rama
Krishna and Sun (15); Dong and Li (16)). It is known that the
oxidizing condition can affect the structure of an oxidized Ti
coating. Hence, the structural effect of the oxide layer on the
tribological characteristics produced by thermal oxidation has
been studied (Krishna, et al. (17)).
As mentioned above, a large number of previous studies
on Ti coating have aimed at ascertaining the optimum oxidizing condition for producing a strongly bonded thick titanium
oxide layer with a rutile structure. These efforts focused on
the effect of a previously formed oxide layer before sliding.
However, the effects of an oxide layer formed during sliding
on the frictional properties of Ti coating are still not fully
dairy farm in Bethel, New York, for the three-day Woodstock music festival.

investigated. Herein, on the basis of the understanding that


the oxide layer is the prime determinant of the frictional properties of sliding surfaces coated with Ti-based materials, the
effect of the oxide layer formation on the frictional properties
of pure Ti coating was investigated. To observe the process of
oxide layer formation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy were employed. By analyzing the results of adhesion
tests with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the surface
image of the worn track with SEM, how the oxide layer that
formed on Ti coating affects the frictional properties of sliding
surfaces will be explained.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
During the main experiment, we used a typical ball-on-disk
type tribometer. Using a ball-on-disk sliding tester, we could
observe the formation of an oxide layer during sliding with
a gently applied load. The applied load can be controlled by
providing different dead weights on the steel ball straightway.
The signal transmitted from the strain gage for measuring friction force was transformed with a sampling frequency of 5 Hz.
Silicon wafers with a thickness of 675 m were used as a
substrate for the Ti coating. A 1-m-thick titanium (Ti) coating was deposited by physical vapor deposition using the DC
magnetron sputter method on <100> oriented silicon wafers
with a hardness of 12.4 GPa and surface roughness (Rq) of
300 nm. As the counterpart against the coated surfaces, an
AISI 52100 bearing steel ball with a diameter of 10.16 mm
was chosen. The disk sample rotated at a sliding speed of 0.02
m/s during test. All sliding tests were performed in a white
mineral oil (Michang Co.) environment in order to generate
mild sliding, allowing us to explore the relation between the
formation of the oxide layer and frictional properties. Table 1
provides the chemical properties provided by Michang. During the tests, room temperature and constant humidity of 15%
were maintained.
Two types of friction tests were performed with the experimental conditions mentioned above. Four different applied loads ranging from 2 to 6 N were used in order to make
comparisons of the effects of the oxide layer on the frictional
properties under diverse loads; additional sliding tests were
subsequently made with an applied load of 4 N. These tests
were paused at certain sliding cycles in order to clearly observe the process of oxide layer formation during sliding.
Herein, the latter type of test is designated as a stage-by-stage
test. The worn surfaces generated from the stage-by-stage tests
were analyzed to determine the effect of the formation of the
oxide layers using SEM, EDS, Raman spectroscopy, and AFM.
47

In particular, the tests results from EDS and Raman spectroscopy were used to conrm the type of oxide layer.
An SEM/EDS system manufactured by JEOL (JSM-7600F)
was used to observe the formation of the oxide layer. Raman
spectroscopy (Alpha300 M+, WITEC GMbH) was also employed to conrm the oxide species formed on the wear track.
The adhesion force of the unworn Ti coating, oxide layer,
and wear track without oxide were measured using an AFM
manufactured by Seiko Instruments (E-sweep). A sharp AFM
silicon tip, SI-AF01, fabricated by Seiko Instruments was used
and its normal spring constant was 0.22 N/m. The normal
spring constant was calculated using the following equation
(Palacio and Bhushan (18)):
KN =

Ewt3
,
4l3

[1]

where E is the elastic modulus of Si, and w, t, and L are the


width, thickness, and length of the cantilever, respectively.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


As mentioned in the Introduction, it is suggested that the TiOx
species can form and dominate the frictional characteristics
of Ti coating during sliding. In addition, it was reported that
the formation rates of the oxide layer vary with the contact
pressure (Cho and Lee (13), (19), (20)). To test whether or
not the above two discovered facts can also be applied to the
case of the Ti-coated surfaces, friction coefcients of Ti-coated
silicon wafers were recorded with different applied contact
loads with a range from 2 to 6 N (Figure 1). It is clearly shown
that the coefcient of friction was changed with the increase
in sliding cycles. The frictional behavior observed in Figure 1
can be divided into three stages: the initial response with high
and relatively unstable friction; a gentle decrease in friction;
and saturation of the coefcient of friction down to around
0.16. In the cases with applied loads of 6 and 4 N (Figures
1a and 1b), the frictional transitions ended between the 30th
and 35th sliding cycles. On the other hand, for relatively low
applied load conditions (3 and 2 N) shown in Figures 1c and
1d, the transition nished at around the 50th sliding cycle.
In other words, the frictional transition appears earlier at
the high contact load. This observed phenomenon concurs
with test results previously reported (Cho and Lee (13), (19),
(20)). According to these studies, the transition is directly
related to the formation of an oxide layer. At the initial stages,
the friction signals reect the tribological characteristics of the
pristine coating and its counter-surface. After transition, the
characteristics of the oxide layer dominate the friction behavior. This explanation can be applied to elucidate the frictional
behavior observed in Figure 1. It is likely that the frictional
characteristics shown at the initial stage are attributed to the
contact between the steel ball and pristine Ti coating. As the
sliding cycle increases, the oxide layer forms on the sliding
surface. Therefore, the formation of the oxide layer is the origin for the decrease in the coefcient of friction at the second
48

AUGUST 2016

Figure 1 | Coefcient of friction signal from the sliding tests of AISI


52100 steel ball on 1-+m-thick Ti-coated silicon wafer in a lubricating
environment under various contact loads: (a) 6 N, (b) 4 N, (c) 3 N, and

(d) 2 N.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

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stage. Finally, when the equilibrium between the formation


and removal of the oxide layer is achieved during sliding, the
coefcient of friction is stably saturated as shown in the third
stage. However, in the case of frictional characteristics of the
TiN coating reported in Cho and Lee (13), the coefcient
of friction was gradually enhanced with an increase in the
number of sliding cycles, in contrast to that of the Ti reported
herein. Direct evidence is thus required in order to link the
formation of the oxide layer and the frictional properties of
the Ti coating.
Toward this objective, the sliding tests were further performed under the condition of the applied load of 4 N, where
the coefcient of friction decreased gently. By stopping the
sliding tests at each stage, the analysis of the worn surfaces
was carried out to nd the relation between the friction and
oxide layer formed on the Ti coatings.
Figure 2 shows the measured coefcient of friction from
the stage-by-stage tests with an applied load of 4 N. The data
were acquired by stopping the sliding at the certain cycle referring the each stage. Figures 2a and 2b show that the sliding
tests were stopped at the rst and second stages, respectively.
In the case of the nal stage, the tests were paused at the initial point (between the 35th and 40th cycles) and the stable
point (the 100th cycle). The sliding cycle for stopping was
determined based on the result in Figure 1b.

50

AUGUST 2016

First, all tests shown in Figure 2 show analogous trends.


In other words, it is clear that the sliding tests were reliably
reproducible, indicating that the test procedure employed
herein is appropriate for analyzing the formation of the oxide layer.
SEM images were acquired from each step mentioned
above (Figure 3). It can be perceived that as the number of
sliding cycles increases, the width of the wear track increases.
Examining the SEM images, a type of plateau, which is formed
at the front of the craters (surface damage), widens with the
increase in sliding cycles.
The crater appears in the initial stage (Figure 3a). In the
second stage, representing the frictional transition, the plateau appears at the front of the crater (Figure 3b). If the sliding continues and the friction saturates down to the value of
around 0.15, the plateau is signicantly developed (Figures
3c and 3d). From these observations, it can be speculated
that the plateaus are related to the friction trend and are a
type of tribolm.
It is known that a tribolm can form due to oxidized wear
debris (Holmberg and Matthews (1)). Therefore, the fact that
the tribolm with the shape of plateaus appears at the front
of the crater indicates that the origins of the tribolm are the
wear debris of Ti coating and their oxidation. On the other
hand, the position of the tribolm reveals that the tribolm

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

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Figure 2 | Coefcient of friction signal from the sliding tests of AISI


52100 steel ball on 1-+m-thick Ti-coated silicon wafer in a lubricating
environment under 4 N contact loads. The sliding test stopped at (a)
stage 1, (b) stage 2, (c) initial point of stage 3, and (d) stable point of
stage 3.

Figure 3 | SEM images of the wear under 4 N contact loads in different stages: (a) stage 1, (b) stage 2, (c) initial point of stage 3, (d)
stable point of stage 3. White arrows indicate the sliding direction.
Scale bar, 200 +m.

August 16, 1977: Elvis Presley dies from a heart attack reportedly brought about by years of abusing prescription drugs.

51

can suppress the expansion of the crater because no grown


crater along the wear track can be observable after tribolm
formation. If there is no factor suppressing the expansion, the
grown crater should exist. In addition, it can be seen that the
development of craters was restrained after the formation of
the tribolm.
To further test the origin of the tribolm, EDS analysis
was performed (Figure 4). EDS images were acquired on the
tribolms with a plateau shape at the front of the craters. To
conrm their chemical composition, O, Si, and Ti signals were
recorded. It is clearly seen that the regions occupied with
an Si signal (yellow color) do not contain a Ti signal (red
color). This indicates that the silicon substrates were naked
because the Ti coating was worn from the region. Oxygen
signals provide information about whether or not the Ti coating is oxidized. At the initial stage (Figure 4a), the Ti signal
(red color) has no relation with the O signal (green color),
indicating that the Ti coating was not oxidized at that stage.
After the initial stage (Figures 4b4d), the intensity of the O
signal was clearly enhanced in the region occupied by the red
signal (Ti). These results indicate that oxidation of the Ti coating is initiated from the frictional transition stage. Therefore,
the tribolm with a plateau shape is the oxide layer formed
on the Ti coating. In addition, this EDS analysis (Figure 4)
demonstrates that the friction trend of Ti (Figure 2) directly
reects the formation of the oxide layer.
It was reported that TiOx species frequently form on the
coating surface as the tribolm (Cheng, et al. (2); Krishna,
et al. (17); Cho and Lee (19)). To conrm the chemical bond
of the oxide layer, Raman signals were acquired on the oxide
layer (Figure 5) and a weak peak at 415 cm1 and a relatively
small peak at around 610 cm1 were observed. These two
peaks correspond to the Eg and A1g modes of TiO2, respectively (Zhang, et al. (21); Melendres, et al. (22)). Therefore,

Figure 4 | SEM images and EDS mapping results of worn surfaces


under 4 N contact loads: (a) stage 1, (b) stage 2, (c) initial point of
stage 3, (d) stable point of stage 3. Green, yellow, and red colors
correspond to the intensity of O, Si, and Ti, respectively. Scale bar, 50
+m.
52

AUGUST 2016

Figure 5 | Raman spectra obtained on the oxide layer on the worn


surface.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

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it is evident that the Ti coating was oxidized during sliding


and changed to TiO2 (Feist and Davies (23)).
According to previously established research (Molinari,
et al. (24)), the low resistance against shear stress and the
formation of the oxide layer should be minimized to protect
the Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces against wear. On the other hand,
it was reported that the oxide layer formed on the TiN-coated
surfaces could improve wear resistance but enhance friction
force. In contrast to the these two observations, the test results
shown herein reveal that the oxide layer formed on the Ti
coating can decrease friction force and wear. These observed
phenomena indicate that the frictional characteristics of each
Ti-based coating should be understood based on the formation of the oxide layer as mentioned in the Introduction.
It is known that the dissipation mechanism of friction
consists of an adhesion component and a deformation component, both of which are required to separate the surfaces
from the adhesion and accompany the surface deformation
during sliding (Bowden and Tabor (25)). Therefore, it can be
speculated that the reduced friction of Ti due to the formation of the oxide layer can be elucidated by exploring the two
major components of friction.
Toward this objective, adhesion tests using AFM were
performed. The tests were conducted on the region of the
unworn area of Ti coating but submerged in the oil during
the test, the mildly worn surface where only the Ti coating
delaminated without signicant damage to the substrate, the
severely worn surface (crater), and the oxide layer (Figure
6). It was found that the oxide was formed with a highly at
surface (Rq = 250300 nm). Therefore, the capillary effect was
considered a minor factor when we compare the adhesion
force between unworn Ti and the oxide because both two
surfaces are highly at. The unworn Ti coating shows the
adhesion force of 7 nN 4. On the other hand, the adhesion
force of the mildly worn region, the crater, and the oxide layer
were 15.5 2.3, 12.3 3.1, and 13.9 2.3, respectively. It is
interesting that the adhesion force even on the oxide layer
was not lowered compared to that on the unworn Ti coating; nevertheless, the friction of the unworn Ti coating shows
relatively high friction (Figures 1 and 2). These results reveal
that the reduction in friction of the Ti coating is not attributed
to the change in its adhesive component. Although the Ti
coatings were covered by a naturally formed oxide lm before
sliding tests, the adhesion force was enhanced after sliding.
From the results of adhesion tests, it can be presumed that
the deformation component of friction decreases due to the
formation of TiO2 lm. In the initial stage (Figure 3a), the craters appeared on the sliding surfaces with a high and unstable
frictional response (Figure 2a). The frictional response at the
initial stage can be attributed to the wear of the Ti coating and
the damage to the Si substrate (or the generation of craters).
After a few sliding cycles, the oxide layer was generated, reducing the friction force (Figures 2b and 3b). After these two
stages, the friction coefcient decreased down to around 0.16
and the oxide lms markedly grew in a transverse direction
54

Figure 6 | AFM images obtained before adhesion tests: (a) pristine Ti


coating (1 = 1 +m2), (b) mildly worn region without crater (10 = 10
+m2), (c) crater (25 = 25 +m2), and (d) oxide layer (1 = 1 +m2).

(Figures 2c, 2d, 3c, 3d). In addition, it can be seen that the
size and density of the crater on the worn surfaces did not
signicantly increase after the oxide layer formation (Figure
3). The fact that the craters are not generated more and hardly
grow after the onset of oxide lm formation imply that the
frictional work is converted to the formation of oxide lm
but damage to the surfaces. The oxide lm generated in front
of the crater also can be a factor restraining the development
of craters. Therefore, it can be speculated that the formation
of the oxide layer is highly relevant to the reduction in the
deformation component of friction rather than the adhesion
component. Further study is required to clearly determine
this mechanism.

CONCLUSION
Herein, the effect of oxide layer formation on the frictional
properties of Ti coating was explored. During the few cycles
after the onset of sliding, the friction coefcient of Ti coating
was relatively high (0.55) and unstable. This is attributed to
the wear of the coating and the generation of a crater on the
Si substrate. After the formation of an oxide layer, the friction coefcient was approximately 0.16 and stably saturated.
The analysis of EDS and Raman signal reveals that the wear
debris of Ti coating reacted with oxygen and was transformed
to the TiO2 layer. By testing the adhesive force of the unworn
Ti coating and the worn surfaces, it was conrmed that the
adhesive component was not relevant to the reduced friction.
The SEM and EDS analysis of the worn surfaces showed that

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the growth of craters was restrained by the oxide layer. In


addition, it was conrmed that there was an obvious link
between the development of the oxide layer and the frictional
response. From these results, it is concluded that the oxide
layer could reduce the friction force by suppressing the deformation component of friction. The effect of oxide layer
formation on the Ti coating observed here differs from the

REFERENCES
1. Holmberg, K. and Matthews, A. (2009), Coatings Tribology:
Properties, Mechanisms, Techniques and Applications in Surface
Engineering, Elsevier Science: Amsterdam.
2. Cheng, J., Yu, Y., Fu, L. C., Li, F., Qiao, Z. H., Li, J. S., Yang,
J., and Liu, W. M. (2013), Effect of TiB2 on Dry-Sliding Tribological Properties of TiAl Intermetallics, Tribology International, 62, pp 9199.
3. Rastkar, A. R. and Shokri, B. (2008), A Multi-Step Process
of Oxygen Diffusion to Improve the Wear Performance of a
Gamma-Based Titanium Aluminide, Wear, 264(1112), pp
973979.
4. Das, G., Kestler, H., Clemens, H., and Bartolotta, P. A. (2004),
Sheet Gamma TiAl: Status and Opportunities, JOM, 56(11),
pp 4245.
5. Cao, X., Shao, T., and Wen, S. (2004), Micro/Nanotribological and Mechanical Studies of TiN Thin-Film for MEMS Applications, Tribology Transactions, 47, 227232.
6. Bhushan, B. (2002), Introduction to Tribology, John Wiley &
Sons: New York.
7. Savas, S. and Danisman, S. (2014), Multipass Sliding Wear
Behavior of TiAlN Coatings Using a Spherical Indenter: Effect of Coating Parameters and Duplex Treatment, Tribology
Transactions, 57, 242255.
8. Egaa, A., Rech, J., and Arrazola, P. J. (2012), Characterization of Friction and Heat Partition Coefcients during Machining of a TiAl6V4 Titanium Alloy and a Cemented Carbide, Tribology Transactions, 55, 665676.
9. Blau, P. J., Erdman, D. L., III, Ohriner, E., and Jolly, B. C.
(2011), High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al4V with and without Surface Treatments, Tribology Transactions, 54, 192200.

Ti6Al4V alloy (Molinari, et al. (24)) and TiN (Cho and Lee
(13), (19)). Therefore, this study not only provides useful
information for the lubrication engineer to utilize the Ti coating but also shows the fact that the frictional characteristics
of each Ti-based material should be understood based on the
formation of the oxide layer.

13. Cho, C. W. and Lee, Y. Z. (2003), Effects of the Oxide Layer


Formed on TiN Coated Silicon Wafer on the Friction and
Wear Characteristics in Dry Sliding, Surface & Coatings Technology, 168, pp 8490.
14. Bloyce, A., Qi, P. Y., Dong, H., and Bell, T. (1998), Surface
Modication of Titanium Alloys for Combined Improvements
in Corrosion and Wear Resistance, Surface & Coatings Technology, 107(23), pp 125132.
15. Siva Rama Krishna, D. and Sun, Y. (2005), Effect of Thermal
Oxidation Conditions on Tribologial Behaviour of Titanium
Films on 316L Stainless Steel, Surface & Coatings Technology,
198(13), pp 447453.
16. Dong, H. and Li, X. Y. (2000), Oxygen Boost Diffusion for
the Deep-Case Hardening of Titanium Alloys, Materials Science and Engineering A, 280(2), pp 303310.
17. Krishna, D. S. R., Brama, Y. L., and Sun, Y. (2007), Thick
Rutile Layer on Titanium for Tribological Applications, Tribology International, 40(2), pp 329334.
18. Palacio, M. L. B. and Bhushan, B. (2010), Normal and Lateral
Force Calibration Techniques for AFM Cantilevers, Critical
Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 35(2), pp 73
104.
19. Cho, C. W. and Lee, Y. Z. (2004), Friction Transition Diagram Considering the Effects of Oxide Layer Formed on Wear
Track of AISI 1045 Steel Disk against TiN Coated AISI 52100
Steel Ball in Sliding, Surface & Coatings Technology, 179, pp
19.
20. Cho, C. W. and Lee, Y. Z. (2004), Tribological Characteristics
of Oxide Layer Formed on TiN Coated Silicon Wafer, Tribology Letters, 16(4), pp 259263.
21. Zhang, W. F., He, Y. L., Zhang, M. S., Yin, Z., and Chen, Q.
(2000), Raman Scattering Study on Anatase TiO2 Nanocrystals, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 33(8), pp 912916.

10. Pettersson, U. and Jacobson, S. (2004), Friction and Wear


Properties of Micro Textured DLC Coated Surfaces in Boundary Lubricated Sliding, Tribology Letters, 17(3), pp 553559.

22. Melendres, C. A., Narayanasamy, A., Maroni, V. A., and Siegel, R. W. (1989), Raman-Spectroscopy of Nanophase TiO2,
Journal of Materials Research, 4(5), pp 12461250.

11. Cho, C. W., Hong, B., and Lee, Y. Z. (2005), Wear Life Evaluation of Diamond-Like carbon Films Deposited by Microwave
Plasma-Enhanced CVD and RF Plasma-Enhanced CVD Method, Wear, 259(16), pp 789794.

23. Feist, T. P. and Davies, P. K. (1992), The Soft Chemical Synthesis of TiO2 (B) from Layered Titanates, Journal of Solid
State Chemistry, 101(2), pp 275295.

12. Polcar, T., Kubart, T., Novak, R., Kopecky, L., and Siroky, P.
(2005), Comparison of Tribological Behaviour of TiN, TiCN
and CrN at Elevated Temperatures, Surface & Coatings Technology, 193(13), pp 192199.

W W W. ST L E .O RG

24. Molinari, A., Straffelini, G., Tesi, B., and Bacci, T. (1997),
Dry Sliding Wear Mechanisms of the Ti6Al4V Alloy, Wear,
208(12), pp 105112.
25. Bowden, F. P. and Tabor, D. (1964), The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part II, Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

AUGUST 2016

55

NEWSMAKERS
TOP STORIES
SKF PROVIDES LUBRICATION SOLUTIONS FOR ONE OF
WORLDS LARGEST COPPER MINES
Gothenburg, Sweden-based, SKF has secured a contract with
the Las Bambas mine in Peru to provide lubrication management services for all electric motors in the mines concentrator
plant.
Engineered specically for Las Bambas, the lubrication
solutions will contribute to increased equipment reliability
and cost effectiveness.
The two-year agreement with Las Bambas includes engineering, planning and scheduling, execution and management
of all lubrication-related activities for the electric motors. In
addition, SKF will supply lubrication system components and
tools to the mine.
As part of its reliability program, Las Bambas needed a
world-class lubrication system for its electric motors, says
service and upselling manager Carlos Lahura of SKF Peru.
Mine personnel contacted SKF to develop a series of integrated lubrication solutions for their rotating machinery and
were impressed by our expertise and commitment. As a result,
SKF was engaged to provide lubrication management services
as well.
The ultimate SKF three-barrier solution, consisting of
sealed SKF explorer spherical roller bearings, housings and
SKF taconite seals, also has been deployed for the mines
overland conveyor belts, with shafts measuring between
500-700 mm. The bearings and housings provided will have
integrated sensor positions for condition monitoring that offer the improved contamination protection needed in severe
weather conditions.

ACME-HARDESTY TO DISTRIBUTE TEMIX OLEO


SPECIALTY ESTERS IN U.S.
Bologna, Italy-based, Temix Oleo SRL and Acme-Hardesty, headquartered in Blue Bell, Pa., have signed a letter of intent for
Acme-Hardesty to distribute Temix Oleo products in the U.S.
Acme-Hardesty will promote and sell Temix Oleo specialty
esters and specialty oleochemicals and derivatives in the U.S.
marketplace, primarily in lubricant and personal care markets. The products will be sold under the Temest and Acitem
brands. Acme-Hardesty will manage the sales, marketing and
distribution of these products along with Temix pelargonic
and azelaic acids. Temix is the exclusive representative for
the Matrilox brand of products manufactured by Matrica in
Sardinia.
Temix Oleo shares our passion for environmental responsibility, and our partnership allows us to offer sustainably sourced productsand even tailor-made optionsto
the lubricant and personal care markets, says Graeme
Biggin, director of new business development for AcmeHardesty. This represents the rst time that the companys
products will be available in the U.S., expanding choices for
our customers.
56

U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker presents the


E Award for exporting excellence to Tony Espinosa, vice
president of Human Resources and Administration at Des-Case.

DES-CASE PRESENTED PRESIDENT OBAMAS E AWARD


FOR EXPORTING EXCELLENCE
Des-Case Corp., based in Goodlettsville, Tenn., was given the
nations top award honoring export excellence among American companies.
The E Award is the highest recognition any U.S. entity
can receive for making a signicant contribution to the expansion of U.S. exports. It was bestowed on Des-Case by U.S.
Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker in special ceremonies
at the U.S. Department of Commerce in Washington, DC.
Im proud to receive this honor on behalf of our employees who work hard every day to develop, manufacture and
distribute innovative products, deliver exceptional customer
service and build strong partnerships around the world, says
Brian Gleason, CEO of Des-Case. Our growth from a small
manufacturer with modest U.S. sales to a global leader in
the contamination control product industrywith 35% of
its sales today in international countrieshas been possible
through their dedicated work, as well as the support of the
U.S. Department of Commerces trade promotion division.
The U.S. Commercial Service has not only helped us sell more
products worldwide but, more importantly, create good jobs
for American workers at home. Were grateful for their help
and this recognition of our efforts.
U.S. companies are nominated for the E Awards through
the Department of Commerces U.S. Commercial Service ofce
network, located within the Departments International Trade
Administration, with ofces in 108 U.S. cities and more than
70 countries. Record years of successive export growth and
an applicants demonstration of an innovative international
marketing plan that led to the increase in exports is a signicant factor in selecting winners.
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INOLEX EARNS USDA CERTIFIED


BIOBASED PRODUCT LABEL
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U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Certied Biobased
Product label for the seven following products.
Product
Lexolube CLG-460
Lexolube CQ-3000
Lexolube FG-22 HX1
Lexolube FG-46 HX1
Lexolube GT-855IG
Lexolube KL-435
Lexolube T-110

Biobased content*
77%
66%
79%
47%
100%
49%
68%

*Based on ASTM D6866.

Biobased product certication and labeling is available


through USDAs BioPreferred program. Biobased products are
composed wholly or signicantly of biological ingredients
renewable plant, animal, marine or forestry materials. The
BioPreferred program is an initiative to increase the development, purchase and use of biobased products.

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a products biobased content. Usually expressed as a percentage, biobased content is the ratio of non-fossil organic carbon (new carbon) to total organic carbon in a product. New
carbon is derived from recently created materials. The total
organic carbon in a product consists of new carbon and old
organic carbon that originates from fossil carbon materials
such as petroleum, coal or natural gas.
We are pleased to announce that several of our products
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INOLEX executive vice president and head of the Lexolube
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brother Wilbur achieve the rst sustained ight by a controlled motorized aircraft.

57

PHILLIPS 66 LUBRICANTS EXTENDS AGREEMENT


FOR AMERICAN HONDA MOTOR COMPANY
Houston, Texas-based, Phillips 66 Lubricants, one of the largest
nished lubricants suppliers in North America, announces the
company has signed an agreement to continue manufacturing
and supplying service-ll lubricants for the American Honda
Motor Company, Inc. (AHM) through 2019.
As a result of the agreement, Phillips 66 Lubricants will
remain the exclusive provider for most Honda and Acura
branded engine oil, lubricants and other vital uids to dealers throughout the U.S.
Our association with the team at AHM has been highly
effective over the past years, thanks in large part to our shared
commitment to developing high-performance, branded oil
that complements the quality service that their dealerships
provide, says Bryan Faria, manager, nished lubricants. We
value the relationship and are pleased to continue supporting
AHM in the next four years with our high-quality lubricants
and best-in-class services.
The relationship between Phillips 66 Lubricants and AHM
began in late 2010, when the company started supplying its
lubricants products to Honda and Acura dealerships located
in the U.S.

further validation that by working together with its customers, its DigitalClone software is making a huge impact on
the wind industry.

REVISED ASTM INTERNATIONAL


SPECIFICATION FOR GASOLINE
INCORPORATES 15% ETHANOL BLEND
A revision to the most widely used ASTM International fuel
specication in the world incorporates the new ethanol blend
of up to 15%. The revision is aimed at improving drivability and performance for consumers lling up with gas at the
pump.
This important revision (available as D4814-16b) builds
on a standard that is used by businesses, governments, consumers and others in many countries, according to members
of ASTM Internationals Committee on Petroleum Products,
Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants (D02).
The standard reects changes in the marketplace while
helping meet consumer expectations. Additional revisions to
the standard are in the pipeline.
Prior to the revision, the Coordinating Research Council,
a nonprot organization that guides studies on the interaction between vehicles and petroleum products, conducted
drivability tests to help ensure good customer performance.
Subcommittee D02.A, focused on gasoline and oxygenated
fuels, welcomes those who have interest in the twelve ASTM
standards they maintain.

SENTIENT RECEIVES INNOVATION AWARD


Sentient Science, based in Buffalo, N.Y., accepted another
major award this year after recently receiving the Bloomberg
New Energy Finance Pioneers Award for innovation and rapid
growth. The Wind Dallas O&M Show honored Sentient with
the Best Technological Innovation Award.
Sentient Science is honored by this recognition. It received
58

AUGUST 2016

Anthony Conti, NextEra Resources, and Edward Wagner, Sentient Science, accepted awards for industry excellence at the
Wind Energy Update Dallas O&M Show.

PROMOTIONS & TRANSITIONS


EMERY OLEOCHEMICALS HIRES AREA
BUSINESS MANAGER
Emery Oleochemicals LLC, based in Selangor, Malaysia, is pleased to announce
Ramesh Navaratnam has joined their team
as area business manager and will be
supporting their Bio-Lubricants business unit.
Emery Oleochemicals Bio-Lubricants business covers a wide range of
biobased additive and base stock solutions, which include ozone acids, dimer Ramesh Navaratnam
acids, isostearic acids, esters and more
that are recognized for their ability to
improve processing efciencies, deliver outstanding technical performance and enhance environmental compatibility
and safety.
Navaratnam brings along a tremendous wealth of experience having spent over 25 years in the industry including
several years of research and formulating experience. He will
be closely working with our customers in automotive, greases,
metalworking uids, marine and industrial applications.

EVONIK NAMES NEW OIL ADDITIVES COUNTRY MANAGER


Darmstadt, Germany-based, Evoniks Oil Additives business announces the appointment of STLE-member Dr. Jen-Lung Wang

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

EACH YEAR STLE grants two academic awards to undergraduate and

STLE
PRESIDENTIAL
AWARDS
PROGRAM

graduate students, which are administered by the STLE Presidential Council.


These awards are designed to encourage students to pursue an advanced degree
or a career in tribology or lubrication engineering by subsidizing a research
project related to the eld.
Qualied undergraduate students will be considered for the E. Richard Booser
Scholarship, while graduate students may apply for the E. Elmer Klaus
Fellowship at the discretion of the STLE Presidential Council. Students must
apply separately using the application forms.
For more information about the Presidential Awards Program, visit www.stle.org
to download applications. Applications are due Dec. 1, 2016.
Questions? Contact Myrna Scott at (847) 825-5536 or email mscott@stle.org.

AWARDS
The E. Richard Booser Scholarship
for Undergraduate Students

The E
E. Elme
Elmer Klaus Fellowship
for Graduate Students

The purpose of the E. Richard Booser Scholarship


is to encourage undergraduate students to pursue
graduate degrees or a career in tribology by providing
an opportunity for them to participate in tribology
research. The student must be enrolled in an
engineering or science curriculum.

The purpose of the E. Elmer Klaus Fellowship is to


encourage graduate students to pursue graduate
degrees or a career in tribology by providing the
opportunity for them to participate in tribology research.
The student must be enrolled in a graduate engineering
or science curriculum at the time the research is started.

The Booser Scholarship provides $4,000 to the student


and $500 to the department in which the student will
perform the research. Students are selected on the basis of
grade point average, relevance of the research to tribology,
and quality of the proposed research experience.

The Klaus Fellowship provides $5,000 to the student and


$500 to the department in which the student will perform
the research. Students are selected on the basis of grade
point average, relevance of the research to tribology, and
quality of the proposed research experience.

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068 (USA), P: (847) 825-5536, F: (847) 825-1456, www.stle.org.

as oil additives country manager, China.


In this role, he will lead the China
team as Evoniks Oil Additives business continues to expand in Asia. Concurrently, Wang also will assume responsibilities for Asia-Pacic business
development as the business steps up
development of new opportunities beyond its core activities.
Wang began his career with Evoniks
Dr. Jen-Lung Wang
Oil Additives business line in 2000 as
senior research scientist at the Horsham
Technology Center in Horsham, Pa. From 2006-2009, he
served as technical service manager supporting customers in
the North American region and in Japan and Korea as well.
In 2009 Wang was named global product manager, driveline
segment. In 2012 he took on the position of global business
director, wax modiers.
Prior to Evonik, Wang worked at Calgon Corp. in Pittsburgh, Pa., as a research chemist and at Bayer AG in Leverkusen, Germany, as research laboratory manager. Wang received
his doctorate in chemistry from The Ohio State University and
was a post-doctoral Fellow at Carnegie-Mellon University in
Pittsburgh. He earned his bachelors of science degree from
the National Taiwan University.

HYDROTEX ADDS DIVISION PARTNER


IN OKLAHOMA
Hydrotex, based in Farmers Branch, Texas, announces Jeff Porter has joined the
company as division partner serving the
agriculture, eet, food processing, manufacturing and pupil transportation markets. His efforts will focus on the areas in
and around central Oklahoma.
Jeff Porter
Prior to joining Hydrotex, Porters career focused on consulting with industrial companies concentrating on revenue generation working
with owners and C-level executives. Taking on a partnership
role, he was able to help his customers produce signicant
increases in sales and protability while optimizing sales and
marketing programs. His industry experience includes packaged goods, oil and gas, industrial, manufacturing, technology, transportation and food service.
As a division partner, Porter will counsel customers on
reliability-based cost-efcient machinery and equipment
maintenance programs using environmentally sustainable
solutions.
Porter graduated from the University of Central Oklahoma
with a bachelors of science in computer science and has vol-

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60

August 21, 1959: President Dwight Eisenhower signs a proclamation admitting Hawaii into the U.S. as the 50th state.

Call for Papers!

2016 STLE
Tribology
Frontiers
Conference
The Drake Hotel Chicago
Nov. 13-15, 2016

Please mark your calendars for the 2016 TFC,


Nov. 13-15 in Chicagos historic Drake Hotel.
Well again gather an international community
to share tribologys most cutting-edge research.

March 15 Abstract Deadline


STLE is seeking papers for the following
technical tracks:

Surfaces and Interfaces


Biotribology
Fluid Lubrication
Lubricants
Machine Elements and Systems
Energy/Environment/Manufacturing
Tribochemistry
Materials Tribology
Beyond the Cutting Edge

For full details on the technical program, abstract


submission process, registration and housing is
available on www.stle.org.

Can Stock Photo Inc. / rudi1976

Places of Interest The Art Institute of Chicago Museum of Science and Industry
Field Museum Shedd Aquarium Willis Tower Lincoln Park Zoo
John Hancock Building Navy Pier Millennium Park Michigan Avenue shopping

Follow us on:

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068 info@stle.org www.stle.org 847-825-5536

unteered with the American Red Cross


and the United Way.

RADCO INDUSTRIES PROMOTES


BRIAN FINCH
Batavia, Ill.-based, Radco Industries announces the promotion of Brian Finch
to vice president military products &
synthetic lubricants.
In his new executive role, Finch will
continue to build upon his signicant
past accomplishments in expanding
Radcos longstanding reputation of
award-winning
product design,
manufacturing
and service to
meet the highperformance
demands of the
companys end
customers.
Finch joined
Radco Industries
Brian Finch
management team
in 2012 and has
23 years of successful experience in
the lubricants industry. Previously he
served as category manager for lubricants and chemical products (aerospace
& defense) at Haas Group International
LLC, a Wesco Aircraft company and a
global supplier of chemical management and distribution services.

TLT
T R I B O LO G Y &
LU B R I C AT I O N
T E C H N O LO G Y

62

AUGUST 2016

During his career in the lubricants


industry, Finch has worked in a number of capacities that include sales,
procurement management, sourcing,
and supply chain management. He will
join the executive team in addition to
continuing his responsibilities for the
growth and management of those product categories.
Radco Industries CEO Michael Damiani points to Finchs professionalism
and the quick impact that hes made on
the companys military business. Brian
has all of the traits we look for at the
executive levelfocus, clarity, creativity, compassion and courage, says Damiani. He has the leadership qualities
to handle the many challenges business
brings today, and the resolve to sustain
long-term success. Brian makes an excellent addition to our executive team.

IN MEMORIAM
MIKE RYTERSKI
With great sadness TLT reports that
Mike Ryterski passed away in May at
the age of 96.
Admired and respected by his coworkers, Ryterski was known for his
wry sense of humor and dedication to
Schaeffer Manufacturing Co. Ryterski
was one of the few master blenders
of lubricants in the world; his exper-

tise was integral


to the superior
performance of
Schaeffers products.
Born in 1920,
Ryterski grew up
and worked on
his familys farm
Mike Ryterski
in Tamaroa, Ill.
In 1941 Ryterski
started working for Schaeffer making candles and medical soaps for the
Army. He then served in the Army Air
Crops during World War II for two
years before returning to work for
Schaeffer in 1945.
Ryterski quickly moved into supervising oil and grease production at
Schaeffer. He experimented with different formulations and was responsible
for creating many of Schaeffers proprietary formulas. Ryterski also developed
a unique gear-grease to use on dragline,
shovels and mills for the mining and
steel industries that is still used today.
Ryterski helped grow the plant
team from three employees to more
than 30 today. He retired as a vice
president in 1990 but continued to
work three or four days a week until
August 2015, sharing his decades of
knowledge about lubricants, and helping the plant grow.

Want to be recognized in TLT?


TLT is interested in hearing from our readers. Let us know whats happening in
your company. If you have news about a new employee or if someone in your
company has been recognized with an award or any other interesting items, let
us know. Please send us your news releases and photos for publication in Newsmakers to TLT Magazine, Attn: Rachel Fowler, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL
60068, rfowler@stle.org.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS


72nd STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition
May 21-25, 2017
Hyatt Regency Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia (USA)
STLEs Annual Meeting & Exhibition is the industrys most respected venue
for technical information, professional development and international
networking opportunities. Each year STLEs conference showcases some
500 technical presentations, application-based case studies, best practice
reports and discussion panels on technical or market trends.
Education courses support professional development and prepare qualied
individuals for STLEs three certication programs: Certied Lubrication
Specialist, Oil Monitoring Analyst (I&II) and Certied Metalworking Fluids
Specialist. Our annual trade show and popular Commercial Marketing
Forum spotlight the latest products and services of interest to lubrication
professionals. STLEs conference is a truly international event, with some
1,600 professionals from around the world attending.
2017 presentations are being sought in the following areas:

Biotribology
Condition Monitoring
Engine & Drive Train
Environmentally Friendly Fluids
Fluid Film Bearings
Gears
Grease
Lubrication Fundamentals
Materials Tribology (includes
Ceramics and Composites)
Metalworking Fluids

Nanotribology
Nonferrous Metals
Power Generation
Rolling Element Bearings
Seals
Surface Engineering
Synthetic and Hydraulic Lubricants
Tribotesting
Wear
Wind Turbine Tribology

Abstract Submission
If you are interested in presenting at STLEs 2017 Annual Meeting & Exhibition, submit a 100-150-word abstract at
www.stle.org. Abstracts are due Oct. 1, 2016. Notication of acceptance will be sent in December 2016. While you do
not need to prepare a full manuscript to be included on the meeting technical program, you are invited and encouraged
to submit a manuscript for review and possible publication in STLEs peer-reviewed journal, Tribology Transactions.
For more information, please contact:
Merle Hedland mhedland@stle.org 630-428-2133

Follow us on

#STLE2017

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068, info@stle.org, www.stle.org.

-IN MEMORIAM-

H. Peter Jost
(1921-2016)
Father of modern tribology
lived to see 50th anniversary
of his world-changing
research report.
Professor H. Peter Jost
With deep sadness TLT reports the
death of a tribology legend, professor H.
Peter Jost, CBE. He died peacefully at
the age of 95.
Professor Jost was regarded as the
founding father of tribology and was
trained as an engineer. On March 9,
1966, his report titled the Lubrication
(Tribology) Education and Research: A
Report on the Present Position and Industrys Needsalso known as the Jost
Reportwas published. It was acclaimed
worldwide and changed the way our industry and science approach the question
of friction and wear. This is when the
word and concept of tribology rst entered the public domain. This report was
the key to the development of tribology.
The Jost Report was published 50
years ago. In March 2016, Peter Jost,
STLE Immediate Past President Martin
Webster and President Ali Erdemir were
invited to a celebration that included a
reception at Buckingham Palace hosted
by His Royal Highness Prince Philip,
the Duke of Edinburgh. In Martins
May 2016 Presidents Report column,
he wrote about his experience at the
celebration. He stated, Professor Peter
Jost responded and thanked the Prince
for hosting the event. He also reminded
us that tribology is critical to life on this
planet and that indeed without friction
we would never be able to leave the
room. I think many of us would have
been happy with that, at least for a few
extra hours! He also noted that tribology is undergoing a signicant expansion as we see a greater emphasis on the
64

AUGUST 2016

new and emerging areas such as biotribology, nanotribology and teratribology.


He stressed that we need to continue
identifying how improved tribological
practices can create economic benets
to industry and society, and it remains
critical that we educate the public, industry and governments on tribologys
role in solving many of the global issues
facing us today.
At the celebration, professor Jost addressed the prince and all the attendees.
He said, Tribology is not a specialist
subject. It is the physical science-based
technology of friction. Friction is vital
for mankind. Without friction life on
Earth would not be possible. People
could not move, sh could not swim,
birds could not y, nor could airplanes,
and without friction it would be im-

After thanking His Royal Highness,


Dr. Peter Jost (center) celebrated the
50th anniversary of the report named
after him in March 2016 with STLE
Immediate Past President Martin Webster (left) and President Ali Erdemir.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

possible to drive a car or a horse-cart.


Indeed, without friction it would be
impossible for us to leave this room,
however much we like the most wonderful paintings.
Tribology has grown into nanotribology, green tribology, biotribology and
medical tribology. I hope those engaged
in universities and research establishments and others of inuence will bridge
the gap between their excellent work and
the realms of application. We celebrate
today in the full knowledge that the outcome of their endeavors will benet industry and the environment and reduce
the use of materials of which there is not
an unlimited supply. All these activities
lead to the security and the quality of life
for this and future generations and help
by the application of the ever-increasing
knowledge of tribology.
Professor Jost was president of the
International Tribology Council and
a Life Member of Council of the Parliamentary & Scientic Committee at
Westminster. He also was an Honorary
Fellow of the Institution of Engineering
and Technology, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and of the Institute
of Materials. Previously he was director
and chairman of both public and private
companies operating in the engineering
and technological sectors. He became an
STLE Fellow in 2009 and later became
a Life Member.
In addition to his appointment as a
Commander of the British Empire, he
also received state honors from the Heads
of State of France, Germany, Poland and
Austria. In 2011 the Order of the Rising Sun was conferred upon him by the
Emperor of Japan. He held two honorary
professorships and 11 honorary doctorates including, in January 2000, the rst
Millennium honorary science doctorate.
He has received professional awards and
honors in 15 countries.
Up until his death, he remained
actively engaged in the tribology community and served as an incredible example of life-long commitments to their
respective elds of interest. He leaves a
wife, two daughters and three grandchildren.
For more on Dr. Josts passing, see
Presidents Report on Page 4.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

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More than 90 high-class presentations from well-known speakers


k iin th
three parallel
ll l sessions
i
Practical-orientated panel discussion with international maintenance experts
9
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Condition Monitoring Online, On-Site, Ofine


Fluid Management Innovative & Sustainable
Lubricants Latest developments
Tribology Research targeting Experience
Lubricants Design to Application
Metal working and forming lubrication
Lubrication in Special Environments
Functional uids Everything but lubrication

Check out the presentation


program on our website!

Supported by

www.oildoc-conference.com

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DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS SYSTEM


Bruker announces the release of the innovative and unique Contour CMM dimensional analysis system, which says its the worlds rst noncontact
metrology system to perform simultaneous nanoscale surface height, texture, waviness and form measurements as well as 3D coordinate measurements for geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, all on one instrument. Leveraging decades of world-leading optical metrology innovation, the
system performs rapid, noncontact precision measurements to meet the industrys most stringent standards. The Contour CMM system enables more
accurate and convenient metrology for R&D
and manufacturing of small structures in
precision-machined components across
a wide range of industries, from medical
devices and optics, to automotive and
aerospace. For advanced R&D, such as the
measurement of material wear on medical implants or bearing races, the Contour
CMM system providesin a single instrumentthe ability to quantify the smallest
of wear scars with submicron accuracy,
while enabling engineers to position where
the scars are on the parts and report the
deviation of the inspected part from CAD.
Bruker Corp.
Billerica, Mass.
(978) 663-3660
www.bruker.com

66

August 24, 79 A.D.: Vesuvius, an active volcano in Southern Italy, erupts destroying the cities of Pompeii, Stabiae and Herculaneum.

BATTERY-DRIVEN GREASE GUN


The new SKF Battery-Driven Grease Gun (TLGB 20) introduces
an ideal portable tool to maximize the efciency and accuracy of
manual lubrication for bearings, machines and off-road equipment
across industries. An integrated grease meter adds value by dispensing the proper amount of lubricant for an application to prevent
over- or under-greasing. The grease guns rechargeable 20-volt lithium battery delivers extended service life to enable timely manual
lubrication of equipment anywhere and anytime in a manufacturing
plant or in the eld. User-friendly features include a durable, ergonomic design with a three-point stand for operator comfort and
convenience. A built-in light serves to illuminate the work area and
a display on the tool indicates battery charge level, amount of dispensed grease, pump/motor speed and blocked lubrication points.
This versatile grease gun can dispense up to 15 grease cartridges per
battery charge and delivers two ow rates adjustable for a specic
application. Pressures up to 700 bar (10,000 psi) can be achieved.
SKF
Gothenburg, Sweden
+ 46 (0)31 337 6576
www.skf.com

Send us your new product news with color photos to: TLT Magazine, Attn: Rachel Fowler, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068, rfowler@stle.org

Sea-Land Chemical Company


represents some of the most
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And, with our expanded North
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More than a supplier, we are
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Make Sea-Land Chemical
Company your first call.

Availability | Dependability | Knowledge | Selection | Speed

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440-871-7887 | www.SeaLandChem.com

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

AUGUST 2016

67

SOUNDING BOARD

What is your favorite work of


science ction and why?
Star Trek vs. Star Warsthe
battle has waged for decades.
While both stories received a
ton of votes from TLT readers,
Luke, Obi-wan and Princess
Leia held a slight edge over
Kirk, Spock and Bones, according to the 200 survey respondents. Fans of both franchises
noted that much of the technology in those stories either
has become reality or soon will
be. STLE members are a literate bunch, with many of them
citing books they read as
youngsters as the inspiration
for their future careers. While
growing up I enjoyed the Tom
Swift series of books, one
member said, the stories
about this young inventor

Do Androids Dream of Electric


Sheep? by Philip K. Dick, a
visionary sci- writer in the 1960s
and 1970s who was taken from us
prematurely in 1982. I like his books
because they deal with basic issues
of reality, humanity and morality,
and they are generally darn good
yarns. This book was made into one
of the great sci- movies, Blade
Runner. Many of his other stories/
books have been made into movies,
including Total Recall and Minority Report.

68

AUGUST 2016

spurred my interest in scientic research. Jules Verne,


H.G. Wells, Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein and Arthur C.
Clarke were the authors mentioned most often. Classic
movies also received their fair

share of praise from members,


with 2001: A Space Odyssey,
the 1951 version of The Day
the Earth Stood Still and the
1960 version of The Time Machine garnering the most
votes.

The book 1984, which seems to be


increasingly relevant to our society.

Soylent Green. It really could


happen!

The X-Files TV series tied with the


Matrix movies. Im not a big conspiracy theorist, but X-Files had neat
ideas and wasnt too far out there.
The Matrix showed the crossover
from the real to the virtual (is there a
difference?).

Superman. I like the morality of it


in that this one being who has the
ability to do essentially anything
chooses to use his powers for good
rather than abuse them to get what
he wants or to take over the world,
as so many villains wish they could.

Brave New World by Aldous


Huxley, an interesting view of an
attempt to perfect humanity.

2001: A Space Odyssey. The


opening scene with the primates is
unforgettable.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

The original Planet of the Apes


movie with Roddy McDowall. The
story is a mirror of humanity that has
been superimposed over comical
creatures simian in origin. The lesson
taken from the story is that our
struggles are the struggles of all major
life forms and equality can be found
in the strangest places such as Earth.
Star Wars because of the battle
between good, evil and conscience.
Time Enough for Love by Robert
Heinlein. This book chronicles a guy
who lived for 4,000 years and what
he saw and experienced. Knowledge
is power.
The Star Trek books, TV series and
movies. Wait 10 or 15 years, and
much of the technology used will
become reality.

W W W. ST L E .O RG

Do you actively seek works


of science
scie ce ction?
ction?
Yes

3 %
35%

No

65%
65%

Based on responses sent to 13,000 TLT readers.

The book Alas, Babylon. This is a


1960s account of what happened to
the few survivors of a nuclear attack.
It was one of the very rst works of
science ction I read and has stuck
with me all of these years. I saw the
movie on late-night TV some years
back, and it wasnt nearly as good as
the book, which I nd to be the case
most often.
Close Encounters of the Third
Kind because it keeps you on the
edge of your seat.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

Altered States by Paddy Chayefsky. I read the book before seeing the
movie. The idea of sensory deprivation leading to an altered state of
consciousness was pretty interesting.
Fantastic Voyage. Intriguing
because of the scientic nature of
the plot and applicability to human
physiology and health.
The Riverworld books by Philip
Jos Farmer.
I, Robot by Isaac Asimov.
The classic books by Jules Verne,
Ray Bradbury and H.G. Wells.
The Twilight Zone, Rod Serlings
TV series.
The Lensman series by E.E. Smith.

AUGUST 2016

69

SOUNDING BOARD
The Doc Savage book series. I
read them when I was an early teen.
The stories are mysteries and were
written in the 1930s to 1940s. Many
of the tools and gadgets used in the
stories were unheard of and considered fantastic at the time but have
come into use today.
Songs of Distant Earth by
Arthur C. Clarke. Its a story of
the meeting of two human cultures:
one for which Earth is only a
distant legend, and the other the
nal group of people who left
Earth before its nal destruction.
I found it both uplifting and
poignant. Or maybe Asimovs
Robot/Foundation series.
The Time Machine by H.G. Wells.
When it was published in the late
1890s it was way ahead of its time
and genre.

KRISTIN REDMAN
Enterprise
Account Manager

All other factors being equal,


would
ld you choose
h
t watch
to
t ha
science ction movie over a
lm in another genre?
Yes

49%

No

5%
51%

Based on responses sent to 13,000 TLT readers.

The Hitchhikers Guide to the


Galaxy series is the most enjoyable
blend of sci- and humor Ive ever
seen while still predominantly being
a science ction work. A secondplace vote for Spaceballs, the fantastic
Mel Brooks Star Wars parody.
Star Trek the TV series. It intrigues me because although it is
science ction it seems sensible
enough that it could actually come
true and more than likely will.

The works from Dune. The worms,


the religion and the class structure of
the worlds.
The original lm The Day the
Earth Stood Still. It was a
groundbreaking lm for that period
of time and presented a single,
important message for all mankindnamely that humankind is
destroying Earth more or less.
Second Foundation by Isaac
Asimov. It illustrates the interconnectivity of human endeavor over
time, including developments in
technology. Also, how some things
endure through big distances in time
and space.
Wow, that is tough! I have tons of
favorites! Probably either Fahrenheit 451 or one of Isaac Asimovs
short stories.

The movie 2001: A Space Odyssey is my favorite. It intrigues me


because it unies and connects
technology, music and visual artistry
through the development of mankind. It does so with a minimum of
dialogue and no distractions. And
2001 extrapolates into a future that
is other worldly, peaceful and
sublime beyond our imagination.

Spiderman because he is always


ghting evil and wins every time.

The rst Alien movie, not the


sequels. I like it because it is about
normal people doing mundane jobs
who are thrust into an extraordinary
situation.

Stranger in a Strange Land by


Robert Heinlein.

The book A Wrinkle in Time. The


theory actually makes sense.

John Carpenters movie The Thing.


Its intriguing because of the possibility (well, not really) that this
could occur.

Star Trek. It has several incarnations


and is available in all three genres. The
storyline between the different series
are new and intriguing.

I love stories involving the sea and


think someday the sea could be
inhabited like in the movies.

War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells.


Jurassic Park. Book by Michael
Crichton. Movie by Steven Spielberg.
Lucifers Hammer by Larry Niven
and Jerry Pournelle. A truly superior
end-of-the-world story. This novel
would make a terric miniseries.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea
by Jules Verne.
Back to the Future. I wish I could
do that!

Editors Note: Reprinted from another issue of TLT. Sounding Board is based on an email survey of 13,000 TLT readers. Views expressed are those of the respondents
and do not reect the opinions of the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers. STLE does not vouch for the technical accuracy of opinions expressed in
Sounding Board, nor does inclusion of a comment represent an endorsement of the technology by STLE.

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72 August 27, 1910: Mother Teresa is born in Skopje, Yugoslavia, and devotes her life to helping the poor of India. She is slated to become a saint next month.

S T L E C E R T I F I C AT I O N
Invest in your greatest
assetyourself.
Credibility. Respect. Integrity.
Those are the qualities immediately conferred upon you
when you attain one of STLEs technical certications.
Becoming STLE certied not only veries your technical
expertise, it demonstrates your professional dedication
to your employer, customers and peers.
STLE offers four technical certications:
Certied Lubrication Specialist
STLEs signature certication is held by more than
1,500 lubrication professionals and remains the industrys
standard for technical excellence. Independent studies
show that CLS-certied professionals earn more money,
supervise larger staffs and are more likely to receive raises.
Designed for technical specialists, CLS also is held by
hundreds of sales and marketing reps.
Certied Oil Monitoring Analyst I & II
STLEs OMA certication is for the predictive maintenance
professional and demonstrates prociency in sampling and
analyzing oil properties. OMA I is for the individual taking
the oil sample on the shop oor. OMA II is for the person
responsible for running the proper tests, interpreting data
and managing the lubrication program.
Certied Metalworking Fluids Specialist
STLEs CMFS certication veries knowledge, experience
and education in this growing and specialized eld. CMFS
is for individuals with responsibility for metal-removal
or forming management, application and handling of
metalworking uids and related materials.
Invest in your greatest assetyourself. Plan now to attain
your STLE certication.
For more information or to schedule an exam, contact
STLE Certication Program Manager Alicia Skulemowski
at certication@stle.org, 847-825-5536.

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, 840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068, info@stle.org, www.stle.org.

RESOURCES
TECHNICAL BOOKS
SURFACE CHEMISTRY OF NANOBIOMATERIALS

STLE LOCAL SECTION


MEETING CALENDAR

Editor: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

Events listed here are local section programs. For


further details and a full listing of other upcoming
section events in your area, visit www.stle.org.
Meeting announcements can be sent to TLT
Magazine, Attn: Rachel Fowler, rfowler@stle.org.

Publisher: Elsevier
Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials brings
together the most recent ndings regarding the
surface modication of currently used nanomaterials, a eld that has become increasingly
important in the last decade. This book enables
the results of current research to reach those
who wish to use this knowledge in an applied
setting. Leading researchers from around the
world present various types of nanobiomaterials such as quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotubes, silver nanoparticles, copper oxide, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide,
magnetite, hydroxyapatite and graphene, and discuss their related functionalization strategies. This book will be of interest to postdoctoral
researchers, professors and students engaged in the elds of materials
science, biotechnology and applied chemistry. It also is highly valuable
to those working in the industry, including pharmaceutics and biotechnology companies, medical researchers, biomedical engineers and advanced clinicians. Available at www.elsevier.com. List Price: $165.75
(USD).

AUGUST 2016
STLE Cleveland Golf Outing Fundraiser, Aug.
8, 10:30 a.m. (check in), 11:30 a.m. (cookout), 1 p.m. (modied shotgun start), 5:30
p.m. (putting contest), 6 p.m. (dinner),
Shale Creek Golf Club, 5420 Wolff Rd.,
Medina, Ohio. Contact: Leah Morris,
lmorris@elcocorp.com, or Buck Evans,
buck.evans@sealandchem.com.

SEPTEMBER 2016
STLE Northern California Section: Topic and
Speaker TBD, Sept. 28. Time and location
TBD. Contact: stle.norcal@gmail.com.

INTRODUCTION TO THE MICROMECHANICS


OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

STLE CERTIFICATION EXAMS

Authors: Huiming Yin and Yingtao Zhao

STLE is offering numerous certication exams in


the coming months. Here is the information on
each exam:

Publisher: CRC Press


Introduction to the Micromechanics of Composite Materials weaves the basic concepts,
mathematical fundamentals and formulations of micromechanics into a systemic approach for understanding and modeling the
effective material behavior of composite materials. As various emerging composite materials have been increasingly used in civil,
mechanical, biomedical and materials engineering, this textbook provides students with
a fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of composite materials and prepares them for further research and development work with new composite materials. The content is organized in accordance with a
rigorous course. It covers micromechanics theory, the microstructure
of materials, homogenization and constitutive models of different types
of composite materials. It enables students to interpret and predict the
effective mechanical properties of existing and emerging composites
through microstructure-based modeling and design. As a prerequisite,
students should already understand the concepts of boundary value
problems in solid mechanics. Available at www.crcpress.com. List Price:
$101.96 (USD).
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AUGUST 2016

Aug. 12 from 9-10 a.m. at the Oildoc GmbH,


Kerschelweg 29, 83098, Brannenburg, Germany (CLS German language).
Aug. 25 from 8:30-11:30 a.m. at Lubrication
Engineers Inc., 1919 Tulsa St E, Wichita,
Kans.
Sept. 15 from 9 a.m.-noon at ALS Tribology,
935 Sunshine Rd., Kansas City, Kans.
Sept. 16 from 9 a.m.-noon at WearCheck
Canada Inc., 1175 Appleby Line, Building C8,
Burlington, Ontario, Canada.
For the online registration form, go to www.stle.
org; click on the professional development tab
at the top. Then go to certication, then registration. Online registration closes two weeks
prior to the exam date. Onsite registration may
be available on a rst come, rst serve basis. For
more information and for other methods of registering, you may contact STLE headquarters by
emailing certication@stle.org or call (847) 825
5536.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

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on an Unconventional Book
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topics covered and level within
each topic have set a high bar
for any future book in this space.
In my judgment, if you could
only have one book on this topic,
this is it.
Dr. Raymond Levey, Director,
Energy and Geoscience Institute,
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA

The authors should be commended for carefully and painstakingly


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Heretofore, a comprehensive
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RESOURCES

F+L WEEK 2017


Fuels & Lubes Asia (F&L Asia Ltd.)
is having their F+L Week 2017 Conference Mar. 7-10, 2017, at the Four
Seasons Hotel in Singapore. The
call for papers is open until Sept. 9,
2016. This four-day conference offers a strategic platform to learn
from world-renowned speakers who
are experts in their respective elds
about the latest market trends, OEM
specications, standards and government regulations, as well as directly
meet, network and secure high-value contacts. For more information,
visit http://fuelsandlubes.com or contact conference@fuelsandlubes.com.

43RD LEEDS-LYON
SYMPOSIUM ON TRIBOLOGY
Since the delivery of the landmark
Jost Report in 1966, which high-

lighted the importance of tribology to the U.K. economy, the eld


of tribology has constantly evolved.
What has remained constant is the
importance of underpinning engineering science across various disciplines to understand, model and
predict complex aspects of friction
and wear at interfaces.
The 43rd Leeds-Lyon Symposium
on Tribology is Sept. 6-9 at Leeds
Trinity University in the U.K. The
title of the symposium is Tribology
(The Jost report 50 years on).
It brings together experts in
experimental and mathematical
approaches to tackle some of the
most relevant issues in tribology. We
invite contributions across a wide
spectrum of topics, including but
not limiting to:
Molecular level systems, advanced

measurements and simulations


Energy efciency: novel and conventional power systems for vehicles and renewable technologies
Advanced materials: pushing the
boundaries to develop materials
with optimized properties
Tribology and medicine, from
biotribology of implants to tribology in medical devices and at
tissue/devices interfaces
Whole systems simulations: advances in bridging the gap between laboratory and eld data.
For more information regarding
the symposium, visit www.engineering.
leeds.ac.uk/short-courses/Leeds
Lyon.shtml.

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T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

AMERICAS OIL SINCE 1914

W W W. ST L E .O RG

Basic Handbook of Lubrication


Third Edition
The only reference you need to
understand tribology fundamentals!
Edited by STLEs Alberta Section, the Basic Handbook of
Lubrication (Third Edition) is a comprehensive text authored
by more than 25 contributors. At 360 pages, this technical
reference thoroughly covers some 30 topics with material
edited to help newcomers and veterans to the lubricants
industry. This reference is included in the recommended
study material for STLEs Certied Lubrication Specialist
and Oil Monitoring Analyst (I&II) certications.
CHAPTER TITLES
Oil viscosity & selecting correct grade
depending on temperature

Turbine oils

Friction and lubrication regimes

Grease, an introduction

Mineral base oils

Solid lm lubricants

Synthetic base oils and nished lubricants

Metalworking & preservative uids

Used oil re-rening to create base oils

Environmentally friendly lubricants

Additives used in formulating lubricants

Solvents & cleaners

New lubricants analysis & testing

Aftermarket additives

Bearing lubrication

Centralized lubrication systems

Engine oils

Pneumatics

(Stationary) natural gas engine lubrication

Filtration

Enclosed gear oils: Classications and


additives

Introduction to seals

Hydraulics uids & related properties


Hydraulic system components

Degradation and analysis of oils


in service

Hydraulic system components sample


calculation

Condition monitoring & industrial


machinery

Hydraulic system components sample


calculation appendix

Effective bearing failure analysis

Air compressor lubrication


Reciprocating natural gas compressor
lubrication
Lubrication of electric motor bearings

Refrigeration system lubrication

Wear types

A guide to purchasing lubricants


Storage of new lubricants (health, safety
and environmental considerations)
Used oil collection
Glossary of lubrication terms

Price: $155 to STLE members, $189 to others (includes shipping).


Comes in spiral-bound and perfect-bound editions.
Available only through STLE! Order at www.stle.org, or call 847-825-5536.

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers


840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068
P: 847-825-5536 F: 847-825-1456 www.stle.org info@stle.org

CUTTING EDGE
Drs. Wilfred T. Tysoe &
Nicholas D. Spencer

Coils in oils
It is widely believed that polymeric viscosity index improvers
work by expanding their coil size at higher temperatures.
MD simulations show that life is not so simple.
VISCOSITY-INDEX (VI) IMPROVERS ARE
ADDED TO LUBRICANTS to resist the tendency of oils to lower their viscosity upon
increasing temperature. This, in turn, improves energy efciency in engines at lower
temperatures because lower-viscosity oils can
be used without the fear that the viscosity will
then be too low to maintain uid-lm lubrication at higher temperatures. These additives
are typically high-molecular-weight polymers,
such as olen copolymers (OCPs) or polyalkylmethacrylates (PMAs).
Selby put forward a potential mechanism
for the functioning of VI improvers in 1958,1

which is still widely believed, although there


is no direct evidence that it is generally applicable. He suggested that at lower temperatures the polymer chain is tightly coiled
and contributes little to the oils viscosity.
However, as its solubility in the oil improves
at higher temperatures, it expands upon
heating, increasing the viscosity of the oilpolymer solution and compensating for the
viscosity decrease normally seen for the oil
at higher temperatures. In fact, recent, smallangle neutron-scattering experiments2 have
shown that while certain VI improvers (such
as PMAs) show an increase in their coil sizes,

or radii of gyration (Rg) upon heating, others


(such as OCPs) do not. However, it also has
been suggested that VI improvers with an Rg
that increases with temperature appear to be
more effective.
STLE Board member professor Ashlie
Martini and STLE-member Uma Shantini Ramasamy, of the University of California-Merced,
together with their colleague Professor Seth
Lichter of Northwestern University, have addressed this interesting issue by means of
molecular-dynamics simulations. They modeled the behavior of several 50-repeat-unit
polymers dissolved in dodecane, as the tem-

Figure 1 | Frequency histograms of Rg and typical molecular congurations for PMA (left) and OCP (right) at 40 C and 100 C.
78

August 31, 1997: Princess Diana dies at age 36 in Paris of massive internal injuries

perature of the solutions was increased.3 As representatives of PMA


and OCP, they chose poly(dodecyl methacrylate) and poly(ethyleneran-propylene) (in which the ethylene and propylene are randomly distributed), respectively. Interestingly, while the Rg of the PMA increased
signicantly upon increasing temperature from 40 C to 100 C, the Rg of
the OCP actually decreased a little (see Figure 1), conrming the neutronscattering results.
The modelers extended their study to investigate whether the differences between OCP and PMA were due either to the long side-chains
(present in the PMA, but not in the OCP) or the presence of oxygen
(present in the PMA, but not in the OCP). In the case of poly(methyl
methacrylate) (PMMA), which resembles poly(dodecyl methacrylate)
but without the long side-chains, they found that its Rg did, in fact,
increase upon heating to a similar extent to that seen for the PMA.
Thus, the side chains appear not to be responsible for the expansion.
They then modeled a polymer that resembled PMMA but with CH2
groups replacing the oxygen atoms in the carbonyl and ester groups.
In this case, the polymer contracted with temperature, as was the
case for the OCP. It therefore appears that it is the presence of oxygen
in the polymers, rather than the long side-chains, that affects their
expansion behavior upon heating.
Molecular-dynamics simulations seem to be a very useful approach
in the molecular design of new, effective VI improvers, which can contribute to the ongoing development of new generations of energyefcient lubricants.

REFERENCES
1. Selby, T.W. (1958), The non-Newtonian characteristics of lubricating
oils, ASLE Trans, 1, pp. 68-81.
2. Covitch, M.J. and Trickett, K.J. (2015), How polymers behave as
viscosity-index improvers in lubricating oils, Adv. Chem. Eng. Sci., 5,
pp. 134-151.
3. Ramasamy, U.S., Lichter, S. and Martini, A. (2016), Effect of molecularscale features on the polymer coil size of model viscosity index
improvers, Trib. Lett., 62, p. 23.

Eddy Tysoe (left) is a distinguished


professor of physical chemistry at the
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
You can reach him at wtt@uwm.edu.
Nic Spencer (right) is professor of
surface science and technology at
the ETH Zurich, Switzerland. You can
reach him at nspencer@ethz.ch.
Both serve as editors-in-chief of STLE-afliated Tribology Letters journal.

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following a high-speed car crash, reportedly while being pursued by car loads of paparazzi.

79

AUTOMOTIVE TRIBOLOGY
Dr. Edward P. Becker

What stalled the Wankel?


Acceptance of the rotary engine slowed due to issues related to fuel
economy, emissions and, yes, lubrication.
NOT EVERY AUTOMOTIVE INNOVATION that
reaches the marketplace is destined for
widespread adoption.
In 1970 Mazda began selling vehicles
in the U.S. equipped with the Wankel
rotary engine, achieving a respectable
0.02% market share. By 1973 the Mazda
RX-3 captured 0.82% of U.S. sales, nearly 90,000 units.
This growth rate resulted in a bout
of what could fairly be called Wankel
fever in the automotive industry. Virtually every automaker (including General Motors, Ford, Chrysler and Toyota)
signed licensing agreements for the
technology, and many announced plans
to take the Wankel into production.
However, no commercially viable Wankel-powered cars were ever introduced
by other manufacturers, and today even
Mazda sells only piston engine vehicles
in North America.
So what happened?
The best way to understand the operating principles of the Wankel is to
view one of the many excellent animations available online. The key advantage of the Wankel is that it produces
rotary motion directly (as opposed to
the piston engine which must convert
reciprocating motion into rotary motion). This results in fewer moving
parts, and the mechanical simplicity
translates into ease of manufacture and
maintenance, as well as a high power-toweight ratio.
There are some key disadvantages,
however. The constraints on the shape
of the combustion chamber means that
combustion is relatively inefcient in
the Wankel; therefore, fuel economy is
usually lower than a comparable output
piston engine.
Also, the large surface area of the
80

AUGUST 2016

Although the
Mazda RX-3
climbed to sales
of 90,000 units
in the U.S. by
1973, Wankel
fever was short
lived.

combustion chamber contributes to


higher emissions. By 1973 the U.S. was
struggling with rising fuel prices and
gasoline shortages due to an oil embargo. At the same time, the Clean Air Act
required automakers to have plans in
place to reduce emission.
As bad as this was, the Wankel was
also faced with a daunting tribological
problem.
An interesting (and necessary) property of the roughly triangular rotor is
that all three apexes remain in contact
with the roughly oval housing throughout the engine cycle. A device called an
apex seal is required to keep the gasses
in each chamber conned. Sealing the
chamber during combustion is particularly critical, as pressure loss during this
phase results in both loss of power and
increased emissions. The apex seal performs functions similar to the piston
rings in a reciprocating engine.
Piston engines typically use three
rings per cylinder. The uppermost is the
top compression ring, which connes
the combustion gasses. Next is the second compression ring, also sometimes
called the scraper ring, which adds some
redundancy to sealing the cylinder and
also removes oil from the cylinder bore
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

walls on the down stroke. At the bottom


is the oil control ring, which meters a
small amount of oil (which splashes up
or is sprayed up) onto the bore as the
piston travels upward, to lubricate the
rings in order to manage friction and
wear during the power stroke.
In the Wankel engine, a single apex
seal must perform all these functions
and, further, there is no inherent mechanism for oil to reach the seals. Also, the
apex seal moves in one direction only,
so there is no opportunity to place and
remove lubricant. Finally, while piston
rings are circular seals and provide sealing force only in the radial direction, the
apex seals are linear seals, and must provide sealing force in both the radial and
axial directions.
Development continues on the Wankel engine, and its devotees maintain
that the problems are solvable, and its
time is yet to come. We shall see!
Ed Becker is an STLE Fellow and
past president. He is president of
Friction & Wear Solutions, LLC in
Brighton, Mich., and can be
reached through his website at
www.frictionandwearsolutions.
com.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

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