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Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898)

1. Belonged from a rich and respected

2. Poor position of Muslim lead him to
bring forward Aligarh Movement.
3. Main Point: Improve relations with
4. Wrote Loyal Muhammadens of India.
Defended Muslims from British
accusations and proved that they
remained loyal by giving part.details.
5. Wrote Essay On the Causes of Indian
Revolt to convince the British that
they were wrong to put the whole
blame of Wol on Muslims.
6. Wrote Tabyin-ul-Kalam, pointed out
the similarities b/w Islam &
Christianity & removed
7. Main Point:Encourage growth of
Western Educ.
8. Enforced Muslims towards Western
9. Ulema conflicted.
10. Wrote Tahzib-ul-Ikhlaq (contained
Art. from influential muslims). Ulema
became satisfied.
11.In 1863, founded Scientific Society at
Gazipore. Purpose was to translate
scientific writings from Arabian,
Persian and English to Urdu.
12.Opened schools in Gazipore and
MAOS, later MAOC, finally
MAOU in 1920.
14.Main Point: Increase Political
15.Put the point that Congress
represented Hindus.
16.Opposed the idea of Competitive
Exams for government posts as level
of education wasnt same for Hindus
& Muslims.
17.Official Language including above
conflicts lead him to bring forward his
Two Nation theory.







Post Partition Problems

Geographical Problems: Both parts
of Pak separated by 1000 of miles.
Political Problems: India inherited
government buildings, furnishings,
even British officials but Pak had none.
India also had experienced politicians
from INC whereas Pakistan had only
wealthy landlords with no political
Social Problems b/w East & West
Pakistan became severe.
Economic Problems: By 1947, Pak
didnt have a single Jute Mill whereas
India had many.
Accession of Princely States: 462
states were asked to join either Pak or
India. Hyderabad and Junagarh were
forcibly captured by India. Most of the
Kashmir was also captured by them
after UNO decided to divide it.
Division of Financial and Military
asset: It was decided that India & Pak
will divide the assets in 17:5 respt.
Some of the amount was paid by India
to Pakistan while some is remaining till
to-date. Moreover, all the Ordinance
factories were located in India. So
India agreed to pay 60 million to
Pakistan and with that amount it built
an Ordinance Factory in Wah. Pak
Army lacked officers and Jinnah was
forced to take 500 British officers to
solve the issue.
Canal Water Dispute: Partition cut
across many rivers and canals with
India. India blocked the water supply
of Pak.
Refugee Problem: Accommodation
The Coup in Turkey
Martial Law July 15
Serious Ideological conflicts