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A Research Paper
Presented to
Ms. Irma M. Pealba
College of Liberal Arts and Communication De La Salle University Dasmarias

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for ENGL 102a
Information Literacy



July 2015

Closed Circuit television (CCTV) is becoming more popular today because of its benefits
in security purposes, surveillance, crime-prevention and for observing. The tactics rise can be
traced to Great Britain, where three quarters of the Home Office budget funded CCTV-related
projects from 1996 to 1998 (Armitage 2002). This generated a dramatic expansion of CCTV in
Britain, from approximately one hundred systems in 1990 (Armitage 2002) to over four million
less than two decades later (Farrington et al. 2007).

CCTV is a visual surveillance technology designed for monitoring a variety of

environments and activities all at the same time. CCTV systems may provide real-time, timelapse, event, or digitally recorded surveillance information to help in detecting, responding to,
investigating and providing evidence for security, safety and related incidents. A CCTV system
may also be used to prevent security breaches by allowing security personnel to monitor access
control systems at entry points to secure areas. CCTV systems have proven to be essential tools
in most any surveillance and security application. Video cameras are used as visual tools of the
security staff or security design. CCTV systems greatly increase the geographic areas that can be
covered by one security professional.And once an event has transpired, video can be used for
investigation and evidence in criminal and civil liability cases. The installation of CCTV security
systems thus provides a large deterrence to unlawful activity, and provides a strong sense of
security to patrons of facilities that use CCTV. Due to great advances in the controlling or
manipulating interfacing systems, video systems can be automated to great degrees. (

Although this is popular around the world, the biggest problem about this is, it has a big
trouble in installing it. From many information collected from different equipment
manufacturers, there are 65% of failure in a CCTV system. It includes the type of cable used,
connectors, connections, and the installation methods. Power and environment related that
includes excessive or inadequate input power, ineffective or improper grounding or an excessive
temperature around the equipment are belongs to the second biggest area that nearly reaches the
27% problems of it. Improper setup, equipment termination and camera installation is about 7%
of the problems faced by the installation personnel and 1% of failures encountered in a CCTV
installation is by equipment failures.(Mike Bijan 2015).

Everyday criminals get away to those crimes they do because of those misconfigured
cameras, and mostly not working at all. (Intellisecure 2014). These common installation mistakes
can negate the benefits of CCTVs and can possibly make CCTV system useless.

Thus, this study aims for the development and improvement of installing CCTV system
in different establishment. The findings of this study will be beneficial to the users in managing
and installing of their CCTV system for their safety against crime. Moreover, this study can help
people in choosing the best equipment for their CCTV system so that they can maximize the
effectiveness of CCTVs.

Theoretical Framework
The theory behind CCTV
The mechanisms under which CCTV aims to reduce crime are based upon the following (largely
simplistic) assumptions:
1. Deterrence. The potential offender becomes aware of the presence of CCTV, assesses the
risks of offending in this location to outweigh the benefits and chooses either not to offend or
to offend elsewhere.
2. Efficient deployment. CCTV cameras allow those monitoring the scene to determine whether
police assistance is required. This ensures that police resources are called upon only when
3. Self discipline.
By potential victims. They are reminded of the risk of crime, therefore altering their
behaviour accordingly.
By potential offenders. Through a process similar to that described by Foucault2 in his
discussion of Benthams Panopticon, the threat of potential surveillance (whether the
cameras are actually being monitored may be irrelevant) acts to produce a self discipline in
which individuals police their own behaviour. In the Panopticon, prison cells were arranged
around a central watchtower from which a supervisor could constantly survey them.
Prisoners could never be sure whether they were being watched, so began to police their own
behaviour: Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable.
Visible: the inmate will constantly have before his eyes the tall outline of the central tower
from which he is spied upon. Unverifiable: the inmate must never know whether he is being
looked at at any moment, but he must be sure that he may always be so. Similarly, the CCTV
camera may produce a self-discipline through fear of surveillance, whether real or imagined.

4. Presence of a capable guardian. The Routine Activity Theory4 suggests that for a crime to
be committed there must be a motivated offender, a suitable target and the absence of a capable
guardian. Any act that prevents the convergence of these elements will reduce the likelihood of a
crime taking place. CCTV, as a capable guardian, may help to reduce crime.
5. Detection. CCTV cameras capture images of offences taking place. In some cases this may
lead to punishment and the removal of the offenders ability to offend (either due to
incarceration, or increased monitoring and supervision). The latter mechanism is by far the most
publicised, with high-profile cases such as the abduction and murder of James Bulger and the
arrest of David Copeland, in which images of the offenders on CCTV aided their detection and
subsequent arrest.


Armitage. (2002). Retrieved from

Bijan, M. (2015). Retrieved from
Eric, P. L., Caplan, J. M., & Kennedy, L. W. (2014, June 1). Analyzing the Influence of MicroLevel Factors on CCTV Camera Effect.: Discovery Service for DE LA SALLE UNIVDASMARIAS. Retrieved from
Intellisecure. (2014, September 2). Common surveillance system mistakes make security
systems worthless [Web log message]. Retrieved from
Inter-Pacific.Retrieved from