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Cuckold

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Acuckoldisthehusbandofanadulterouswife.Inevolutionary
biology,thetermisalsoappliedtomaleswhoareunwittinglyinvesting
parentaleffortinoffspringthatarenotgeneticallytheirown.[1]

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Contents
1 Historyoftheterm
2 Metaphorandsymbolism
3 Cuckoldryasafetish
3.1 Theoriesinpsychology
4 Theoriesinevolutionarybiologyandpsychology
5 Seealso
6 References
7 Externallinks

Historyoftheterm
Thewordcuckoldderivesfromthecuckoobird,alludingtoitshabitof
layingitseggsinotherbirds'nests.[2][3]Theassociationiscommonin
medievalfolklore,literature,andiconography.
Englishusagefirstappearsabout1250inthesatiricalandpolemical
poem"TheOwlandtheNightingale"(l.1544).Thetermwasclearly
regardedasembarrassinglydirect,asevidentinJohnLydgate's"Fallof
Princes"(c.1440).Inthelate14thcentury,thetermalsoappearedin
GeoffreyChaucer's"TheMiller'sTale".[3]Shakespeare'spoetryoften
referredtocuckolds,withseveralofhischaracterssuspectingtheyhad
becomeone.[3]

c.1815Frenchsatireoncuckoldry,
whichshowsbothmenandwomen
wearinghorns.

ThefemaleequivalentcuckqueanfirstappearsinEnglishliteraturein
1562,addingafemalesuffixtothecuck.Oneoftenoverlookedsubtletyofthewordisthatitimpliesthatthe
husbandisdeceived,thatheisunawareofhiswife'sunfaithfulnessandmaynotknowuntilthearrivalor
growthofachildplainlynothis(aswithcuckoobirds).[3]
Arelatedword,firstappearingin1520,iswittol,whichsubstituteswit(inthesenseofknowing)forthefirst
partoftheword,referringtoamanawareofandreconciledtohiswife'sinfidelity.[4]

Metaphorandsymbolism
InWesterntraditions,cuckoldshavesometimesbeendescribedas"wearingthehornsofacuckold"orjust
"wearingthehorns."Thisisanallusiontothematinghabitsofstags,whoforfeittheirmateswhentheyare
defeatedbyanothermale.[5]InItaly(especiallyinSouthernItaly,whereitisamajorpersonaloffence),the
insultisoftenaccompaniedbythesignofthehorns.InFrench,thetermisporterdescornes,whichisusedby
Moliretodescribesomeonewhoseconsorthasbeenunfaithful.InGerman,thetermis"jemandemHrner
aufsetzen",or"Hrnertragen",thehusbandis"dergehrnteEhemann".RabelaiswrotetheTiersLiversof

GargantuaandPantagruelin1546,bywhichtimethesymbolofthehornswas"sowellknownandoverused
thattheauthorcouldbarelyavoidmakingreferencetoit."[6]Molire'sL'coledesfemmes(1662)isthestoryof
amanwhomockscuckoldsandbecomesoneattheend.InGeoffreyChaucer'sCanterburyTales(c.137277),
the"TheMiller'sTale"isastorythathumorouslyexaminesthelifeofacuckold.InChineseusage,an
altogetherdifferentallusionisused,whenthecuckold(orwittol)issaidtobe""(wearingthegreen
hat),whichderivesfromthesumptuarylawsusedinChinafromthe13thtothe18thcenturieswhichrequired
themalesinhouseholdswithprostitutestowraptheirheadsinagreenscarf(orlaterahat).[7]

Cuckoldryasafetish
Unlikethetraditionaldefinitionoftheterm,infetishusageacuckoldiscomplicitinhis(orher)partner'ssexual
"infidelity"thewifewhoenjoyscuckoldingherhusbandisfrequentlycalledahotwifeoracuckoldressifthe
manismoresubmissive.[8]

Theoriesinpsychology
Psychologyregardscuckoldfetishismasavariantofmasochism,thecuckoldderivingpleasurefrombeing
humiliated.[9][10]InFreudiananalysis,cuckoldfetishismistheeroticizationofthefearsofinfidelityandof
failureintheman'scompetitionforprocreationandtheaffectionoffemales.InhisbookMasochismandthe
Self,psychologistRoyBaumeisteradvancedaSelfTheoryanalysisthatcuckolding(otherformsofsexual
masochism)amongotherwisementallyhealthypeoplewasaformofescapism.Accordingtothistheory,
cuckoldfetishistsarerelievingthemselvesofthestressoftheburdenoftheirsocialroleandescapingintoa
simpler,lessexpansiveposition.
Ifacouplecankeepthefantasyinthebedroom,orcometoanagreementwherebeingcuckoldedinrealitydoes
notdamagetherelationship,theymaytryitoutinreality.However,theprimaryproponentofthefantasyis
almostalwaystheonebeinghumiliated,orthe"cuckold":thecuckoldconvinceshislovertoparticipateinthe
fantasyforthem,thoughother"cuckolds"mayprefertheirlovertoinitiatethesituationinstead.Thefetish
fantasydoesnotworkatallifthecuckoldisbeinghumiliatedagainsttheirwill.[11]

Theoriesinevolutionarybiologyandpsychology
Inevolutionarybiology,thetermcuckoldisalsoappliedtomaleswhoareunwittinglyinvestingparentaleffort
inoffspringthatarenotgeneticallytheirown.Asnotedabove,thetermcuckoldisderivativeofthemis
directedparentalinvestmentofbirdswhodirectparentalinvestmenttotheeggsthatcuckoobirdshavelaidin
theirnests.[1]
InhisbookSpermWars,biologistRobinBakerspeculatedthattheexcitementandstimulationofthe
cuckoldingfetishemergesfromthebiologyofsexualityandtheeffectsofsexualarousalonthebrain,although
itisimportanttonotetheword"cuckold"doesnotappearinhisbook.Accordingtooneofhistheories,Baker
believesthatwhenamanthinksthathisfemalematemayhavebeensexualwithanotherman,themanis
promptedbybiologicalurgestocopulatewiththefemaleinaneffortto"compete"withtheotherman'ssperm.
BakerisalsooneofthefewproponentsofthetheoryofKillerSperm,theideathatspermcompetenotonlyfor
firstaccesstotheeggbutby"attacking"othersperm.Althoughthisideaappearsfrequentlyincuckoldfetish
material,veryfewbiologistssharethisview.[12][13]
Bakerandhisproponents'viewsconflictwiththehypothesizedfoundationsforsexualjealousyinevolutionary
psychology,whichisrootedintheideathatmen,specifically,willreactjealouslytosexualinfidelityonthe
partsoftheirmates.[14]Infidelityisalsothenumberonecausefordivorce.[15]

Thecuckoldsurgetothrust,throughintercourseormasturbation,isoftenenhancedbythepresenceofthebull,
whetherrealorfantasized.AstudybyGordonGallupandcoworkers(2003)concludedthatoneevolutionary
purposeofthethrustingmotioncharacteristicofintenseintercourseisforthepenistoupsuckanothermans
semenbeforedepositingitsown.[16]

Seealso
Adultery
Candaulism
Crimeofpassion
Cuckoldryinfish
Cuckquean
Cuckservative
Erotichumiliation
Femaledominance
Femalepromiscuity
Feminization(activity)
Hotwife
Monogamish
Nonpaternityevent
Openmarriage
Paternityfraud
Polyamory
Polyandry,marriagetopluralhusbands
Pregnancyfetishism
Swinging
Wittol

References
1.StevenM.PlatekandToddK.Shackelford(Eds.),FemaleInfidelityandPaternalUncertainty:Evolutionary
PerspectivesonMaleAntiCuckoldryTactics.CambridgeUniversityPress:NewYork,2006.
2.'Cuckold'attheOnlineEtymologyDictionary(http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=cuckold)
3.Williams,Janet(4July2009)."Cuckolds,HornsandOtherExplanations".BBCNews.Retrieved11February2013.
4.OxfordEnglishDictionary
5.E.CobhamBrewer18101897.DictionaryofPhraseandFable.1898.
6.LaGuardia,DavidP.,IntertextualMasculinityinFrenchRenaissanceLiterature,AshgatePublishing(Franham,UK
2008)p.133
7.Sommer,MatthewHarvey(2002).Sex,Law,andSocietyinLateImperialChina.Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress.
p.218.ISBN0804745595.Retrieved20080727.
8.Ley,David(2009).InsatiableWives:WomenWhoStrayandtheMenWhoLoveThem.Rowman&Littlefield.
ISBN9781442200319.
9.AnneliRufus(Jul29,2010)."TheIntellectualSexFetish".TheDailyBeast.RetrievedAugust30,2012.
10."Cuckoldingcanalsobemixedwithothernonmonogamousrelationshiparrangementswithwhichithassubstantial
overlapsuchasswinging,openrelationships,andpolyamory.Again,itisdistinguishedfromtheseconceptsinthat
cuckoldsthrillintheirpartnersactsisspecificallymasochistic.",Betchen,StephenJ.,MagneticPartnersblogpost,
11/18/14
11.Klein,DonaldC.(1Dec1999)."Thehumiliationdynamic:Anoverview".TheJournalofPrimaryPrevention.12(2):
93121.doi:10.1007/BF02015214.
12.Birkhead,TRMartnez,JGBurke,TFroman,DP(Sep7,1999)."Spermmobilitydeterminestheoutcomeof
spermcompetitioninthedomesticfowl".Proceedings.Biologicalsciences/theRoyalSociety.266(1430):175964.
doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0843.PMC1690205 .PMID10577160.
13.Baker,Robin(1996).SpermWars,theScienceofSex.DianeBooksPublishing.ISBN9780788160042.
14.Harris,CR(January2002)."Sexualandromanticjealousyinheterosexualandhomosexualadults".Psychological
Science.13(1):712.doi:10.1111/14679280.00402.PMID11892782.

15.WolcottHughes(1999)."Towardsunderstandingthereasonsfordivorce".WorkingpaperNo.20.Australian
InstituteforFamilyStudies:8.
16.SusanM.Block,Ph.D.(June2,2015)."Cuckold"(PDF).WileyBlackwellInternationalEncyclopediaofHuman
Sexuality.RetrievedJuly3,2015.

Externallinks
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