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Introduction

Electricity is the most preferred used form of energy used in industry, homes, businesses and transportation. It can be easily and efficiently transported from the production centers to the point of

use. It is highly flexible in use as it can be converted to any desired form like mechanical, thermal,

light, chemical etc.

An electrical power system is made up of many components connected together to form a large,

complex system that is capable of generating, transmitting and distributing electrical energy over

large areas.

1.1

The basic structure of modern day power system is shown in Fig. 1.1. A power system is usually

divided into three parts: generation, transmission and distribution system.

1.1.1

Generation

Electricity is produced by converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy. In majority of

cases, the mechanical energy is either obtained from thermal energy or provided by the flowing water.

The main sources of thermal energy sources are coal, natural gas, nuclear fuel and oil. The use of

non-fossil fuels such as wind, solar, tidal, and geothermal and biogas in electricity generation is also

increasing. Hydro-power is the main non-thermal source of mechanical energy used in electricity

generation. The conversion of mechanical to electrical energy is done using synchronous generators

in majority of power plants. Few wind generation systems use induction generators. The power is

usually generated at low voltage, between 11 and 35 KV, and then fed into the transmission system

using a step up transformer.

1.1.2

Transmission system

The electricity is generated in bulk in the generating stations and then transmitted over long distances

to the load points. The transmission system interconnects all the generating stations and major load

centers in the system. It forms the back bone of the power system. Since the power loss in a

transmission line is proportional to the square of line current, the transmission lines operate at the

1

highest voltage levels, usually 220 KV and upwards. Usually the transmission network has a meshed

structure in order to provide many alternate routes for the power to flow from the generators to the

load points. This improves the reliability of the system.

High voltage transmission lines are terminated at substations. Very large industrial customers

may be provided power directly from these substations. At these substations, the voltage is stepped

down to a lower level and fed into the sub-transmission system. This part of the transmission system

connects the high voltage substation through step down transformers to distribution substation.

Typically the sub-transmission voltage levels are from 66 KV to 132 KV. Some large industrial

consumers may be served directly from the sub-transmission system.

The transmission lines connect the neighboring power systems at transmission levels, thus forming

2

a grid. The grid is the network of multiple generating resources and several layers of transmission

network. The interconnections of power systems offer the following advantages.

(a) Quality: The voltage profile of the transmission network improves as more generators contribute

to the system, resulting in an increased total system capability. This also improves the frequency

behavior of the system following any load perturbation due to increased inertia of the system.

(b) Economy: In interconnected systems, it is possible to reduce the total set of generating plants

required to maintain the desired level of generation reserve. This results in reduction of operational and investment costs. Also, operational (including plant start-ups and shut down) and

generation scheduling of units can be more economically coordinated.

(c) Security: In case of emergency, power can be made available from the neighboring systems and

each system can benefit even when individual spinning reserves may not be sufficient for isolated

operation.

1.1.3

Distribution system

The distribution represents the final stage of power transfer to the individual consumer. The distribution network is generally connected in a radial structure. The primary distribution voltage is

typically between 11 KV and 33 KV. Small industrial customers are supplied by primary feeders at

this voltage level. The secondary distribution feeders supply residential and commercial at 415/240

V. Small generating plants located near the load centers are usually connected to sub-transmission

or distribution system directly.

A power system operates in a normal state, if the following conditions are satisfied:

The bus voltages are within the prescribed limits.

The system frequency is within the specified limits.

The active and reactive power balance exists in the system.

However, the system load varies continuously and hence, in order to ensure satisfactory system

operation, proper controls have to be provided in a power system.

1.1.4

The various elements of power system operation and control are shown in Table 1.1 along with the

time-scale of operation.

1.2

A properly designed and operated power system must meet the following requirements:

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Relaying execution control, system voltage control

System frequency control tie-line power control

Economic dispatch

System security analysis

Unit commitment

Maintenance scheduling

System planning

Time period

Multi seconds

Few seconds to few minutes

Few minutes to few hours

Few minutes to few hours

Few hours to few weeks

One month to one year

One year to 10 years

(a) The system must have adequate capability to meet the continuously varying active and reactive

power demand of system load. This requires maintaining and approximately controlling adequate

spinning reserve of active and reactive power at all time instants.

(b) The system should be designed and operated so as to supply electrical energy at minimum cost

and with minimum adverse ecological impact.

(c) The electrical power supplied to the consumers must meet certain minimum quality standards

with respect to the following:

i) The network frequency should be maintained within a range of 3 percent of its nominal

value.

ii) The voltage magnitudes should be maintained within a range of 10 percent of the corresponding nominal value at each network bus bar.

iii) The supply should meet a desired level of reliability to ensure supply continuity as far as

possible.

(d) It should maintain scheduled tie-line flow and contractual power exchange.

To meet the requirements at points i), ii) and iii) above, several levels of controls incorporating

a large number of devices are needed. These controls are as shown in Fig. 1.2.

A brief explanation of various power system controllers is given next.

1.2.1

The controls provided in generating units consist of prime mover control and excitation controls as

shown in Fig. 1.3. The controls are also called as local frequency control (LFC) and automatic

voltage control (AVC).

These controllers are set for a particular operating condition and maintain the frequency and

voltage magnitude within the specified limits following small changes in load demand. If the input to

the prime mover is constant, then an increase in the active power of load at the generator terminals

results in a drop in the prime mover speed. This then, causes a reduction in the frequency. On

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the other hand, an increase in reactive power demand at the generator results in the reduction of

terminal voltage, if the excitation (generation field current) is kept constant. As the time constant

of excitation system is much smaller than that of prime mover system, the coupling between LFC

and AVC loop is negligible and hence they are considered independently.

1.2.2

In LFC, two feedback loops namely, primary and secondary loops are provided. Both the loops

help in maintaining the real power balance by adjusting the turbine input power. The primary LFC

loop senses the generator speed and accordingly controls the turbine input. This is a faster loop

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and operates in the order of seconds. But this loop provides only a coarse frequency control. The

secondary LFC loop which senses the system frequency and tie-time power, fine tunes the frequency

back to the nominal value. This is a slower loop and may take minutes to eliminate frequency error.

1.2.3

In AVC, the bus voltage is measured and compared to a reference. The resulting error voltage is

then amplified and applied to the excitation control system. The output of the exciter controls the

generator field current. An increase in the reactive power load of the generator causes the terminal

voltage to decrease and this results in generation of voltage error signal. The amplified error signal

then increases the exciter field current which in turn increases the exciter terminal voltage. This

increases the generator field current, which results in an increase in the generated emf. The reactive

power generation of the generator is thus increased and the terminal voltage is brought back to its

nominal value.

The generation control maintains the active power balance in the system. It also controls the

division of load active power between the generators in the system to ensure economic operation.

1.2.4

Economic dispatch

Economic operation and planning of electric energy generating system has been accorded due importance by the power system operators. Power systems need to be operated economically to make

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electrical energy cost-effective to the consumer and profitable for the operator. The operational

economics that deals with power generation and delivery can be divided into two sub-problems.

One dealing with minimum cost of power generation and other dealing with delivery of power with

minimum power loss. The problem of minimum production cost is solved using economic dispatch.

The main aim of economic dispatch problem is to minimize the total cost of generating real

power at different plants in the system while maintaining the real power balance in the system.

For system having hydro-plants, a coordinated dispatch of hydro-thermal units is carried out. The

economic dispatch and minimum loss problems can be solved by means of optimal power flow (OPF)

method. The OPF calculations involve a sequence of load flow solutions in which certain controllable

parameters are automatically adjusted to satisfy the network constraints while minimizing a specified

objective function.

The power system control objectives are dependent on the operating state of the system. Under

normal operating conditions, the controller tries to operate the system as economically as possible

with voltages and frequency maintained close to nominal values.

But abnormal conditions like outage of a larger generator, of a major transmission line or sudden

increase or reduction of system load can cause havoc in the system, if not properly controlled.

Different operating objectives have to be met in order to restore the system to normal operation

after the occurrence of such contingencies.

1.2.5

For the analysis of power system security and development of approximate control systems, the

system operating conditions are classified into five states: normal, alert, emergency, in extremis and

restorative. The state and the transitions between them are shown in Fig. 1.4.

Normal state: In this state, all the system variables are within the normal range with no

equipment being overloaded. The system is in a secure state with both equality (total system

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generation eqauls total system load) and inequality(bus voltages and equipment currents within

the limits) constraints being satisfied. In this state, a single contingency cannot disrupt the system

security and cannot cause any variable to violate the limit. The system has adequate spinning

reserve.

Alert state: If the security level of the system falls below some specified threshold, the system

then enters the alert state and is termed as insecure. The system variables are still within limits.

This state may be brought about by a single contingency, large increase in system load or adverse

weather conditions. Preventive control steps taken to restore generation or to eliminate disturbace

can help in restoring the system to the normal state. If these restorative steps do not succeed, the

system remains in the alert state. Occurence of a contingency with the system already in alert state,

may cause overloading of equipments and the system may enter emergency state. If the disturbance

is very severe, the system may enter into extremis state directly from alert state.

Emergency state: If the preventive controls fail or if a severe disturbance occurs, the system

enters emergency state. The transition to this state can occur either from normal state or alert state.

In this state the balance between generation and load is still maintained (equality constraints still

satisfied) and the system remains in synchronism. Some components are however overloaded(some

inequality constrints violated). Failure of these components results in system disintegration. Emergency control actions like disconnection of faulted section, re-routing of power excitation control,

fast valving, and load curtailment have to be taken. It is most urgent that the system be restored

to normal or alert state by means of these actions.

In-extremis state: If the emergency control actions fail when the system is in emergency state,

then the system enters into in-extremis state. The system starts to disintegrate into sections or

islands. Some of these islands may still have sufficient generation to meet the load. The components

are overloaded and the active power balance is also disrupted. Overloaded generators start tripping

leading to cascade outages and possible blackout. Control actions, such as load shedding and

controlled system operation are taken to save as much of the system as possible from a widespread

blackout.

Restorative state: The restorative state represents a condition in which control action is being

taken to restart the tripped generators and restore the interconnections. The system transition can

be either to normal or alert state depending on system conditions. The sequence of events that result

in system transition from normal to in-extremis state may take from few seconds to several minutes.

Bringing the system back to normal through the restorative state is an extremely time consuming

process and may last for hours or may be days. A large generator may require many hours from

restart to synchronization. The switched off loads can be picked up gradually and resynchronization

of operating islands to the grids is also a time consuming process.

The control actions may be initiated from the central energy control centre either through operators or automatically.

1.2.6

Unit Commitment

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The total load in the power system varies throughout a day and its value also changes with the

day of the week and season. Hence, it is not economical to run all the units available all the time.

Thus, the problem of unit commitment is to determine in advance, the start and the shut down

sequence of the available generators such that the load demand is met and the cost of generation is

minimum.

1.2.7

Maintenance scheduling

Preventive maintenance has to be carried out on power system components to ensure that they

continue to operate efficiently and reliably. Generators are usually put on maintenance once every

year. Their maintenance has to be so scheduled such that the available generation is sufficient to

meet the system load demand. The problem of maintenance scheduling deals with the sequencing of

generator maintenance such that sufficient generation is always available to meet the load demand

and the cost of maintenances and cost of lost generation is minimum.

1.3

System planning

To meet ever increasing load demand, either new power systems have to be built or the existing

power systems are expanded by adding new generators and transmission lines. Many analyses must

be performed to design and study the performance of the system and plan expansion. To study the

system feasibility and performance, the following analyses need to be carried out:

(a) Load flow analysis

(b) Fault analysis/short circuit studies

(c) Stability studies

(d) Contingency analysis

1.3.1

The load flow analysis involves the steady state solution of the power system network to determine power flows and bus voltages of a transmission network for specified generation and loading

conditions. These calculations are required for the study of steady state and dynamic performance

of the system.

The system is assumed to be balanced and hence, single phase representation is used. These studies are important in planning and designing future expansion of power system and also in determining

the best operation of the existing systems.

1.3.2

Fault studies

In these studies the line currents and bus voltages of a system are calculated during various

types of faults. Faults on power system are divided into balanced and unbalanced faults. Three

phase symmetrical faults are balanced faults in which the system retains its balanced nature. The

unbalanced faults are single line to ground fault, line to line fault and double line to ground fault.

The fault currents values are useful in relay setting and co-ordination as well as for selecting the

proper rating of the circuit breakers.

1.3.3

Stability studies

The stability studies ascertain the impact of disturbances on the electrochemical dynamic behavior of the power system. These studies are of two types; small signal stability study and transient

stability study.

The small signal stability studies deal with the behavior of a system following any small disturbances like small change in load, small change in AVR gain etc. As the disturbance is small, the

equations that describe the dynamics of the power system are linearized for the purpose of analysis.

The system is small signal stable for a particular operating point, if following a small disturbance it

returns to essentially the same steady state operating condition.

Transient stability study deals with the response of a power system subjected to a large disturbance such a short circuit, line tripping or loss of large genration. In this study the equations

describing system dynamics are solved using numerical techniques. The power system transient stability problem is then defined as that of assessing whether or not the system will reach an acceptable

steady state operating point following a large disturbance.

We will now start with the study of load flow analysis technique from the next lecture.

10

Module 2

Load Flow Analysis

AC power flow analysis is basically a steady-state analysis of the AC transmission and distribution

grid. Essentially, AC power flow method computes the steady state values of bus voltages and line

power flows from the knowledge of electric loads and generations at different buses of the system

under study. In this module, we will look into the power flow solution of the AC transmission grid

only (the solution methodology of AC distribution grid will not be covered). Further, we will also

study the power flow solution technique when an HVDC link is embedded into an AC transmission

grid. Also, we will be considering only a balanced system in which the transmission lines and loads

are balanced (the impedances are equal in all the three phases) and the generator produces balanced

three phase voltages (magnitudes are equal in all the phases while the angular difference between

any two phases is 120 degree).

2.1

Basically, an AC transmission grid consists of, i) synchronous generator, ii) loads, iii) transformer

and iv) transmission lines. For the purpose of power flow solution, synchronous generators are not

represented explicitly, rather their presence in implicitly modeled. We will look into the implicit

representation of synchronous generators a little later. However, the other three components are

modeled explicitly and their representations are discussed below.

2.1.1

Loads

As we all know, loads can be classified into three categories; i) constant power, ii) constant impedance

and iii) constant current. However, within the normal operating range of the voltage almost all the

loads behave as constant power loads. As the objective of the AC power flow analysis is to compute

the normal steady-state values of the bus voltages, the loads are always represented as constant

power loads. Hence, at any bus k (say), the real and reactive power loads are specified as 100 MW

and 50 MVAR (say) respectively. An important point needs to be mentioned here. As the loads

are always varying with time (the customers are always switching ON and OFF the loads), any

specific value of load (MW and/or MVAR) is valid only at a particular time instant. Hence, AC

11

power flow analysis is always carried out for the load and generator values at a particular instant.

2.1.2

Transmission line

In a transmission grid, the transmission lines are generally of medium length or of long length. A

line of medium length is always represented by the nominal- model as shown in Fig. 2.1, where

z is the total series impedance of the line and Bc is the total shunt charging susceptance of the

line. On the other hand, a long transmission line is most accurately represented by its distributed

parameter model. However, for steady-state analysis, a long line can be accurately represented by

the equivalent- model, which predicts accurate behavior of the line with respect to its terminal

measurements taken at its two ends. The equivalent- model is shown in Fig. 2.2.

Figure 2.2: Equivalent model of a long transmission line connected between buses i and j

In Fig. 2.2,

12

z

is the characteristic impedance of the line

y

z = series impedance of the line per unit length

y = shunt admittance of the line per unit length

L = length of the line

zc =

Hence, for power system analysis, a transmission line (medium or long) is always represented by

a circuit.

2.1.3

Transformer

For power system steady-state and fault studies, generally the exciting current of the transformer is

neglected as it is quite low compared to the normal load current flowing through the transformer.

Therefore, a two winding transformer connected between buses i and j is represented by its per

unit leakage impedance as shown in Fig. 2.3.

It is to be noted that in Fig. 2.3, the transformer tap ratio is 1:1. For a regulating transformer

with transformation ratio 1:t, the equivalent circuit of the transformer is shown in Fig. 2.4.

Sometimes the transformer ratio is also represented as a:1. In that case, the equivalent circuit is

as shown in Fig. 2.5.

Please note that in Figs. 2.4 and 2.5, the quantities t and a are real (i.e. the transformer is

changing only the voltage magnitude, not its angle). Further, in these two figures, the quantity y is

the per unit admittance of the transformer. Also, Fig. 2.5 can be derived from Fig. 2.4 by noting

t = 1/a and by interchanging the buses i and j.

With the models of above components in place, we are now in a position to start systematic study

of an n bus power system. Towards that goal, we first must understand the concept of injected

power and injected current, which is our next topic.

2.2

As the name suggests, the injected power (current) indicates the power (current) which is fed in to

a bus. To understand this concept, let us consider Fig. 2.6. In part (a) of this figure, a generator is

connected at bus k supplying both real and reactive power to the bus and thus, the injected real

and reactive power are taken to be equal to the real (reactive) power supplied by the generator. The

13

Figure 2.4: Equivalent circuit of a regulating transformer with transformation ratio 1:t

Figure 2.5: Equivalent circuit of a regulating transformer with transformation ratio a:1

corresponding injected current is also taken to be equal to the current supplied by the generator.

On the other hand, for a load connected to bus k (as shown in Fig. 2.6(b)), physically the real

(reactive) power consumed by the load flows away from the bus and thus, the injected real (reactive)

power is taken to be the negative of the real (reactive) power consumed by the load. Similarly, the

corresponding injected current Ik is also taken as the negative of the load current. If both a generator

14

and a load are connected at a particular bus (as depicted in Fig. 2.6(c)), then the net injected real

(reactive) power supplied to the bus is equal to the generator real (reactive) power minus the real

(reactive) power consumed by the load. Similarly, the net injected current in this case is taken to

be the difference of the generator current and the load current.

To summarize, if Pk , Qk , and Ik denote the injected real power, reactive power and complex

current at bus k respectively,

Pk = PG ; Qk = QG and Ik = IG if only a generator is connected to the bus k.

Pk = PL ; Qk = QL and Ik = IL if only a load is connected to the bus k.

Pk = PG PL ; Qk = QG QL and Ik = IG IL if both generator and load are connected to

the bus k.

Pk = 0 ; Qk = 0 ; Ik = 0 If neither generator nor load is connected to the bus k.

With this concept of injected power and current, we are now in a position to start analysis of

any general n bus power system. The first step towards this goal is to derive the bus admittance

matrix, which we will take up next.

2.3

BUS)

Formation of bus admittance matrix (Y

Let us consider a 5 bus network as shown in Fig. 2.7. In this network, all the transmissions are

represented by models. Therefore, the equivalent circuit of the above network is shown in Fig.

2.8.

In Fig. 2.8, Ik ; k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 are the injected currents at bus k. Further, the quantity yij

denotes the series admittance of the line i-j whereas the quantity yijs denotes the half line charging

susceptance of the line i-j. Now applying KCL at each bus k one obtains,

I1 = yT 1 (V1 V2 ) = yT 1 V1 yT 1 V2

15

(2.1)

y23 + V2 y24s + (V2 V4 )

y24

=

yT 1 V1 + (

yT 1 + y23s + y23 + y24s + y24 )V2 y23 V3 y24 V4

16

(2.2)

I3 = (V3 V2 )

y23 + V3 y23s + (V3 V5 )t

yT 2 + t(t 1)

yT 2 V3 + (V3 V4 )

y34 + V3 y34s

= V2 y23 + {

y23 + y23s + t

yT 2 + t(t 1)

yT 2 + y34 + y34s } V3 y34 V4 t

yT 2 V5

(2.3)

I4 = (V4 V2 )

y24 + y24s V4 + (V4 V3 )

y34 + y34s V4

= V2 y24 V3 y34 + (

y24 + y24s + y34 + y34s )V4

(2.4)

I5 = (V5 V3 )t

yT 2 + (1 t)

yT 2 V5

= V3 t

yT 2 + {t

yT 2 + (1 t)

yT 2 } V5

(2.5)

I1 Y11

I2 Y21

I3 = Y31

I Y

4 41

I5 Y51

Y12

Y22

Y32

Y42

Y52

Y13

Y23

Y33

Y43

Y53

Y14

Y24

Y34

Y44

Y54

Y15 V1

Y25 V2

Y35 V3

Y45 V4

Y55 V5

(2.6)

Where, Y11 = yT 1 ;

Y12 =

yT 1 ; Y13 = Y14 = Y15 = 0; Y21 =

yT 1 ;

Y22 = (

yT 1 + y23s + y23 + y24s + y24 ); Y23 =

y23 ; Y24 =

y24 ; Y25 = 0;

Y31 = 0; Y32 =

y23 ; Y33 = {

y23 + y23s + t

yT 2 + t(t 1)

yT 2 + y34 + y34s } ;

Y34 =

y34 ; Y35 = t

yT 2 ; Y41 = 0; Y42 =

y24 ; Y43 =

y34 ;

Y44 = (

y24 + y24s + y34 + y34s ); Y45 = 0; Y51 = Y52 = 0;

Y53 = t

yT 2 ; Y54 = 0; Y55 = {t

yT 2 + (1 t)

yT 2 }

Equation (2.6) can be written as,

IBUS = Y

BUS V

BUS

(2.7)

Where,

BUS = [V1 , V2 V5 ]T (5 1) is the vector of bus voltages measured with respect to the

V

ground

Y

BUS it can be observed that for i = 1, 2, 5;

Furthermore, from the elements of the Y

Yii = sum total of all the admittances connected at bus i

Yij = negative of the admittance connected between bus i and j (if these two buses are physically connected with each other)

Yij = 0; if there is no physical connection between buses i and j

17

Similarly, for a n bus power system, the relation given in equation (2.7) holds good, where,

IBUS = [I1 , I2 In ]T (n 1) is the vector of bus injection currents

V

BUS (n n) is the bus admittance matrix

Y

BUS matrix are calculated in the same way as described above.

Furthermore, the elements of the Y

BUS matrix when there is no mutual coupling

So far, we have considered the formation of the Y

among the elements of the network. In the next lecture, we will look into the procedure for forming

BUS matrix in the presence of mutual coupling between the elements.

the Y

18

2.4

Formation of Y

coupled elements

Let us consider Fig. 2.9. In this figure, the impedance Z

d connected between nodes x and y through a mutual

mutually coupled with the impedance Z

m . The currents through the impedances, the voltages across the impedances and the

impedance Z

injected currents at all the four nodes are also shown in Fig. 2.9.

From Fig. 2.9, the relationship between the voltages and currents associated with the two

impedances can be written as,

Zc Zm Ic

Vc

][ ]

[ ] = [

Zm Zd Id

Vd

Or,

1

Vc

Zc Zm

Ic

Vc

Zd Zm

1

]

=

]

[

[ ] = [

]

]

[

[

2

Vd

Zm Zd

Id

Zm

Zc Vd

Zc Zd Zm

Or,

Ic

Yc Ym Vc

][ ]

[ ] = [

Ym Yd Vd

Id

(2.8)

Where,

Yc =

Zd

;

2

Zc Zd Zm

Yd =

Zc

;

2

Zc Zd Zm

and Ym =

Zm

2

Zc Zd Zm

Vu

Vc

Vu Vv

1 1 0 0 Vv

Now from Fig. 2.9, [ ] = [

]=[

]

Vd

Vx Vy

0 0 1 1 Vx

Vy

Or,

Vu

V

Vc

1 1 0 0

v

[ ] = [C] where, C = [

]

Vd

0 0 1 1

Vx

Vy

19

(2.9)

(2.10)

Iu Ic

I I

v c

= =

Ix Id

Iy Id

1 0

c

T I

1 0 Ic

[ ] = [C] [ ]

Id

0 1 Id

0 1

(2.11)

Ic

Yc Ym Vc

Yc

[ ] = [

]

[

]

=

[

Id

Ym Yd Vd

Ym

Or,

Vu

V

Ym

v

[C]

]

Vx

Yd

Vy

Vu

Iu

V

I

c

T I

Yc Ym

T

v

v

[C]

[C] [ ] = = [[C] ] [

]

Vx

Ix

Ym Yd

Id

Vy

Iy

(2.12)

Now,

c

T Y

[C] [

Ym

Ym

[C]

=

]

Yd

1 0

1 0 Yc Ym 1 1 0 0

[

][

]

0 1 Ym Yd

0 0 1 1

0 1

(2.13)

Or,

c

T Y

[C] [

Ym

Ym

[C]

]

=

Yd

1 0

1 0

[

0 1

0 1

Yc Yc

Ym Ym

Ym Ym

]

Yd Yd

(2.14)

Or,

c

T Y

[C] [

Ym

Yc Yc Ym Ym

Y

Ym

Yc Ym Ym

] [C] =

Ym Ym

Yd

Yd Yd

Ym Ym Yd

Yd

20

(2.15)

Iu Yc Yc Ym Ym Vu

I Y

Yc Ym Ym Vv

v

c

=

Ix Ym Ym

Yd Yd Vx

Iy Ym Ym Yd

Yd Vy

(2.16)

Iu = Yc Vu Yc Vv + Ym Vx Ym Vy

= Yc Vu Yc Vv + Ym Vx Ym Vy + Ym Vu Ym Vu

= Yc (Vu Vv ) + (Ym )(Vu Vx ) + Ym (Vu Vy )

(2.17)

Or,

(2.18)

Similarly,

Iv = Yc Vu + Yc Vv Ym Vx + Ym Vy

= Yc Vu + Yc Vv Ym Vx + Ym Vy + Ym Vv Ym Vv

= Yc (Vu Vv ) + (Ym )(Vv Vy ) + Ym (Vv Vx )

(2.19)

Or,

(2.20)

Ix = Ym Vu Ym Vv + Yd Vx Yd Vy

= Ym Vu Ym Vv + Yd Vx Yd Vy + Ym Vx Ym Vx

= Yd (Vx Vy ) + (Ym )(Vx Vu ) + Ym (Vx Vu )

(2.21)

Or,

(2.22)

Equations (2.18), (2.20) and (2.22) can be represented by the partial networks shown in Figs.

2.10, 2.11 and 2.12 respectively. Combining Figs. 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12, Fig. 2.13 is obtained.

Again from the last row of equation (2.16),

Iy = Ym Vu + Ym Vv Yd Vx + Yd Vy

= Ym Vu + Ym Vv Yd Vx + Yd Vy + Ym Vy Ym Vy

= Yd (Vy Vx ) + (Ym )(Yy Vv ) + Ym (Yy Vu )

(2.23)

It can be observed that equation (2.23) is also represented by Fig. 2.13. Therefore, the voltage21

current relationship of equation (2.16) is adequately represented by Fig. 2.13. Thus, Fig. 2.13

can be considered as an equivalent circuit of Fig. 2.9. As Fig. 2.13 does not contain any mutual

BUS formulation can be adopted for this circuit also.

admittance, usual method for Y

Fig. 2.13 shows the most general case in which all the four nodes are distinct from each other.

However, in many cases mutual coupling exists between two elements which have one common node

between them. The equivalent circuit for this case can also be derived from Fig. 2.13. For example,

in Fig. 2.13, if nodes v and y are common (say w), then the equivalent circuit becomes as shown

in Fig. 2.14. Moreover, if the nodes u and x are also common (say s), then the equivalent circuit

BUS formulation can be adopted for these two

is shown in Fig. 2.15. Again, the usual method for Y

circuits also.

We are now in a position to write down the basic power flow equation, which we will take up in

the next lecture.

22

23

24

25

2.5

I1 Y11

I Y

2 21

=

In Yn1

Or,

Y12 Y1n V1

Y22 Y2n V2

Yn2 Ynn Vn

(2.24)

Ii = Yij Vj

(2.25)

j=1

Si = Pi + jQi = Vi Ii

Now, Vi = Vi eji ;

Vj = Vj ejj ;

(2.26)

j=1

Or,

n

Pi = Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij )

(2.27)

j=1

n

Qi = Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij )

(2.28)

j=1

Equations (2.27) and (2.28) are known as the basic load flow equations. It can be seen that for

any ith bus, there are two equations. Therefore, for a n-bus power system, there are altogether 2n

load-flow equations.

Now, from equations (2.27) and (2.28) it can be seen that there are four variables (Vi , i , Pi and

Qi ) associated with the ith bus. Thus for the n-bus system, there are a total of 4n variables. As

there are only 2n equations available, out of these 4n variables, 2n quantities need to be specified

and remaining 2n quantities are solved from the 2n load-flow equations. As 2n variables are to

be specified in a n bus system, for each bus, two quantities need to be specified. For this purpose,

the buses in a system are classified into three categories and in each category, two different quantities

are specified as described below.

1. PQ Bus: At these buses loads are connected and therefore, these buses are also termed as load

buses. Generally the values of loads (real and reactive) connected at these buses are known

and hence, at these buses Pi and Qi are specified (or known). Consequently, Vi and i need to

be calculated for these buses.

26

2. PV Bus: Physically, these buses are the generator buses. Generally, the real power supplied

by the generator is known (as we say that the generation is supplying 100 MW) and also, the

magnitude of the terminal voltage of the generator is maintained constant at a pre-specified

value by the exciter (provided that the reactive power supplied or absorbed by the generator

is within the limits). Thus, at a PV bus, Pi and Vi are specified and consequently, Qi and i

need to be calculatd.

3. Slack Bus: To calculate the angles i (as discussed above), a reference angle (i = 0) needs to

be specified so that all the other bus voltage angles are calculated with respect to this reference

angle. Moreover, physically, total power supplied by all the generation must be equal to the

sum of total load in the system and system power loss. However, as the system loss cannot be

computed before the load flow problem is solved, the real power output of all the generators in

the system cannot be pre-specified. There should be at least one generator in the system which

would supply the loss (plus its share of the loads) and thus for this generator, the real power

output cant be pre-specified. However, because of the exciter action, Vi for this generator can

still be specified. Hence for this generator, Vi and i (= 0) are specified and the quantities Pi

and Qi are calculated. This generator bus is designated as the slack bus. Usually, the largest

generator in the system is designated as the slack bus.

To summarise, the details of different types of buses in a n bus, m generator power system are

shown in Table 2.1. Now, please note that in a load flow problem, the quantities Pi and Qi (Qi at

Table 2.1: Classification of buses

Type

Specified quantity

Solution quantity

PQ

n-m

P i , Qi

Vi , i

PV

m-1

Pi , Vi

Qi , i

Slack

Vi , i

P i , Qi

PV while Pi and Qi at slack buses) are not directly solved. Only the quantities Vi and i are directly

solved (Vi for all PQ buses while i for all PV and PQ buses). This is because of the fact that once

Vi and i at all PV and PQ buses are solved, then the voltage magnitudes and angles at all the buses

are known (Vi , i at the slack bus are already specified) and subsequently, using equations (2.27)

and (2.28), Pi and Qi at any bus can be calculated.

Therefore, in a n bus, m generator system, the unknown quantities are: Vi (total n-m of

them) and i (total n-1 of them). Therefore, total number of unknown quantities is 2n-m-1. On

the other hand, the specified quantities are: Pi (total n-1 of them) and Qi (total n-m of them).

Hence total number of specified quantities is also 2n-m-1. As the number of unknown quantities is

equal to the number of specified quantities, the load-flow problem is well-posed.

27

Equations (2.27) and (2.28) represent a set of simultaneous, non-linear, algebraic equations. As

the set of equations is non-linear, no closed form, analytical solution for these equations exist. Hence,

these equations can only be solved by using suitable numerical iterative techniques. For solving the

load flow problem, various iterative methods exist. These are:

1. Gauss-seidel method

2. Newton Raphron (polar) technique

3. Newton Raphron (rectangular) technique

4. Fast-decoupled load flow

We will discuss these methods one by one and we start with the Gauss-Seidel method.

2.6

Before discussing the Gauss-Seidel load flow (GSLF) technique, let we first review the basic GaussSeidel procedure for solving a set of non-linear algebraic equations.

Let the following n equations are given for the n unknown quantities x1 , x2 , xn ;

f1 (x1 , x2 xn ) = 0

f2 (x1 , x2 xn ) = 0

fn (x1 , x2 xn ) = 0

(2.29)

It is to be noted that in equation (2.29), the function f1 , f2 , fn are all non-linear in nature

and no particular form of these equations is assumed. Now, with some algebraic manipulation, from

the first equation of equation set (2.29), the variable x1 can be represented in terms of the other

variables. Similarly from the second equation, the variable x2 can be represented in terms of the

other variables. Proceeding in the same way, from the nth equation, the variable xn can be expressed

in terms of the other variables. Therefore, let,

x1

x2

xk

xn

= g1 (x2 , x3 xn )

= g2 (x1 , x3 xn )

= gn (x1 , x2 xn1 )

(2.30)

(0)

(0)

(0)

assume the initial values of these solution variables (x1 , x2 xn ). With these initially assumed

28

Step 1: Set iteration count k = 1

Step 2: Update the variables ;

x(k)

= g1 (x(k1)

, x(k1)

, x(k1)

);

n

1

2

3

(k1)

x(k)

= g2 (x(k)

, x(k1)

);

n

2

1 , x3

(k)

(k)

(k1)

(k1)

xp(k) = gp (x(k)

);

1 , x2 , xp1 , xp+1 , xn

(k)

(k)

x(k)

= gn (x(k)

n

1 , x2 , xn1 );

(k)

(k)

(k1)

for all i = 1, 2, n;

Step 3: Compute ei = xi xi

(k) (k)

(k)

Step 4: Compute er = max(e1 , e2 , en ) ;

Step 5: If er (tolerance limit), stop and print the solution. Else set k = k + 1 and go to step

2.

It is to be noted that in step 2, for updating the variable xp , the most updated values of

x1 , x2 , xp1 (which are before xp in the sequence of the solution variables) are used while for the

variables xp+1 , xp+2 , xn (which are after xp in the sequence of the solution variables), the values

pertaining to previous iteration are used (as these variables have not been updated yet). Subsequently, in steps 3 and 4, the maximum absolute error between the solutions of the current iteration

and previous iteration is calculated. If this maximum absolute error is less then a pre-specified

tolerance value, then the algorithm is considered to be converged. Otherwise, the solution variables

are again updated.

With this background of basic Gauss-Seidel method, we are now in a position of discussing GSLF,

which we will do next.

2.7

n

1

Ii = Yik Vk = Yii Vi + Yik Vk . Hence, Vi =

Yii

k=1

k=1

k=1

i

i

29

Pi jQi

. Thus,

Pi + jQi = Vi Ii we get, Ii =

Vi

P jQ

n

1

i

i

ik Vk

Vi =

Yii Vi

k=1

(2.31)

Equation (2.31) is the basic equation for performing GSLF. It is to be noted that without loss

of generality, it is assumed that the m generators are connected to the first m buses (bus 1

being the slack bus) and remaining (n-m) buses are load buses. Now, initially to understand the

basic GSLF procedure, let us assume that m = 1, i.e., there is only one generator (which is also the

slack bus) and the rest (n-1) buses are all load buses. To perform load-flow computation, initial

guesses of the bus voltages are necessary. As any power system is generally expected to operate at

the normal steady-state operating condition (with the bus voltage magnitudes maintained between

(0)

0.95 - 1.05 p.u.), all the unknown bus voltage are initialized to 1.00o p.u (i.e. Vj = 1.00o for

j = 2, 3, n). This process of initializing all bus voltage to 1.00o is called flat start. With these

initial bus voltages, the complete procedure for GSLF (having no PV bus) is as follows.

Step 1: Set iteration count k = 1.

Step 2: Update the bus voltages as;

P jQ

n

1

2

2

(k1)

(k1) Y2j Vj

V

=

Y22 {V2

} j =1

n

1 Pp jQp p1 (k)

(k1)

(k)

Vp

=

(k1) Ypj Vj Ypj Vj

Ypp {Vp

j=p+1

} j=1

Pn jQn n1

1

(k)

(k)

nj Vj

Vn

=

Ynn {Vn(k1) }

j=1

(k)

2

(k)

(k)

(k1)

for all i = 2, n;

Step 3: Compute ei = Vi Vi

(k) (k)

(k)

(k)

Step 4: Compute e = max(e2 , e3 , en ) ;

Step 5: If e(k) (tolerance limit), stop and print the solution. Else set k = k+1 and go to step 2.

With the above understanding of the basic GSLF, we are now in a position to discuss the GSLF

procedure for a system having multiple generators. Before we discuss the GSLF procedure, let

us look into the procedure of initialisation of bus voltages (which is little different than assuming

a flat start for all the bus volatges). For a system having multiple generators, the bus voltage

30

initialisation is carried out in a two step procedure; i) the load buses are initialised with flat start

(0)

(i.e. Vj = 1.00o for j = (m + 1), (m + 2), n) and ii) the magnitudes of the voltages of the

PV buses are initialised with the corresponding specified voltage magnitudes while initialising all

(0)

these voltage angles to 0o (i.e. Vj = Vjsp 0o for j = 2, 3, m, where Vjsp is the specified bus

voltage magnitude of the j th generator). Now, as discussed earlier, the reactive power supplied or

absorbed by a generator (QG ) is calculated by the load flow procedure. However any generator has

a maximum and minimum limit on QG . If the QG from the generator is within these limits, then the

generator excitation system is able to maintain the terminal voltage at the specified value. On the

other hand, if the generator reaches its limit on QG (either maximum or minimum), then because

of the insufficient amount of reactive power (either supplied or absorbed), the generator excitation

system would not be able to maintain the terminal voltage magnitude at the specified value. In that

case the generator bus would behave as a PQ bus (P being already specified for the generator and

Q is set at either maximum or minimum limiting value of QG ). In power system terminology, this

phenomenon (where the generator is behaving like a PQ bus) is termed as PV to PQ switching

which should also be accounted for in any load-flow solution methodology.

This is incorporated in GSLF by the following procedure. At the beginning of each iteration, QG

injection by each generator is calculated. If this calculated QG is found to be within the corresponding limits then this generator continues to behave as a PV bus. Hence Vi of this bus (at which the

generator is connected ) is still maintained at the corresponding specified value and only the angle

of this bus voltage is calculated in the present iteration. On the other hand if QG is found to exceed

any limit (either maximum or minimum), then it is fixed at that limit and the bus is considered

to act like a PQ bus. Thus, both the magnitude and angle of the bus voltage are calculated in

the present iteration. With this background, the complete algorithm of GSLF involving multiple

generator buses is as follows.

(0)

(0)

2), n. Set iteration count k = 1.

Step 2: For i = 2, 3, m, carry out the following operations.

a) Calculate,

n

Q(k)

= Vi(k1) Vj(k1) Yij sin (i(k1) j(k1) ij )

i

j=1

(k)

b) If, Qmin

Qi

i

is given by,

(k)

(k)

(k)

(k)

Qmax

; then assign Vi = Visp and i = (Ai ). The quantity Ai

i

(k)

i

n

1 Pi jQi(k) i1 (k)

(k1)

=

Yij Vj

Yij Vj

Yii {Vi(k1) }

j=1

j=i+1

31

(k)

c) If Qi

Qmax

, then calculate

i

(k)

i

V

(k)

d) If Qi

i1

n

1 Pi jQmax

(k)

(k1)

i

ij Vj Yij Vj

=

Yii {Vi(k1) }

j=1

j=i+1

Qmin

, then calculate

i

(k)

i

i1

n

1 Pi jQmin

(k)

(k1)

i

ij Vj Yij Vj

=

Yii {Vi(k1) }

j=1

j=i+1

(k)

i

(k)

i1

n

1 Pi jQ(k)

(k)

(k1)

i

ij Vj Yij Vj

=

Yii {Vi(k1) }

j=1

j=i+1

(k)

(k1)

for all i = 2, n;

Step 4: Compute ei = Vi Vi

(k) (k)

(k)

(k)

Step 5: Compute e = max(e2 , e3 , en ) ;

Step 6: If e(k) , stop and print the solution. Else set k = k + 1 and go to step 2.

We will illustrate the GSLF algorithm with an example in the next lecture.

32

2.7.1

To illustrate the basic procedure of GSLF, let as consider a small 5-bus system as shown in Fig.

2.16. In this system, buses 1-3 are generator buses and buses 4-5 are load buses. Therefore, in this

system, n = 5 and m = 3. Moreover, bus 1 is taken to be the slack bus and thus, buses 2-3 are

considered to be PV buses. The bus data and line data of this system are given in Tables A.1 and

A.2 respectively. From Table A.1, the injected real and reactive powers at different buses can be

obtained as follows: P2 = 0.5 p.u, P3 = 1.0 p.u, P4 = 1.15 p.u, P5 = 0.85 p.u, Q4 = 0.6 p.u, and

BUS of this system (computed from the line data given in Table

Q5 = 0.4 p.u. Moreover, the Y

A.2) is shown in equation (2.32). Note that in this equation, the real part (G) and the imaginary

BUS matrix (Y

BUS = G + jB) are shown separately.

part (B) of the Y

3.2417 1.4006

0

0

1.8412

0

0

G= 0

1.8412 4.2294 1.2584 1.1298

0

0

1.2584 2.1921 0.9337

1.8412

0

1.1298 0.9337 3.9047

13.0138 5.6022

0

0

7.4835

0

0

B=

0

7.4835 18.9271 7.1309

4.4768

0

0

7.1309 10.7227 3.7348

7.4835

0

4.4768

3.7348

15.5521

33

(2.32)

For applying GSLF, initially the flat start profile is assumed. Please note that the flat voltage

profile is followed for PQ buses. For PV buses, the initial voltage magnitude is taken to be equal

to their corresponding specified voltage magnitude. However, the initial voltage angles are always

assumed to be zero. Therefore, from the data given in Table A.1, all the 5 bus voltages are initialised

to 1.00o p.u. Now as the system contains both PV and PQ buses, we follow the complete

GSLF algorithm. In step 2(a) of this algorithm, we first calculate the reactive power absorbed

or generated by generators 2 and 3 (corresponding to i = 2 and i = 3). The calculated values of Q2

and Q3 at iteration 1 (in p.u.) are shown in Table 2.2 (denoted as Qcal in this table). Now, the data

in Table A.1 show that the minimum and maximum reactive power limits for both these generators

are -5 p.u. and 5 p.u respectively. Hence, the calculated values of Q2 and Q3 are well within the

corresponding reactive power limits. Therefore, both bus 2 and bus 3 are continued to operate as PV

buses and as a result, their voltage magnitudes are maintained at the corresponding specified values

and only the voltage angles are calculated in step 2(b) (utilising the calculated values of Q2 and Q3 ).

Subsequently in step 3, both the magnitude and angles of buses 4 and 5 are calculated. The results

of iteration 1 are shown in Table 2.2. Finally in steps 4-5, the error is calculated, which is also shown

in Table 2.2. The error is found to be more than the threshold value (taken to be equal to 1.0e12 )

and therefore the algorithm goes back to step 2 again. The iteration wise result for first 6 iterations

are shown in Tables 2.2 and 2.3. Please observed from these two tables that because of high Qmax

G

min

and QG limits, the reactive powers supplied or observed by these two generators are always within

these limits and thus bus 2 and 3 continue to act as PV buses from iteration to iteration. Also note

from Tables 2.2 and 2.3 that the error reduces with iteration. Finally, the algorithm converges after

69 iterations and the final solution is shown in Table 2.4. Please note from this table that the final

values of Q2 and Q3 are -18.51 and 68.87 MVAR respectively. These values are well within their

corresponding reactive power limits and thus, the voltage magnitudes of bus 2 and 3 maintained at

1.0 p.u (pre-specified values). The finally computed values of real and reactive power injection at

all the buses are also shown in Table 2.4, which are also found to be exactly equal to the specified

injected values.

Table 2.2: GSLF results in 5 bus system without any generator Q limit for iterations 1-3

Iteration = 1

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Qcal

Iteration = 2

Qcal

Iteration = 3

Qcal

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

1.0

0

1.0

0

1.0

0

-0.0720

1.0

2.0533 -0.0663

1.0

4.1038 -0.2022

1.0

3.7091

-0.0932

1.0

3.5968 0.2937

1.0

2.6494 0.5142

1.0

1.6234

0.9394 -3.2379

0.9167 -5.0548

0.9101 -6.0776

0.957 -2.5257

0.9482 -3.2562

0.946 -3.797

error = 0.081708

error = 0.037148

error = 0.017906

Let us now study the behaviour of GSLF when generator reactive power limit is violated. Towards

this goal, let us assume that the maximum reactive power which can be supplied by generator 3 in

34

Table 2.3: GSLF results in 5 bus system without any generator Q limit for iterations 4-6

Iteration = 4

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Qcal

Iteration = 5

Qcal

Iteration = 6

Qcal

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

1.0

0

1.0

0

1.0

0

-0.2129

1.0

3.1318 -0.2071

1.0

2.6927 -0.2013

1.0

2.3782

0.5926

1.0

0.8641 0.6263

1.0

0.3228 0.6461

1.0

-0.0546

0.9082 -6.7844

0.9074 -7.266

0.9069 -7.5985

0.9452 -4.1735

0.9448 -4.435

0.9446 -4.6163

error = 0.013252

error = 0.0094475

error = 0.0065856

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1.0

0

0.56743 0.26505

1.0

1.65757

0.5

-0.18519

1.0

-0.91206

1.0

0.68875

0.90594 -8.35088

-1.15

-0.6

0.94397 -5.02735

-0.85

-0.4

Total iteration = 69

50 MVAR (it supplies 68.87 MVAR when no limit is imposed on the generators). The iteration

wise solutions for first 6 iterations of the load flow computation with this maximum limit are shown

in Tables 2.5 and 2.6. Now, let us compare Tables 2.2 and 2.5. From these two tables it can be

observed that the load flow solution with generator Q limit proceeds in identical fashion for first two

iterations as in the case with no reactive power limit on the generators. However, from iteration 3

onwards the solution changes. In iteration 3, Q3 calculated is found to be equal to 51.42 MVAR. As

a result, Q3 is limited to 50 MVAR and Bus 3 is converted to a PQ bus, and therefore its voltage

magnitude is calculated using the expression shown in step 2(c). Please observe that this voltage

magnitude is not maintained at 1.0 p.u (in fact, it becomes less than 1.0 p.u. because of insufficient

reactive power). In the subsequent iteration also, calculated Q3 is always found to be more than the

maximum limit and as a result, Q3 is always maintained at 50 MVAR thereby making V3 < 1.0

p.u. The algorithm finally converges with a tolerance of 1.0e12 p.u. after 66 iterations and the final

solution are shown in Table 2.7. In this table, the GSLF results without any reactive power limit (as

shown in Table 2.4) are also reproduced for comparison. Please note from Table 2.7 that because of

cap on Q3 , the overall voltage profile of the system is little lower than that obtained with no limit

on generator reactive power.

As a second example, let us now consider the IEEE-14 bus system. The data of the IEEE 14

bus system are shown in Tables A.3 and A.4. The power flow solution without any limit on the

35

Table 2.5: GSLF results in 5 bus system with generator Q limit on bus 3 for iterations 1-3

Iteration = 1

Bus no.

Qcal

Iteration = 2

Qcal

Iteration = 3

Qcal

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

1.0

0

1.0

0

1.0

0

-0.0720

1.0

2.0533 -0.0663

1.0

4.1038 -0.2022

1.0

3.7091

-0.0932

1.0

3.5968 0.2937

1.0

2.6494 0.5142 0.9955 1.6318

0.9394 -3.2379

0.9167 -5.0548

0.9071 -6.0918

0.957 -2.5257

0.9482 -3.2562

0.944 -3.8036

error = 0.081708

error = 0.037148

error = 0.019063

1

2

3

4

5

Table 2.6: GSLF results in 5 bus system with generator Q limit on bus 3 for iterations 4-6

Iteration = 1

Bus no.

Qcal

Iteration = 2

Qcal

Iteration = 3

Qcal

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

1.0

0

1.0

0

1.0

0

-0.1784

1.0

3.1067 -0.1365

1.0

2.6692 -0.1082

1.0

2.3656

0.5337 0.991 0.9288 0.5178 0.9882 0.4399 0.5109 0.9864 0.1025

0.9012 -6.8046

0.8973 -7.2918

0.8947 -7.6271

0.9409 -4.1739

0.9388 -4.4292

0.9374 -4.6044

error = 0.012967

error = 0.0088975

error = 0.0061049

1

2

3

4

5

Table 2.7: Final Results of the 5 bus system with GSLF with generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Pinj

Qinj

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1.0

0

0.56743 0.26505

1.0

0

0.56979 0.33935

1.0

1.65757

0.5

-0.18519

1.0

1.69679

0.5

-0.04769

1.0

-0.91206

1.0

0.68875 0.9825 -0.63991

1.0

0.5

0.90594 -8.35088

-1.15

-0.6

0.88918 -8.35906

-1.15

-0.6

0.94397 -5.02735

-0.85

-0.4

0.93445 -4.98675

-0.85

-0.4

Total iteration = 69

Total iteration = 66

generator reactive power is shown in Table 2.8. Note that all the terminal voltage of the generators

are maintained at their corresponding specified values. Also observe that the generator connected

at bus 6 supplies a reactive power of 37.27 MVAR. Now assume that generator 6 is constrained to

supply only 30 MVAR. With this Q limit, the power flow solution is also shown in Table 2.8. From

these result followings salient point can be noted:

a. Reactive power supplied by generator 6 is limited at 30 MVAR.

b. As a result, V6 goes down to 1.05497 p.u. (from the specified value of 1.07 p.u.).

36

Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

(p.u)

1.06

1.045

1.04932

1.03299

1.04015

1.07

1.02076

1.0224

1.0201

1.0211

1.04144

1.0526

1.04494

1.01249

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.37259

-5.17113

0.183

-14.54246

-1.19

-10.39269 -0.4779

-8.76418 -0.07599

-12.52265

0.112

-13.44781

0

-13.47154

0

-13.60908 -0.29499

-13.69541

-0.09

-13.22158 -0.03501

-13.42868 -0.06099

-13.50388 -0.135

-14.60128 -0.14901

Total iteration = 676

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.3308

-0.166

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.37278

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

(p.u)

1.06

1.045

1.04697

1.02902

1.03615

1.05497

1.01266

1.01391

1.0118

1.01154

1.02915

1.03787

1.03063

1.00136

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.37188

-5.17845

0.183

-14.55556

-1.19

-10.35987 -0.4779

-8.71027 -0.07599

-12.45871

0.112

-13.49478

0

-13.5185

0

-13.66101 -0.29499

-13.73679

-0.09

-13.21814 -0.03501

-13.39145 -0.06099

-13.48166 -0.135

-14.64504 -0.14901

Total iteration = 718

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.31249

-0.1066

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.3

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

c. Because of the limit on generator reactive power, the overall voltage profile is on the lower side

as compared to that obtained without any Q limit.

As the last example the 30 bus system is considered. The data of this system are given in Tables

A.5 and A.6. Again initially the load flow solution has been computed without any limit on the

generator reactive power and the result are shown in Table 2.9. Subsequently Q limits have been

imposed on both the generator connected at bus 11 (20 MVAR) and the generator connected at bus

13 (30 MVAR). However, with a tolerance of 10e12 p.u. GSLF algorithm fails to converge even

after 10,000 iteration. When the tolerance is reduced to 10e6 p.u., the algorithm converges in 348

iteration and the result are again shown in Table 2.9. As can be seen from these results, for both

the generation, the reactive power supplied have been fixed at their corresponding limits and as a

result, the overall voltage profile of the system has gone down.

From these results it is observed that the convergence characteristics of the GSLF technique is

quite poor. Usually the number of iteration taken by GSLF is quite large and moreover in many

cases, GSLF even fails to converge. To overcome these difficulties of GSLF, Newton- Raphson(NR)

techniques have been developed, which are our next topics of discussion. These are two versions of

NR techniques, namely, i) NR in polar co-ordinate and ii) NR in rectangular co-ordinate. We will

study both these versions one by one and will start with the NR in polar co-ordinate from the next

lecture.

37

Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

(p.u)

1.05

1.0338

1.03128

1.02578

1.0058

1.02178

1.00111

1.023

1.04608

1.03606

1.0913

1.04859

1.0883

1.03346

1.02825

1.0359

1.0306

1.01873

1.01626

1.02041

1.02305

1.02343

1.0165

1.00939

1.00048

0.9825

1.00379

1.02049

0.98353

0.97181

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.38673

-4.97945 0.3586

-7.96653

-0.024

-9.58235

-0.076

-13.60103 -0.6964

-11.50296

0

-13.9994

-0.628

-12.56853

-0.45

-13.04088

0

-14.88589 -0.058

-11.16876 0.1793

-13.74947 -0.112

-12.56078 0.1691

-14.71704 -0.062

-14.86737 -0.082

-14.50539 -0.035

-14.98291

-0.09

-15.58107 -0.032

-15.81066 -0.095

-15.63819 -0.022

-15.35955 -0.175

-15.35222

0

-15.41998 -0.032

-15.81043 -0.087

-15.84004

0

-16.27422 -0.035

-15.59587

0

-12.1474

0

-16.87497 -0.024

-17.79427 -0.106

Total iteration = 851

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.29842

-0.05698

-0.012

-0.016

0.05042

0

-0.109

0.12343

0

-0.02

0.24018

-0.075

0.31043

-0.016

-0.025

-0.018

-0.058

-0.009

-0.034

-0.007

-0.112

0

-0.016

-0.067

0

-0.023

0

0

-0.009

-0.019

38

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1.05

0

2.3865 -0.29386

1.0338 -4.98084 0.35861 -0.04562

1.03045 -7.95523 -0.02399 -0.012

1.02477 -9.56929 -0.07598 -0.016

1.0058 -13.60836 -0.6964 0.05532

1.02084 -11.49304 0.00003

0

1.00055 -13.99792 -0.628

-0.109

1.023 -12.57567

-0.45

0.15111

1.04006 -13.02865 0.00001

0

1.03117 -14.8866 -0.05797 -0.02001

1.07807 -11.12256 0.1793

0.2

1.04456 -13.75755 -0.11198 -0.075

1.08311 -12.55854 0.1691

0.3

1.02931 -14.73168 -0.062

-0.016

1.02403 -14.88097 -0.08199 -0.025

1.03148 -14.51198 -0.035

-0.018

1.02583 -14.98712

-0.09

-0.058

1.01422 -15.59618 -0.03199 -0.009

1.01159 -15.8251 -0.09499 -0.034

1.01568 -15.64961 -0.022

-0.007

1.01825 -15.36524 -0.17496 -0.11201

1.01867 -15.3581

0

0

1.01226 -15.43637 -0.032

-0.016

1.00517 -15.8277

-0.087

-0.067

0.99748 -15.86849

0

0

0.97944 -16.30534 -0.035

-0.023

1.00158 -15.62827

0

0

1.01959 -12.14235

0

0

0.98126 -16.91314 -0.024

-0.009

0.96951 -17.83675 -0.106

-0.019

Total iteration = 348 (totlerance 10e6 )

2.8

Before discussing the application of NR technique in load flow solution, let us first review the basic

procedure of solving a set of non-linear algebraic equation by means of NR algorithm. Let there be

n equations in n unknown variables x1 , x2 , xn as given below,

f1 (x1 , x2 , xn )

f2 (x1 , x2 , xn )

fn (x1 , x2 , xn )

= b1

= b2

= bn

(2.33)

To solve equation (2.33), first we take an initial guess of the solution and let these initial guesses be

(0)

(0)

(0)

denoted as, x1 , x2 , xn . Subsequently, first order Taylors series expansion (neglecting the

higher order terms) is carried out for these equation around the initial guess of solution. Also let

(0)

(0)

(0) T

the vector of initial guess be denoted as x(0) = [x1 , x2 , xn ] . Now, application of Taylors

expansion on the equations of set (2.33) yields,

f1

f1

f1

x1 +

x2 + +

xn = b1

x1

x2

xn

f2

f2

f2

(0)

(0)

(0)

f2 (x1 , x2 , xn ) +

x1 +

x2 + +

xn = b2

x1

x2

xn

fn

fn

fn

(0)

(0)

(0)

fn (x1 , x2 , xn ) +

x1 +

x2 + +

xn = bn

x1

x2

xn

(0)

(0)

f1 (x(0)

1 , x2 , xn ) +

(2.34)

f1

f1 (x(0) ) x1

(0)

f2 (x ) 2

+ x1

fn (x(0) ) f

x1

f1

x2

f2

x2

fn

x2

f1

xn x1 b1

f2

x2 = b2

xn

bn

x

n

fn

xn

(2.35)

In equation (2.35), the matrix containing the partial derivative terms is known as the Jacobin

39

matrix (J). As can be seen, it is a square matrix. Hence, from equation (2.35),

m1

b1 f1 (x(0) )

x1

x

(0) )

1 m2

1 b2 f2 (x

= [J]

= [J]

mn

bn fn (x(0) )

xn

(2.36)

Equation (2.36) is the basic equation for solving the n algebraic equations given in equation

(2.33). The steps of solution are as follow:

Step 1: Assume a vector of initial guess x(0) and set iteration counter k = 0.

Step 2: Compute f1 (x(k) ), f2 (x(k) ), fn (x(k) ).

Step 3: Compute m1 , m2 , mn .

Step 4: Compute error =max [m1 , m2 , mn ]

Step 5: If error (pre - specified tolerance), then the final solution vector is x(k) and print

the results. Otherwise go to step 6.

Step 6: Form the Jacobin matrix analytically and evaluate it at x = x(k) .

T

Step 7: Calculate the correction vector x = [x1 , x2 , xn ] by using equation (2.36).

Step 8: Update the solution vector x(k+1) = x(k) +x and update k = k+1 and go back to step 2.

With this basic understanding of NR technique, we will now discuss the application of NR

technique for load flow solution. We will first discuss the Newton Raphson load- flow (NRLF) in

polar co-ordinates.

2.9

For NRLF techniques, the starting equations are same as those in equations (2.27) and (2.28), which

are reproduced below:

n

Pi = Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij )

(2.37)

j=1

n

Qi = Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij )

(2.38)

j=1

Now, as before let us again assume that in a n bus, m machine system, the first m buses

are the generator buses with bus 1 being the slack bus. Therefore, the unknown quantities are;

2 , 3 , n (total n-1 quantities) and Vm+1 , Vm+2 , Vn (total n-m quantities). Thus the total

number of unknown quantities is n 1 + n m = 2n m 1. Against these unknown quantities, the

sp

sp

specified quantities are; P2sp , P3sp , Pnsp (total n-1 quantities) and Qsp

m+1 , Qm+2 , Qn (total

n-m quantities). Hence, the total number of specified quantities is also (2n m 1). Let the

T

T

vectors of unknown quantities be denoted as = [2 , 3 , n ] and V = [Vm+1 , Vm+2 , Vn ] .

T

Similarly let the vector of the specified quantities be denoted as Psp = [P2sp , P3sp , Pnsp ] and

sp

sp

Qsp = [Qsp

m+1 , Qm+2 , Qn ]. Also note from equations (2.37) and (2.38) that the real and reactive

power injections at any bus are functions of and V. Thus, these injection quantities can be

40

(0)

For proceeding with NRLF, we assume initial guesses of the bus voltage angles ( ) and the bus

voltage magnitudes (V(0) ). Subsequently, Taylors series expansion of equations (2.37) and (2.38)

yields (following the same procedure as in the basic N-R technique),

P2

Pn

Qm+1

Qn

P2

P2

n

Vm+1

Pn

Pn

n

Vm+1

Qm+1 Qm+1

n

Vm+1

Qn

Qn

n

Vm+1

P2

(0)

sp

2 P2 P2 ( , V(0) )

Vn

Pn

(0)

sp

(0)

(

)

P

P

,

V

n

Vn n n

= sp

(0)

(0)

Qm+1 Vm+1 Q

, V )

m+1 Qm+1 (

Vn

Qn

Qsp Q ( (0) , V(0) )

V

m+1

n

n

Vn

(2.39)

(0)

In equation (2.39), the quantity Pi ( , V(0) ) is nothing but the calculated value of Pi with

(0)

(0)

vectors , V(0) . As a result, commonly, the quantity Pi ( , V(0) ) is denoted as Pical . With

these notations, equation (2.39) can be written as,

Psp Pcal

J1 J2

P

][

] = [ sp

[

]=[

]

cal

J3 J4 V

Q Q

Q

(2.40)

In equation (2.40) the vectors Pcal and Qcal are defined as; Pcal = [P2cal , P3cal , Pncal ] and

cal

cal

sp are of dimension (n 1) 1

Qcal = [Qcal

m+1 , Qm+2 , Qn ]. Also note that the vectors and P

each and the vectors V and Qsp are of dimension (n m) 1 each. Therefore, from equations (2.39)

and (2.40),

T

P2 P2

P2

2 3

n

P3 P3

P

3

= 2 3

J1 =

n

Pn Pn

Pn

2 3

n

(2.41)

P2

P2

P2

Vm+1 Vm+2

Vn

P3

P

P

3

3

= Vm+1 Vm+2

J2 =

Vn

V

Pn

Pn

Pn

Vm+1 Vm+2

Vn

(2.42)

41

Qm+1 Qm+1

Qm+1

2

3

n

Qm+2 Qm+2

Q

m+2

J3 =

= 2

3

n

Qn

Qn

Qn

2

3

n

(2.43)

Qm+1 Qm+1

Qm+1

Vm+1 Vm+2

Vn

Qm+2 Qm+2

Q

m+2

J4 =

= Vm+1 Vm+2

Vn

V

Qn

Qn

Qn

Vm+1 Vm+2

Vn

(2.44)

In equations (2.41) to (2.44) the sizes of the various matrices are as follows: J1 (n1)(n1),

J2 (n 1) (n m), J3 (n m) (n 1) and J4 (n m) (n m). Now, equation (2.40)

can be written in compact form as,

[J] [X] = [M ]

(2.45)

J1 J2

] is known as the Jacobian matrix, the vector X =

J3 J4

Psp Pcal

[

] is known as the correction vector and the vector M = [ sp

] is known as the

V

Q Qcal

mismatch vector. Further, the size of the matrix J is (2n m 1) (2n m 1) while the sizes of

both the vectors X and M is (2n m 1) 1.

In equation (2.45), the matrix J = [

Equation (2.45) forms the basis of the NRLF (polar) algorithm, which is described below. Please

note that in the algorithm described below it is assumed that there is no generator which violates

its reactive power generation or absorption limit. The case of violation of reactive power generation

or absorption limit would be dealt with a little later.

Basic NRLF (polar) algorithm

(0)

(0)

2), n. Let the vectors of the initial voltage magnitudes and angles be denoted as V(0) and (0)

respectively.

Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.

(k1)

Step 3: Compute the vectors Pcal and Qcal with the vectors

and V(k1) thereby forming

T

the vector M . Let this vector be represented as M = [M1 , M2 , M2nm1 ] .

Step 4: Compute error = max (M1 , M2 , M2nm1 ).

(k1)

Step 5: If error (pre - specified tolerance), then the final solution vectors are

and

42

(k1)

and V(k1) .

Step 7: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.45).

(k)

Step 8: Update the solution vectors

= (k1) + and V(k) = V(k1) + V . Update

k = k + 1 and go back to step 3.

In the above algorithm, the Jacobian matrix needs to be evaluated at each iteration. Therefore,

the element of the Jacobian matrix needs to be found out analytically. This is discussed next.

To derive the elements of the Jacobian matrix, let us revisit equations (2.37) and (2.38).

n

2

i

j=1

j =1

i

j=1

j =1

i

(2.46)

(2.47)

In the above two equations, the relations Gii = Yii cos(ii ) and Bii = Yii sin(ii ) have been used.

From the expressions of the Pi and Qi in equations (2.46) and (2.47) respectively, the elements of

the Jacobian matrix can be calculated as follows.

Matrix J1 (=

P

) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,

j = 2, 3, n)

n

Pi

= Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik );

j

k=1

j=i

(2.48)

Pi

= Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij );

j

Matrix J2 (=

P

) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,

V

ji

(2.49)

j = (m + 1), (m + 2), n)

n

Pi

= 2Vi Gii + Vk Yik cos(i k ik );

Vj

k=1

j=i

(2.50)

Pi

= Vi Yij cos(i j ij );

Vj

43

ji

(2.51)

Matrix J3 (=

Q

) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,

j = 2, 3, n)

n

Qi

= Vi Vk Yik cos(i k ik );

j k = 1

j=i

(2.52)

Qi

= Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij );

j

Matrix J4 (=

Q

) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,

V

ji

(2.53)

n

Qi

= 2Vi Bii + Vk Yik sin(i k ik );

Vj

k=1

j=i

(2.54)

Qi

= Vi Yij sin(i j ij );

Vj

ji

(2.55)

With these expressions of Jacobian elements given in equations (2.48)-(2.55), the Jacobian matrix

can be evaluated at each iteration as discussed earlier.

Now, in the basic NRLF (polar) algorithm described earlier, the generator Q-limits have not

been considered. To accommodate the generator Q-limits, at the beginning of each iteration, reactive power absorbed or produced by each generator is calculated. If the calculated reactive power

is within the specified limits, the generator is retained as PV bus, otherwise the generator bus is

converted to a PQ bus, with the voltage at this bus no longer held at the specified value. The

detailed algorithm is as follows.

Complete NRLF (polar) algorithm

(0)

(0)

2), n. Let the vectors of the initial voltage magnitudes and angles be denoted as V(0) and (0)

respectively.

Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.

Step 3: For i = 2, 3, m, carry out the following operations.

a) Calculate,

n

Q(k)

i

j=1

(k)

(k)

b) If, Qmin

Qi Qmax

; then assign Vi = Vispec and the ith bus is retained as PV bus

i

i

for k th iteration.

(k)

(k)

sp

max

min

c) If Qi > Qmax

, then assign Qsp

or, if Qi < Qmin

. In

i

i = Qi

i , then assign Qi = Qi

44

both the cases, this bus is converted to PQ bus. Hence, its voltage magnitude becomes an unknown

for the present iteration (thereby introducing an extra unknown quantity) and to solve for this extra

unknown quantity, an extra equation is required, which is obtained by the new value of Qsp

i (as

th

shown above). Therefore, when the i bus is converted to a PQ bus, the dimensions of both V

and Q vectors increases by one.

In general, if l generator buses (l (m 1)) violate their corresponding reactive power limits at

step 3, then the dimensions of both V and Q vectors increases from (n m) to (n m + l).

However, the dimensions of both P and vectors remain the same. Therefore, the size of

matrix J2 becomes (n 1) (n m + l), that of matrix J3 becomes (n m + l) (n 1) and the

matrix J4 becomes of size (n m + l) (n m + l). The size of matrix J1 , however, does not change.

Hence, the size of the matrix J becomes (2n m 1 l) (2n m 1 l) while the sizes of both

the vectors X and M (in equation (2.45)) becomes (2n m 1 l) 1. Of course, if there is

no generator reactive power limit violation, then l = 0.

(k1)

Step 4: Compute the vectors Pcal and Qcal with the vectors

and V(k1) thereby forming

T

the vector M . Let this vector be represented as M = [M1 , M2 , M2nm1l ] .

Step 5: Compute error = max (M1 , M2 , M2nm1l ).

(k1)

Step 6: If error (pre - specified tolerance), then the final rotation vectors are

and

(k1)

V

and print the results. Otherwise go to step 7.

(k1)

Step 7: Evaluate the Jacobian matrix with the vectors

and V(k1) .

Step 8: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.45).

(k)

Step 9: Update the solution vectors

= (k1) + and V(k) = V(k1) + V . Update

k = k + 1 and go back to step 3.

In the next lecture, we will look at an example of NRLF (polar) technique.

45

2.9.1

As an example, let us consider again the 5-bus system shown in Fig. 2.16. In this System, n = 5 and

m = 3 (as the number of generator in 3). Initially, let us assume that there is no violation of reactive

power limit at any generator. Therefore, the sizes of The Jacobian sub-matinees are as follows;

J1 (4 4), J2 (4 2), J3 (2 4) and J4 (2 2). Therefore, the size of the combined

Jacobian matrix J is (66). As before, the NRLF algorithm starts with flat voltage profile and with

this assumed voltage profile, the different quantities in the first iteration are calculated as shown in

Table 2.10:

Table 2.10: Initial calculation with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system

T

T

error = 1.15;

As the error is more than the tolerance value ( = 1012 p.u), the algorithm proceeds and in

the next few steps, the Jacobian matrix, correction vector and the updated values of the error are

calculated as shown in Table 2.11.

As the error is still more than the tolerance value, the algorithm continues and enters 2nd

iteration. The values of the relevant qualities in second iteration are shown in Table 2.12 below.

Since the error is still more than the tolerance value, the algorithm continues and finally converges

after 4 iterations. The final converged solution is shown in Table 2.13. Comparsion of Tables 2.13

and 2.4 (GSLF results) shows that the final results obtained by these two methods are identically

same. However, NRLF achieves this solution in 4 iterations as opposed at 69 iterations required by

GSLF. The convergence behavior of both GSLF and NRLF are shown in Fig. 2.17. From this figure

it can be observed that, NRLF has certainly much better convergence characteristics as compared

to GSLF.

Now let us consider the case where reactive power generation of generator 3 is limited to 50

MVAR. The algorithm again starts with a flat start and the initial calculation are same as shown

in Table 2.10 earlier. As Q3 calculated has not crossed the limit, the program proceeds in the same

way as shown in Table 2.11 till the end of first iteration. With the voltage magnitudes and angles

obtained at the end of first iteration, the reactive power generated by all the machines are again

calculated and the value of Q3 is found to be 53.42 MVAR (0.5342 p.u). Hence, bus 3 (generator

3) is converted to a PQ bus and hence, the PQ buses in the system now are (4, 5, 3). The vectors

of calculated injected real and reactive powers, mismatch vector and final mismatch at the end of

1st iteration are shown in Table 2.14. Note that without any generator reactive power violation, the

size of M vector was (6 1) and with generator limit violation in Q3 , the size has now increased

to (7 1).

At the end of 1st iteration, n = 5 and m = 2 (as the number of generator buses is 2). Hence,

the sizes of the various Jacobian sub-matrices are: J1 (4 4), J2 (4 3), J3 (3 4) and

46

Table 2.11: Calculation at 1st iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system without any generator

Q limit violation

13.0858

7.4835

J1 =

0

J3 = [

7.4835

0

0

;

7.1309 10.8657 3.7348

];

0 1.1298 0.9337 3.9047

13.0858

7.4835

J=

0

0

0

1.2584 1.12982

J2 =

2.1921 0.9337

0.9337 3.9047

10.5797 3.7348

J4 = [

];

3.7348 15.4091

7.4835

0

0

0

0

;

4.4768 3.7348 15.6951 0.9337 3.9047

T

T

V = [0.0783 0.0475]

T

T

T

error = 0.1087;

J4 (3 3). Thus, the size of the Jacobian matrix increases to (7 7). The Jacobian matrix,

correction vector and the updated value of the mismatch as computed in the 2nd iteration are shown

in Table 2.15. As the mismatch is still more than the tolerance value, the algorithm proceeds further

and finally, the algorithm converges in 5 iterations. The final converged values are shown in Table

2.16. In this table also, the NRLF (polar) results without any reactive power limit (as shown in

Table 2.13) are also reproduced for comparison. Moreover, it is observed that the final converged

values are identically same as those calculated by the GSLF method (Table 2.7).

The results with IEEE - 14 bus system are shown in Table 2.17 with and without limit on

generator reactive power. For this case also, the limit on the generator at bus 6 has been maintained

at 30 MVAR. Comparison of Tables 2.8 and 2.17 shows that the results obtained by GSLF and NRLF

are identical, but due to quadratic convergence characteristics, the number of iteration required by

47

Table 2.12: Calculation at 2nd iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system without any generator

Q limit violation

13.1998

7.3995

J1 =

0

J3 = [

7.5543

0

0

;

6.3896 9.6258 3.2363

];

0 1.3756 0.6628 4.3554

13.1998

7.3995

J=

0

0

0

0.4065 0.8098

;

J2 =

0.8909 1.0234

0.7191 2.8658

9.3239 3.3977

J4 = [

];

3.5957 14.4487

7.5543

0

0

0

0

;

4.1771 3.3143 14.4567 0.7191 2.8658

T

T

V = [0.0783 0.0475] ;

T

T

T

T

error = 0.0026 ;

NRLF to reach the same solution is much less compared to that taken by GSLF for a tolerance of

10e12 p.u.

The results for 30-bus system are shown in Table 2.18. Without any generator Q-limit, the results

obtained by GSLF and NRLF (polar) are identical, although NRLF (polar) takes only 4 iterations

against 851 iterations taken by GSLF. Also,as mentioned earlier, with a tolerance of 10e12 (p.u),

GSLF does not converge for Q limit on gen 11 and 13 (20 and 30 MVAR respectively). However,

NRLF (polar) does not face any such difficulty in convergence in this case and the algorithm converges

with 7 iterations in this case. The corresponding results are also shown in Table 2.18.

In the next lecture, we will discuss another version of NRLF, namely, the rectangular version,

in which, all the complex quantities are represented in the rectangular co-ordinates instead of polar

co-ordinates as is done in the case of NRLF (polar) technique.

48

Table 2.13: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (polar) without any generator Q limit

violation

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1.0

0

0.56743 0.26505

1.0

1.65757

0.5

-0.18519

1.0

-0.91206

1.0

0.68875

0.90594 -8.35088

-1.15

-0.6

0.94397 -5.02735

-0.85

-0.4

Total iteration = 4

Table 2.14: Calculations at the end of 1st iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system for limit

on Q3

T

T

error = 0.1087 ;

49

Table 2.15: Calculations at 2nd iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system for limit on Q3

0

0

1.5250

7.5543

0

0

18.3929 6.6638 4.3296

;

; J2 =

0.8909 1.0234 1.9289

4.1771 3.3143 14.3457

0

1.9289 2.9037 0.9748

J3 = 0

2.1541 3.3002 0.3747 0.7713

13.1998 7.5543

0

0

0

0

1.5250

0

6.3896 9.6258 3.2363 0.8909 1.0234 1.9289

J= 0

1.9289

2.9037

0.9748

9.3239

3.3977

6.3896

1.3756

0.6628

4.3554

3.5957

14.4487

4.1771

13.1998

7.3995

J1 =

0

T

T

T

T

T

error = 0.0073;

50

Table 2.16: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (polar) with generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Pinj

Qinj

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1.0

0

0.56743 0.26505

1.0

0

0.56979 0.33935

1.0

1.65757

0.5

-0.18519

1.0

1.69679

0.5

-0.04769

1.0

-0.91206

1.0

0.68875 0.9825 -0.63991

1.0

0.5

0.90594 -8.35088

-1.15

-0.6

0.88918 -8.35906

-1.15

-0.6

0.94397 -5.02735

-0.85

-0.4

0.93445 -4.98675

-0.85

-0.4

Total iteration = 4

Total iteration = 5

Table 2.17: Final Results of the 14 bus system with NRLF (Polar)

Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

(p.u)

1.06

1.045

1.04932

1.03299

1.04015

1.07

1.02076

1.0224

1.0201

1.0211

1.04144

1.0526

1.04494

1.01249

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.37259

-5.17113

0.183

-14.54246

-1.19

-10.39269 -0.4779

-8.76418 -0.07599

-12.52265

0.112

-13.44781

0

-13.47154

0

-13.60908 -0.29499

-13.69541

-0.09

-13.22158 -0.03501

-13.42868 -0.06099

-13.50388 -0.135

-14.60128 -0.14901

Total iteration = 4

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.3308

-0.166

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.37278

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

(p.u)

1.06

1.045

1.04697

1.02902

1.03615

1.05497

1.01266

1.01391

1.0118

1.01154

1.02915

1.03787

1.03063

1.00136

51

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.37188

-5.17845

0.183

-14.55556

-1.19

-10.35987 -0.4779

-8.71027 -0.07599

-12.45871

0.112

-13.49478

0

-13.5185

0

-13.66101 -0.29499

-13.73679

-0.09

-13.21814 -0.03501

-13.39145 -0.06099

-13.48166 -0.135

-14.64504 -0.14901

Total iteration = 6

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.31249

-0.1066

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.3

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

Table 2.18: Final Results of the 30 bus system with NRLF (Polar)

Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

(p.u)

1.05

1.0338

1.03128

1.02578

1.0058

1.02178

1.00111

1.023

1.04608

1.03606

1.0913

1.04859

1.0883

1.03346

1.02825

1.0359

1.0306

1.01873

1.01626

1.02041

1.02305

1.02343

1.0165

1.00939

1.00048

0.9825

1.00379

1.02049

0.98353

0.97181

Pinj

Qinj

Pinj

Qinj

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

0

2.38673 -0.29842

1.05

0

2.3865 -0.29386

-4.97945 0.3586 -0.05698 1.0338 -4.98084 0.35861 -0.04562

-7.96653

-0.024

-0.012 1.03045 -7.95523 -0.02399 -0.012

-9.58235

-0.076

-0.016 1.02477 -9.56929 -0.07598 -0.016

-13.60103 -0.6964 0.05042 1.0058 -13.60836 -0.6964 0.05532

-11.50296

0

0

1.02084 -11.49304 0.00003

0

-13.9994

-0.628

-0.109 1.00055 -13.99792 -0.628

-0.109

-12.56853

-0.45

0.12343

1.023 -12.57567

-0.45

0.15111

-13.04088

0

0

1.04006 -13.02865 0.00001

0

-14.88589 -0.058

-0.02

1.03117 -14.8866 -0.05797 -0.02001

-11.16876 0.1793 0.24018 1.07807 -11.12256 0.1793

0.2

-13.74947 -0.112

-0.075 1.04456 -13.75755 -0.11198 -0.075

-12.56078 0.1691 0.31043 1.08311 -12.55854 0.1691

0.3

-14.71704 -0.062

-0.016 1.02931 -14.73168 -0.062

-0.016

-14.86737 -0.082

-0.025 1.02403 -14.88097 -0.08199 -0.025

-14.50539 -0.035

-0.018 1.03148 -14.51198 -0.035

-0.018

-14.98291

-0.09

-0.058 1.02583 -14.98712

-0.09

-0.058

-15.58107 -0.032

-0.009 1.01422 -15.59618 -0.03199 -0.009

-15.81066 -0.095

-0.034 1.01159 -15.8251 -0.09499 -0.034

-15.63819 -0.022

-0.007 1.01568 -15.64961 -0.022

-0.007

-15.35955 -0.175

-0.112 1.01825 -15.36524 -0.17496 -0.11201

-15.35222

0

0

1.01867 -15.3581

0

0

-15.41998 -0.032

-0.016 1.01226 -15.43637 -0.032

-0.016

-15.81043 -0.087

-0.067 1.00517 -15.8277

-0.087

-0.067

-15.84004

0

0

0.99748 -15.86849

0

0

-16.27422 -0.035

-0.023 0.97944 -16.30534 -0.035

-0.023

-15.59587

0

0

1.00158 -15.62827

0

0

-12.1474

0

0

1.01959 -12.14235

0

0

-16.87497 -0.024

-0.009 0.98126 -16.91314 -0.024

-0.009

-17.79427 -0.106

-0.019 0.96951 -17.83675 -0.106

-0.019

Total iteration = 4

Total iteration = 7

52

2.10

In rectangular co-ordinates, every complex quantity is expressed in terms of its real and imaginary

parts. Hence, let Vk = Vk ejk = ek + jfk ; Ii = ai + jci and Yik = gik + jbik .

n

k=1

k=1

Thus, from equation (2.25), Ii = Yik Vk . Or, ai + jci = (gik + jbik )(ek + jfk ).

Or,

k=1

= (bik ek + gik fk )

k=1

ai = (gik ek bik fk )

ci

(2.56)

Complex power injected at bus i is, Si = Pi + jQi = Vi Ii . Or, Pi + jQi = (ei + jfi )(ai jci ).

Or,

(2.57)

k=1

and

(2.58)

k=1

n

k=1

i

(2.59)

k=1

i

(2.60)

Now, again let us consider a n bus system having m generators (bus 1 being the slack bus). For

each of the (n-m) PQ buses, both voltage magnitude and angle are unknown. In other words, for

these buses both real and imaginary parts of the voltages are unknown. For each of the (m-1) PV

buses, even though the voltage magnitude is known, real and imaginary parts of the voltage are not

known as there can be many combination of ei and fi to give a specified value of Vi . Hence, for

each of the PV buses also, the real and imaginary parts of the voltage are unknown. Therefore, total

number of unknown quantities is = 2(n m) + 2(m 1) = (2n 2). To solve for these (2n 2)

unknown quantities, (2n 2) independent equations are also needed.

Now, let us look at the specified quantities. As discussed earlier, for each of the (n-1) buses,

the quantity Pi is specified [given in equation (2.59)]. Similarly, for each of the (n-m) buses, the

quantity Q1 is also known [given in equation (2.60)]. Thus, total number of specified quantities is

(n 1 + n m) = (2n m 1). Hence, still 2n 2 (2n m 1) = (m 1) specified quantities are

needed to make the NRLF (rectangular) a well posed problem. These additional specified quantities

would be available from the specified voltage magnitudes at each of the (m-1) buses. At each of

these (m-1) PV buses, following relation holds good between the specified quantity (Vi ) and the

53

(2.61)

Thus, in NRLF rectangular co-ordinates method, the unknown quantities are; (ei , fi ) for i =

2, 3, n (total (2n 2) in number). The specified quantities are; a) Pi ; for i = 2, 3, n; b) Qi ;

for i = (m + 1) n and c) Vi ; for i = 2, 3, m. Hence, the total number of specified quantities

is also (2n 2). The relations connecting the unknown quantities to the specified quantities are

given by equations (2.59) - (2.61), which are solved by the standard Newton-Rabhosn technique to

determine the unknown quantities. As in the case of NRLF (polar) method, in NRLF (rectangular)

technique also, flat voltage profile is assumed at the starting.

The standard, linearized form of Newton-Raphron solution of the equations (2.59) - (2.61) are

given below (following the basic Newton-Raphron solution method discussed previously);

P J J

1 2

Q = J3 J4 [e]

f

V2 J5 J6

(2.62)

1) 1; P (n 1) 1; Q (n m) 1; V2 (m 1) 1. From these sizes

e

Q

J4

(n 1) (n 1);

(n m) (n 1);

Q

P

(n 1) (n 1); J3

(n m) (n 1);

f

e

V 2

V 2

J5

(m 1) (n 1); J6

(m 1) (n 1).

e

f

J2

[J] [X] = [M ]

(2.63)

In equation (2.63), as before, the quantities M , X and J are known as the mismatch vector,

correction vector and the Jacobian matrix respectively. Note that the vector M and X each

has a size of (2n 2) 1 whereas the Jacobian matrix has a size of (2n 2) (2n 2).

Equation (2.63) forms the basis of NRLF (rectangular) algorithm as discussed below. Note that

the algorithm discussed below assumes that there is no violation of generator reactive power limits.

Step 1: Assume flat start profile and denote the initial real and imaginary parts of the bus

voltages as e(0) and f (0) respectively.

Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.

Step 3: Compute the vectors Pcal and Qcal with the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) thereby forming

T

the vector M . Let this vector be represented as M = [M1 , M2 , M2n2 ] .

54

Step 5: If error (pre - specified tolerance), then the final solution vectors are e(k1) and

f (k1) and print the results. Otherwise go to step 6.

Step 6: Evaluate the Jacobian matrix with the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) .

Step 7: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.63).

Step 8: Update the solution vectors e(k) = e(k1) +e and f (k) = f (k1) +f . Update k = k +1

and go back to step 3.

As can be seen, in step 6, the Jacobian matrix needs to be evaluated at each iteration. For this

purpose, the analytical expressions of the elements of the Jacobian matrix are needed, which are

derived next.

Derivation of Jacobian matrix elements for NRLF (rectangular) technique

We derive the elements of the Jacobian matrix by utilising equations (2.59), (2.60) and (2.61). From

these three equations, the Jacobian matrix elements can be obtained as follows:

Matrix J1 (=

P

) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,

e

j = 2, 3, n)

n

Pi

= 2ei gii + (gik ek bik fk );

ej

k=1

j=i

(2.64)

Pi

= (ei gij + fi bij );

ej

Matrix J2 (=

P

) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,

f

ji

(2.65)

j = 2, 3, n)

n

Pi

= 2fi gii + (bik ek + gik fk );

fj

k=1

j=i

(2.66)

Pi

= (fi gij ei bij );

fj

Matrix J3 (=

ji

Q

) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,

e

n

Qi

= 2ei bii + (bik ek gik fk );

ej

k=1

(2.67)

j = 2, 3, n)

j=i

(2.68)

Qi

= (fi gij ei bij );

ej

55

ji

(2.69)

Matrix J4 (=

Q

) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,

f

n

Qi

= 2fi bii + (gik ek bik fk );

fj

k=1

j = 2, 3, n)

j=i

(2.70)

Qi

= (fi bij + ei gij );

fj

Matrix J5 (=

V 2

) (in this case, i = 2, 3, m,

e

Vi2

= 2ei for j = i;

ej

Matrix J6 (=

Vi2

= 2fi for j = i;

fj

(2.71)

j = 2, 3, n)

and

V 2

) (in this case, i = 2, 3, m,

f

ji

Vi2

= 0 for j i;

ej

(2.72)

j = 2, 3, n)

Vi2

and

= 0 for j i;

fj

(2.73)

With these expressions of Jacobian elements, the matrix J can be evaluated at each iteration as

discussed earlier.

Now, in the above algorithm, the violations of generation reactive power limits have not been

taken into account. As in the case of NRLF (polar), in this case also, if a generator violates its Qlimits at any particular iteration, it is treated as a PQ bus for that iteration. Otherwise, it continues

to be treated as a PV bus. The detailed step-by-step procedure for taking the generation Q limit

violation into account in given below.

Complete NRLF (rectangular) algorithm

(0)

(0)

(0)

Also initialise fj = 0.0 for j = 2, 3, n. Let the vectors of the initial real and imaginary parts

of the voltages be denoted as e(0) and f (0) respectively.

Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.

(k)

Step 3: For i = 2, 3, m, calculate Qi from equation (2.60) by using e(k1) and f (k1) . If

(k)

the calculated Qi is within its respective limit, then this bus would be retained as a PV bus in the

current iteration. If either the lower limit or the upper limit is violated, then this bus is converted to

a PQ bus. In general, if l generator buses (l (m 1)) violate their corresponding reactive power

limits at step 3, then the size of Q vector increases from (n m) to (n m + l) and the size

of V 2 vector decreases from (m 1) to (m l 1). As a result, the new sizes of the matrices

J3 , J4 , J5 and J6 become (n m + l) (n 1), (n m + l) (n 1), (m l 1) (n 1) and

56

(m l 1) (n 1) respectively. The sizes of the matrices J1 and J2 remain same. Also, the total

sizes of the mismatch vector, correction vector and the Jacobian matrix remain same.

Step 4: Compute the calculated vectors P, Q and V2 from equations (2.59) - (2.61) with

the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) thereby forming the vector M . Let this vector be represented as

T

M = [M1 , M2 , M2n2 ] .

Step 5: Compute error = max (M1 , M2 , M2n2 ).

Step 6: If error (pre - specified tolerance), then the final rotation vectors are e(k1) and

f (k1) and print the results. Otherwise go to step 7.

Step 7: Evaluate the Jacobian matrix with the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) .

Step 8: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.63).

Step 9: Update the solution vectors e(k) = e(k1) +e and f (k) = f (k1) +f . Update k = k +1

and go back to step 3.

In the next lecture, we will look at an example of NRLF (rectangular) technique.

57

2.10.1

Taking the 5 bus system as an example again, the NRLF algorithm starts with the flat voltage profile

and subsequently different quantitative are calculated as shown in Table 2.19.

Table 2.19: Initial calculation with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system

T

T

error = 1.15;

As the mismatch (= 1.15) is greater than the tolerance (= 1.0e12 ), the algorithm proceeds further

and calculates the Jacobian matrix. Following the discussion presented earlier, the sizes of various

Jacobian sub matrices should be as follows: J1 (4 4); J2 (4 4); J3 (2 4); J4

(24); J5 (24); J6 (24) and J (88). The computed Jacobian matrices are shown

in Table 2.20. From this set observe that the sizes of the calculated Jacobian matrices are indeed the

same as they are indicated above. After calculating the Jacobian matrix, the algorithm calculates

the correction vector (X) and extracts the vectors e and f from X . With these obtained

vectors e and f , the updated vectors e and f are computed and lastly the mismatch vector

(M ) and the final mismatch are calculated. All these calculations are also shown in Table 2.20.

As the mismatch in still more than the tolerance (although it has reduced from the last value), the

algorithm repeats all these calculation and finally converges with 5 iterations. The final load flow

result is shown in Table 2.21. Observe that the result obtained with NRLF (rectangular) method

are identically same as obtained by NRLF (polar) and GSLF techniques.

The load flow solutions of IEEE-14 bus and 30-bus systems have also been computed with NRLF

(rectangular) method. The results are shown in Tables 2.22 and 2.23 and respectively. Again confirm

yourself that the results shown in these two tables are identically same as the corresponding results

shown earlier with NRLF (polar) and GSLF methods.

Now, let us study the behavior of the algorithm when generator Q-limit is considered. Towards

this end, again let us first consider the 5-bus system and as before, let us consider the limit on Q3 to

be 50 MVAR. TO begin with, the initial calculations for this case are identically same as that shown

in Table 2.19. As no violation of Q3 is detected in this initial calculation, the algorithm proceeds as

usual (without any consideration of generation Q-limit violation) and repeats the same calculations

as shown in Table 2.20. As there is still no violation in Q3 , the algorithm advances to 2nd iteration

and the calculations at the end of 2nd iteration are shown in Table 2.24. At the end of 2nd iteration,

it is found that the calculated value of Q3 is 0.6824 p.u. and as a result, this bus is now converted

from a PV bus to a PQ bus. Hence, the PQ buses are now (4, 5, 3) and only bus 2 is retained as a

PV bus. The corresponding calculated vectors Qcal , Vcal and M are shown in Table 2.24 along

with the final value of the mismatch quantity. As this final value is still more than the tolerance,

the algorithm enters the third iteration.

58

Table 2.20: Calculations at 1st iteration with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system

3.2417 1.8412

0

0

;

J1 =

0

1.2584

2.1921

0.9337

0

1.1298

0.9337

3.9047

J3 = [

];

0 4.4768 3.7348 15.4091

2 0 0 0

J5 = [

];

0 2 0 0

3.2417

1.8412

0

J =

0

2.000

13.0858

7.4835

J2 =

0

7.4835

0

0

;

7.1309 10.8657 3.7348

J4 = [

];

0 1.1298 0.9337 3.9047

J6 = [

0 0 0 0

];

0 0 0 0

1.8412

0

0

13.0858 7.4835

0

0

0

7.1309 10.8657 3.7348

0

4.4768 3.7348 15.6951

;

7.1309 10.5797 3.7348

0

1.2584 2.1921 0.9337

0

1.1298 0.9337 3.9047

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2.0000

0

0

0

0

0

0

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

error = 0.1809;

In the third iteration the numbers of PQ buses is 3 and the number of PV buses is 1 and

hence, the sizes of matrices J3 and J4 change to (3 4) and those of matrices J5 and J6 become

(1 4). The sizes of the matrices J1 , J2 and J remain same as earlier. With this Jacobian matrix,

the correction vector X is calculated and from this vector X , the vectors e and f are

extracted. Subsequently, the vectors e and f are updated. It is found that Q3 still violates the limit

and the mismatch is also found to be still more than the tolerance at the end of the third iteration.

59

Table 2.21: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with no generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

e

f

V

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1

0

1

0

0.56743 0.26505

0.99958 0.02893

1

1.65757

0.5

-0.18519

0.99987 -0.01592

1

-0.91206

1

0.68875

0.89634 -0.13157 0.90594 -8.35088

-1.15

-0.6

0.94034 -0.08272 0.94397 -5.02735

-0.85

-0.4

Total iteration = 5

Table 2.22: Final Results of the 14 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with no generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

e

(p.u)

1.06

1.04075

1.0157

1.01604

1.02801

1.04455

0.99277

0.99427

0.99146

0.99207

1.01383

1.02382

1.01605

0.97979

f

V

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

0

1.06

0

-0.09419 1.045

-5.17113

-0.26348 1.04932 -14.54246

-0.18634 1.03299 -10.39269

-0.15849 1.04015 -8.76418

-0.232

1.07

-12.52265

-0.23739 1.02076 -13.44781

-0.23818 1.0224 -13.47154

-0.24002 1.0201 -13.60908

-0.24176 1.0211 -13.69541

-0.23819 1.04144 -13.22158

-0.24445 1.0526 -13.42868

-0.24401 1.04494 -13.50388

-0.25524 1.01249 -14.60128

Total iteration = 5

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

2.37259

0.183

-1.19

-0.4779

-0.07599

0.112

0

0

-0.29499

-0.09

-0.03501

-0.06099

-0.135

-0.14901

(p.u)

-0.3308

-0.166

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.37278

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

All the relevant calculations pertaining to 3rd iteration are shown in Table 2.25. As the mismatch

is still more than the tolerance limit, the algorithm proceeds and finally converges with 5 iterations.

The final results are shown in Table 2.26.

Again the load flow solutions of the IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-30 bus system have been computed

for the same generator reactive power limits as taken for GSLF and NRLF (polar) techniques. The

final solutions are shown in Tables 2.27 and 2.28 respectively. Again cross-check for yourself that the

final solution computed by this method are same as those computed by GSLF and NRLF (polar)

techniques.

We will now discuss the fast-decoupled load flow (FDLF) technique in the next lecture.

60

Table 2.23: Final Results of the 30 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with no generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

e

(p.u)

1.05

1.0299

1.02132

1.01147

0.97759

1.00126

0.97138

0.99849

1.0191

1.00129

1.07063

1.01854

1.06225

0.99956

0.99383

1.00288

0.99556

0.98129

0.97781

0.98263

0.98651

0.98691

0.97991

0.9712

0.96249

0.94313

0.96684

0.99764

0.94118

0.92532

f

V

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

0

1.05

0

2.38673 -0.29842

-0.08973 1.0338 -4.97945 0.3586 -0.05698

-0.14293 1.03128 -7.96653

-0.024

-0.012

-0.17076 1.02578 -9.58235

-0.076

-0.016

-0.23652 1.0058 -13.60103 -0.6964 0.05042

-0.20376 1.02178 -11.50296

0

0

-0.24218 1.00111 -13.9994

-0.628

-0.109

-0.22261 1.023 -12.56853

-0.45

0.12343

-0.23604 1.04608 -13.04088

0

0

-0.26616 1.03606 -14.88589 -0.058

-0.02

-0.21138 1.0913 -11.16876 0.1793 0.24018

-0.24923 1.04859 -13.74947 -0.112

-0.075

-0.23668 1.0883 -12.56078 0.1691 0.31043

-0.26255 1.03346 -14.71704 -0.062

-0.016

-0.26383 1.02825 -14.86737 -0.082

-0.025

-0.25946 1.0359 -14.50539 -0.035

-0.018

-0.26644 1.0306 -14.98291

-0.09

-0.058

-0.27363 1.01873 -15.58107 -0.032

-0.009

-0.27689 1.01626 -15.81066 -0.095

-0.034

-0.27506 1.02041 -15.63819 -0.022

-0.007

-0.27098 1.02305 -15.35955 -0.175

-0.112

-0.27096 1.02343 -15.35222

0

0

-0.27028 1.0165 -15.41998 -0.032

-0.016

-0.27501 1.00939 -15.81043 -0.087

-0.067

-0.27308 1.00048 -15.84004

0

0

-0.27533 0.9825 -16.27422 -0.035

-0.023

-0.26987 1.00379 -15.59587

0

0

-0.21474 1.02049 -12.1474

0

0

-0.2855 0.98353 -16.87497 -0.024

-0.009

-0.29698 0.97181 -17.79427 -0.106

-0.019

Total iteration = 5

Table 2.24: Calculation at the end of 2nd iteration with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system for

limit on Q3

T

Vcal = [1.0];

T

61

error = 0.1824;

Table 2.25: Calculations at 3rd iteration with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system with limit on

Q3

13.3023

3.3566 1.6230

0

0

7.4539

1.9584 5.5167 1.3701 1.2000

; J2 =

J1 =

0

0

2.0669 2.2170 1.3289

0

1.4328 1.1870 4.0987

0

0

6.2313 8.4978 3.2275

J3 = 0

1.9584

7.4539 19.5569 7.1104 4.4586

J5 = [1.9992 0 0 0] ;

3.3566

1.9584

0

J =

0

7.4539

1.992

7.5339

0

0

;

6.2313 10.1633 3.2275

2.0669 4.5371 1.3289

J6 = [0.0581 0 0 0];

1.6230

0

0

13.3023 7.5339

0

0

0

6.2313 10.1633 3.2275

0

4.1175 3.4358 14.8052

;

6.2313 8.4978 3.2275

0

2.0669 4.5371 1.3289

0

1.4328 1.1870 5.8182

0

0

0

0.0581

0

0

0

T

T

T

T

T

T

Vcal = [1.0] ;

T

error = 0.0031;

62

Table 2.26: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with limit on Q3

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

e

f

V

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1

0

1

0

0.56979 0.33935

0.99956 0.02961

1

1.69679

0.5

-0.04769

0.98244 -0.01097 0.9825 -0.63991

1

0.5

0.87973 -0.12927 0.88918 -8.35906

-1.15

-0.6

0.93092 -0.08123 0.93445 -4.98675

-0.85

-0.4

Total iteration = 5

Table 2.27: Final Results of the 14 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with generator Q limits

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

e

(p.u)

1.06

1.04073

1.01336

1.01224

1.0242

1.03013

0.9847

0.98582

0.98318

0.98261

1.00189

1.00965

1.00223

0.96883

f

V

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

0

1.06

0

-0.09432 1.045

-5.17845

-0.26312 1.04697 -14.55556

-0.18505 1.02902 -10.35987

-0.15691 1.03615 -8.71027

-0.22759 1.05497 -12.45871

-0.23631 1.01266 -13.49478

-0.23701 1.01391 -13.5185

-0.23896 1.0118 -13.66101

-0.2402 1.01154 -13.73679

-0.23533 1.02915 -13.21814

-0.24037 1.03787 -13.39145

-0.24028 1.03063 -13.48166

-0.25317 1.00136 -14.64504

Total iteration = 8

63

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

2.37188

0.183

-1.19

-0.4779

-0.07599

0.112

0

0

-0.29499

-0.09

-0.03501

-0.06099

-0.135

-0.14901

(p.u)

-0.31249

-0.1066

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.3

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

Table 2.28: Final Results of the 30 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with generator Q limits

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

e

(p.u)

1.05

1.0299

1.02053

1.01051

0.97756

1.00036

0.97083

0.99845

1.01327

0.99655

1.05781

1.01458

1.05718

0.99547

0.98968

0.99856

0.99092

0.97686

0.97323

0.97802

0.98184

0.98228

0.97574

0.96705

0.95946

0.94003

0.96454

0.99677

0.93881

0.9229

f

V

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

0

1.05

0

2.38676 -0.29389

-0.08977 1.0338 -4.98141 0.3586 -0.04555

-0.14263 1.03044 -7.95615

-0.024

-0.012

-0.17038 1.02477 -9.57038

-0.076

-0.016

-0.23666 1.0058 -13.6093 -0.6964 0.05533

-0.20342 1.02084 -11.49427

0

0

-0.24204 1.00055 -13.99903 -0.628

-0.109

-0.22276 1.023 -12.57695

-0.45

0.15116

-0.2345 1.04005 -13.0305

0

0

-0.26495 1.03117 -14.8887

-0.058

-0.02

-0.208 1.07807 -11.1244 0.1793

0.2

-0.24844 1.04456 -13.75943 -0.112

-0.075

-0.23554 1.08311 -12.56043 0.1691

0.3

-0.26178 1.02931 -14.73367 -0.062

-0.016

-0.26302 1.02403 -14.88301 -0.082

-0.025

-0.25851 1.03148 -14.51398 -0.035

-0.018

-0.26532 1.02583 -14.98919

-0.09

-0.058

-0.27271 1.01421 -15.59837 -0.032

-0.009

-0.2759 1.01159 -15.82733 -0.095

-0.034

-0.27402 1.01568 -15.65181 -0.022

-0.007

-0.26984 1.01825 -15.36745 -0.175

-0.112

-0.26983 1.01867 -15.36029

0

0

-0.26947 1.01226 -15.43846 -0.032

-0.016

-0.27419 1.00517 -15.82979 -0.087

-0.067

-0.27277 0.99748 -15.87039

0

0

-0.27501 0.97944 -16.30724 -0.035

-0.023

-0.26985 1.00158 -15.62998

0

0

-0.21448 1.01959 -12.14364

0

0

-0.2855 0.98126 -16.91488 -0.024

-0.009

-0.297 0.96951 -17.83848 -0.106

-0.019

Total iteration = 5

64

2.11

An important and useful property of power system is that the change in real power is primarily

governed by the charges in the voltage angles, but not in voltage magnitudes. On the other hand,

the charges in the reactive power are primarily influenced by the charges in voltage magnitudes, but

not in the voltage angles. To see this, let us note the following facts:

(a) Under normal steady state operation, the voltage magnitudes are all nearly equal to 1.0.

(b) As the transmission lines are mostly reactive, the conductances are quite small as compared to the susceptance (Gij << Bij ).

(c) Under normal steady state operation the angular differences among the bus voltages are

quite small (i j 0 (within 5o 10o )).

(d) The injected reactive power at any bus is always much less than the reactive power

consumed by the elements connected to this bus when these elements are shorted to the ground

(Qi << Bii Vi2 ).

With these facts at hand, let us re-visit the equations for Jacobian elements in Newton-Raphson

(polar) method (equation (2.48) to (2.55)). From equations (2.50) and (2.51) we have,

n

Pi

= 2Vi Gii + Vk Yik cos(i k ik )

Vj

k=1

i

n

k=1

i

n

k=1

i

j=i

(2.74)

Pi

= Vi Yij cos(i j ij )

Vj

= Vi Yij [cos(i j ) cos ij + sin(i j ) sin ij ]

= Vi [Gij cos(i j ) + Bij sin(i j )] ;

ji

(2.75)

Now, Gii and Gij are quite small and negligible and also cos(i j ) 1 and sin(i j ) 0, as

[(i j ) 0]. Hence,

Pi

Pi

0 and

0

Vi

Vj

J2 0

(2.76)

n

Qi

= Vi Vk [Gik cos(i k ) + Bik sin(i k )] ;

j k = 1

j=i

(2.77)

Qi

= Vi Vj [Gij cos(i j ) + Bij sin(i j )] ;

j

65

ji

(2.78)

Again in light of the natures of the quantities Gii , Gij and (i j ) as discussed above,

Qi

Qi

0 and

0

i

j

J3 0

(2.79)

Substituting equations (2.76) and (2.79) into equation (2.40) one can get,

P

J1 0

[

]=[

][

]

Q

0 J4 V

(2.80)

decoupling between P - and Q - V relations. Now, from equations (2.48) and (2.49)

we get,

n

Pi

= Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik );

j

k=1

j=i

j=i

k=1

j=i

Pi

= Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij ); j i

j

= Vi Vj Yij [sin(i j ) cos ij cos(i j ) sin ij ] ;

= Vi Vj [Gij sin(i j ) Bij cos(i j )] ;

= Vi Vj Bij ;

(2.81)

ji

ji

ji

(2.82)

n

Qi

= 2Vi Bii + Vk Yik sin(i k ik );

Vj

k=1

i

n

or,

j=i

Qi

Vi = 2Vi2 Bii + Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik );

Vj

k=1

j=i

Qi

Vi = Vi2 Bii + Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik ) = Qi Vi2 Bii ;

Vj

k=1

Qi

Vi = Vi2 Bii ; j = i [as Qi << Bii Vi2 ]

or,

Vj

Qi

or,

= Vi Bii ; j = i

Vj

or,

66

j=i

(2.83)

Qi

= Vi Yij sin(i j ij ); j i

Vj

= Vi Yij [sin(i j ) cos ij cos(i j ) sin ij ] ;

= Vi [Gij sin(i j ) Bij cos(i j )] ;

Vi Bij ;

ji

ji

ji

(2.84)

n

k=1

n

Pi

= Vk Bik k

Vi

k=1

(2.85)

Now, as Vi 1.0 under normal steady state operating condition, equation (2.85) reduces to,

n

Pi

= Bik k .

Vi

k=1

Or,

P

= [B] .

V

Or,

= [B ]

V

(2.86)

Matrix B is a constant matrix having a dimension of (n 1) (n 1). Its elements are the

negative of the imaginary part of the element (i, k) of the YBUS matrix where i = 2, 3, n and

k = 2, 3, n.

Again combining equations (2.80), (2.83) and (2.84) we get,

Qi = Vi Bik Vk .

k=1

Or,

n

Qi

= Bik Vk .

Vi

k=1

Or,

= [B ] V

V

(2.87)

Again, [B ] is also a constant matrix having a dimension of (n m) (n m). Its elements are the

negative of the imaginary part of the element (i, k) of the YBUS matrix where i = (m + 1), (m +

2), n and k = (m + 1), (m + 2), n. As the matrixes [B ] and [B ] are constant, it is not

necessary to invert these matrices in each iteration. Rather, the inverse of these matrices can be

stored and used in every iteration, thereby making the algorithm faster. Further simplification in

the FDLF algorithm can be made by,

a. Ignoring the series resistances is calculating the elements of [B ]. Also, by omitting the

elements of [B ] that predominantly affect reactive power flows, i.e., shunt reactances and

transformer off nominal in phase taps.

b. Omitting from [B ] the angle shifting effect of phase shifter, which predominantly affects real

power flow.

67

2.11.1

As an example, the 5 bus system described earlier is considered again. Starting from the flat start,

the initial calculations are shown in Table 2.29. As the mismatch is more than the tolerance, the

BUS matrix of this system is shown in Table 2.30. In this table, the

algorithm proceeds. The Y

BUS (, m n) represents the elements (of the Y

BUS matrix) corresponding to all rows

notation Y

(denoted by the notation :) and columns spanning from mth column to nth column (denoted by the

BUS matrix, the matrices [B ] and [B ] are constructed as shown in

notation m:n). From this Y

Table 2.30. Note that the size of the matrix [B ] is (4 4) (corresponding to the non slack buses,

i.e. 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the size of the [B ] matrix is (2 2) (corresponding to the PV buses 4

and 5). Also note that the matrices [B ] and [B ] have been formed by taking the negative of the

BUS matrix. With these constant matrices,

imaginary parts of the corresponding elements of the Y

the vectors and V are calculated and subsequently, the vectors and V have been updated.

With these updated values of and V, the final mismatch (error) is again calculated as shown in

Table 2.30. As the error is still more than the tolerance, the algorithm proceeds further and finally

converges in 19 iterations for a tolerance value of 1012 p.u. The final solution is shown in Table

2.31, which happens to be the same as the results obtained by the other methods described earlier.

T

T

error = 1.15 ;

Now, let us impose the reactive power limit on the generation at bus 3. Starting from the flat

start, the calculation up to 1st iteration are same and hence are not shown here. The calculation

pertaining to 2nd iteration are shown in Table 2.32. From this set, observe that the calculated value

of Q3 has exceeded the limit of 50 MVAR and hence it should be now treated as PQ-bus. Thus,

the dimension of the matrix [B ] increases to (3 3) (corresponding to the buses 4, 5 and 3).

This new, augmented matrix is shown in Table 2.33. With these [B ] and [B ] matrices ([B ]

matrix remains the same), the calculations are further carried out and the algorithm converges in

20 iterations. The final solution is shown in Table 2.31. Comparison of this result with the earlier

results (obtained with other methods) shows that because of the approximations made in FDLF, the

results obtained with FDLF are not identically the same with those obtained by the other methods

but are very close.

The results corresponding to 14-bus and 30-bus systems are shown in Tables 2.34 and 2.35

respectively. From these tables note that the number of iterations taken by FDLF is much higher than

those required by NRLF. This is because of approximations adopted by FDLF (to achieve decoupling)

due to which, the convergence is slower. However, because of the constant Jacobrian matrices, the

68

Table 2.30: Calculations at 1st iteration with FDLF in the 5 bus system

0

0

1.8412 + 7.4835i 4.2294 18.9271i ;

YBUS (, 1 3) =

0

0

1.2584

+

7.1309i

1.8412 + 7.4835i

0

1.1298

+

4.4768i

0

1.8412 + 7.4835i

0

0

Y

13.0138 7.4835

0

0

10.7227 3.7348

; [B ] = [

[B ] =

];

0

7.1309 10.7227 3.7348

3.7348 15.5521

0

4.4768 3.7348 15.5521

V = [0.0528 0.0292] ;

T

T

T

T

error = 0.3069;

execution of each iteration is much faster (as the Jacobrian matrix need not be recomputed and

reversed at each iteration) and hence, the total time taken by FDLF is quiet comparable to that

needed by NRLF. From the two tables it is further noted that, in the absence of any generation

reactive power limit, the results obtained by FDLF are almost identical to those obtained by other

methods. However, in the presence of generation reactive power limits, FDLF results are quiet close

to the results obtained by other methods, though not identical.

We are now at the end of our discussion of AC load flow techniques. In the next lecture, we will

study the method of load flow analysis of an AC system in which a HVDC link is also embedded

(namely, the AC-DC load flow technique).

69

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Pinj

Qinj

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1.0

0

0.56743 0.26505

1.0

0

0.56985 0.34069

1.0

1.65757

0.5

-0.18519

1.0

1.69742

0.5

-0.04522

1.0

-0.91206

1.0

0.68875 0.98219 -0.63507

1.0

0.49668

0.90594 -8.35088

-1.15

-0.6

0.88888 -8.35938

-1.15

-0.6

0.94397 -5.02735

-0.85

-0.4

0.93428 -4.9861

-0.85

-0.4

Total iteration = 19

Total iteration = 20

Table 2.32: Calculations at 2nd iteration with FDLF in the 5 bus system with limit on Q3

T

V = [0.0399 0.0277] ;

T

T

T

T

error = 0.1775;

70

Table 2.33: Calculations at 3rd iteration with FDLF in the 5 bus system with limit on Q3

13.0138

7.4835

[B ] =

0

7.4835

0

0

;

7.1309 10.7227 3.7348

T

T

T

T

error = 0.0777;

Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

(p.u)

1.06

1.045

1.04932

1.03299

1.04015

1.07

1.02076

1.0224

1.0201

1.0211

1.04144

1.0526

1.04494

1.01249

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.37259

-5.17113

0.183

-14.54246

-1.19

-10.39269 -0.4779

-8.76418 -0.07599

-12.52265

0.112

-13.44781

0

-13.47154

0

-13.60908 -0.29499

-13.69541

-0.09

-13.22158 -0.03501

-13.42868 -0.06099

-13.50388 -0.135

-14.60128 -0.14901

Total iteration = 123

Qinj

-0.3308

-0.166

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.37278

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

(p.u)

1.06

1.045

1.04697

1.02902

1.03615

1.05497

1.01266

1.01391

1.0118

1.01154

1.02915

1.03787

1.03063

1.00136

71

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.37188

-5.17845

0.183

-14.55556

-1.19

-10.35987 -0.4779

-8.71026 -0.07599

-12.4587

0.112

-13.49478

0

-13.5185

0

-13.66102 -0.29499

-13.73679

-0.09

-13.21814 -0.03501

-13.39144 -0.06099

-13.48166 -0.135

-14.64504 -0.14901

Total iteration = 119

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.31249

-0.1066

-0.08762

-0.039

-0.01599

0.29999

0

-0.129

-0.16599

-0.05799

-0.018

-0.01599

-0.05799

-0.05001

Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

(p.u)

1.05

1.0338

1.03128

1.02578

1.005 8

1.02178

1.00111

1.023

1.04608

1.03606

1.0913

1.04859

1.0883

1.03346

1.02825

1.0359

1.0306

1.01873

1.01626

1.02041

1.02305

1.02343

1.0165

1.00939

1.00048

0.9825

1.00379

1.02049

0.98353

0.97181

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.38673

-4.97945 0.3586

-7.96653

-0.024

-9.58235

-0.076

-13.60103 -0.6964

-11.50296

0

-13.9994

-0.628

-12.56853

-0.45

-13.04088

0

-14.88589 -0.058

-11.16876 0.1793

-13.74947 -0.112

-12.56078 0.1691

-14.71704 -0.062

-14.86737 -0.082

-14.50539 -0.035

-14.98291

-0.09

-15.58107 -0.032

-15.81066 -0.095

-15.63819 -0.022

-15.35955 -0.175

-15.35222

0

-15.41998 -0.032

-15.81043 -0.087

-15.84004

0

-16.27422 -0.035

-15.59587

0

-12.1474

0

-16.87497 -0.024

-17.79427 -0.106

Total iteration = 115

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.29842

-0.05698

-0.012

-0.016

0.05042

0

-0.109

0.12343

0

-0.02

0.24018

-0.075

0.31043

-0.016

-0.025

-0.018

-0.058

-0.009

-0.034

-0.007

-0.112

0

-0.016

-0.067

0

-0.023

0

0

-0.009

-0.019

(p.u)

1.05

1.0338

1.03026

1.02455

1.0058

1.0206

1.00041

1.023

1.03842

1.02995

1.07426

1.04384

1.0824

1.02853

1.0232

1.03054

1.02469

1.01323

1.01052

1.01457

1.01706

1.0175

1.01136

1.00418

0.99677

0.97872

1.00105

1.01937

0.98073

0.96897

72

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0

2.38678

-4.98182 0.3586

-7.95403

-0.024

-9.56795

-0.076

-13.6111 -0.6964

-11.49172

0

-13.9986

-0.628

-12.5786

-0.45

-13.02612

0

-14.88705 -0.058

-11.11026 0.1793

-13.76458 -0.112

-12.56395 0.1691

-14.73984 -0.062

-14.88791 -0.082

-14.51633 -0.035

-14.98908

-0.09

-15.60231 -0.032

-15.83038 -0.095

-15.65374 -0.022

-15.36723 -0.175

-15.36018

0

-15.44311 -0.032

-15.83356 -0.087

-15.87684

0

-16.31432 -0.035

-15.63737

0

-12.14228

0

-16.92364 -0.024

-17.84827 -0.106

Total iteration = 112

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.29289

-0.0429

-0.012

-0.016

0.05654

0

-0.109

0.15797

0

-0.02

0.18809

-0.075

0.29991

-0.016

-0.025

-0.018

-0.058

-0.009

-0.034

-0.007

-0.112

0

-0.016

-0.067

0

-0.023

0

0

-0.009

-0.019

2.12

For solving the load flow problem of an A.C. system in which one or more HVDC links are present,

either of the following two approaches are followed;

a. Simultaneous solution technique

b. Sequential solution technique

In simultaneous solution technique, the equations pertaining to the A.C. system and the equations pertaining to the DC system are solved together. In the sequential method, the AC and DC

systems are solved separately and the coupling between the AC and DC system in accomplished

by injecting an equivalent amount of real and reactive power at the terminal AC buses. In other

words, for an HVDC link existing between buses i and j of an AC system (rectifier at bus i

and inverter at bus j), the effect of the DC link in incorporated into the AC system by injections

(R)

(R)

(I)

(I)

PDCi

and QDCi at the rectifier bus i and PDCj and QDCj at bus j (the super scripts R and

I denote the rectifier and inverter respectively). Therefore the net injected power at bus i and

(R)

(R)

(I)

(I)

j are: Pitotal = PACi + PDCi ; QTi otal = QACi + QDCi ; PjT otal = PACj + PDCj ; QTj otal = QACj + QDCj .

With these net injected powers the AC system is again solved and subsequently, the equivalent in(R)

(R)

(I)

(I)

jected powers (PDCi , QDCi , PDCj , QDCi ) and the total injected powers (PiT otal , QTi otal , PjT otal , QTj otal )

are updated. This process of alternately solving AC and DC system quantities is continued till the

changes in AC system and DC system quantities between two consecutive iterations become less then

a threshold value. Although simultaneous technique gives the solution of the system without any

to and fro switching between the AC and DC systems, the sequential solution technique is actually

quite easy to implement as we will see later. Now let as look at the equations of the DC system.

2.12.1

DC system model

For deriving a suitable model of a HVDC system for steady state operation, few basic assumptions

are adopted as described below;

a. The three A.C. voltages at the terminal bus bar are balanced and sinusoidal.

b. The converter operation is perfectly balanced.

c. The direct current and voltages are smooth.

d. The converter transformer is lossless and the magnetizing admittance is ignored.

With the above assumptions, the equivalent circuit of the converter (either rectifier or inverter)

is shown in Fig. 2.18. In this figure, the notations are as follows;

73

Figure 2.18: Equivalent circuit of the converter under the steady state operation

Vt t

a

Es s

Ip , Is

Vd , Id

Converter transformer tap ratio

Magnitude and angle of the secondary side of the converter transformer

Primary and secondary current of the converter transformer respectively

DC voltage and DC current respectively

It is to be noted that in Fig. 2.18, the angles are referred to the common reference of the entire

AC-DC system. With the above notations, the basic equation governing the HVDC systems are as

follow:

For rectifier

3 2

Vdr =

Nr ar Etr cos r = Vdor cos r

3

Vdr = Vdor cos Xcr Nr Id

For inverter

3 2

Vdi =

Ni ai Eti cos i = Vdoi cos i

3

Vdi = Vdoi cos Xci Ni Id

(2.88)

(2.89)

(2.90)

(2.91)

In the above equations, the subscripts r and i denote the rectifier and inverter side respectively.

The quantity N denotes the number of six-pulse bridges at any partienlar side and the angle

denotes the angular difference between the terminal voltages and primary current of the transformer,

i.e. the power factor of the converter as seen by the AC bus. Xc denotes the commutating reactance

of the converter transformer and the angles and denote the firing angle of the rectifier and

the extinction angle of the inverter respectively.

74

The rectifie and the inverter are interconnected though the following equation:

Vdr Vdi

= Id

Rd

(2.92)

In equation (2.92), the quantity Rd denotes the DC link resistance. Equations (2.88)-(2.92)

describe the operation of a two-terminal HVDC link. Now, as the basic objective of a HVDC link

is to provide complete controllability of power over a transmission corridor, both the rectifies and

the inverter stations are suitably controlled and thus, suitable control equations also need to be

incorporated in the above model. We will discuss these control equations shortly. However, to solve

the above equations, appropriate solution variables must be chosen. Now, for the reason of simplicity,

following set of solution variables is chosen for each converter;

x = [Vd Id a cos ]

(2.93)

Therefore, for a two terminal HVDC link, the complete set of solution vector is;

(2.94)

In equation (2.94), Id has been taken only once as the DC current is same at both the ends. From

equation (2.94) it is observed that there are total 9 unknown variables which need to be solved to

completely determine the HVDC link. However, we have only 5 independent equations as shown in

equations (2.88)-(2.92). Therefore, out of 9 unknown variables, any 4 variables need to be specified

and thereafter, remaining 5 variables can be solved using equations (2.88)-(2.92).

These 4 variables can be specified using the control specification. There can be several combinations of control specification and some of their combination are;

i) , Pdr , , Vdi ;

iii) ar , Pdr , ai , Vdi ;

v)

ar , Pdr , , ai ;

vii)

, Id , , Vdi ;

iv) ar , Pdr , , Vdi ;

vi)

ar , Pdr , , ;

viiii) , Vdr , , Pdi ;

With any of these four specified control values, the remaining 5 variables can be solved from

equations (2.88)-(2.92) by using standard Newton-Raphoson technique. However, for the sequential

(R)

(R)

(I)

(I)

solution techniques, the quantities PDci , QDci , PDcj and QDcj can be competed in a much easier

way by algebraic manipulation of equations (2.88)-(2.92). we will show this procedure by two of the

eight combinations listed above.

75

Combination 1

In this case, , Pdr , and Vdi are specified. With these known quantities, the calculation procedure

is as follows:

Step 1: We know, Pdr = Vdr Id .

Or, Pdr =

Vdr =

(from equation (2.92)).

Rd

Or,

Vdi

2

(2.95)

From equation (2.95), two values of Vdr are obtained. Out of these two values, the value of Vdr

which is greater than Vdi is chosen, i.e.

1

Vdr = (Vdi + Vdi2 + 4Rd Pdr )

2

Step 2: Id is calculated as,

Id =

Pdr

Vdr

(2.96)

(2.97)

3

Vdr + Xcr Nr Id

Vdor =

cos

(2.98)

cos r =

Vdr

Vdor

Vdor

ar =

3 2Nr Etr

(2.99)

(2.100)

In equation (2.100) Etr is known as in the sequential solution method, the terminal voltages are

known from the immediate past solution of the AC system equations.

(R)

(R)

Step 5: The quantities PDCi and QDCi are calculated as;

(R)

PDCi

= Pdr

Q(R)

DCi = Pdr tan r

and

(2.101)

3

Vdi + Xci Ni Id

Vdoi =

cos

76

(2.102)

cos i =

Vdi

Vdoi

(2.103)

Vdoi

ai =

3 2Ni Eti

(I)

(2.104)

(I)

(I)

PDCj

= Vdi Id

(R)

(R)

(I)

Q(I)

DCj = PDCj tan i

and

(I)

(2.105)

(I)

With these values of PDCi , QDCi , PDCj and QDCj , the AC system equations are again solved

to obtain the updated values of Etr and Eti and subsequently, steps (1)-(8) are repeated again to

(R)

(R)

(I)

(I)

update the values of PDCi , QDCi , PDCj and QDCj . This alternate process of solving AC and DC

system equations are repeated till convergence in obtained.

Combination 8

In this case, , , Pdi and Vdr are known. With these known quantities, the calculation procedure

is as follows:

=

.

Step 1: We know Pdi = Vdi Id = Vdi

Rd

Rd

Or, Vdi2 + Rd Pdi Vdi Vdr = 0.

Or,

Vdi =

Vdr

2

(2.106)

From the two values of Vdi in equation (2.106), the final value of Vdi is calculated as,

1

Vdi = (Vdr + Vdr2 4Rd Pdi )

2

Step 2: Id is calculated as,

Id =

(2.107)

Pdi

Vdi

(2.108)

With these calculated values of Vdi and Id , steps (3)-(8) of combination-1 are followed to calculate

(R)

the Equivalent power injection values, where PDCi = Vdr Id . With these injected power values, the

AC and DC systems are continued to be solved alternately till convergence in achieved. It is to be

R

noted that at the rectifier end, P(DCi)

= Pdr and Q(R)

DCi = Qdr as the rectifier draws both real and

(I)

I

reactive power from the grid. On the other hand, at the inverter end, P(DCj)

= Pdi and QDCj = Qdi

as the inverter supplies real power to the AC grid and draws reactive power from the AC grid.

In the next lecture, we will look at an example of AC-DC load flow method.

77

2.12.2

To illustrate the application of the above procedure, let us first consider the 5-bus system. In this

system, it is now assumed that one bipolar HVDC link is connected between bus 4 and 5 (rectifier

at bus 4 and inverter at bus 5). Other relevant data for this link are as follows; Rd = 10.0 ;

Nr = Ni = 2;

3

3

Xcr = Xci = 6.0 . Further, let us also assume that the specified values have been

Combination-1

With the above specification, the calculation procedure for the DC system is as follows. Initially,

the flat start is assumed for all the buses in the system. Therefore, V4 = V5 = 1.0 p.u. Let us also

assume that the base voltage of the AC system is 132 kV. Now, before commencing the AC load flow,

the equivalent power injections (both real and reactive) at buses 4 and 5 need to be calculated. For

this purpose, equations (2.95) - (2.105) are used to calculate the values of different DC variables as

follows: Vdr = 253.938 kV; id = 393.8 Amp.; Qdr = 16.276 MVAR; Pdi = 98.45 MW; Qdi = 35.024

MVAR.

Now, let us look at equations (2.95) - (2.105) more closely. Equations (2.96) - (2.99) show that

the quantities Vdr , id , Vdor and cos r depend only on the DC system data. As the DC system data

are constant, the calculatd values of these four quantities would also be constant (i.e. their values

would not change from iteration to iteration). Similarly, from equations (2.102) and (2.103) it can

be seen that the quantities Vdoi and cos i are also constant. As cos r and cos i are constant,

(R)

(I)

from equations (2.101) and (2.105), QDCi and QDCj are also constant. Thus, the equivalent real

and reactive power injections at buses 4 and 5 are constant (they need not be updated at every

iteration) and hence these values can be pre-calculated and suitably adjusted into the injected real

and reactive powers at buses 4 and 5 before solving the AC system equations. Thus, for the example

at hand, the net injected real and reactive powers at bus 4 and bus 5 can be calculated as follows;

P4 = 1.15 1.0 = 2.15 p.u., Q4 = 0.6 0.16276 = 0.76276 p.u., P5 = 0.85 + 0.9845 = 0.1345

p.u. and Q5 = 0.4 0.35024 = 0.75024 p.u. With these net injected real and reactive powers,

the load flow solution of the AC system is computed and the final solution is shown in Table 2.36.

It is to be noted that in Table 2.36, it has been assumed that no violation of reactive power limit

has taken place for any of the generators. After the final solution of voltage magnitudes is obtained,

the quantities ar and ai can be calculated from equations (2.100) and (2.104) as ar = 0.8714 and

ai = 0.8149. Please note that in these two equations, the quantities Etr and Eti should be taken in

actual values (i.e. in kV), not in per unit.

Let us now turn our attention to combination 8. Following the same reasonong as described

above, from equations (2.107) - (2.108) it can be observed that the quantities Vdi and Id are constant. Moreover, as steps (3)-(8) of combination 8 are same as in combination 1, it immediately

follows that for combination 8 also, the equivalent real and reactive power injections (representing

78

Table 2.36: Final Results of AC-DC load flow of 5 bus system without any generator Q limit violation

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

1.0

0

0.68984 0.46301

1.0

-0.63995

0.5

-0.17235

1.0

-4.91128

1.0

1.54134

0.82813 -17.48682

-2.15

-0.76277

0.91332 -3.89028 0.13449 -0.75025

Total iteration = 5

the DC system) are constant. Therefore, by pre-calculating these equivalent power injections and

subsequently incorporating these calculated values into net bus power injections, standard AC load

flow solution can be computed to obtain the solution of the composite AC-DC system.

From the above discussion regarding combination 1 and 8, it may appear that the equivalent real

and reactive power injections (representing the DC system) are always constant for any combination

of the specified control variables. However, this is not true. Depending on the specified control

variables, the equivalent real and reactive power injections may vary from iteration to iteration and

therefore, they need to be calculated in every iteration. As an example, let us consider combination

3. For this combination, the various steps are as follows:

Step 1: Initialise all the bus voltages with flat start. Hence, Etr and Eti are known.

Step 2: From the specified values of Pdr and Vdi , calculate Vdr and Id using equations (2.96)

and (2.97) respectively.

Step 3: Calculate Vdor from equation (2.100).

Step 4: Calculate cos and cos r using equations (2.98) and (2.99) respectively.

(R)

Step 5: From the knowledge of Pdr and cos r , calculate QDCi using equation (2.101).

Step 6: Calculate Vdoi from equation (2.104).

Step 7: Calculate cos and cos i using equations (2.102) and (2.103) respectively.

(I)

(I)

Step 8: Calculate PDCj and QDCj from equation (2.105).

(R)

Please note that in steps 3-5, the quantities Vdor , cos r and QDCi are all dependent on the

(I)

rectifier side AC bus voltage, Etr . Similarly, in steps 6-8, the quantities Vdoi , cos i and QDCj are all

(I)

dependent on the inverter side AC bus voltage, Eti . The quantity PDCj however, depends only on

the DC system quantities and hence remain constant. Thus, the equivalent reactive power injections

at both rectifier and inverter side depend on the AC bus voltage magnitudes (although the equivalent

real power injections at both the sides are independent of AC bus voltage magnitudes). Hence, the

equivalent reactive power injections need to be updated at each iteration and with these updated

power injection values, another iteration of AC load flow is carried out. This process is continued till

convergence is achieved. To illustrate this procedure further, let us assume that the specified values

corresponding to combination 3 are as follows:

79

From the information of Pdr and Vdi , the quantities Pdi and Id are calculated as; Pdi = 98.45

MW and Id = 393.8 Amp. The calculated values for different other DC quantities corresponding to

first 3 iterations are shown in Table 2.37. In this table, the symbols In and MM denote iteration

number and mismatch respectively. Proceeding in this fashion, the algorithm finally converges in

70 iterations with a convergence threshold value of 1.0e12 . The final converged values of different

(R)

DC quantities are as follows: Vdr = 253.938 kV; = 19.82o ; = 34.84o ; QDCi = 41.52 MVAR;

Q(I)

DCj = 72.44 MVAR. The final converged values of the AC system quantities are shown in Table

2.38. Note that, as in the case of Table 2.36, in this case also, no generator reactive power violation

has been assumed.

Table 2.37: Calculated DC quantities for first three iterations in 5 bus system

In

0

1

2

V4

V5

Vdor

Q(R)

DCi

(p.u.) (p.u.)

(kV)

(rad.) (MVAR)

1.0

1.0

356.52 0.778

98.54

0.7843 0.8731 279.63 0.432

46.11

0.7682 0.8703 273.91 0.3842

40.43

Vdoi

Q(I)

DCj

(deg.) (kV)

(rad.) (MVAR)

43.48 356.52 0.7937

100.09

22.33 311.29 0.638

73.04

19.20 310.29 0.634

72.37

MM

(deg.)

44.4

2.15

35.08 0.5578

34.82 0.038

Table 2.38: Final Results of AC-DC load flow of 5 bus system for combination 3 without any

generator Q limit violation

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

Pinj

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

1.0

0

0.75382

1.0

-0.99374

0.5

1.0

-5.52481

1.0

0.82813 -18.69153

-2.15

0.91332 -3.65137 0.13449

Total iteration = 70

Qinj

(p.u)

0.78420

-0.16893

2.17338

-1.01522

-1.12440

For further illustration, let us now consider the 30-bus system. In this system, it is now assumed

that one bipolar HVDC link is connected between bus 9 and 28 (rectifier at bus 9 and inverter at bus

28). Other relevant data for this link are as follows; Rd = 10.0 ; Nr = Ni = 2;

3

3

Xcr = Xci = 6.0 .

The load flow has been solved for combination-1, combination-3 and combination-8 (of specified quantities). The specified values which have been considered are as follows;

Combination-1

80

Combination-3

Combination-8

The results of the 30-bus system for combination 1 and 8 are shown in Table 2.39 for a tolerance of

1012 p.u. Furthermore, the results corresponding to combination 3 are shown in Table 2.40. It is to

be noted that for these results, no reactive power limit on the generators have been considered. The

final solutions of corresponding DC system quantities are also shown in these tables for these three

cases. Comparison of Tables 2.18, 2.39 and 2.40 shows that because of the reactive power absorption

at both bus 9 and 28, the overall voltage profile of the system is lower in the presence of HVDC

link. Moreover, when the equivalent injected real and reactive powers are constant (i.e. do not vary

from iteration to iteration), the number of iterations taken by the algorithm is quiet comparable

with that taken by the normal NRLF (polar) method (without any HVDC link). However, when

these equivalent injected powers vary from iteration to iteration, the number of iterations taken by

the sequential algorithm is appreciably more as compared that taken by the normal NRLF (polar)

method (without any HVDC link).

In the above, the detail calculation procedures for three combinations (1, 3 and 8) have been

shown. For the remaining combinations, the DC quantities can be calculated following the procedure

of either combination 1 or combination 3 and thus, these are not detailed here.

Let us now turn our attention to simultaneous techniques. As discussed earlier, in the simultaneous technique, the AC and DC system equations are solved together. Now, in a N-bus, M-generator

power system having a HVDC link between lens k and l (bus k being the rectifier and bus l being

the inverter), the total number of unknown are (N 1) + (N M ) + 5 = 2N M + 4. To solve these

unknowns, we also have (N 1) + (N M ) + 5 = 2N M + 4 equations. Therefore the size of Jacobrian matrix would be (2N M +4)(2N M +4), as compared to the (2N M 1)(2N M 1)

Jacobrian matrix of the AC system.

The additional 5 rows and 5 columns pertain to the DC equations which need to be evaluated

in each iteration. Also, the Jacobian matrix also needs to be inverted in each iteration, thereby

increasing the computation burden appreciably. Apart from that, depending upon the combination

of specified quantities, the DC equations [(2.88)-(2.92)] need to be recasted appropriately before

starting the solution procedure. Therefore, the simultaneous solution technique does not give any

computational advantage vis--vis the sequential method and thus, this method is not further discussed here.

81

Table 2.39: Results of the 30 bus system with a bipolar HVDC link between bus 9 and 28

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

(p.u)

1.05

1.0338

1.02345

1.01637

1.0058

1.01055

0.99437

1.023

1.01796

1.00713

1.0913

1.04132

1.0883

1.02408

1.01562

1.01841

1.00471

0.99979

0.9938

0.99623

0.99497

0.99578

1.00064

0.98942

0.98869

0.97048

0.99711

1.00723

0.97669

0.96489

With combination 1

Pinj

Qinj

With combination 8

Pinj

Qinj

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(p.u)

(deg)

(p.u)

(p.u)

0

2.42039 -0.26099

1.05

0

2.42229 -0.26023

-5.0387

0.3586 0.06523 1.0338 -5.04273

0.3586

0.06857

-8.08233

-0.024

-0.012 1.02325 -8.08809

-0.024

-0.012

-9.72937

-0.076

-0.016 1.01613 -9.73654

-0.076

-0.016

-13.69708 -0.6964 0.10883 1.0058 -13.70427 -0.6964 0.11036

-11.35395

0

0

1.01026 -11.35703

0

0

-13.96765 -0.628

-0.109 0.99419 -13.97288 -0.628

-0.109

-12.18127

-0.45

0.47454

1.023 -12.18265

-0.45

0.48393

-20.00269

-1

-0.16277 1.01711 -20.13217 -1.01653 -0.16832

-19.52942 -0.058

-0.02

1.00633 -19.6175

-0.058

-0.02

-18.07884 0.1793 0.38778 1.0913 -18.20671 0.1793

0.39224

-16.16702 -0.112

-0.075 1.04109 -16.21744 -0.112

-0.075

-14.97002 0.1691 0.36696 1.0883 -15.02017 0.1691

0.36879

-17.34016 -0.062

-0.016 1.02379 -17.39439 -0.062

-0.016

-17.64022 -0.082

-0.025 1.01524 -17.69657 -0.082

-0.025

-17.83191 -0.035

-0.018 1.01792 -17.89732 -0.035

-0.018

-19.23196

-0.09

-0.058 1.00399 -19.31323

-0.09

-0.058

-19.02914 -0.032

-0.009 0.99925 -19.09708 -0.032

-0.009

-19.66267 -0.095

-0.034 0.99317 -19.73758 -0.095

-0.034

-19.69028 -0.022

-0.007 0.99555 -19.76851 -0.022

-0.007

-19.72658 -0.175

-0.112 0.99419 -19.81012 -0.175

-0.112

-19.62149

0

0

0.99501 -19.7033

0

0

-18.30125 -0.032

-0.016 1.00016 -18.3595

-0.032

-0.016

-18.8339

-0.087

-0.067 0.98881 -18.89458 -0.087

-0.067

-16.70952

0

0

0.98823 -16.73336

0

0

-17.15432 -0.035

-0.023 0.97001 -17.17859 -0.035

-0.023

-15.12179

0

0

0.99676 -15.12284

0

0

-9.39718 0.98449 -0.35025 1.00683 -9.35718

1

-0.35723

-16.41847 -0.024

-0.009 0.97633 -16.42047 -0.024

-0.009

-17.35084 -0.106

-0.019 0.96452 -17.35353 -0.106

-0.019

Total iteration = 4

Total iteration = 4

DC system solutions

Vdr = 253.938 kV; idr = 393.8 Amp.;

ar = 0.7088; Qdr = 16.276 MVAR;

ai = 0.7389; Pdi = 98.45 MW;

Qdi = 35.024 MVAR;

DC system solutions

Vdi = 245.93 kV; idr = 406.613 Amp.;

ar = 0.6988; Pdr = 101.65 MW;

ai = 0.7275; Qdr = 16.831 MVAR;

Qdi = 35.723 MVAR;

We are now at the end of our theoretical study of various load flow techniques. However, in

production grade implementatin of these techniques, the sparsity of the linear equations (connecting

the mismatch and solution vectors) is exploited to reduce the computation time as well as memory requirement. From the next lecture, we will study some methods for solution of sparse linear

82

Table 2.40: Further results of the 30 bus system with a bipolar HVDC link between bus 9 and 28

Bus no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

(p.u)

1.05000

1.03380

1.02180

1.01437

1.00580

1.00804

0.99286

1.02300

1.00248

0.99624

1.09130

1.03787

1.08830

1.01972

1.01042

1.01181

0.99507

0.99250

0.98530

0.98713

0.98445

0.98541

0.99404

0.98099

0.98192

0.96358

0.99144

1.00345

0.97089

0.95901

With combination 3

Pinj

(deg)

(p.u)

0.00000

2.42241

-5.04581 0.35860

-8.07176 -0.02400

-9.71785 -0.07600

-13.71987 -0.69640

-11.32909 0.00000

-13.96633 -0.62800

-12.20102 -0.45000

-20.07763 -1.00000

-19.56171 -0.05800

-18.12405 0.17930

-16.26936 -0.11200

-15.06838 0.16910

-17.44774 -0.06200

-17.72802 -0.08200

-17.89806 -0.03500

-19.27534 -0.09000

-19.10546 -0.03200

-19.73134 -0.09500

-19.74984 -0.02200

-19.76760 -0.17500

-19.66188 0.00000

-18.37832 -0.03200

-18.89414 -0.08700

-16.75594 0.00000

-17.20702 -0.03500

-15.15766 -0.00000

-9.34449 0.98449

-16.46954 -0.02400

-17.41321 -0.10600

Total iteration = 23

Qinj

(p.u)

-0.25233

0.09175

-0.01200

-0.01600

0.12191

0.00000

-0.10900

0.55554

-0.33808

-0.02000

0.46906

-0.07500

0.39377

-0.01600

-0.02500

-0.01800

-0.05800

-0.00900

-0.03400

-0.00700

-0.11200

-0.00000

-0.01600

-0.06700

0.00000

-0.02300

-0.00000

-0.38369

-0.00900

-0.01900

DC system solutions

Vdr = 253.938 kV; idr = 393.8 Amp.;

= 15.21o ; Qdr = 33.808 MVAR;

= 18.31o ; Pdi = 98.45 MW;

Qdi = 38.37 MVAR;

equations.

83

Module 3

Sparsity Technique

3.1

Sparse matrices

Sparse matrix is a matrix in which most (or, at least, significant number) of the elements are zero.

In the context of power system analysis, the matrices associated with power flow solution are sparse.

For example, let us consider the YBU S matrix. As we have already seen, the off-diagonal elements of

YBU S matrix signifies the connectivity between the nodes. To be more precise, the element (i,j) of

YBU S matrix is non-zero if there is a direct connection between node i and node j, while it is zero if

there is no direct connectivity between these two nodes. Now, in many power systems, generally any

bus is connected to mostly 3-4 buses directly. Therefore, in a 100 buses system (say), there would

be at best 4-5 non-zero terms (including the diagonal) in any row of the YBU S matrix, rest of the

elements being zero. Therefore, out of (100 100) = 10, 000 elements, only about 500 terms would

be non-zero and the other terms (elements) would be zero. Thus, in this case, the YBU S matrix is

almost 95 percent sparse. For any larger system, the percentage of sparsity of the associated YBU S

matrix would be even more.

Because of the sparsity of the YBU S matrix, the Jacobian matrix for load flow solution is also

sparse. To see that, please consider equations (2.48) - (2.55). From these equations it can be seen

that all the elements of the Jacobian matrix depend on the element Yij . Therefore, if this element

Yij is zero, the corresponding elements of the Jacobian matrix would also be zero. As most of the

elements (Yij ) of the YBU S matrix are zero, it immediately follows that most of the elements of the

Jacobian matrix would also be zero, thereby making the Jacobian matrix also quite sparse.

Now, in each iteration of the NRLF technique, (we are considering the polar form here), the

correction vector (X) is computed by inverting the Jacobian matrix and thereafter multiplying

the inverse of the Jacobian matrix with the mismatch vector (M ) (please see equation (2.45)).

However, even though the Jacobian matrix is sparse, its inverse is a full matrix. Hence, computation

of the direct inverse of the sparse matrix involves a lot of computational burden. Therefore, it would

be much less intensive if equation (2.45) can be solved exploiting the sparse nature of the Jacobian

matrix. Apart from this, storing all the elements of a highly sparse matrix also consumes the memory

unnecessarily. Therefore, if only the non-zero elements are stored in appropriate fashion, a lot of

memory can be freed. Of course, with the storage of only the non-zero elements, the complexity of

84

programming will increase. However, for any general purpose load flow program, which is expected

to handle any large size power system, enhancement in the complexity of programming is often a

small cost as compared to the advantage of optimized memory utilization.

Below we will discuss some schemes for solving a set of linear equations (note that equation (2.48)

is a set of linear equations) utilizing the sparse nature of the Jacobian matrix and also some schemes

for storing a sparse matrix. We will start with the Gaussian Elimination method for solving a set of

linear equations.

3.2

Ax = b

(3.1)

Where x and b are both (n1) vectors and A is a (nn) co-efficient matrix. The most obvious

method for solving equation (3.1) is to invert matrix A, that is x = A1 b. However, equation

(3.1) can also be solved indirectly by converting the matrix A into an upper triangular form with

appropriate changes reflected in the vector b and then by back substitution. To illustrate the basic

procedure, let us consider a 4th order system as shown in equations (3.2)-(3.5).

(3.2)

(3.3)

(3.4)

(3.5)

Step 1:

a) Equation (3.2) is divided throughout by a11 .

x1 +

a13

a14

b1

a12

x2 +

x3 +

x4 =

a11

a11

a11

a11

(3.6)

b) Multiply equation (3.6) by a21 , a31 , a41 (one by one) and subtract the resulting expression

from equations (3.3), (3.4) and (3.5) respectively to yield:

(a22

a12 a21

a13 a21

a14 a21

b1 a21

) x2 + (a23

) x3 + (a24

) x4 = b2

a11

a11

a11

a11

(3.7)

(a32

a12 a31

a13 a31

a14 a31

b1 a31

) x2 + (a33

) x3 + (a34

) x4 = b3

a11

a11

a11

a11

(3.8)

85

(a42

a13 a41

a14 a41

b1 a41

a12 a41

) x2 + (a43

) x3 + (a44

) x4 = b4

a11

a11

a11

a11

(3.9)

x1 +

a12

a13

a14

b1

x2 +

x3 +

x4 =

a11

a11

a11

a11

(3.10)

(1)

(1)

(1)

a(1)

22 x2 + a23 x3 + a24 x4 = b2

(3.11)

(1)

(1)

(1)

a(1)

32 x2 + a33 x3 + a34 x4 = b3

(3.12)

(1)

(1)

(1)

a(1)

42 x2 + a43 x3 + a44 x4 = b4

(3.13)

a(1)

jk = ajk

aj1 a1k

a11

for j, k = 2, 3, 4

(3.14)

(1)

a) Equation (3.11) is divided throughout by a22 .

x2 +

(1)

a23

(1)

a22

x3 +

a(1)

24

a(1)

22

(1)

x4 =

b2(1)

(3.15)

a(1)

22

(1)

b) Multiplying equation (3.15) by a32 and a42 (one by one) and subtracting the resulting

expressions from equations (3.12) and (3.13) respectively one can obtain;

(1)

33

[a

(1)

43

[a

(1)

a(1)

23 a32

(1)

22

(1)

a(1)

23 a42

(1)

22

(1)

34

] x3 + [a

(1)

44

] x3 + [a

(1) (1)

a24

a32

(1)

22

(1) (1)

a24

a42

(1)

22

] x4 = [b

(1)

3

] x4 = [b

(1)

4

b2(1)

(1)

22

b2(1)

(1)

22

a(1)

32 ]

(3.16)

a(1)

42 ]

(3.17)

x2 +

(1)

a23

(1)

a22

x3 +

a(1)

24

a(1)

22

x4 =

b2(1)

a(1)

22

(3.18)

(2)

(2)

a33

x3 + a34

x4 = b3(2)

(3.19)

(2)

(2)

a43

x3 + a44

x4 = b4(2)

(3.20)

(2)

jk

(1)

jk

=a

(1) (1)

aj2

a2k

(1)

a22

for j, k = 3, 4

Step 3: In this step we will work with equations (3.19) and (3.20).

86

(3.21)

(2)

x3 +

(2)

a34

(2)

a33

x4 =

b3(2)

(3.22)

(2)

a33

(2)

b) Multiplying equation (3.22) by a43 and subtracting it from equation (3.20) one can obtain,

(2)

44

[a

(2)

a(2)

34 a43

(2)

33

] x4 = [b

(2)

4

b3(2)

(2)

33

(2)

]

a43

(3.23)

Equation (3.23) contains only one unknown, x4 . Therefore, the value of x4 can be calculated

from this equation. With the value of x4 thus calculated, x3 can be calculated from equation (3.22).

Going back in this manner, x2 can be calculated from equation (3.18) (with the known values of x3

and x4 ) and lastly, the value of x1 can be calculated from equation (3.10) (with the known values

of x2 , x3 and x4 ).

The steps described in equations (3.6)-(3.23) can easily be expressed in terms of standard matrix

operations. To see this, let us represent equations (3.2)-(3.5) in matrix notation as shown in equation

(3.24). In this equation, it is assumed that a11 0.

a11

a

21

a31

a41

a12

a22

a32

a42

a13

a23

a33

a43

a14 x1 b1

a24 x2 b2

=

a34 x3 b3

a44 x4 b4

(3.24)

Starting with this matrix, the various steps for Gaussian elimination are as follows.

Step M1

On equation (3.24), the operation R1/a11 (where R1 is the first row of the co-efficient matrix

of equation (3.24)) is carried out to obtain equation (3.6) and the resulting matrix equation is shown

in equation (3.25).

a

x b

a

a

a

21

2

22

23

24 2

a31

b3

a

a

a

x

32

33

34

3

a41

a

a

a

x

b

42

43

44

4

4

(3.25)

Step M2

On equation (3.25), the operations (R2 R1 a21 ), (R3 R1 a31 ) and (R4 R1 a41 ) are

carried out (where Ri denotes the ith (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) row of the co-efficient matrix of equation (3.25))

to obtain equations (3.10)-(3.13) and the resulting matrix equation is shown in equation (3.26). In

87

(1)

1 a /a a /a a /a x b /a

12

11

13

11

14

11 1

1 11

(1)

(1)

x2 b(1)

0 a(1)

a

a

2

22

23

24

=

(1)

(1)

(1)

0 a(1)

b

x

a

a

3 3

32

33

34

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

0 a42

a43

a44 x4 b4

(3.26)

Step M3

(1)

On equation (3.26), the operation R2/a22 is carried out (corresponding to equation (3.15)) to

obtain the resulting matrix equation shown in equation (3.27).

1 a /a

a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12

11

(1) (1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

1

a23 /a22 a24 /a22 x2 b2 /a22

= (1)

(1)

(1)

0 a(1)

x b

a

a

3 3

32

33

34

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

0 a42

a43

a44 x4 b4

(3.27)

Step M4

(1)

(1)

On equation (3.27), the operations (R3 R2 a32 ) and (R4 R2 a42 ) are carried out corresponding to the equations (3.18)-(3.21) and the resulting matrix equation is shown in equation

(2)

(3.28). In this equation, it is assumed that a33 0.

1 a /a

a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12

11

(1) (1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

0

1

a23 /a22 a24 /a22 x2 b2 /a22

= (2)

(2)

(2)

0

x b

0

a33

a34

3 3

(2)

(2)

(2)

0

0

a

a

x

b

4

43

4

44

(3.28)

Step M5

(2)

On equation (3.28), the operation R3/a33 is carried out to obtain the matrix equation shown

in equation (3.29).

1 a /a

a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12

11

(1) (1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

0

1

a23 /a22 a24 /a22 x2 b2 /a22

= (2) (2)

(2)

(2)

0

0

1

a34

/a33

x3 b3 /a33

(2)

(2)

(2)

0

0

a43

a44 x4 b4

(3.29)

Step M6

(2)

Lastly, on equation (3.29), the operation (R4 R3 a43 ) is carried out to obtain the matrix

88

1 a /a

a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12

11

(1) (1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

b

/a

x

1

a

/a

a

/a

22

23

22

24

22 2

2

=

(2)

(2)

b(2) /a(2)

0

x

0

1

a

/a

33

34

33 3

(3)

(3)

0

0

0

a44 x4 b4

(3)

(2)

(2)

a(2)

34 a43

(2)

33

(3)

and b4

= b4(2)

b(2)

3

(2)

33

(3.30)

(2)

a43

. From this equation, the

unknowns can be easily solved by back-substitution starting from the last row of the final co-efficient

matrix in equation (3.30). Thus, Gaussian elimination enables us to solve the unknown quantities

in a systematic manner without inverting the co-efficient matrix. Therefore, by adopting the same

procedure, the correction vector (M ) can be computed from equation (2.48) without having to

invert the Jacobian matrix. When a large power system in analyzed, adopting Gaussian elimination

reduces computational burden to a large extent (as compared to inversion of the Jacobian matrix).

(1)

(2)

In the above procedure, the variables a11 , a22 and a33 have been assumed to be non-zero. These

variables, by which the rows of the co-efficient matrix are divided, are called the pivot variables.

However, during the elimination process, it is not necessary that the pivot variables would be always

non-zero. If any pivot variable turns out to be zero at any intermediate step, then the corresponding

row is interchanged with the next row so that the new pivot variable is non-zero and the elimination

process can continue.

We will look into an example of Gaussian elimination procedure in the next lecture.

89

3.2.1

11

23

22

12

17

27

32

15

18

25

34

41

16 x1 10

28 x2 20

=

36 x3 30

36 x4 40

(3.31)

Step M1

On equation (3.31), the operation R1/A(1, 1) (where, A(1, 1) = 11) is performed to yield,

23

27

25

28 x2 20

22

32

34

36 x3 30

12

15

41

36 x4 40

(3.32)

Step M2

On equation (3.32), the operations (R2 R1 A(2, 1)), (R3 R1 A(3, 1)) and (R4 R1 A(4, 1))

are carried out (where A(2, 1) = 23, A(3, 1) = 22 and A(4, 1) = 12) and the resulting matrix equation is given by;

1 1.5455

1.6364

1.4545 x1 0.9091

x

2.0

2.0

4.0

10

3

(3.33)

Step M3

On equation (3.33), the operation R2/A(2, 2) (where, A(2, 2) = 8.5455) is carried out to get;

0

1

1.4787 0.6383 x2 0.1064

0

2.0

2.0

4.0 x3 10

(3.34)

Step M4

On equation (3.34), the operations (R3 R2 A(3, 2)) and (R4 R2 A(4, 2)) are carried

out to obtain (where A(3, 2) = 2.0 and A(4, 2) = 3.5455);

0

1

1.4787 0.6383 x2 0.1064

0

0

0.9574 5.2766 x3 10.2128

0

0

26.6065 20.8085 x4 29.4681

90

(3.35)

Step M5

On equation (3.35), the operation R3/A(3, 3) (where A(3, 3) = 0.9574) is carried out to obtain

the matrix equation shown below:

0

1

1.4787 0.6383 x2 0.1064

0

0

1

5.5114 x3 10.6672

0

0

26.6065 20.8085 x4 29.4681

(3.36)

Step M6

Lastly, on equation (3.36), the operation (R4 R3 A(4, 3)) (where A(4, 3) = 26.6065) is

carried out to get;

x 0.1064

0

1

1.4787

0.6383

0

10.6672

x

0

1

5.5114

3

x4 254.3484

0

0

0

125.83

(3.37)

In equation (3.37), the co-efficient matrix has been converted to an upper-triangular matrix.

From the last row of this equation, x4 can be calculated as x4 = 254.3484/125.83 = 2.0214. Back

substituting this value of x4 in the third row of equation (3.37) one can obtain x3 = 10.6672

5.5114 2.0214 = 0.4735. Similarly, substitution of the values of x3 and x4 in the second row

of equation (3.37) yields the of x2 as x2 = 0.1064 + 1.4787 0.4735 0.6383 2.0214 = 0.4837.

Lastly, substituion of x2 , x3 and x4 in the first row of equation (3.37) gives x1 = 0.9091 + 1.5455

0.4837 + 1.6364 0.4735 1.4545 2.0214 = 0.5086.

3.3

We have seen that the Gaussian Elimination method is quite effective for solving a large set of spare

linear equations without having to invert the co-efficient matrix. Moreover, at every stage, if the

calculations pertaining to Gaussian elimination is carried out only using the non-zero terms, great

saving in the computational burden can be achieved. However, if the elimination process is carried

out in the normal sequence, at any stage of elimination, the original zero-elements may the concerted

into a non-zero element. This is normally termed as fill-in phenomenon. On the other hand, instead

of following the normal sequence, if the elimination process is carried out in an appropriate order,

then the occurrence of fill-in can be avoided to a great extent. A simple example given below

illustrates this point.

In equation (3.38), an initial co-efficient matrix is shown at the left hand side (part a) and the

structure of the co-efficient matrix after step-1 is shown at the right hand side (part b). It is to be

noted that in this equation, only the positions of non-zero terms (denoted by ) and zero terms

(denoted by o) are shown. As can be seen in equation (3.38), after step-1, all the original zero

elements have been converted to non-zero terms (denoted by ), or, in other words, significant

91

1

2

3

4

o o

o o

o o

1

2

3

4

a) Initial A matrix

1

o

o

o

(3.38)

Now, if the original co-efficient matrix shown in part (a) of equation (3.38) is re-arranged as

shown in part (a) of equation (3.39), then after step 1, there would be no fill-in as can be observed

in part (b) of equation (3.39).

4

2

3

1

o o

o o

o o

a) Rearranged A matrix

4

2

3

1

1 o o

o o

o o

o

(3.39)

From the above example, it is apparent that if the rows are eliminated in an optimal order,

then the number of fill-in would be minimum. However, an ideal optimal order is very difficult to

develop and perhaps is impossible. As an alternative, various near optimal ordering schemes have

been developed. Some of them are discussed below:

Scheme 1

In this scheme, before elimination, number the rows of the co-efficient matrix A according to

the number of non-zero, off-diagonal terms. Thus, the rows with only one off-diagonal, non-zero

term are numbered first, those with two non-zero, off- diagonal terms are numbered second and

so on. However, this scheme does not take into account the changes occurring in the co-efficient

matrix during the elimination process. Therefore, this scheme in quite easy and straight forward to

implement.

Scheme 2

In this scheme the rows of the co-efficient matrix A are numbered such that at each step of the

elimination procedure, the row with the fewest number of non-zero off-diagonal terms would be

operated next. If more than one row meets this criterion, then any one row is chosen. Therefore,

this scheme requires the simulation of the elimination procedure to estimate the changes occurring

in the co-efficient matrix in advance. Thus, this method takes longer time as compared to scheme 1

to compute the solution, but is definitely better than scheme 1.

92

Scheme 3

In this scheme, the rows are numbered in such a way so that the row which will introduce fewest nonzero off-diagonal terms would be operated upon next. If more than one row satisfies this criterion,

choose any one row. Again, this scheme also requires the simulation of the elimination process to

study its effects on the co-efficient matrix in advance. Hence, this method also takes longer time

than scheme 1.

Let us now look at another technique for solving a set of linear equations without the need of

inverting the co-efficient matrix, namely, the triangular factorization or LU decomposition.

3.4

Triangular factorization:

of two triangular matrices as A = LU, where L is a lower triangular matrix and U is an upper

triangular matrix. As an example, let the matrix A be a 4 4 (N = 4) matrix. Upon triangular

factorization (or LU decomposition), the matrix A is represented as A = LU. Or,

a11

a

21

a31

a41

a12

a22

a32

a42

a13

a23

a33

a43

0

0 11 12 13

a14 11 0

0 0 22 23

a24 21 22 0

=

a34 31 32 33 0 0

0 33

a44 41 42 43 44 0

0

0

14

24

34

34

(3.40)

(3.41)

Ly = b

(3.42)

Or,

In equation (3.42), y = Ux. Expanding equation (3.42) we get,

11 0

0

0 y1 b1

0 y2 b2

21 22 0

=

31 32 33 0 y3 b3

41 42 43 44 y4 b4

(3.43)

b1

11

i1

1

=

[bi ij yj ] ;

ii

j=1

y1 =

yi

93

i = 2, 3, N

(3.44)

14 x1 y1

24 x2 y2

=

34 x3 y3

34 x4 y4

11 12 13

22

23

0

0 33

0

0

0

(3.45)

Now, With the knowledge of the intermediate vector y, from equation (3.45), the solution vector

x can be calculated as,

yn

N N

N

1

[yi ij xj ] ;

=

ii

j=1+1

xN =

xi

i = (N 1), (N 2), 1

(3.46)

We will now look into the basic procedure of obtaining the LU decomposition in the next lecturel.

94

3.4.1

Method of LU decomposition

To solve for the matrices L and U for given matrix A, let us write the i, j th element of equation

(3.40). In general, the element aij can be represented as (from equation (3.40)),

(3.47)

The number of terms in the sum of equation (3.47) depends on whether i or j is the smaller

number. We have in fact three distinct cases:

i < j;

i1 1j + i2 2j + + ii ij = aij

(3.48)

i = j;

i1 1j + i2 2j + + ii jj = aij

(3.49)

i > j;

i1 1j + i2 2j + + ij jj = aij

(3.50)

and (the diagonals terms being repeated twice). As the number of unknown quantities is greater

than the number of equations, we need to specify N of the unknown quantities arbitrarily and then

the remaining unknown quantities can be solved. In fact, it is always possible to take

ii = 1;

i = 1, 2, N

(3.51)

With the condition of equation (3.51), an elegant procedure called Crouts algorithm quite

easily solves for the N 2 unknown and by just rearranging the equations in a certain order.

The algorithm is as follows:

step 1: Set ii = 1 for i = 1, 2, 3 N .

step 2: For each j = 1, 2, 3 N , perform the following operation:

a) For i = 1, 2, 3 N solve for ij as

i1

ij = aij ik kj

(3.52)

k=1

b) For i = j + 1, j + 2, N solve for ij as;

j1

1

[aij ik kj ]

ij =

jj

k=1

(3.53)

These first and second operations both need to be carried out before going to next value of

j.

95

3.4.2

Example of LU decomposition

3 2 7

2 3 1 in LU form through Crouts algorithm.

3 4 1

3 2 7

0 11 12 13

11 0

= 21 22 0 0 22 23

Solution: Let A =

2

3

1

3 4 1 31 32 33 0

0

33

For j = 1;

i = 1 11 = a11 = 3;

1

(a21 0) =

i = 2 21 =

11

1

i = 3 31 =

(a31 0) =

11

2

;

3

3

= 1;

3

For j = 2;

i = 1 12 = a12 = 2;

5

i = 2 22 = a22 21 12 = ;

3

6

1

(a32 31 12 ) = ;

i = 3 32 =

22

5

For j = 3;

i = 1 13 = a13 = 7;

i = 2 23 = a23 21 13 =

11

;

13

8

i = 3 33 = a33 31 13 32 23 = ;

5

3 2 7 1

0 0 3 2

7

Hence,

2

3

1

3 4 1 1 6/5 1 0 0 8/5

3.5

There are several methods available in the literature for storing a sparse matrix. Some of these

schemes are described here.

96

Random packing:

In this method, every non-zero element of the matrix is stored in a primary array while its row and

column indices are stored in two secondary arrays. As each element in individually identified, the

elements can be stored in a random manner. For example, the sparse matrixes shown in equation

(3.54) are stored in one primary array and two secondary arrays as shown below.

0

0

0 0 0

A = 0

0 2.67 0 3.12

X =

Secondary array (row indices)

i =

Secondary array (column indices) j =

{0.29

{3

{2

3.12

2

5

(3.54)

-1.25 2.67

3

2

1

3

2.31 0}

3

0}

5

0}

In the above, the zero at the end of each array denotes the termination of the array.

Systematic packing:

In case the elements of a sparse matrix are read or constructed or sorted in a systematic order, then

there is no need to adopt both row and column indices for each element. Instead some alternative,

more efficient schemes can be adopted as described below.

a) The use of row address:

In this scheme, the index of first non-zero element in each row is specified in a separate integer

array. As an example, for the matrix A in equation (3.54) the elements can be represented as,

Real array (elements) = {2.67

Integer array JA

=

{3

Integer array IST

=

{1

3.12

5

1

-1.25

1

3

0.29

2

6

2.31}

5}

}

In this case, the array of row address IST has been constructed such that the number of non-zero

elements in row i is IST(I+1)-IST(I). Thus, for a matrix with m rows, the array IST will have

(m+1) entries. For example, from the array IST, the number of non-zero elements in 1st row of

the matrix A is IST(2) - IST(1) = 1 - 1 = 0, which is indeed true as observed from equation (3.54).

Similarly, the array IST indicates that the number of non-zero elements in 2nd row of the matrix A

is IST(3) - IST(2) = 3 - 1 = 2 and from the first two elements of the array JA, these two elements

are located at columns 3 and 5 of the matrix whereas the elements themselves are given by the first

two elements of the real array (2.67 and 3.12) (which is again true from equation (3.54)). In a similar

way, the elements and the locations of the elements in the third row of the matrix A can easily be

identified from the above three arrays. Moreover, please note that, as the number of rows in the

matrix A is 3, the total number of entries in array IST is 4.

97

In this scheme, the integer array IST is not used. Instead, dummy variables are introduced in

the array JA itself to indicate the beginning of each row and the end of the matrix. For example,

a zero entry (except the last one) in the array JA could indicate the presence of dummy variables

and the dummy variables itself could specify the row number. Moreover, the non-zero elements

would indicate the column number of the elements. Also, as before, the zero at the end of the array

indicates the termination of the list. Hence the matrix A of equation (3.54) in this scheme looks like

Real array (elements)

Integer array JA

= {2 2.67

= {0

3

3.12 3

5

0

-1.25

1

0.29

2

2.31 0}

5

0}

c) Compound identifiers:

In the random packing scheme it in possible to reduce the storage requirement by combining the

two indices for each element so that these can be held in one integer storage. A suitable compound

identifier could be (n i + j) where n is an integer higher than the number of columns in the matrix

and (i, j) denote the position of the non-zero element in the matrix. For example, the matrix A in

equation (3.54) could look like

Real array (elements)

Integer array JA

=

=

{2.67

{2003

3.12 -1.25

2005 3001

0.29

3002

2.31

3005

0}

9999}

In the above, n has been chosen to be equal to 1000. Also, in the real array, the entry zero

indicates the end of the array and the corresponding entry in the integer array is 9999 (to signifies

the end of the integer array).

However, unless compound identifiers yield necessary or highly desirable storage saving, it should

not be used because of the following reasons:

i) Extra programming would be required to interpret the identifiers correctly.

ii) It should not be used for matrices whose order is so large that integer register overflow

results.

d) The use of mixed arrays:

It is possible to use a single array to store both the non-zero elements of the matrix and the

identifiers. For example, the matrix A in equation (3.54) could be stored as,

Real array (B)

{-2

2.67

3.12

-3

-1.25

0.29

2.31

0}

In the above scheme, each non-zero element is preceded by its column number and each non-zero

row is preceded by the negative of the corresponding row number.

With this discussion, we are now at the and of our study of sparse linear systems. From the next

lecture, we will start the discussion of short circuit analysis methods.

98

Module 4

Short Circuit analysis

4.1

ments

For a network with m buses and a reference bus, one can write a relation between bus currents

and bus voltages as

BUS ] [V

BUS ]

[IBUS ] = [Y

(4.1)

Where,

BUS is (m 1) bus voltage vector

V

BUS is (m m) bus admittence matrix

Y

equation (4.1) can also be written as

BUS ] [IBUS ]

BUS ] = [Z

[V

(4.2)

Where,

Z

BUS ] = [Y

BUS ]

[Z

From equation (4.2) for the ith bus one can write

(4.3)

ij can be written as

From equation (4.3), Z

Vi

Zij =

Ij Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m,

99

(4.4)

j

Vi

Zii =

Ii

(4.5)

Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m, i

BUS matrix

Following points should be noted for the Z

ij is the off-diagonal element of Z

BUS matrix and is called the

Z

impedance between ith and j th bus.

ii is the diagonal element of Z

BUS matrix and is called the

Z

impedance of ith bus.

open-circuit transfer

BUS is also symmetrical i.e. Zik = Zki .

If the Y

BUS matrix of

Since in a power network each bus is connected to very few other buses,the Y

the network has large number of zero elements and is therefore, sparse in nature. The ZBUS ,

matrix on the other hand, is invariably a full matrix.

BUS matrix of a network can be found out by inverting the Y

BUS matrix of the network.

The Z

BUS matrix

This is not an efficient method as every time there is a modification in the network, the Y

BUS matrix.

is modified and inversion has to be done again to obtain the modified the Z

BUS building algorithm overcomes these problems. It avoids the inversion

A step-by-step Z

BUS .

process and network modifications are easily incorporated in the existing Z

Few terms need to be defined before the step by step process can be explained. These are :

Graph : The graph of a network describes the geometrical structure of the network showing

the interconnections of network elements.

Tree : A tree of a graph is a connected sub graph that connects all the nodes without forming

a closed path or a loop. A graph can have a number of distinct trees.

Branches : The elements of a tree are called branches. The number of branches b of a tree

with n nodes, including reference, is given by

b=n1

(4.6)

Links : The elements of a graph not included in the tree of the graph are called links. Each

link is associated with a loop. If e is the number of elements in a graph, then the number of

links ` is given by

` = eb = en+1

(4.7)

The above definitions are explained with the help of illustrations as shown below :

Fig. 4.1 is a single line diagram of a power system. It has 4 buses, bus(1) to bus(4) and six

elements element e1 to element e6 . In this figure, bus(0) is taken as the reference bus.

Fig. 4.2 shows the graph of the network depicting the interconnection of the elements and the

reference node.

100

A tree of the graph of Fig. 4.2 is shown in Fig. 4.3. The branches and the links have been shown

with solid lines and dotted lines respectively.

Following points should be noted from Fig. 4.3 :

The total number of nodes (including reference node) is 5 (i.e. n = 5)

The number of branches is b = n 1 = 5 1 = 4 . As can be as in Fig. 4.3 where

101

The total number of elements in the graph is e = 6 .

The number of links is ` = e n + 1 = 6 5 + 1 = 2. The two links in the graph are e3 and

e4 shown with dotted lines in Fig. 4.3.

The bus impedance matrix is built up starting with a branch connected to the reference and

subsequently the elements are added one by one till all the nodes and elements are considered. Let

102

BUS matrix for a partial network with m buses and a reference bus 0, as

us assume that the Z

shown in Fig. 4.4, exists.

The bus voltages and bus currents for the partial network satisfy the relation

m

BUS

m

m

[V

] = [Z

BUS ] [IBUS ]

(4.8)

Where,

m

BUS

V

is m 1 bus voltage vector

Im

BUS is m 1 bus current injection vector

m

Z

BUS is m m bus impedence matrix of the partial network

BUS , one element at a time is added to the partial network, till all the elements are

To build Z

added to the network. The added element may be a branch or a link and hence the four possible

element additions to a partial network are:

a. Addition of a branch between a new node and the reference

b. Addition of a branch between a new node and an existing node

c. Addition of a link between an existing node and the reference

d. Addition of a link between two existing nodes

Let us now discuss these four cases one-by-one in detail.

4.1.1

(case 1):

Fig. 4.5 shows the addition of a branch between a new node q and the reference 0.The addition of

BUS to (m + 1) (m + 1) with the addition

a new node to the partial network increases the size of Z

of a new row and a new column corresponding to the new node q, Let the impedance of this branch

be zq0 . The new network equation can be written as:

V1 Z11

V2 Z21

V Z

p p1

=

Vm Zm1

Vq Zq1

Z22 Z2p Z2m

Zp2 Zpp Zpm

Zm2 Zmp Zmm

Zq2 Zqp Zqm

103

Z1q I1

Z2q I2

Zpq Ip

Zmq Im

Zqq Iq

(4.9)

Figure 4.5: Addition of a branch between a new node and the reference

The addition of branch does not change the elements of the original matrix Z

of the added new row and column corresponding to q th bus need to be calculated. Further,since the

qi = Ziq , i = 1, 2, m.

power system elements are linear and bilateral, Z

Now since,

Vq

Zqq =

Iq Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m

a current source of Iq = 1 p.u is connected to the q th bus, with all the others buses open, and the

voltage of q th bus (Vq ) is computed, as shown in Fig. 4.6.

From Fig. 4.6 one gets Vq = zq0 Iq , and thus with Iq = 1 p.u.

Vq

Zqq =

= zqo

Iq Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m,

qi , a current source Ii = 1 p.u. is connected between ith bus and the reference

For finding out Z

bus with all other buses open circuited as shown in Fig. 4.7.

From Fig. 4.7 , Vq = 0, and hence with Ii = 1 p.u.

Vq

Zqi =

Ii Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m,

=0

This implies that all the off-diagonal elements Z

to zero.

Bus matrix after addition of an element between the new bus q and the

Hence, the modified Z

104

qq for Case 1

Figure 4.6: Calculation of Z

Z11

Z21

BUS = Zp1

Z

Zm1

4.1.2

Z22 Z2p Z2m

Zp2 Zpp Zpm

Zm2 Zmp Zmm

0 0 0

zqo

0

0

(4.10)

(Case 2):

Let a branch with impedance zpq be connected between an existing node p and a new node q as

Bus matrix increases by one to (m+1)(m+1) due

shown in Fig. 4.8. In this case also, the size of Z

to the addition of a new node q to the network. The modified network equations can be written

105

qi for case 1

Figure 4.7: Calculation of Z

as:

V1

V2

V

p

=

Vm

Vq

Z11

Z21

Zp1

Zm1

Zq1

Z22 Z2p Z2m

Zp2 Zpp Zpm

Zm2 Zmp Zmm

Zq2 Zqp Zqm

I1

I2

Zpq Ip

Zmq Im

Zqq Iq

Z1q

Z2q

(4.11)

m

Even after the addition of branch p-q, the original matrix Z

Bus remains unchanged. Only the

additional elements corresponding to the q th row and column need to be calculated.

qq one can write

For calculating Z

Vq

Zqq =

Iq Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m

qq current source of Iq = 1 p.u is connected to the q th bus, with all the others buses

To evaluate Z

open circuited, and the voltage of q th bus Vq is computed, as shown in Fig. 4.9. From Fig. 4.9 with

106

Figure 4.8: Addition of a branch between an existing node p and a new node q

V1 = Z1q Iq = Z1q

V2 = Z2q Iq = Z2q

Vp = Zpq Iq = Zpq

Vm = Zmq Iq = Zmq

Vq = Zqq Iq = Zqq

(4.12)

(4.13)

pq and Vq = Zqq .

Because, from the Fig. 4.10 , ipq = Iq = 1 pu and from equation (4.12) Vp = Z

Thus,

Zqq = Zpq + zpq

(4.14)

qi one can write

For calculating Z

Vq

Zqi =

Ii

Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m, i

qi a current source of I1 = 1 p.u is connected to the ith bus, with all the others

Hence, to compute Z

107

qq

Figure 4.9: Calculation of Z

buses open circuited, and the bus voltage Vi is computed for all the buses, as shown in Fig. 4.11.

From equation (4.11) one gets

V1 = Z1i Ii = Z1i

V2 = Z2i Ii = Z2i

Vp = Zpi Ii = Zpi

Vm = Zmi Ii = Zmi

Vq = Zqi Ii = Zqi

108

qi for case 2

Figure 4.11: Calculation of Z

From Fig. 4.11, Vq = Vp as the current in the branch p q is zero. Hence, from the above equations

one gets

(4.15)

Zqi = Zpi ; i = 1, 2, m

Hence, the modified Z

new bus q is given as,

Z11

Z21

BUS = Zp1

Z

Zm1

Zp1

Z22 Z2p Z2m

Zp2 Zpp Zpm

Zm2 Zmp Zmm

Zp2 Zpp Zpm

Zpp

Zmp

Zpq + zqp

Z1p

Z2p

(4.16)

So far in this lecture, we have considered the cases of addition of branches only. In the next lecture

we will consider the case of addition of links.

109

4.1.3

node (Case 3):

When an element is connected between an existing node and the reference, it creates a loop and

thus, the addition of this element is equivalent to the addition of a link. This will not generate any

Bus matrix remains unchanged. However, all the elements are

new node and the size of modified Z

modified and need to be recalculated. Let the added element,with an impedance of zqo , be connected

between an existing node q and the reference node 0 as shown in the Fig. 4.12. I` is the current

Figure 4.12: Addition of a link between an existing node q and the reference

through the link as shown in the Fig. 4.12. This current modifies the current injected into q th bus

from Iq to Iq I` . The modified network equations can be written as,

(4.17)

Vq = zqo I`

(4.18)

Also

Substuting Vq from the equation (4.17) into the equation (4.18) one can write

110

or

(4.19)

Equations equation (4.17) and equation (4.19) together form the set of (m + 1) simultaneous

network equations which can be expressed in matrix form as:

V1

V2

V

q

=

Vm

Z11 Z12

Z21 Z22

Zq1 Zq2

Zm1 Zm2

Zq1 Zq2

Z1q

Z2q

Z1m

Z2m

Zqq

Zqm

Zmq Zmm

Zqq Zqm

Z1q

Z2q

Zqq

Zmq

Zqq + zqo

I1

I2

I

q

Im

I`

(4.20)

Bus matrix

The link current I` has to be eliminated and hence, the last row and column of modified Z

have to be eliminated. The partitioned matrix relation of equation (4.20) can be written in compact

form as:

m

(m)

[VBus ]

(m)

m

Z

Bus

=

[

T

(1)

[Z]

m

IBus

[Z]

Z``

I`

(1)

(4.21)

where,

[Z]

T [Im

0 = [Z]

Bus ] + Z`` I`

or,

T [Im ]

[Z]

Bus

I` =

Z``

(4.22)

m

Bus

m

[V

] = [Z

Bus ][IBus ] + [Z]I`

(4.23)

T

[Z][

Z]

m

Bus

m

] [Im

[V

] = [[Z

]

Bus

Bus ]

Z``

111

(4.24)

Hence,

m

Bus

Bus ][Im

[V

] = [Z

Bus ]

(4.25)

T

[Z][

Z]

Bus ] = [[Z

m

[Z

]

]

Bus

Z``

(4.26)

where

Bus ] matrix

It is worth observing that the [Z

does not increase when a link is added to the partial network of m buses as no new node is created.

4.1.4

Let an element with impedance zpq be connected between two existing nodes p and q. This is an

addition of a link as it forms a loop encompassing nodes p and q as shown in Fig. 4.13. Let I`

be the current through the link as shown in the Fig. 4.13. This link current changes the injected

current at pth node from Ip to (Ip I` ) , while the injected current at node q th is modified from Iq

to (Iq + I` ). The modified network equations can be written as:

112

V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 + + Z1p (Ip Il ) + + Z1q (Iq + I` ) + + Z1m Im

(4.27)

Also from Fig. 4.13, the relation between Vp and Vq in terms of I` and zpq can be written as

Vp Vq = zpq I`

(4.28)

0 = Vp + Vq + zpq I`

(4.29)

or

Substituting Vp and Vq from the equation (4.27) into the equation (4.29) in the following relation

is obtained:

0 =(Zq1 Zp1 )I1 + (Zq2 Zp2 )I2 + + (Zqp Zpp )Ip + (Zqq Zpq )Iq + + (Zqm Zpm )Im

+ (Zpp + Zqq 2Zpq + zpq )I`

(4.30)

Equations (4.27) and (4.30) form a set of (m + 1) simultaneous equation which can be written in

matrix form as:

V1

V2

V

q

=

Vm

Z11

Z21

Zq1

Zm1

Z`1

Z22 Z2q Z2m

Zq2 Zqq Zqm

Zm2 Zmq Zmm

Where,

Zq` = Z`q = (Zqq Zqp ) ; Zm` = Z`m = (Zmq Zmp )

also

and

113

I1

I2

Zq` Iq

Zm` Im

Z`` I`

Z1`

Z2`

(4.31)

For eliminating the link current I` equation (4.31) can be written in the compact form as:

m

(m)

VBus

(m)

m

Z

[ BusT

(1)

[Z]

m

IBus

[Z]

Z``

I`

(1)

(4.32)

where,

[Z]

Bus ] matrix, after the elemination of the link current I` , can be

Now using equation (4.26), the [Z

Bus ] is still (m m) in size as no new node has been

determined. It is worth noting that the [Z

created.

Bus ] as follows:

Summarizing the step-by-step procedure for building the [Z

Step 1: Draw the graph of the network and select a tree of the graph. Identify the branches and

the links of the graph. A tree of a graph with branches and links is shown in Fig. 4.14.

Step 2: Select a branch connected to the reference node to initiate the [Z

process. From Fig. 4.14, it is evident that the first branch selected could be either 1 or 3 or 4 as

these are the only branches connected to the reference node. Let the branch 1 be selected as the

starting branch and zpo be the impedance of the branch then

(m)

Bus

(1)

= (1) [ zp0 ]

Step 3: Pick up another element from the graph. It should either be connected to an existing node

or the reference node. Never select an element connected to two new nodes as it will be isolated from

Bus ] matrix becoming infinite.

the existing partial network and this will result in the elements of [Z

Bus ] matrix building process, if

For instance, with reference to Fig. 4.14, in the next step of [Z

114

element 5 is next added to the partial network as shown in Fig. 4.15, the resultant network is

disjointed. This is an incorrect choice. The proper choice could be any one of the elements 2 or 3 or

4 or 6.

m

If the bus impedance matrix of a partial network with m-nodes, [Z

Bus ], is known, then depending

on whether the added (m + 1)th element is a branch or a link, the following steps are to be followed

Bus ] matrix:

to obtain the new [Z

(a) If the added element is a branch between a new node q and the reference node with an impedance

Bus ] matrix will increase by one and the new matrix is given as :

zqo , then the size of the new [Z

(1)

Bus =

Z

(m)

(q)

(1)

()

(m)

(q)

Z11 Z1m 0

Zm1 Zmm 0

0

0

0 zq0

(b) If the added element is a branch between an existing node p and a new node q with an

impedance zpq , then a new row and column corresponding to the new node q is added to the

m

existing [Z

Bus ] matrix. The new matrix is calculated as follows:

(1)

(p)

Bus =

Z

(m)

(q)

(1)

(p)

(m)

Zp1 Zpp Zpm

115

(q)

Zpp + zpq

Z1p

Zpp

Zmp

(c) If the added element is a link between an existing node q and the reference node with an

impedance zqo , then no new node is added to the network. A two-step procedure has to be

followed to find the new bus impedance matrix.

m

In the first step, a column and a row will be temporarily added to existing [Z

Bus ] matrix as:

(1)

(temp)

Z

=

Bus

(q)

(m)

(`)

(1)

Z11

Zq1

Zm1

Zq1

(q)

Z1q

Zqq

Zmq

Zqq

(m)

(`)

Z1q

Zqq

Zmq

Z``

Z1m

Zqm

Zmm

Zqm

where,

The additional row and column have to be deleted so that [ZBus ] matrix is (m m) in size.

The elimination process is carried out using

Bus ] = [[Z

m

[Z

Bus ]

T

[Z][

Z]

]]

Z``

where,

[Z]

(d) If the added element is a link between two existing nodes p and q with an impedance zpq ,

then again the two step procedure as outlined in (step c) is to be followed. The temporary

(temp)

impedance matrix Z

is calculated as:

Bus

(1)

(1)

(p)

(q)

(m)

(`)

Z11

Zp1

Zq1

Zm1

(Zq1 Zp1 )

(p)

(q)

(m)

Z1p

Z1q

Z1m

Zpp

Zpq

Zpm

Zqp

Zqq

Zqm

Zmp

Zmq

Zmm

(Zqp Zpp ) (Zqq Zpq ) (Zqm Zpm )

where,

116

(`)

(Z1q Z1p )

(Zpq Zpp )

(Zqq Zqp )

(Zmq Zmp )

Z``

Next eliminate the added row and column ` using the expression:

Bus ] = [[Z

m

[Z

Bus ]

T

[Z][

Z]

]

Z``

where,

[Z]

In the next lecture, we will be looking at an example of [ZBus ] matrix building algorithm.

117

4.2

The single line diagram of a power system is shown in the Fig. 4.16. The line impedances in pu are

Bus ] matrix formulation is explained as given below:

also given. The step-by-step procedure for [Z

Figure 4.16: Single Line Diagram of the Power System for the example

Preliminary Step: The graph of the network and a tree is shown in Fig. 4.17. Elements 1,2,4

and 5 are the tree branches while 3, 6 and 7 are the links.

Step 1: The step-by-step [Z

a tree branch connected between nodes 1 and the reference node 0 and has an impedance of

z10 = j0.10 pu. This is shown in the accompanying figure ,Fig. 4.18.

118

Bus ] matrix is

The resulting [Z

(1)

(1)

Z

Step 2: Next, the element 2 connected between node 2 (q = 2) and the reference node 0 is

selected. This element has an impedance of z20 = j0.10 p.u. As this is the addition of a tree branch

Bus ] matrix. This addition is illustrated in Fig. 4.19.

it will add a new node 2 to the existing [Z

(1)

(2)

(1)

(2)

0

Bus = (1) [ j0.10 0 ] = (1) [ j0.1

Z

]

(2)

0

z20

(2)

0

j0.10

Step 3: Element 3 connected between existing nodes, node 1 (p = 1) and node 2 (q = 2),

having an impedance of z12 = j0.20 p.u. is added to the partial network, as shown in Fig. 4.20.

Since this is an addition of a link to the network a two step procedure is to be followed. In the

119

first step a new row and column is added to the matrix as given below :

(1)

(1)

(temp)

Z

= (2)

Bus

(`)

(`)

(2)

j0.10

0.0

(Z12 Z11 )

0.0

j0.10

(Z22 Z21 )

(Z21 Z11 ) (Z22 Z12 )

Z``

(1)

= (2)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(`)

where,

Z`` = Z11 + Z22 2Z12 + z20 = j0.10 + j0.10 0.0 + j0.20 = j0.40 p.u.

Bus ] matrix as given below:

Next this new row and column is eliminated to restore the size of [Z

[Z

0.0 j0.10

j0.10

[

] [j0.10 j0.10]

j0.10

j0.40

Hence, the impedance matrix after the addition of element 3 is found out to be :

(1)

Bus ] =

[Z

(1)

(2)

(2)

j0.075 j0.025

]

j0.025 j0.075

Step 4: The element 4 , which is added next, is connected between an existing node, node 2

(p = 2) and a new node, node 3 (q = 3). The impedance of this element is z23 = j0.30 p.u. and

it is a tree branch hence, a new node, node 3 is added to the partial network. This addition, shown

Bus ] to (3 3).

in Fig. 4.21, thus increases the size of [Z

120

(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(2)

(3)

j0.075 j0.025

Z12

j0.025 j0.0.075

Z22

Z21

Z22

Z22 + z23

(1)

= (2)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Step 5: Element 5 is added next to the existing partial network. This is a tree branch connected

between an existing node, node 3 (p = 3) and a new node, node 4 (q = 4). This is illustrated

in Fig. 4.22.

Since a new node is added to the partial network, the size of [Z

impedance of the new element is z34 = j0.15 p.u. The new bus impedance matrix is :

(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Z31

Z32

Z33

Z13

Z23

Z33 Z33 + z34

(1)

(2)

=

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.525

Step 6: Next,the element 6 connected between two existing nodes node 1 (p = 1) and node

4 (q = 4) is added to the network, as shown in the Fig. 4.23. The impedance of this element

is z23 = j0.25 p.u. As this is a link addition, the two step procedure is used. The bus impedance

121

matrix is modified by adding a new row and column as given below:

(1)

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.525

(Z41 Z11 ) (Z42 Z12 ) (Z43 Z13 ) (Z44 Z14 )

122

(`)

(Z14 Z11 )

(Z24 Z21 )

(Z34 Z31 )

(Z44 Z41 )

Z``

Substituting the values of appropriate [Z

intermediate impedance matrix is:

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075

j0.025

j0.25

j0.025

j0.05

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

0.05

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.35

(`)

j0.025 j0.05

j0.075 j0.05

j0.375 j0.35

j0.525 j0.50

j0.50 j0.80

where,

Z`` = Z44 + Z11 2Z14 + z14 = j0.075 + j0.525 2 j0.025 + j0.25 = j0.80 p.u.

The additional row and column ` are to be eliminated to restore the impedance matrix size to

Bus ] matrix after the addition of element 6 is calculated as:

(m m), and the [Z

j0.075

Bus ] = j0.025

[Z

j0.25

j0.025

j0.025

j0.075

j0.075

j0.075

j0.025

j0.075

j0.375

j0.375

j0.05

j0.50

j0.025

j0.50

j0.075

j0.80

j0.375

j0.525

Hence,

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719

j0.0281

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0563

j0.0437

j0.1562

j0.2125

Step 7: Finally the element 7 connected between two existing nodes node 2 (p = 2) and node 4

(q = 4) is added to the partial network of step 6. The impedance of this element is is z23 = j0.40

pu. This is also a link addition, as shown in Fig. 4.24 and hence the two step precedure will be

Bus ] matrix. In the first step the Z

(temp)

is calculated after a row and a

followed to obtain the [Z

Bus

123

Bus as follows:

column are added to the exiting Z

(1)

(1)

(2)

(temp)

Z

= (3)

Bus

(4)

(`)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719

j0.0281

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0563

j0.0437

j0.1562

j0.2125

(Z41 Z21 ) (Z42 Z22 ) (Z43 Z23 ) (Z44 Z24 )

(`)

(Z14 Z12 )

(Z24 Z22 )

(Z34 Z32 )

(Z44 Z42 )

Z``

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.0719

j0.02810

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.281

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.281

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.1031

(4)

(`)

j0.0563 j0.281

j0.0437 j0.281

j0.1562 j1031

j0.2125 j0.1688

j0.1688 j0.5969

where,

Z`` = Z22 + Z44 2Z24 + z24 = j0.0719 + j0.2125 2 j0.0563 + j0.40 = j0.5969 p.u.

The additional row and column ` are to be eliminated to restore the impedance matrix size to

124

(m m), and [Z

j0.0719

Bus ] = j0.0281

[Z

j0.469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0281

j0.0281

j0.0563

j0.1688

j0.0437

j0.5969

j0.1562

j0.2125

Hence,

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0705

j0.0295

j0.0420

j0.0483

j0.0295

j0.0705

j0.0580

j0.0517

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0483

j0.0517

j0.1271

j0.1648

As can be seen that the final [Z

a reference node. As there are 7 elements is the network, 7 steps are required for the formation of

Bus ] matrix.

[Z

4.2.1

Bus ] :

Modifications in the existing [Z

If in an existing network, for which the [Z

Bus ] matrix can be easily modified

removal or line impedance alteration is carried out then the [Z

without any need of reconstructing the matrix from scratch.

Bus matrix be the final bus impedance matrix given for the network of

As an example, let the Z

Fig. 4.16. Next, let the element 7 connecting nodes 2 and 4 be removed from the network and it

Bus .

is required to find the modified Z

Removal of element 7 is equivalent to setting its impedance z24 to infinite. This can be obtained

org

add

by connecting a fictitious element z24

in parallel to the existing element z24

such that the resultant

result

impedance z24

is infinite i.e.

1

result

24

1

1

1

+ add =

=0

z

z24

org

24

or

org

add

z24

=

z24

= j0.40 p.u.

org

add

Hence, by adding an element z24

= j0.4 p.u. in parallel to z24

the removal of line between nodes

2 and 4 can be simulated. The new added fictitious element is a link addition between the two nodes,

p = 2 and q = 4 and is shown in Fig. 4.25 . Hence, this will require a two-step procedure. The

addition of the fictitious element 8 , which is a link, will introduce a temporary row and column.

125

(temp)

The Z

is given as:

Bus

(1)

(1)

(temp)

Bus

(2)

= (3)

(4)

(`)

(3)

(2)

(`)

(4)

j0.0705

j0.0295

j0.0420

j0.0483

j0.0295

j0.0705

j0.0580

j0.0517

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0483

j0.0517

j0.1271

j0.1648

(Z14 Z12 )

(Z24 Z22 )

(Z34 Z32 )

(Z44 Z42 )

Z``

(1)

(2)

(temp)

Z

= (3)

Bus

(4)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.0705 j0.0295

j0.0295 j0.0705

j0.0420 j0.0580

j0.0483 j0.0517

j0.0188 j0.0188

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0691

(4)

(`)

j0.0483 j0.0188

j0.0517 j0.0188

j0.1271 j0.0691

j0.1648 j0.1131

j0.1131 j0.2681

where,

add

Z`` = Z22 + Z44 2Z24 + z24

= j0.0705 + j0.1648 2 j0.0483 + (j0.40) = j0.2681 p.u.

126

j0.0705

Bus ] = j0.0295

[Z

j0.0420

j0.0483

j0.0295

j0.0705

j0.0580

j0.0517

j0.0420

j0.0580

j0.2041

j0.1271

j0.0188

j0.0188

j0.0483

j0.1131

j0.0517

j0.2681

j0.1271

j0.1648

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719

j0.0281

j0.0469

j0.0563

j0.0281

j0.0719

j0.0531

j0.0437

j0.0469

j0.0531

j0.2219

j0.1562

j0.0563

j0.0437

j0.1562

j0.2125

Bus matrix obtained in step 6 of the previous

The obtained Z

example, which is the impdance matrix of the network before the addition of element 7.

Bus matrix building algorithm without any presence of mutually

So far we have considered the Z

coupled elements. In the next lecture, we will take into account the presence of mutually coupled

Bus matrix.

elements while forming the Z

127

4.3

Z

elements

m

Assume that the bus impedance matrix [Z

BUS ] is known for a partial network of m nodes and

a reference node. The bus voltage and bus current relation for the partial network, shown in Fig.

4.26, can be expressed as:

BUS ] = [Z

m

[V

BUS ] [IBUS ]

(4.33)

In equation (4.33),

V

IBUS is (m 1) bus current vector

m

Z

BUS is (m m) bus impedance matrix

The new added element p-q may be a branch or may be a link as discussed in the previous

algorithm.

128

4.3.1

V1 Z11

V2 Z21

Vp = Zp1

Vm Zm1

Vq Zq1

Z22 Z2p Z2m

Zp2 Zpp Zpm

Zm2 Zmp Zmm

Zq2 Zqp Zqm

Z1q I1

Z2q I2

Zpq Ip

Zmq Im

Zqq Iq

(4.34)

qi = Ziq for i =

The network is assumed to contain bilateral passive elements and hence, Z

1, 2, m, i q . The added branch p-q is assumed to be mutually coupled with one or more

elements of the partial network.

qi , inject a current at ith node and calculate the voltage at q th node with

To determine element Z

respect to reference, as shown in Fig. 4.27.

Figure 4.27: Calculation of Z

qi

Calculation of Z

As all other bus currents are zero, bus voltages can be written as,

129

V1 = Z1i Ii

V2 = Z2i Ii

Vp = Zpi Ii

Vm = Zmi Ii

Vq = Zqi Ii

(4.35)

Vq = Vp vpq

(4.36)

Where vpq is the voltage across the added element p q . Also, the currents in the elements of

the network can be related to the voltages across the elements as,

ipq

ypq,pq y

pq, vpq

][ ]

[ ] = [

y

,pq y

, v

i

(4.37)

Where,

i = (m 1) current vector of the elements of the partial network.

v

= (m 1) voltage vector of the elements of the partial network.

ypq,pq = Self-admittance of the added element.

y

pq, = (m 1) vector of mutual admittances between the added element p q and the

elements of the partial network.

y

, = (m m) primitive admittance matrix of the partial network.

y

,pq = [

ypq, ]

z] are the self impedance of the individual

elements while the off-diagonal elements are mutual impedances between the elements. The inverse

of primitive impedance matrix is the primitive admittance matrix [

y]. This can be explained with

the help of an illustrative example.

A single line diagram of a power system is shown in Fig. 4.28. The self-impedances of lines are

written by the side of the line and are in p.u.. The two lines between nodes 1 and 3 are mutually

coupled with a mutual impedance of j0.10. The primitive impedance matrix for the network can be

written as,

j0.60

0

0

0

0

0

j0.50

0

0

0

[

z] = 0

0

j0.50

0

0

0

0

0

j0.25 j1.0

0

0

j1.0

j0.20

130

The inverse of [

z] is [

y], the primitive admittance matrix.

j1.67

0

0

0

0

0

j2.0

0

0

0

[

y] = 0

0

j2.0

0

0

0

0

0

j5.0 j2.5

0

0

j2.5

j6.25

The current ipq in the added branch p q equal to zero as node q is open.

ipq = 0

(4.38)

The voltage vpq , however, is not zero as the added branch is mutually coupled to one or more elements

of the partial network. Thus, the voltage across other elements of the network can be expressed as,

v

= V

(4.39)

and V

are the voltages of the nodes of the partial network. With ipq = 0 from equation

where V

(4.37) one can write,

ypq,pq vpq + y

pq, v

= 0

Hence,

vpq =

y

pq, v

ypq,pq

131

(4.40)

Substituting v

from equation (4.39) and vpq equation (4.36) in equation (4.40) one gets,

V

)

y

pq, (V

Vq = Vp +

ypq,pq

Substitution of Ii = 1 pu in equation (4.35) results in Vp , Vq , V and V being replaced by their

corresponding impedances and hence,

i Z

i )

y

pq, (Z

Zqi = Zpi +

ypq,pq

(4.41)

i = 1, 2, , m, i q

qq , a current Iq = 1 p.u. is injected into q th node with all

For calculating the self impedance Z

other currents equal to zero as shown in Fig. 4.29. Then the voltages of the nodes are calculated

from equation (4.35) , as

V1 = Z1q Iq

V2 = Z2q Iq

Vp = Zpq Iq

Vm = Zmq Iq

Vq = Zqq Iq

(4.42)

With Iq = 1 p.u., Z

also,

Vq = Vp vpq

(4.43)

ipq = Iq = 1

(4.44)

pq, v

(4.45)

and

vpq =

1+y

pq, v

ypq,pq

(4.46)

, the above equation can be rewritten as,

V

)

1+y

pq, (V

Vq = Vp +

ypq,pq

132

(4.47)

and V

can be replaced by respective transfer

With Iq = 1 p.u., from equation (4.35) Vp , Vq , V

impedances,

q Z

q )

1+y

pq, (Z

Zqq = Zpq +

ypq,pq

4.3.2

(4.48)

If the added element p q is a link, then a fictitious node ` is created by connecting an ideal voltage

in series with the added element, as shown in Fig. 4.30.

The value of the source voltage is selected such that the current I` through the added link is

zero. If e` is the voltage of node ` with respect to node q and I` is the current injected into node `

from node q . The performance equation of the partial network with the added link p ` and ideal

series voltage source e` is,

V Z

1 11

Vp Zp1

=

Vm Zm1

e` Z`1

. . . Z1p . . . Z1m

. . . Zpp . . . Zpm

. . . Zmp . . . Zmm

. . . Z`p . . . Z`m

133

Z1` I1

Zp` Ip

Zm` Im

Z`` I`

(4.49)

Figure 4.30: Calculation of Z

Here, Zli represents the transfer impedance relating the current, Ii , injected into the ith bus

and the voltage of the added source e` , connected between nodes ` and q . They are conceptually

ij of Z

BUS matrix which relate the current injected into the j th bus

different from the elements Z

and the voltage of the ith bus with repect to the reference.

As

e` = V` Vq ,

`i , 1 = 1, 2, m, i `, of the added row and column, can be calculated by

The elements Z

injecting a current Ii into the ith node and determining the voltage of `th node with repect to q th

node.

Hence,

e`

Z`i = , Ik = 0, k = 1, 2, m, k `

Ii

Also,

e` = Vp Vq vp`

(4.50)

p`,p v

(4.51)

Hence,

vp` =

y

p`, v

yp`,p`

134

(4.52)

y

p`, = y

pq,

and

yp`,p` = ypq,pq

So,

vp` =

V

)

y

pq, (V

y

pq, v

=

ypq,pq

ypq,pq

(4.53)

(4.54)

With Ii = 1 p.u., substituting Vp , Vq , Vp and V from equation (4.35) and vp` from equation

(4.52) in equation (4.50) one gets

pi Z

i )

y

pq, (Z

Z`i = Zpi Zqi +

ypq,pq

(4.55)

i = 1, 2, m, i `

`` , a current is injected at the `th node with respect to node q , as shown in Fig.

To calculate Z

4.31. As all other node currents are zero, the node voltages can be written as,

Figure 4.31: Calculation of Z

Vk = Zk` I` , k = 1, 2, m

135

e` = Z`` I`

(4.56)

With I` = 1 p.u., Z

ip` = I` = 1 p.u.

(4.57)

p`,p v

p = 1

Further as yp`,p` = ypq,pq and y

p`,p = y

pq,p , hence vp` can be expressed as

vp` =

1+y

pq,p v

p

ypq,pq

(4.58)

1 + ypq,p (Vp V )

e` = Vp Vq +

ypq,pq

, V

and e` from equation (4.56), Z`` is obtained as

With I` = 1 p.u., substituting Vp , Vq , V

p` Z

` )

1+y

pq, (Z

Z`` = Zpi Zqi +

ypq,pq

(4.59)

i = 1, 2, m, i `

In the case of link addition the additional row and column corresponding to fictitious node ` are to

be eliminated.

For this the fictitious series voltage source e` is short circuited. From equation (4.49) the bus

voltages can be written in compact from as

m

m

Bus

m

] = [Z

[V

Bus ][IBus ] + [Z][I` ]

(4.60)

Where,

= [Z1` Z2` Zm` ]T is an (m 1) vector comprising of the entries of the column added

[Z]

m

to the Z

Bus matrix

m

[Im

Bus ], [VBus ] = (m 1) bus current and voltage vectors respectively, of the partial network before

m

[Z

Bus ] = (m m) [ZBus ] matrix of the partial network before the addition of element p `.

I` = current injected in the link. Also,

T [IBus ] + Z`` I` = 0

[

e` ] = [Z]

136

(4.61)

On substituting I` from equation (4.61) into equation (4.60) [V

T

Z.Z

m

][IBus ]

[VBus ] = [ZBus ] [

Z``

(4.62)

Hence, the final [Z

T

Z.Z

m

Final

[Z

]

=

[

Z

]

[

]

Bus

Bus

Z``

An example illustrating the [Z

137

(4.63)

4.4

Example of [Z

mutual impedances

Bus ] example

Figure 4.32: The power system for [Z

A tree for the network is shown in Fig. 4.32. The system data is given in Table 4.1.

Self

Element no. Bus code Impedance

p-q

zpq,pq (p.u.)

1

0 - 1(1)

j0.4

2

0 - 1(2)

j0.5

3

0-2

j0.5

4

2-3

j0.4

5

1-3

j0.6

138

Mutual

Bus code Impedance

r-s

zpq,rs (p.u.)

0 - 1(2)

j0.2

0 - 1(1)

j0.1

Step 1: The algorithm starts building the [Z

process, start with element 1 connected between nodes p = 0 and q = 1, shown in Fig. 4.34. The

Bus ] matrix of the partial network is given as,

[Z

(1)

[Z

Step 2: Next add element 2 connected between p = 0 and q = 1 which is mutually coupled to the

existing element 1, connected between = 0 and = 1. This new element is a link as it does not

(temp)

create a new node, the partial network for this step is shown in Fig. 4.35. The augmented [Z

]

Bus

matrix after the addition of this element, is given by

(1)

(1)

(temp)

Z

=

Bus

(`)

(`)

j0.4 Z1`

[

]

Z`1 Z``

Z`1 = Z01 Z11 +

y01(2),01(2)

1 + y01(2),01(1) (Z0` Z1` )

Z`` = Z0` Z1` +

y01(2),01(2)

01 and Z0` are the elements of [Z

Bus ] matrix associated with the reference node.

where, Z

The primitive impedance matrix [

z] for the partial network is

01(1)

[

z] =

01(1)

01(2)

01(2)

j0.4 j0.2

]

j0.2 j0.5

y] for the partial network in nothing but the inverse of primitive

139

impedance matrix [

z] and is given by

01(1)

[

y] = [

z]1 =

01(1)

01(2)

01(2)

j3.125 j1.25

]

j1.25 j2.5

With Z

j1.25(j0.4)

= j0.2 = Z1`

Z`1 = j0.4 +

j2.5

0` = 0, since 0 is the reference node, and hence, Z`` is calculated as

Also as Z

1 + j1.25(j0.2)

Z`` = j0.2 +

= j0.50

j2.5

(temp)

matrix is given as

(1)

(`)

(1)

j0.4 j0.2

(temp)

Z

=

[

]

Bus

(`)

j0.2 j0.5

The row and column corresponding to the `th row and column corresponding to a link addition,(shown in red in the above matrix), need to be eliminated as the link addition does not create

Bus ] matrix, after the addition of second element to the partial network, is

a new node. The [Z

calculated using the following expression

Bus ] = [Z

Bus ] Z1` Z`1

[Z

Z``

= j0.4

(j0.2)(j0.2)

j0.5

(1)

Z

Bus matrix is still (11) as no new node has been added to the partial network

Note that the size of Z

as yet.

Step 3: Next add element 3, which is connected between the nodes p = 0 and q = 2. This is a

branch addition as a new node, node 2 is created. This element is mutually coupled to the existing

element 1. Hence, the primitive [

z] matrix of the partial network, shown in Fig. 4.36, is

140

01(1)

01(1)

[

z] = 01(2)

02

The primitive [

y] matrix is calculated as [

z]

[

y] = 01(2)

02

02

and is equal to

01(1)

01(1)

01(2)

j0.2 j0.5 0

j0.1

0

j0.5

01(2)

02

j3.333 j1.333

j0.667

The modified [Z

(1)

Bus ] =

[Z

(1)

(2)

j0.32

Z21

(2)

Z12

]

Z22

is [0 1(1) 0 1(2)]

Z21 = Z01 +

Z02 Z11

[

]

y02,01(1) y02,01(2) ] [

Z01 Z11

y02,02

Z01 and Z02 are the transfer impedances associated with the reference node and are equal to zero.

Z21 =

j0.32

[j0.667 j0.2667] [

]

j0.32

j2.133

141

= j0.06

12 = Z21 = j0.06

Hence, Z

Z22 = Z02 +

Z02 Z12

1 + [

]

y02,01(1) y02,01(2) ] [

Z01 Z12

y02,02

1 + [j0.667 j0.2667] [

Z21 =

j0.32

]

j0.32

j2.133

= j0.48

Bus ] matrix is

The modified [Z

(1)

Bus ] =

[Z

(1)

(2)

(2)

j0.32 j0.06

]

j0.06 j0.48

Step 4: On adding element 4 between p = 2 and q = 3, a new node, node 3 is created. Hence, this

Bus ] matrix can be written as

is a branch addition and is shown in Fig. 4.37. The modified [Z

(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

(2)

(3)

j0.32 j0.06 Z

13

Z31

Z32 Z33

As this element is not mutually coupled to other elements the elements of vector y

pq, are zero.

Bus ] matrix can be calculated, using the expression given in (4.41),

Hence, the new elements of [Z

as :

Off-diagonal elements

Zqi = Zpi i = 1, 2, 3 i q

142

Z32 = Z22 = j0.48

Z13 = Z31 = j0.06

Z23 = Z32 = j0.48

Diagonal element

Using the expression of (4.48) with no mutual coupling, the diagonal element can be written as:

hence,

(1)

(2)

(3)

(1)

Bus = (2)

Z

(3)

Step 5: Finally add element 5 between nodes p = 1 and q = 3. This is an addition of a link hence a

temporary row and column are added. Fig. 4.38 showns the final network after the addition of this

(temp)

element. The modified Z

matrix can be written as

Bus

Figure 4.38: The complete network after the addition of link in step 5

(1)

(2)

(temp)

Z

=

Bus

(3)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(`)

Z`1

Z`2

Z`3 Z``

143

(temp)

Since this element is not mutually coupled to other elements, the new elements of [Z

]

Bus

matrix can be calculated, using the expression of (4.55), as :

Off-diagonal elements

Z`i = Zpi Zqi i = 1, 2, 3

Z1` = Z11 Z13 = j0.32 j0.06 = j0.26 = Z`1

Z2` = Z21 Z23 = j0.06 j0.48 = j0.42 = Z`2

Z3` = Z31 Z33 = j0.06 j0.88 = j0.82 = Z`3

Diagonal element

For calculating the diagonal element, the expression given in (4.59) is used. Hence,

Z`` = Z1` Z3` + z13,13 = j0.26 + j0.82 + j0.6 = j1.68

(temp)

(1)

(temp)

[Z

]=

Bus

(2)

(3)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(`)

The `th row and `th column are to be eleminated to restore the size of Z

is done using the relation

Z

T

Z

(temp)

Bus = Z

Bus

Z

Z``

T = [j0.26 j0.42 j0.82]

Z

j0.23

j0.82

Z

j1.68

144

Bus ] is

Hence, the final matrix [Z

(1)

(1)

Bus ] = (2)

[Z

(3)

(2)

(3)

After this discussion of formulation of [Z

which we will start from the next lecture.

145

4.5

Fault Analysis:

Under normal conditions, a power system operates under balanced conditions with all equipments

carrying normal load currents and the bus voltages within the prescribed limits. This condition can

be disrupted due to a fault in the system. A fault in a circuit is a failure that interferes with the

normal flow of current. A short circuit fault occurs when the insulation of the system fails resulting

in low impedance path either between phases or phase(s) to ground. This causes excessively high

currents to flow in the circuit, requiring the operation of protective equipments to prevent damage

to equipment. The short circuit faults can be classified as:

Symmetrical faults

Unsymmetrical faults

4.6

Symmetrical faults:

f to the

A three phase symmetrical fault is caused by application of three equal fault impedances Z

f = 0 the fault is called a solid or a bolted fault. These faults

three phases, as shown in Fig. 4.39. If Z

can be of two types: (a) line to line to line to ground fault (LLLG fault) or (b) line to line to line

fault (LLL fault). Since the three phases are equally affected, the system remains balanced. That

is why, this fault is called a symmetrical or a balanced fault and the fault analysis is done on per

phase basis. The behaviour of LLLG fault and LLL fault is identical due to the balanced nature

f = 0, this is usually the

of the fault. This is a very severe fault that can occur in a system and if Z

most severe fault that can occur in a system. Fortunately, such faults occur infrequently and only

about 5% of the system faults are three phase faults.

146

4.7

Unsymmetrical faults:

Faults in which the balanced state of the network is disturbed are called unsymmetrical or unbalanced

faults. The most common type of unbalanced fault in a system is a single line to ground fault (LG

fault). Almost 60 to 75% of faults in a system are LG faults. The other types of unbalanced faults

are line to line faults (LL faults) and double line to ground faults (LLG faults). About 15 to 25%

faults are LLG faults and 5 to 15% are LL faults. These faults are shown in Fig. 4.40.

Majority of the faults occur on transmission lines as they are exposed to external elements.

Lightening strokes may cause line insulators to flashover, high velocity winds may cause tower failure,

ice loading and wind may result in mechanical failure of line or insulator and tree branches may cause

short circuit. Much less common are the faults on cables, circuit breakers, generators, motors and

transformers.

Fault analysis is necessary for selecting proper circuit breaker rating and for relay settings and coordination.The symmetrical faults are analysed on per phase basis while the unsymmetrical faults

BUS matrix is very usefull for short

are analyzed using symmetrical components. Further, the Z

circuit studies .

4.8

In this type of faults all three phases are simultaneously short circuited. Since the network remains

balanced, it is analyzed on per phase basis. The other two phases carry identical currents but with a

phase shift of 120 . A fault in the network is simulated by connecting impedances in the network at

the fault location. The faulted network is then solved using Thevenins equivalent network as seen

from the fault point. The bus impedance matrix is convenient to use for fault studies as its diagonal

elements are the Thevenins impedance of the network as seen from different buses. Prior to the

occurrence of fault, the system is assumed to be in a balanced steady state and hence per phase

network model is used. The generators are represented by a constant voltage source behind a suitable

reactance which may be sub-transient, transient or normal d-axis reactance. The transmission lines

are represented by their -models with all impedances referred to a common base. A typical bus

147

of an n- bus power system network is shown in Fig. 4.41. Further, a balanced three phase fault,

f is assumed to occur at k th bus as shown in the figure. A pre-fault

through a fault impedance Z

load flow provides the information about the pre-fault bus voltage.

BUS (0)] be the prefault bus voltage vector =[V1 (0) . . . Vk (0) . . . Vn (0)]T p.u. The fault

Let [V

f will cause a change in the voltage of all the buses [V

BUS ]

at k th bus through an impedance Z

due to the flow of heavy currents through the transmission lines. This change can be calculated by

applying a voltage Vk (0) at k th bus and short circuiting all other voltage sources. The sources and

i

loads are replaced by their equivalent impedances. This is shown in Fig. 4.42. In Fig. 4.42, Z

BUS ]

Figure 4.42: Network representation for calculating [V

k are the equivalent load impedances as bus i and k respectively, zik is the impedance of line

and Z

148

di is the appropriate generator reactance, Zf is the fault impedance,

Ik (F ) is the fault current and Vk (0) is the prefault voltage at k th bus. From the superposition

theorem, the bus voltages due to a fault can be obtained as the sum of prefault bus voltages and the

change in bus voltages due to fault,i.e.,

BUS (F)] = [V

BUS (0)] + [V

BUS ]

[V

(4.64)

where,

T

BUS (F)] = Vector of bus voltages during fault =[V1 (F ) . . . Vi (F ) . . . Vn (F )]

[V

T

BUS (0)] = Vector of pre-fault bus voltages =[V1 (0) . . . Vi (0) . . . Vn (0)]

[V

T

BUS ] = Vector of change in bus voltages due to fault= [V1 . . . Vk . . . Vn ]

[V

IBUS ] can be expressed as,

BUS ] [V

BUS ]

[IBUS ] = [Y

(4.65)

BUS ] is the bus admittance matrix.

where, [V

With all the bus currents, except of the faulted bus k , equal to zero, the node equation for the

network of Fig. 4.42 can be written as

n

0 Yn1 Ynk Ynn V

(4.66)

As the fault current Ik (F ) is leaving the bus it is taken as a negative current entering the bus.

Hence,

BUS ] [V

BUS ]

[IBUS (F)] = [Y

(4.67)

[V

1

BUS ] = [Y

BUS ] [IBUS (F)] = [Z

BUS ] [IBUS (F)]

[V

(4.68)

BUS ]1 .

where, [Z

BUS ] from equation (4.68) in equation (4.64) one can write,

Substituting the expression of [V

BUS (F)] = [V

BUS (0)] + [Z

BUS (F)] [IBus (F)]

[V

Expanding the above equation one can write,

149

(4.69)

(4.70)

Vk (F ) = Vk (0) Zkk Ik (F )

(4.71)

Vk (F ) = ZF Ik (F )

(4.72)

f = 0 and hence, Vk (F ) = 0. Thus the fault current Ik (F ) for bolted fault can

For a bolted fault Z

be expressed using equation (4.71) as,

Vk (0)

Ik (F ) =

Zkk

(4.73)

For faulty with non-zero fault impedance Z

Vk (0)

Ik (F ) =

Zkk + Zf

(4.74)

kk in equation (4.73) and equation (4.74) is the Thevenins impedance or openThe quantity Z

circuit impedance of the network as seen from the faulted bus k. From equation (4.70), the bus

voltage after fault for the unfaulted or healthy buses can be written as:

Vi (F ) = Vi (0) Zik Ik (F ) i = 1, 2, n, i k

(4.75)

Vi (F ) = Vi (0)

Zik

Vk (0)

Zkk + Zf

(4.76)

The fault current Iij (F ) flowing in the line connecting ith and j th bus can be calculated as

Vi (F ) Vj (F )

Iij (F ) =

zij

where zij is the impedance of line connecting buses i and j.

150

(4.77)

4.9

For the analysis of unsymmetrical or unbalanced faults, symmetrical component method is used.

The use of symmetrical components simplifies the analysis procedure of unbalanced system and also

helps in improving the understanding of the system behavior during fault conditions.

A review of symmetrical components is presented next.

4.9.1

Symmetrical components:

Any unbalanced set of three phase voltage or current phasors can be replaced by three balanced sets

of three phase voltage or current phasors. These three balanced set of voltage or current phasors

are called symmetrical components of voltages or currents. Let Ia , Ib , and Ic be an arbitrary set of

three current phasors representing phase currents. Then using symmetrical components they can be

expressed as:

I I I I

a a0 a1 a2

Ib = Ib0 + Ib1 + Ib2

Ic Ic0 Ic1 Ic2

(4.78)

Or,

where,

T

[I]abc = [Ia Ib Ic ] is the arbitrary set of three current phasors of phase currents.

T

[I0 ] = [Ia0 Ib0 Ic0 ] is the set of zero sequence components.The magnitudes of the three zero

sequence components are equal i.e.Ia0 = Ib0 = Ic0 and they are co-phasors.

T

[I1 ] = [Ia1 Ib1 Ic1 ] is the set of positive sequence components, with Ia1 = Ia1 0 , Ib1 =

Ib1 120 , and Ic1 = Ic1 120 , with Ia1 = Ib1 = Ic1 .

T

[I2 ] = [Ia2 Ib2 Ic2 ] is the set of negative sequence components, with Ia2 = Ia2 0 , Ib2 =

, and I

c2 = Ic2 120 ,with Ia2 = Ib2 = Ic2

Ib2 120

Let an operator a be defined such that a = 120 . Any phasor multiplied by a undergoes a

counter clockwise rotation of 120 without any change in the magnitude. Further,

a = 1120

a2 = 1240

a3 = 1360

also 1 + a + a2 = 0

Ia1 = Ia1 1

151

Ib1 = a2 Ia1

Ic1 = aIa1

The phase sequence of the positive component set is abc.

Similarly the negative sequence set can be written as:

Ia2 = Ia2 2

where, 2 is the angle of phase a negative sequence current.

Ib2 = aIa2

Ic2 = a2 Ia2

152

The zero-sequence component set can be written as:

where, 0 is the angle of phase a zero sequence current.

Hence, equation (4.78) can be simplified as:

I 1 1 1 I

a0

a

Ib = 1 a2 a Ia1

Ic 1 a a2 Ia2

(4.79)

[I]

[I]abc = [A]

012

where, [

I]

abc

(4.80)

T

[I]012 = set of sequence quantities = [Ia0 Ia1 Ia2 ]

1 1 1

1 a a2

I]012 can be written in terms of phase quantities [I]abc as:

1

1 1 1

1

1

= 1 a a2 thus,

where, A

3

1 a2 a

[I]

[I]012 = [A]

abc

(4.81)

1

Ia0 = [Ia + Ib + Ic ]

3

1

Ia1 = [Ia + aIb + a2 Ic ]

3

1

Ia2 = [Ia + a2 Ib + aIc ]

3

(4.82)

[V]

[V]

= [A]

abc

012

(4.83)

To summarize:

For voltage:

153

[V]

[V]

= [A]

012

abc

(4.84)

012 is the set of sequence voltages.

where, [V]

For current:

[I]

[I]abc = [A]

012

1

[I]

[I]012 = [A]

abc

(4.85)

(4.86)

where, [

I]abc is the set of phase voltages, and [I]012 is the set of sequence voltages.

Before starting unbalanced fault analysis, it is necessary to learn about the sequence networks of

different power system components, which we will discuss in the next lecture.

154

4.9.2

A three-pahse synchronous generator, having a synchronous impedance of Z

n is shown in Fig.4.44. The generator is supplying a

neutral grounded through a impedance Z

a , Eb and Ec are balanced and hence treated

balanced three phase load. The generator voltages E

[E]abc = a2 [Ea]

a

(4.87)

As the generator is supplying a three-phase balanced load, the following KVL equations can be

written for each phase :

Va = Ea Zs Ia Zn In

Vb = Eb Zs Ib Zn In

Vc = Ec Zs Ic Zn In

155

(4.88)

Substituting the neutral current In = Ia + Ib + Ic in equation (4.88), and writing the resulting equation in matrix form, we get:

V E Z + Z

Zn

Zn Ia

a a s

n

Vb = Eb Zn

Zs + Zn

Zn Ib

Vc Ec Zn

Zn

Zs + Zn Ic

(4.89)

[V]

[I]abc

= [E]

[Z]

abc

abc

abc

(4.90)

where,

T

abc = [Va Vb Vc ] is the vector of terminal phase voltages.

[V]

T

[I]abc = [Ia Ib Ic ] is the vector of terminal phase currents.

abc is the impedance matrix which can be easily identified from equation (4.89).

[Z]

Replacing the phase quantities of equation (4.90) by corresponding sequence quantities, using

the transformation equation (4.83) and equation (4.85) one can write:

[I]

[E]

[V]

[A]

[A]

[Z]

= [A]

012

abc

012

012

[V]

[I]012

= [E]

[Z]

012

012

012

where,[Z]

012

(4.91)

(4.92)

Z + 3Z 0 0

s

0

Zs 0

0

0 Zs

[E]

012

Ea since the generated voltages

0

are always balanced and contain only the positive sequence component.

Substituting [E]

012

and [Z]

012

V 0 Z 0 0 I

a0 0

a0

Va1 = Ea 0 Z1 0 Ia1

Va2 0 0 0 Z2 Ia2

(4.93)

156

ator impedance and Z

equation, one can write seperate equation for each of the sequence components as :

Va0 = Z0 Ia0

Va1 = Ea Z1 Ia1

(4.94)

Va2 = Z2 Ia2

From equation (4.94), it is evident that the three sequence components are independent of each

other.The current of a particular sequence produces a voltage drop of that sequence only, hence

the three sequences are decoupled from each other. The three sequence networks of a synchronous

generator are shown in Fig. 4.45.

4.9.3

For a static device such as a transmission line, the phase sequence of voltages and currents have no

effect on the impedance offered by the line as both positive and negative phase sequences encounter

identical line geometry. Hence, the positive and negative sequence impedances offered by a line are

1 = Z2 .

identical i.e. Z

The zero sequence currents, however, are in phase and flow through the conductors and return

through grounded neutral and/or ground wires. As a result, the ground or ground wire are to be

0 is, therefore,

included in the path of the zero sequence currents. The zero sequence impedance Z

1 and Z2 due to the inclusion of the ground return path. Z0 is usually more than

different from Z

1 or Z2 . The three sequence networks of the transmission lines are shown in Fig.

three times of Z

4.46.

4.9.4

For short circuit studies, the shunt magnetizing branch of transformer is neglected as the current

through it is negiligible as compared to short circuit current. The transformer is, therefore, modelled with an equivalent series leakage impedance. Since the transformer is also a static device like a

157

transmission line, the series leakage impedance will not change if the phase sequence of applied voltage is reversed. Therefore, the positive and negative sequence impedances offered by a transformer

are equal. The zero sequece current flows through a transformer if paths for it to flow exist on the

primary as well the secondary sides. For such transformers the zero sequence impedance is equal to

0 = Z1 = Z2 . The positive and negative sequence networks

the leakage impedance, as a consequence Z

of a transformer are identical to the positive and negative sequence networks of a transmission line

as shown in Fig. 4.46 (a) and (b). The sequence networks for zero sequence depends on the winding

connections and whether or not the neutrals are grounded. To derive these circuits for different

transformer connections, one has to keep in mind that an open circuit will exist on the primary

(secondary) side if there is no ground return for primary (secondary) currents or if there is no corresponding path for secondary(primary) zero-sequence currents. The different three-phase transformer

connections and their equivalent zero-sequence networks are discussed next. It is assumed that the

neutrals, if grounded, are solidly grounded.

Figure 4.47: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Star transformer with both neutrals

grounded

(a) Star-Star connections with both neutrals grounded: Since both the neutrals are grounded,the

phasor sum of three unbalanced phase currents is equal to three times the zero sequence current

Ia0 (equation (4.82)). Hence, the zero sequence currents can flow in the primary and secondary

158

windings and the transhomer, therefore, can be represented by the equivalent zero-sequence

leakage impedance. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.47.

(b) Star-Star connections with only one neutral grounded: When the neutral of only one winding is

grounded, the phase currents of the ungrounded winding must add up to zero. This implies that

the zero sequence currents can not exist in the ungrounded winding and hence the zero sequence

currents can not exist even in the transformer side with neutral grounded. The transformer in

this case, is represented as an open circuit between primary and secondary windings and the

equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.48.

Figure 4.48: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Star transformer with only one neutral

grounded

(c) Star-Star connections with only no neutral grounded: In this case also the phasor sum of the

phase curents of both the windings is zero and hence the zero sequence currents can not exist on

any winding in this case also. The zero sequence equivalent network is represented as an open

circuit between the two windings and is shown in Fig. 4.49.

Figure 4.49: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Star transformer with both neutrals

ungrounded

159

(d) Star-delta connections with neutral grounded: A zero sequence current on the grounded starwinding will cause a circulating zero-sequence current in the closed delta-winding. However,

the zero-sequence current on the delta-winding can not exist on line side of the winding and

is confined only to the closed delta-winding. As a result, an open circuit exists between the

star and the delta sides. But, as the zero-sequence currents can exist on the line-side of the

grounded star winding, the zero-sequence leakage impedance of the transformer is connected to

ground on the star side of the transformer and an open circuit exists between the two windings.

The equivalent circuit for this connection is shown in Fig. 4.50.

Figure 4.50: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Delta transformer with Star-side neutral

grounded

(e) Star-delta connections with ungrounded neutral grounded: Since the neutral is isolated, no zerosequence current can exist in the star side of the transformer and as a consequence zero-sequence

currents can not exist in the delta side. The transformer is, therefore, represented as an opencircuit and the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.51.

Figure 4.51: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Delta trnasformer with Star-side neutral

ungrounded

(f) Delta-delta connections with ungrounded neutral grounded: In this case, the zero-sequence currents can only circulate within the closed delta windings and can not exit on line sides of both

160

the windings. Hence, an open circuit exists between the two windings as far as zero-sequence currents are concerned. To permit the circulating zero-sequence current to exist, the zero-sequence

leakage impedance is represented as a closed path with the ground. The equivalent circuit is

shown in Fig. 4.52.

Figure 4.53: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Delta transformer with neutral grounded

through impedance

Point to remember: If the neutral of a transformer is grounded through a grounding impedance

Zn , as shown in Fig. 4.53, then, the total zero-sequence equivalent impdance to be used in the

equivalent circuit is

Z0total = Z0 + 3Zn

(4.95)

This is due to the fact that the neutral current is 3 times the zero-sequence current per phase.

Next, the concepts of unsymmetrical fault analysis are developed with help of Thevenins equivalent circuit of sequence networks and symmetrical components in the next lecture.

161

4.9.5

An unloaded balanced three-phase synchronous generator with neutral grounded through an impedance

Zn is shown in Fig. 4.54. Suppose a single line to ground fault (LG) occurs on phase a though

f .

an impedance Z

Since the generator is unloaded, the following terminal conditions exist at the fault point:

Va = Zf Ia

Ib = 0

(4.96)

Ic = 0

Substituting Ib = Ic = 0 in equation (4.86), the symmetrical components of currents can be

calculated as:

1 1 1 I

I

a

a0

1

Ia1 = 1 a a2 0

3

Ia2

1 a 2 a 0

162

(4.97)

Solving the above equation, the values of the symmetrical components of fault current Ia are:

1

Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia

3

(4.98)

The voltage of phase a can be expressed in terms of symmetrical components from equation (4.83),

as

Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2

(4.99)

Substituing in the equation the values of Va0 , Va1 and Va2 from equation (4.94) into equation (4.99),

Va can be written as (with Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 from equation (4.98)):

Va = Ea (Z0 + Z1 + Z2 )Ia0

(4.100)

From equations (4.96) and (4.98), Va = Z

3Zf Ia0 = Ea (Z0 + Z1 + Z2 )Ia0

or,

Ia0 =

Ea

Z0 + Z1 + Z2 + 3Zf

(4.101)

If = Ia = 3Ia0 =

3Ea

Z0 + Z1 + Z2 + 3Zf

(4.102)

From equations (4.98) and (4.101), it be easily interpreted that the three sequence networks are

connected in series as shown in Fig. 4.55.

Note that, for solidly grounded generator, Z

Extending the above concept to the analysis of LG fault in a power system, the Thevenins equiv163

alent circuit (as seen from the fault point) is obtained, individually for the three sequence networks.

1th ,

For the positive sequence network Vth , the open circuit pre-fault voltage at the fault point, and Z

the positive sequence Thevenins equivalent impedance as seen from the fault point are determined.

2th and Z0th ,

For negative and zero sequence networks, only the Thevenins equivalent impedances Z

respectively are calculated. The three Thevenins equivalent networks are then connected in series.

4.9.6

f , on

Fig. 4.56 shows a line to line fault (LL) between phases b and c through an impedance Z

an unloaded three phase generator. The terminal conditions at the fault point are:

Vb Vc = Zf Ib

Ib + Ic = 0

164

(4.103)

Ia = 0

Substituting Ia = 0 and Ib = Ic in equation (4.86), the symmetrical components of cuurents can be

calculated as:

I

1 1 1 0

a0

1

Ia1 = 1 a a2 Ib

3

2

Ia2

1 a a Ib

(4.104)

Solving the above equation, the values of the symmetrical components of the current Ia are:

Ia0 = 0

1

Ia1 = (a a2 )Ib

3

1

Ia2 = (a2 a)Ib = Ia1

3

(4.105)

(4.106)

Substituting Va1 and Va2 from equation (4.94) and noting that Ia1 = Ia2 , one can write:

(4.107)

Ib =

3Ia1

(a a2 )

(4.108)

3Zf Ia1

(a a2 )(a2 a)

Since, (a a2 )(a2 a) = 3, the above expression can be simplified and written as:

Ia1 =

Ea

(Z1 + Z2 + Zf )

(4.109)

I 1 1 1 0

a

Ib = 1 a2 a Ia1

Ic 1 a a2 Ia1

Solving for the phase currents, the expressions for Ib and Ic can be written as:

165

(4.110)

Ib = Ic = (a2 a)Ia1

(4.111)

The equivalent circuit of the fault in terms of the sequence networks is shown in Fig. 4.57. The

circuit has been drawn on the basis of equation (4.105) and the above equation. It shows that the

positive sequence and negative sequence networks are connected in phase opposition bridged by the

f . Also, since Ia0 = 0, the zero sequence network is open circuited and hence is

fault impedance Z

not shown in the diagram.

Figure 4.57: Connection of sequence networks for an LL fault between phases b and c of an

unloaded generator

Extending the above concept to LL fault calculations in a power system, it can be concluded that,

the Thevenins equivalent positive and negative sequence networks, as seen from the fault point, can

be connected in phase opposition through the fault impdedance for calculating fault current.

4.9.7

Fig. 4.58 shows a double line to ground (LLG) fault on phases b and c through an impedance

Zf on an unloaded three phase generator. The terminal conditions at the fault point are:

Vb = Vc = Zf If = Zf (Ib + Ic )

Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 = 0

(4.112)

b and V

c can be written as:

From equation (4.83), V

Vb = Va0 + a2 Va1 + aVa2

Vc = Va0 + aVa1 + a2 Va2

166

(4.113)

Va1 = Va2

(4.114)

Substituting Ib and Ic in terms of their sequence components from equation (4.85), voltage of phase

b can be expressed as:

167

= Zf (2Ia0 + (a2 + a)(Ia1 + Ia2 ))

= Zf (2Ia0 (Ia1 + Ia2 ))

Since 1 + a + a2 = 0 and Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 = 0, hence

Vb = 3Zf Ia0

(4.115)

Further substituting Vb from equation (4.115) and the condition of equation (4.114) in equation

(4.113), we get:

= Va0 Va1

(4.116)

Substituting Va0 and Va1 from equation (4.94) in equation (4.116), the zero sequence component of

Figure 4.59: Connection of sequence networks for an LLG fault between phases b and c of an

unloaded generator

(Ea Z1 Ia1 )

Ia0 =

(Z0 + 3Zf )

(4.117)

For calculating the negative sequence component of current, Ia2 , substitute Va1 and Va2 from equation

(4.94) in equation (4.114). The expression for Ia2 is:

(Ea Z1 Ia1 )

Ia2 =

Z2

(4.118)

Finally, by substituting Ia0 and Ia2 from equations (4.117) and (4.118) in equation (4.112), the value

168

Ia1 =

Ea

Z2 (Z0 + 3Zf )

Z1 +

(Z0 + Z2 + 3Zf )

(4.119)

Since Vb = Z

If = 3Ia0

(4.120)

The equivalent circuit for the fault in terms of the sequence networks is shown in Fig. 4.59. The

circuit shown in Fig. 4.59 is based on equations (4.114) and (4.116). For LLG fault calculations in

a power system, the Thevenins equivalent of the three sequence networks, as seen from the fault

point, are found out. The positive and negative sequence equivalents are connected in parallel and

f . In the next lecture,

the combination is then connected to the zero sequence network through 3Z

BUS matrix.

we will study the procedure of unbalanced fault analysis using Z

169

4.10

BUS matrix:

Unbalanced fault analysis using Z

In the previous section, it is observed that, for fault calculations the Thevenins equivalent networks,

at the fault point, are needed for the three sequence networks. Since the three sequence networks are

BUS matrices of these sequence networks can be found seperately. The diagonal

independent, the Z

BUS matrices infact, are the Thevenins equivalent impedances

elements of the three sequence Z

of the sequence networks as seen from the various buses. Let, the three sequence bus impedance

matrices for zero sequence, positive sequence and negative sequence networks be represented as

th bus, then Z(0) , Z(1) and Z(2)

(0)

(1)

(2)

[Z

BUS ], [ZBUS ] and [ZBUS ] respectively. If the fault is at the k

kk

kk

kk

of the sequence bus impedance matrices are the zero, positive and negative Thevenins equivalent

impedances, respectively, as seen from the faulted bus. Hence, the first step in the fault analysis

BUS matrix is the determination of the three sequence networks and subsequently, finding

using Z

the bus impedance matrix for each sequence network.

To illustrate this step, consider the single line diagram of the power system shown in Fig. 4.60.

The positive sequence equivalent network for the system is shown in Fig. 4.61. In this figure all

the elements of the system have been represented by their positive sequence equivalents.

Similarly by representing all elements by their negative sequence impedances, the negative sequence equivalent network can be obtained. The negative sequence network is shown in Fig. 4.62.

For the zero sequence equivalent network, the generator neutral connections and transformer connections have to be considered. The zero sequence equivalent network is shown in Fig. 4.63. In

Bus ] matrix for the three sequence networks is found using [Z

Bus ] building

the next step, the [Z

(0)

(1)

(2)

Bus ], [Z

Bus ] and [Z

Bus ] matrices are known, the following procedure is followed

algorithm. Once [Z

for the fault analysis of the given network.

170

f as shown in Fig.

(a) LG fault: Let the fault be on phase a of bus k with a fault impedance Z

4.64.

From equations (4.98) and (4.101), it can be seen that the three equivalent sequence networks

are in series for calculating the sequence components of the fault currents. Hence, generalizing

equation (4.101) for fault at kth bus, the expression for sequence component of fault current can

be written as:

Vk (0)

(1)

(2)

(0)

Z(kk)

+ Z(kk)

+ Z(kk)

+ 3Zf

(4.121)

(0)

(1)

(2)

Z

Bus ], [ZBus ] and [ZBus ] matrices

kk

kk

kk

respectively.

Vk (0) is the prefault voltage of kth bus, usually taken as 10 pu.

171

The fault current is given by:

[I(012) (F)]

[I(abc)

(F)] = [A]

k

k

(4.122)

(b) LL fault: Let the fault be between phases phase b and phase c of bus k through an

f as shown in Fig. 4.65. From equation (4.109) and Fig. 4.57 it is observed that the

impedance Z

positive sequence and negative sequence equivalent networks are connected in phase opposition.

Thus, the expression of equation (4.109) for the sequence components of fault current at bus k

can be generalized as:

Ik(0) (F ) = 0

172

and

Ik(1) (F ) =

Vk (0)

= Ik(2) (F )

(0)

(1)

(2)

Z + Z + Z

kk

kk

(4.123)

kk

The phase components of fault current is the calculated from equation (4.122)

Ik (F ) = Ik(b) (F ) = Ik(c) (F )

(4.124)

(c) LLG fault: Fig. 4.66 shows an LLG fault involving phases phase b and phase c of bus k

f . Referring to equation (4.119) and Fig.4.66, the generalized expression

through an impedance Z

for sequence components of fault current at bus k can be written as

Ik(1) (F ) =

Vk (0)

(2)

(0)

Zkk

(Zkk

+ 3Zf )

(1)

Zkk + (2)

Z + Z (0) + 3Zf

kk

173

kk

(1) (1)

Vk (0) Zkk

Ik (F )

(2)

Ik (F ) =

(2)

Zkk

(4.125)

(1) (1)

Vk (0) Zkk

Ik (F )

(0)

Ik (F ) =

(0)

Zkk + 3Zf

The phase currents can be obtained from equation (4.122), the fault current is then calculated

as

Ik (F ) = Ik(b) (F ) + Ik(c) (F )

4.10.1

(4.126)

To calculate the voltages of buses during fault equation (4.94) can be generalized as:

Vi(1) (F ) = Vi(1) (0) Zik(1) Ik(1) (F )

(4.127)

The pre fault voltage Vi1 (0)is usually set as 1.0 00 pu.

The bus phase voltage during fault is calculated from the following relation.

[Vi(012) (F )]

Vi(abc) (F ) = [A]

(4.128)

where [A]

To calculate the symmetrical components of line currents in the line from bus i to bus j the

following relation is used:

(0)

ij

I (F ) =

Iij(1) (F ) =

(2)

ij

I (F ) =

(0)

(1)

Vi(0) (F ) Vj(0) (F )

zij(0)

Vi(1) (F ) Vj(1) (F )

zij(1)

(4.129)

Vi(2) (F ) Vj(2) (F )

zij(2)

(2)

where zij , zij and zij are the zero, positive and negative sequence impedance respectively of

the line between bus i and bus j. The phase currents for the line can be calculated from the

symmetrical components using the relation:

174

Iij012 (F )]

[Iijabc (F )] = [A][

(4.130)

The process of fault analysis of a power system network is illustrated in the next lecture with

the help of an example.

175

4.11

A single line diagram of a power system is shown in Fig. 4.67 and the system data is as follows:-

1 = X

2 = 0.2 pu, X

0 = 0.05 pu

Generators G1 and G2 : X

1 = X

2 = X

0 = X

` = 0.05 pu

Transformers T1 and T2 : X

1 = X

2 = 0.1 pu, X

0 = 0.3 pu

Transmission Lines L1 , L2 and L3 : X

Figure 4.67: Single line diagram of the power System of the example

Prefault voltage for all buses is taken as Vi (0) = 1.000 pu i = 1, 2, 3.

We wish to carry out the complete short-circuit analysis of the system for:

(a) three phase bolted fault at bus 5

f = 0.1 pu at bus 5

(b) LG fault with Z

f = 0.1 pu at bus 5

(c) LL fault with Z

f = 0.0 pu at bus 5

(d) LLG fault with Z

Solution:

(a) Three phase fault at bus 5

For the three phase bolted fault, only positive sequence network and the positive sequence bus

(1)

impedance matrix [Z

Bus ] is required. The positive sequence network for the power system of

Fig. 4.67 is shown in Fig. 4.68. In this diagram all the elements have been replaced by their per

unit positive sequence impedances.

(1)

The [Z

Bus ] matrix for the network of the Fig. 4.68 is given below:

176

1

(1)

Bus

[Z

]=3

4

5

j0.1294

j0.0706

j0.1118

j0.0882

j0.10

j0.0706

j0.1294

j0.0882

j0.1118

j0.10

j0.1118

j0.0882

j0.1397

j0.1103

j0.1250

j0.0882 j0.10

j0.1118 j0.10

j0.1103 j0.1250 pu

j0.1397 j0.1250

j0.1250 j0.1750

The sequence component of three phase fault current at bus 5 are given as, from equation (4.73):

0

0

1

(012)

[I5 (F)] = 1 =

= j5.7143 pu

Z55 j0.1750

0 0

The phase components of the fault current are calculated using equation (4.122):

I5(012) (F)]

[I5(abc) (F)] = [A][

1 1 1

5.7143 900

0

(abc)

(abc)

[Ifault ] = [I5 (F)] = 1 a2 a j5.7143 = 5.71431500 pu

1 a a2

5.7143300

0

Bus 1:

177

(1) (1)

V1(1) (F ) = V1(1) (0) Z15

I5 (F )

= 0.4285700 pu

(a)

(1)

Since this is a balanced fault, V1 (F ) = V1 (F )

0.4285700

(abc)

0

0.428571200

Bus 2:

(1) (1)

V2(1) (F ) = V2(1) (0) Z25

I5 (F )

= 0.4285700 pu

(a)

(1)

Since this is a balanced fault V2 (F ) = V2 (F )

0.4285700

(abc)

[V2 (F)] = 0.42857 1200 pu

0.428571200

Bus 3:

(1) (1)

V3(1) (F ) = V3(1) (0) Z35

I5 (F )

= 0.2857100 pu

(a)

(1)

0.2857100

(abc)

0

0.285711200

Bus 4:

178

(1) (1)

V4(1) (F ) = V4(1) (0) Z45

I5 (F )

= 0.2857100 pu

(a)

(1)

Since this is a balanced fault V4 (F ) = V4 (F )

0.2857100

(abc)

[V4 (F)] = 0.28571 1200 pu

0.285711200

0

(abc)

5 (F) = 0 pu because the fault

The bus voltage of bus 5 under faulted condition is V

0

impedance is zero.

(1)

For line L1 from bus 3 to bus 4 the positive sequence component for line current (I34 (F )) is

calculated as:

(1)

=

=0

I34

(F ) = 3

(1)

j0.1

Z34

Hence, the phase components of line current are

0

(abc)

I34 (F) = 0 pu

0

(1)

For line L2 from bus 3 to bus 5 the positive sequence component for line current (I35 (F )) is

calculated as:

(1)

I35 (F ) =

=

= 2.8571 900 pu

(1)

j0.1

Z35

Hence, the phase components of line current are

2.8571 900

(abc)

0

2.8571300

179

(1)

For line L3 from bus 4 to bus 5 the positive sequence component for line current (I45 (F )) is

calculated as:

(1)

=

I45 (F ) =

= 2.8571 900 pu

(1)

j0.1

Z45

Hence, the phase components of line current are

2.8571 900

(abc)

0

2.8571300

For transformer T1 between bus 1 and bus 3 the positive sequence component fault current

(1)

(I13

(F )) is calculated as:

(1)

I13 (F ) =

=

= 2.8571 900 pu

(1)

j0.05

zT1

The phase components of the transformer T1 current are:

2.8571 900

(abc)

0

2.8571300

For transformer T2 between bus 2 and bus 4 the positive sequence component fault current

(1)

(I24

(F )) is calculated as:

(1)

= 2.8571 900 pu

I24

(F ) = 2

=

(1)

j0.05

zT2

The phase components of the transformer T2 current are:

2.8571 900

(abc)

0

2.8571300

(1)

For generator G1 connected at bus 1 the positive sequence component fault current (IG1 (F ))

is calculated as:

180

IG(1)1 (F ) =

=

= 2.8571 900 pu

(1)

j0.2

zG2

The phase components of the generator G1 current are:

2.8571 900

(abc)

0

2.8571300

(1)

For Generator G2 connected at bus 2 the positive sequence component fault current (IG2 (F ))

is calculated as:

IG(1)2 (F ) =

=

= 2.8571 900 pu

(1)

j0.2

zG2

The phase components of the generator G2 current can be calculated as:

2.8571 900

(abc)

0

2.8571300

The flow of fault current in the system is shown in the single line diagram of Fig. 4.69.

(b) Single line to ground fault at bus 5

181

In this case all the sequence networks are required. The positive sequence network is same as

(1)

the one shown in the Fig. 4.68 and [Z

Bus ] is identical to the matrix used in three phase fault

analysis.

The negative sequence equivalent network for this network is as shown in Fig. 4.70. The network

(2)

(1)

Bus ] = [Z

Bus ].

is identical to the network of Fig. 4.68 except for the voltage sources. Hence, [Z

The zero sequence equivalent network is drawn next considering the transformer connections

and grounding as well as generator grounding. The equivalent zero sequence networks is shown

in Fig. 4.71.

An explanation of the equivalent circuit will be in order. Generators G1 and G2 have their neutrals grounded, so their zero sequence impedances are connected to the reference. Transformer

T1 has both the windings connected in star, with both neutrals solidly grounded. As a result,

the zero sequence impedance of the transformer is directly connected between buses 1 and 2.

182

Transformer T2 has both the winding connected in delta, hence, no connection exists between

the primary and secondary sides for zero sequence currents to flow. To represent circulating

zero sequence currents in the delta connected transformer winding, it is represented as a short

circuited winding.

(0)

[Z

Bus ], the zero sequence bus impedance matrix is then calculated using the step-by-step ZBus

building algorithm. The zero sequence bus impedance matrix is given as:

1

1

(0)

Bus

[Z

]=3

4

5

0.0

0.0

j0.05 0.0 j0.10 j0.30 j0.20

Fault current:

The sequence component of the fault current at bus 5 are given as, from equation (4.121):

Vk (0)

1.0

= j1.538 pu

=

(1)

(2)

(0)

j0.175 + j0.175 + j0.30

Z55 + Z55 + Z55

1 1 1 j1.538

(abc)

(abc)

[Ifault ] = [I5 (F)] = 1 a2 a j1.538

1 a a2 j1.538

4.6154 900

(abc)

pu

[Ifault ] =

0

Bus voltages:

The bus voltage in sequence components, during fault, are calculated using equation (4.127)

written in compact form as:

V (0) (F ) 0 Z (0) 0

0 Ik(0) (F )

i

ik

(1)

V (F ) = Vi 0 Z (1) 0 I(1) (F )

i

ik

k

(2)

(2) (2)

Vi (F ) 0 0

0 Zik Ik (F )

(4.131)

where, k represents the faulted bus number and Z

ik

ik

ik

respective sequence bus impedance matrices.

Ik(0) , Ik(1) and Ik(2) represent the sequence components of fault current at kth bus.

Vi (0) is the pre fault bus voltage of ith bus.

Bus 1: The sequence voltages are:

183

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.05

0

0 j1.538

1

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.10

0 j1.538

1

(2)

V1 (F ) 0 0

0

j0.10 j1.538

Or,

0.0769

(012)

0.1538

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.615400

(abc)

1 (F)] = 0.9638 116.040 pu

[V

0.9638 116.040

V (0) (F ) 0 0.0

0

0 j1.538

2

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0 j0.10

0 j1.538

2

(2)

V2 (F ) 0 0

0

j0.10 j1.538

Or,

0.0

(012)

2 (F)] = 0.8462 pu

[V

0.1538

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.692300

(abc)

2 (F)] = 0.9326 111.790 pu

[V

0.9326 111.790

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.10

0

0 j1.538

3

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.125

0 j1.538

3

(2)

V3 (F ) 0 0

0

j0.125 j1.538

Or,

0.1538

(012)

3 (F)] = 0.8077 pu

[V

0.1923

184

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.461500

(abc)

3 (F)] = 0.9813 118.050 pu

[V

0.9813 118.050

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.20

0

0 j1.538

4

(1)

j1.538

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.125

0

(2)

V4 (F ) 0 0

j1.538

0

j0.125

Or,

0.3076

(012)

0.1923

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.307700

(abc)

0

[V

1.0624 125.400

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.30

0

0 j1.538

5

(1)

j1.538

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.175

0

5

(2)

V5 (F ) 0 0

j1.538

0

j0.175

Or,

0.4615

(012)

0.2692

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128)

0.000

(abc)

0

[V

1.087 128.640

Observe that the phase voltage of the faulted phase a is zero due to a zero impedance fault.

Line Currents

185

The sequence components of line currents during fault are calculated using equation (4.129),

written here in compact form as

(0) 0

0

V (0) (F ) V (0) (F )

I(0) (F ) zij

i

ij

j

1

(1)

(1)

(1)

I (F ) = 0

0 Vi (F ) Vj (F )

(1)

ij

zij

(2)

(2)

(2)

Iij (F )

1 Vi (F ) Vj (F )

0

0

zij(2)

(4.132)

zij(0) , zij(1) , zij(2) represent the respective sequence impedances of the line i j

Vi(0) (F ), Vi(1) (F ), Vi(2) (F ), Vj(0) (F ), Vj(1) (F ), Vj(2) (F ) are the sequence components of voltages of ith and jth buses respectively during fault.

Line 1: The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.3

34

0.1538 (0.3076)

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 0.8077 0.8077

34

j0.10

(2)

I34 (F )

1.0 0.1923 (0.1923)

0

0

j0.10

Or,

j0.5128

(012)

pu

[I34 (F)] =

0

0.5128 900

(abc)

[I34 (F)] = 0.5128 900 pu

0.5128 900

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.3

35

0.1538 (0.4615)

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 0.8077 0.7308

35

j0.10

(2)

I35 (F )

1.0 0.1923 (0.2692)

0

0

j0.10

186

Or,

j1.0256

(012)

j0.7692

2.5641 900

(abc)

[I35 (F)] = 0.2564 900 pu

0.2564 900

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.3

45

0.3077 (0.4615)

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 0.8077 0.7308

45

j0.10

(2)

I45 (F )

1.0 0.1923 (0.2692)

0

0

j0.10

Or,

j0.5128

(012)

[I45 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

2.0513 900

(abc)

0

0.2564 900

Transformer Currents

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

13

0.0769 (0.1538)

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0.8462 0.8077

0

13

j0.05

(2)

I13 (F )

0.1538

(0.1923)

1.0

j0.05

Or,

j1.538

(012)

j0.7692

187

3.0769 900

(abc)

[I13 (F)] = 0.7692 900 pu

0.7692 900

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F )

24

0 (0.3076)

1.0

(1)

I (F ) = 0

0 0.8462 0.8077

24

j0.05

(2)

I24 (F )

0.1538 (0.1923)

1.0

j0.05

(012)

j0.7692

1.538 900

(abc)

[I24 (F)] = 0.7692 900 pu

0.7692 900

Generator Currents

The sequence components of generator currents during fault are calculated using the expression

(0) 0

0

I(0) (F ) zgi

E (0) (F ) V (0) (F )

Gi

Gi

ti

1

(1)

(1)

(1)

I (F ) = 0

0

EGi (F ) Vti (F )

(1)

Gi

zgi

(2)

(2)

(2)

IGi (F )

1 EGi (F ) Vti (F )

0

0

(2)

zgi

(4.133)

where,

(0)

(1)

(2)

EGi

(F ), EGi

(F ), EGi

(F ) the zero, positive and negative sequence generated voltages respecth

tively of i generator.

Vti(0) (F ), Vti(1) (F ), Vti(2) (F ) are the zero, positive and negative sequence terminal voltages respectively of ith generator after fault.

(0)

(1)

(2)

zgi

(F ), zgi

(F ) and zgi

(F ) are the sequence impedances of the ith generator.

188

1.0

0

0

0 (0.0769)

I(0) (F ) j0.05

G1

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 1 0.8462

G1

j0.20

(2)

IG1 (F )

1.0 0 (0.1538)

0

j0.20

j1.538

(012)

[IG1 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

3.0769 900

(abc)

0

0.7692 900

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

00

G2

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 1 0.8462

G2

j0.20

(2)

IG2 (F )

1.0 0 (0.1538)

0

0

j0.20

(012)

[IG2 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

1.538 900

(abc)

0

0.7692 900

The flow of sequence currents in the sequence networks is shown next in the Fig. 4.72. From

Fig. 4.72 the following points are worth observing:

Both generators contribute equal amount of positive and negative sequence currents as the

network is symmetrical as seen from the fault point.

Since the positive and negative sequence fault voltages are equal for buses 3 and 4, the

positive and negative sequence currents through line L1 between buses 3 and 4 are zero.

189

The zero sequence circuit of generator G2 is open circuited due to transformer T2

as a result, G2 does not contribute any zero sequence current to the fault. Generator G1

has to provide the entire zero sequence current.

190

Moreover, the zero sequence network is not symmetrical, hence, zero sequence voltages of

buses 3 and 4 are not equal and as a result a zero sequence current flows through line L1 .

In the next lecture, we will look into the examples of short circuit fault calculation for LL and

LLG faults.

191

4.12

(b) Double line (LL) fault between phases b and c at bus 5

(1)

(2)

Bus ] and [Z

Bus ]

In this case only positive and negative sequence networks are required. Hence [Z

f = j0.1 pu.

as calculated previously will be used. Let the fault impedance be Z

Fault current calculations: The sequence components of fault current are calculated using equation (4.123).

I5(1) (F ) = 0

As zero sequence current can not flow without a ground path.

I5(1) (F ) =

1.0

V5(0)

=

= j2.2222 pu

(1)

(2)

Z55 + Z55 + Zf j0.175 + j0.175 + j0.1

I5(2) (F ) = I5(1) (F ) = j2.222 pu

Hence

(012)

j2.222

(abc)

3.849

Bus 1: The sequence components of bus 1 voltage are calculated as

192

Zero Sequence

V1(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu

Positive Sequence

(1) (1)

V1(1) (F ) = V1(1) (0) Z15

I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.10 (j2.222)

V1(1) (F ) = 0.7778 pu

Negative Sequence

(2) (2)

V1(2) (F ) = Z15

I5 (F ) = j0.10 (j2.222)

V1(2) (F ) = 0.2222 pu

Hence, the sequence components of bus 1 voltage are:

012

1 (F)] = 0.7778 pu

[V

0.2222

1.0

(abc)

0

0.69391360

Zero Sequence

V2(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu

Positive Sequence

(1) (1)

V2(1) (F ) = V2(1) (0) Z25

I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.10 (j2.222)

V2(1) (F ) = 0.7778 pu

Negative Sequence

(2) (2)

V2(2) (F ) = Z25

I5 (F ) = j0.10 (j2.222)

193

V2(2) (F ) = 0.2222 pu

Hence, the sequence components of bus 2 voltage are:

012

0.2222

1.0

(abc)

0

[V

(2) (F)] = 0.6939 136 pu

0.69391360

Zero Sequence

V3(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu

Positive Sequence

(1) (1)

V3(1) (F ) = V3(1) (0) Z35

I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.125 (j2.222)

V3(1) (F ) = 0.7222 pu

Negative Sequence

(2) (2)

V3(2) (F ) = Z35

I5 (F ) = j0.125 (j2.222)

V3(2) (F ) = 0.2778 pu

Hence, the sequence components of bus 3 voltage are:

012

3 (F)] = 0.7222 pu

[V

0.2778

194

1.0

(abc)

0.6310 142.410 pu

[V

=

(F)]

(3)

0

0.6310142.41

Zero Sequence

V4(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu

Positive Sequence

(1) (1)

V4(1) (F ) = V4(1) (0) Z45

I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.125 (j2.222)

V4(1) (F ) = 0.7222 pu

Negative Sequence

(2) (2)

V4(2) (F ) = Z45

I5 (F ) = j0.125 (j2.222)

V4(2) (F ) = 0.2778 pu

Hence, the sequence components of bus 4 voltage are:

012

0.2778

1.0

(abc)

0

0.6310142.410

Zero Sequence

V5(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu

Positive Sequence

(1) (1)

V5(1) (F ) = V5(1) (0) Z55

I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.175 (j2.222)

195

V5(1) (F ) = 0.6111 pu

Negative Sequence

(2) (2)

V5(2) (F ) = Z55

I5 (F ) = j0.175 (j2.222)

V5(2) (F ) = 0.3889 pu

Hence, the sequence components of bus 5 voltage are:

012

5 (F)] = 0.6111 pu

[V

0.3889

1.0

(abc)

0

0.5358158.950

Line 1: The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.3

0

34

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 0.7222 0.7222

34

j0.10

(2)

I34 (F )

1.0 0.2778 0.2778

0

0

j0.10

0

(012)

[I34 (F)] = 0 pu

0

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

0

(abc)

[I34 (F)] = 0 pu

0

Line 2: The sequence components of line current are

196

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.3

0

35

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 0.7222 0.6111

35

j0.10

(2)

I35 (F )

1.0 0.2778 0.3889

0

0

j0.10

(012)

j1.1111

(abc)

[I35 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.3

45

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 0.7222 0.6111

45

j0.10

(2)

I45 (F )

1.0 0.2778 0.3889

0

0

j0.10

(012)

[I45 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

(abc)

[I45 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

Transformer 1: The sequence components of transformer 1 current are:

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

0

13

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 (0.7778 0.7222)

13

j0.05

(2)

I13 (F )

1.0 (0.2222 0.2778)

0

0

j0.05

197

(012)

[I13 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

(abc)

1.9245

1.0

0

0

I (F ) j0.05

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 (0.7778 0.7222)

j0.05

I (F )

1.0 (0.2222 0.2778)

0

0

j0.05

(0)

24

(1)

24

(2)

24

(012)

j1.1111

(abc)

1.9245

Generator 1: The sequence components of generator 1 current are

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

0

G1

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 (1 0.7778)

G1

j0.20

(2)

IG1 (F )

(0 0.2222)

1.0

j0.20

(012)

j1.1111

198

(abc)

1.9245

1.0

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

0

G2

(1)

1.0

I (F ) = 0

0 (1 0.7778)

G2

j0.20

(2)

IG2 (F )

1.0 (0 0.2222)

0

j0.20

(012)

j1.1111

(abc)

1.9245

V5(1) (F ) = 0.6111pu

This value is same as the one calculated earlier.

The flow of sequence currents in the sequence networks is shown next in the Fig.4.73.

(c) Double line to ground fault (LLG) fault involving phases b and c at bus 5

(2)

(0)

(1)

In this case all the three sequence networks are required. Hence, [Z

Bus ],[ZBus ],and [ZBus ] as

f = 0.

calculated earlier will be used. It is assumed that the fault impedance Z

Fault current calculations:

The sequence components of fault current are calculated using equation (4.125) as follows:

Positive Sequence Current

199

I5(1) (F ) =

I5(1) (F ) =

(1)

Z55

+

1.0

(2) (0)

Z55

(Z55 + 3Zf )

(2)

(0)

Z55

+ Z55

+ 3Zf

1.0

j0.175(j0.175 + 3 0)

j0.175 +

j0.175 + j0.3 + 3 0

I5(1) (F ) = j3.5023 pu

The negative and zero sequence currents are calculated using current division as:

Negative Sequence Current

(0)

Z55

I5(1) (F )

(0)

(2)

Z55 + Z55

j0.3

=

(j3.5023)

(j0.3 + j0.175)

I5(2) (F ) =

I5(2) (F ) = j2.212 pu

Zero Sequence Current

200

(2)

Z55

I5(1) (F )

(0)

(2)

Z55 + Z55

j0.175

(j3.5023)

=

(j0.3 + j0.175)

I5(0) (F ) =

I5(0) (F ) = j1.2903 pu

Hence, the fault current in sequence components is :

j1.290

(012)

[I5 (F)] = j3.503 pu

j2.212

(abc)

0

5.313721.360

) = I5(b) (F ) + I5(c) (F )

I(F

= 5.3137158.640 + 5.313721.360

) = 3.871900 pu

I(F

Bus Voltage Calculations:

Bus 1:

The sequence components of bus 1 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.05

0

0 j1.290

1

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.10

0 j3.503

1

(2)

V1 (F ) 0 0

0

j0.10 j2.212

201

0.0645

(012)

1 (F)] = 0.6497 pu

[V

0.2212

0.935500

(abc)

0

0.5248134.990

Bus 2:

The sequence components of bus 2 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 0

0

0 j1.290

2

(1)

j3.503

V (F ) = 1.0 0 j0.10

0

(2)

V2 (F ) 0 0

j2.212

0

j0.10

(012)

2 (F)] = 0.6497 pu

[V

0.2212

0.871000

(abc)

0

0.5722139.560

Bus 3:

The sequence components of bus 3 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.10

0

0 j1.290

3

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.125

0 j3.503

3

(2)

V3 (F ) 0 0

0

j0.125 j2.212

0.1290

(012)

0.2765

202

0.976600

(abc)

3 (F)] = 0.3815 139.560 pu

[V

0.3815139.560

Bus 4:

The sequence components of bus 5 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.20

0

0 j1.290

4

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.125

0 j3.503

4

(2)

V4 (F ) 0 0

0

j0.125 j2.212

0.2581

(012)

0.2765

1.096800

(abc)

4 (F)] = 0.2954 123.100 pu

[V

0.2954123.100

Bus 5:

The sequence components of bus 5 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.30

0

0 j1.290

5

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0

j0.175

0 j3.503

5

(2)

V5 (F ) 0 0

0

j0.175 j2.212

0.3871

(012)

5 (F)] = 0.3871 pu

[V

0.3871

1.161300

(abc)

pu

[V5 (F)] =

0

Line L1

203

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.30

34

(0.1290 0.2581)

(1)

1

I (F ) = 0

(0.5622 0.5622)

0

34

j0.10

(2)

I34 (F )

(0.2765

0.2765)

1

j0.10

Hence,

j0.4301

(012)

[I34 (F)] = 0 pu

j0.4301

(abc)

j0.4301

Line L2

The sequence components of Line 2 current are calculated as

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.30

(0.1290 0.3871)

35

(1)

1

I (F ) = 0

0 (0.5622 0.3871)

35

j0.10

(2)

I35 (F )

1 (0.2765 0.3871)

0

0

j0.10

Hence,

j0.8602

(012)

[I35 (F)] = j1.7511 pu

j1.1060

0.2151900

(abc)

0

0.295425.550

Line L3

204

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.30

45

(0.2581 0.3871)

(1)

1

I (F ) = 0

(0.5622 0.3871)

0

45

j0.10

(2)

I45 (F )

(0.2765

0.3871)

1

j0.10

Hence,

j0.4301

(012)

[I45 (F)] = j1.7511 pu

j1.1060

0.2151 900

(abc)

[I45 (F)] = 2.5863163.080 pu

2.586316.920

Transformer T1

The sequence components of Transformer 1 current are calculated as:

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

(0.0645 0.1290)

13

(1)

1

I (F ) = 0

0 (0.6497 0.5622)

13

j0.05

(2)

I13 (F )

1 (0.2212 0.2765)

0

0

j0.05

Hence,

j1.290

(012)

j1.106

0.6452900

(abc)

0

2.953633.100

205

Transformer T2

The sequence components of Transformer 2 current are calculated as

0

0

I(0) (F )

(0.0 0.2581)

24

1

(1)

I (F ) = 0

0 (0.6497 0.5622)

24

j0.05

(2)

I24 (F )

1 (0.2212 0.2765)

0

0

j0.05

Hence,

(012)

[I24 (F)] = j1.750 pu

j1.106

0.6452 900

(abc)

0

2.49537.430

Generator Current Calculations:

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

G1

(0.0 0.0645)

(1)

1

I (F ) = 0

0 (1.0 0.6497)

G1

j0.20

(2)

IG1 (F )

1 (0.0 0.2212)

0

0

j0.20

206

j1.290

(012)

[IG1 (F)] = j1.750 pu

j1.106

0.645200

(abc)

[IG1 (F)] = 2.9536146.900 pu

2.953633.100

1

0

0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

G2

(0.0 0.0)

(1)

1

I (F ) = 0

0 (1.0 0.6497)

G2

j0.20

(2)

IG2 (F )

1 (0.0 0.2212)

0

j0.20

0.0

(012)

j1.106

0.645200

(abc)

0

2.49537.430

The flow of sequence currents in the sequence networks is shown in the Fig.4.74.

We will be discussing open-conductor faults in the next lecture.

207

4.13

When one or two phases of a balanced three-phase line opens it creates an unbalance in the

system and results in the flow of unbalanced currents. Such conditions occur in the system when

one or two conductors of a trnansmission line are broken due to storm or if fuses, isolators or

circuit breakers operate only on one or two phases leaving others connected. Such open conductor

Bus ] matrices of sequence networks.

faults can also be analysed with the help of [Z

In Fig. 4.75, a section of a three phase system between buses i and j is shown. Fig. 4.75 (a)

shows one conductor open while Fig. 4.75 (b) shows two conductors open between points k and

k . The positive direction of currents Ia , Ib and Ic are shown in the figure. For the analysis of

such faults, the Thevenins impedance between two buses i and j is required and the relationship

Bus ] and Thevenins impedances at each bus of the network needs

between the elements of [Z

to be established.

0 ] be the vector of open-circuit bus voltages corresponding to the initial (pre-fault) value

Let [V

Bus ]. We can

of bus current vector [

I0 ] injected in a network with bus impedance matrix [Z

then write

208

0 ] = [Z

Bus ][I0 ]

[V

(4.134)

can be

If the bus currents are changed to a new value, [

I0 + I], the new bus voltage [V]

expressed as:

= [Z

Bus ] [I0 + I]

[V]

Bus ][I0 ] + [Z

Bus ][I]

= [Z

(4.135)

0 ] + [V]

= [V

represents the change in the values of the original bus voltage [V

0 ].

where,[V]

Fig. 4.76 represents a power system with buses i and j taken out along with the reference node.

0 ] and [I0 ] are zero. Currents [Ii ] and [Ij ] are

The circuit is not energised so that [V

injected into the ith and jth buses respectively, through current sources connected between the

node and the reference node.

Figure 4.76: Change in bus voltage [V]

209

The changes in bus voltage [V]

V 1

Vi i

V = j

VN N

Z11 Z1i

Zi1 Zii

Zj1 Zji

ZN 1 ZN i

Z1j Z1N

Zij ZiN

Zjj ZjN

ZN j ZN N

I

1

Ii

I

j

IN

V Z I + Z I

1j

j

1

1i i

Vi Zii Ii + Zij Ij

V = Z I + Z I

jj

j

j

ji i

VN ZN i Ii + ZN j Ij

(4.136)

(4.137)

adding and subtracting Z

Vi = Vi0 + (Zii Zij )Ii + Zij (Ii + Ij )

(4.138)

Vj = Vj0 + V

(4.139)

adding and subtracting Z

Vj = Vj0 + (Zjj Zji )Ij + Zji (Ii + Ij )

(4.140)

Zji = Zij

(4.141)

Thus the equations (4.138) and (4.140) can be represented by an equivalent circuit shown in

Fig. 4.77, which is also the Thevenins Equivalent circuit of the network as seen from the ith

and jth buses.

From the figure it can be observed that the Thevenins open circuit voltage between ith and jth

buses is (Vi0 Vj0 ).

210

To calculate the open circuit impedance between ith and jth buses, the initial voltages Vi0 and

Vj0 are set equal to zero and an ideal current source I is connected between the two busses.

Next, the resulting voltages Vi and Vj are calculated. Note that Ii = I and Ij = I.

Vi = (Zii Zij )I

(4.142)

(4.143)

Next, calculate the voltage difference Vij between ith and jth buses as:

(4.144)

Hence,

ZT hevenin,ij =

Vij

= (Zii + Zjj 2Zij )

I

(4.145)

Once the Thevenins equivalent is established, the analysis of open-conductor faults can proceed

further. The opening of all the three phases is equivalent to the removal of the line i j totally

(0)

(1)

(2)

from the network. If zij , zij and zij are the the three sequence impedance of the line i

j, then the removal of this line from the network can be simulated by adding

zij(0) ,

zij(1) and

zij(2) to the corresponding Thevenins equivalent network of the three sequence networks of the

original network as seen from ith and jth buses.

Let x represents the fractional length of the broken line i j from ith bus to the break point

k, where 0 x 1.

211

The positive sequence impedance of the conductor segment between the ith bus and the point of

break k is x

zij(1) , and the positive sequence impedance of the remaining conductor from point k to

j th bus is (1 x)

zij(1) . These two impedances are then added to represent the broken conductor.

This is illustrated in Fig. 4.78

Figure 4.78: Positive sequence equivalent network with line open between buses k and k

(a)

(b)

(c)

If Vkk , Vkk and Vkk represent the phase component of voltage drops between points k and

(0)

(1)

(2)

k, then Vkk , Vkk and Vkk represent the sequence components of the voltage drops between

points k and k. These sequence voltages have different values depending on the type of open

conductor fault.

(1)

To further simplify the circuit, the voltage Vkk and the total series impedance [x

zij(1) + (1

x)

zij(1) ] = zij(1) is replaced by a current source

Vkk(1)

(1)

ij

(1)

Fig. 4.79.

(1)

(1)

zij is and hence, is replaced by an open circuit.

The final simplified positive sequence impedance equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.80

Similarly, the negative sequence and zero sequence equivalent networks are shown in Fig.4.81 (a)

and (b) repectively. These equivalent networks are identical to the positive sequence equivalent

network but do not contain any internal voltage sources.

The equivalent currents

Vkk(1) Vkk(2)

,

(1)

zij

zij(2)

and

Vkk(0)

zij(0)

k. If no conductor is open then the sequence voltages are all zero and the current sources are

not present in the equivalent circuit. Further, the current sources can be regarded as current

injections into the buses i and j of the original sequence networks. All through the calculation

212

Figure 4.80: Final positive sequence Thevenins Equivalent circuit repesenting the opening of line i

j between buses k and k

(0)

(1)

(2)

Bus ], [Z

Bus ] and [Z

Bus ] of the original network are

process, the bus impedance matrices [Z

used.

213

Figure 4.81: Final (a) negative sequence (b) zero sequence Thevenins Equivalent circuit repesenting

the opening of line i j between k and k

Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero sequence

at ith bus

at j th bus

Vkk(1)

Vkk(2)

zij(1)

Vkk(1)

(1)

zij

Vkk(0)

zij(2)

Vkk(2)

(2)

zij

(0)

(1)

zij(0)

Vkk(0)

(0)

zij

(2)

The sequence voltage drops Vn , Vn and Vn at any bus n due to the current injections

at the buses i and j can be calculates from equation (4.136) as:

(0)

n

Vn(1) =

Vn(2) =

(0)

(0) (0)

(Zni

Znj

)Vkk

zij(0)

(1)

(1) (1)

(Zni

Znj

)Vkk

zij(1)

(2)

(2) (2)

(Zni

Znj

)V

(2)

ij

(4.146)

kk

Next, the Thevenins equivalent impedances for each sequence network, as seen from the busesk

and k, are calculated as follows:

From Fig.4.78, the positive sequence equivalent impdeance Z

kk

(1)

Zkk

zij(1) +

= x

(1)

Zth,ij

(

zij(1) )

+ (1 x)

zij(1)

(1)

(1)

Z

+ (

zij )

th,ij

214

(1)

kk

(

zij(1) )2

= (1)

Z

zij(1)

(4.147)

th,ij

Similarly from Fig. 4.81 (a) and (b), the negative sequence and zero sequence Thevenins equivalent impedances can be expressed as:

(2)

Zkk

=

(

zij(2) )2

Z (2) zij(2)

th,ij

(4.148)

(0)

Zkk

=

(

zij(0) )2

Z (0) zij(0)

th,ij

(1)

th,kk

(

zij(1) )2

(Vi(1) Vj(1) )

= (1)

(1)

Z

zij

(4.149)

th,ij

substituting

(1)

Zkk

zij(1)

(1)

Vth,kk

is obtained as:

zij(1)

(1)

Zth,ij

zij(1)

(1)

Zkk

(1)

Vth,kk

=

(Vi(1) Vj(1) )

(1)

zij

(4.150)

(1)

Also prior to the occurance of open-conductor fault on any conductor, the current Iij flowing

in phase a is the positive sequence component and is given by the relation:

Iij(1) =

(Vi(1) Vj(1) )

zij(1)

(4.151)

(1)

(1) (1)

Vth,kk

= Zkk Iij

(4.152)

The Thevenins equivalent network as seen from points k and k for the three sequence networks

are shown in Fig. 4.82

We are now ready to discuss the two possible cases of open-circuit fault i.e. (a) open phase open

(b) two phases open. We will be discussing them in the next lecture.

215

4.13.1

Consider that phase a conductor is open as shown in Fig. 4.75(a), hence phase a current Ia = 0.

As a result:

(1)

(2)

(4.153)

(0)

where, Ia , Ia and Ia are the symmetrical components of phase a current. Since phases b and

c are closed , the voltage drops .

Vkk ,b = 0 Vkk ,c = 0

216

(4.154)

The symmetrical components of voltage drops across the fault point can be calculated as :

V (0)

1 1 1 V

V

kk ,a

a

kk ,a

(1) 1

1

Va = 1 a a2 0 = Vkk ,a

3

(2)

2

Va

1 a a 0

Vkk ,a

(4.155)

1

Va(0) = Va(1) = Va(2) = Vkk ,a

3

(4.156)

Hence,

It implies that open conductor in phase a causes equal voltages to appear across points k and

k of each sequence network. Hence, the three equivalent sequence networks can be connected in

parallel across points k and k as shown in Fig. 4.83.

Figure 4.83: Connection of Equivalent sequence networks to represent open phase a between k and

k

(1)

The current Ia is given as :

Ia(1) = Iij

(1)

Zkk

+

(1)

Zkk

(2)

Z Z (0)

kk

kk

(2)

(0)

Zkk

+ Zkk

simplifying

Ia(1) = Iij

(1) (2)

(0)

Zkk

[Zkk + Zkk ]

Z (0) Z (1) + Z (1) Z (2) + Z (2) Z (0)

kk

kk

kk

kk

kk

(4.157)

kk

(1)

(2)

(0)

The sequence voltage drops Vkk , Vkk and Vkk can be calculated with reference to Fig.4.83 as:

(2) (0)

(1)

(1) Zkk Zkk

Vkk = Ia

(2)

(0)

Zkk

+ Zkk

(1)

Substituting Ia and simplifying we get:

217

Zkk

Zkk Zkk

(0)

(1)

Z Z + Z (1) Z (2) + Z (2) Z (0)

kk

(1)

(2)

kk

kk

kk

kk

(4.158)

kk

(0)

, Z , and Z are obtained from the impedance parameters of the sequence networks

Z

kk

kk

kk

[equation (4.147) and equation (4.148)].

Iij is the pre-fault current or load current in phase a of the line i j

Next, the equivalent injected currents

(0)

(1)

(2)

Vkk(1) Vkk(2)

,

(1)

zij

zij(2)

and

Vkk(0)

zij(0)

are calculated.

bus voltage are calculated using equation (4.146).

Finally, the bus voltages after fault are calculated using superposition principle as :

Vi(2) (F ) = Vi(1)

Vi(0) (F ) = Vi(2)

4.13.2

(4.159)

Ib = 0

Ic = 0

(4.160)

I(0)

1 1 1 I

a

a

(1) 1

Ia = 1 a a2 0

3

(2)

2

1 a a 0

Ia

Simplifying one gets the condition:

1

Ia(0) = Ia(1) = Ia(2) = Ia

3

(4.161)

equation (4.161) indicates that the three equivalent sequence networks are in series and to ensure

V + Va(1) + Va(2) = 0 the circuit should be closed.The interconnection of the sequence networks is

shown in Fig.4.84.

From the equivalent circuit of Fig.4.84, the sequence currents can be calculated as :

(0)

a

218

Figure 4.84: Connection of Equivalent sequence networks to represent open phases b and c between

k and k

(1)

Zkk

(0)

(1)

Z + Z + Z (2)

kk

kk

(4.162)

kk

The sequence voltage can be calculated as:

(1) (0)

(2)

Zkk

(Zkk + Zkk )

(1)

(2)

(1) (0)

(1)

(2)

Zkk + Zkk

+ Zkk

(1) (2)

Zkk

Zkk

(2)

=

ij (0)

(1)

(2)

Zkk + Zkk

+ Zkk

(1) (0)

Zkk

Zkk

(0)

=

ij (0)

(1)

(2)

Zkk + Zkk

+ Zkk

(4.163)

Remaining calculations are similar to those performed for single conductor open case. In the

next lecture we will be looking at an example of open conductor fault analysis.

219

4.14

power system:

The prefault bus voltages for buses 3, 4 and 5 are :

Let one conductor of line 7 between buses 4 and 5 be open. The pre-fault current in phase a of

(0)

(1)

the faulted line is I45 = (0.3821 j0.3779) pu. The sequence impedance matrices [Z

Bus ], [ZBus ]

(2)

and [Z

Bus ] are same as used in the example for calculation of short circuit faults on the power

system of Fig. 4.67.

The Thevenins impedance of the network as seen from buses 4 and 5 is calculated using equation

(4.145) with i=4 and i=5 as:

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Zth,45

= Z44

+ Z55

2Z45

= j0.1397 + j0.1750 2 0.1250 = j0.0647 pu

(2)

(1)

Zth,45

= Zth,45

= j0.0647 pu

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

Zth,45

= Z44

+ Z55

2Z45

= j0.30 + j0.30 2 0.20 = j0.20 pu

(1)

(2)

(0)

Next,Z

kk

kk

kk

(1) 2

(

z45

)

(j0.1)2

(1)

Zkk = (1)

=

= j0.2833 pu

(1)

j0.0647 j0.10

Zth,45 z45

(2)

(1)

Zkk

= Zkk = j0.2833 pu

(0) 2

(

z45

)

(j0.30)2

(0)

Zkk = (0)

=

= j0.90 pu

(0)

j0.20 j0.30

Zth,45 z45

(1)

The current Ia is calculated using equation (4.157)

Ia(1) = Iij

(1) (2)

(0)

Zkk

[Zkk + Zkk ]

Z (0) Z (1) + Z (1) Z (2) + Z (2) Z (0)

kk

kk

kk

kk

kk

kk

j0.2833(j0.2833 + j0.3)

= (0.2170 j0.2146) pu

j0.9 j0.2833 + j0.2833 j0.2833 + j0.2833 j0.9

220

(1)

(2)

(0)

The sequence voltage drops Vkk , Vkk and Vkk are then calculated using the equation:

(2) (0)

(1)

(1) Zkk Zkk

Vkk = Ia

(2)

(0)

Zkk

+ Zkk

j0.2833 j0.9

Vkk(1) = (0.2170 j0.2146)

= (0.0463 + j0.0468) pu

j0.2833 + j0.9

Vkk(2) = Vkk(0) = Vkk(1) = (0.0463 + j0.0468) pu

As a check calculate

Ia(2)

Vkk(2)

Z (2)

0.0463 + j0.0468

= (0.1651 + j0.1633) pu

j0.2833

Ia(0)

V (0)

= kk

Z (0)

0.0463 + j0.0468

= (0.052 + j0.0514) pu

j0.90

kk

kk

=0

Q.E.D.

Bus 3

(0)

(0)

(Z34

Z35

)Vkk(0) j0.10 j0.10

(0)

V3 =

=

(0.0463 + j0.0468) = 0 pu

(0)

j0.30

z45

(1)

(1)

(Z34

Z35

)Vkk(1) j0.1103 j0.1250

(1)

V3 =

=

(1)

j0.1

z45

Hence,

Bus 4

(0)

(0)

(Z44

Z45

)Vkk(0) j0.30 j0.20

(0)

V4 =

=

(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0154 + j0.0156) pu

(0)

j0.3

z45

221

(1)

(1)

(Z44

Z45

)Vkk(1) j0.01397 j0.125

(1)

V4 =

=

(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0068 + j0.0069) pu

(1)

j0.10

z45

V4 = V4(0) + V4(1) + V4(2) = (0.0290 j0.0293) pu

Bus 5

(0)

(0)

(Z54

Z55

)Vkk(0) j0.20 j0.30

(0)

V5 =

=

(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0154 j0.0156) pu

(0)

j0.3

z45

(1)

(1)

(Z54

Z45

)Vkk(1) j0.1250 j0.1750

(1)

=

(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0231 j0.0234) pu

V5 =

(1)

j0.3

z45

V5 = V5(0) + V5(1) + V5(2) = (0.0617 j0.0624) pu

The bus voltages during fault are

V3 (F ) = 0.9053 9.750 pu

V4 (F ) = 0.9392 8.020 pu

222

V5 (F ) = 0.8430 18.040 pu

The phase components of current in line 4-5 are:

0

45

(b)

I = 1 a2 a (0.2170 j0.2146) = 0.4782 147.840 pu

45

(c)

0

2

I45 1 a a (0.1651 + j0.1633) 0.478258.56

TWO CONDUCTORS OPEN

The sequence currents can be calculated with the help of equation (4.162) as:

Ia(1) = Iij

(1)

Zkk

(0.3821 j0.3779) j0.2833

=

(0)

(1)

(2)

j0.9 + j0.2833 + j0.2833

Zkk + Zkk + Zkk

The sequence voltages of Thevenins equivalent sequence network is calculated using equation

(4.163)

(0)

(2)

Vkk(1) = Ia(1) (Zkk

+ Zkk ) = (0.0738 j0.073) (j0.9 + j0.2833) = (0.0864 + j0.0873) pu

(2)

Vkk(2) = Ia(2) Zkk

= (0.0738 j0.073)(j0.2833) = (0.0207 + j0.0209) pu

(0)

Vkk(0) = Ia(0) Zkk

= (0.0738 j0.073)(j0.9) = (0.0657 + j0.0664) pu

Bus 3

(0)

(0)

(Z34

Z35

)Vkk(0) j0.1 j0.10

(0)

V3 =

=

(0.0657 j0.0664) = 0 pu

(0)

j0.3

z45

(1)

(1)

(Z34

Z35

)Vkk(1) j0.1103 j0.1250

(1)

V3 =

=

(0.0864 + j0.0873) = (0.0127 j0.0128) pu

(1)

j0.1

z45

(2)

(2)

(Z34

Z35

)Vkk(2) j0.1103 j0.1250

(2)

V3 =

=

(0.0207 j0.0208) = (0.0030 + j0.0030) pu

(2)

j0.1

z45

223

V3 (F ) = 0.9085 9.460 pu

Bus 4

(0)

(0)

(Z44

Z45

)Vkk(0) j0.30 j0.20

(0)

=

(0.0657 j0.0664) = (0.0219 j0.0221) pu

V4 =

(0)

j0.30

z45

(1)

(1)

(Z44

Z45

)Vkk(1) j0.1397 j0.1250

(1)

=

(0.0864 + j0.0873) = (0.0127 + j0.0128) pu

V4 =

(1)

j0.1

z45

(2)

(2)

(Z44

Z45

)Vkk(1) j0.1397 j0.1250

(2)

V4 =

=

(0.0207 j0.0209) = (0.0030 j0.0031) pu

(2)

j0.1

z45

Hence, the voltage of bus 4 during fault is:

V4 (F ) = 0.9054 11.00 pu

Bus 5

(0)

(0)

(Z54

Z55

)Vkk(0) j0.20 j0.30

(0)

=

(0.0657 j0.0664) = (0.0219 + j0.0221) pu

V5 =

(0)

j0.30

z45

(1)

(1)

(Z54

Z55

)Vkk(1) j0.1250 j0.1750

(1)

V5 =

=

(0.0864 + j0.0873) = (0.0432 j0.0437) pu

(1)

j0.10

z45

224

(2)

(2)

(Z54

Z55

)Vkk(2) j0.1250 j0.1750

(2)

V5 =

=

(0.0207 j0.0209) = (0.0103 + j0.0105) pu

(2)

j0.10

z45

Hence, the voltage of bus 5 during fault is:

V5 (F ) = 0.8777 13.830 pu

The phase components of current in line 4-5 are:

45

(b)

I = 1 a2 a (0.0738 j0.073) =

pu

0

45

(c)

2

I45 1 a a (0.0738 j0.073)

225

Module 5

Contingency Analysis

5.1

In Chapter 2, we have discussed about the methods for analyzing the power system performance at a

particular operating point. However, for practical system operation, apart from ensuring the satisfactory operation of the system at a particular operating condition, it is also equally important to make

sure that the system operates with adequate level of security. Broadly, the term security implies

the ability of the system to operate within system constraints (on bus voltage magnitudes, current

and power flow over the lines) in the event of outage (contingency) of any component (generator or

transmission line). Now, if the system is operating at high loading (light loading) conditions, then

the post-contingency system condition would be highly stressed (lightly stressed). Therefore, the

post contingency values of different quantities (voltages, current/power flow) depend on the present

operating condition. In case the post-outage (post contingency) does not involve any violation of

any operating constraints, the system is said to be operating securely. Otherwise, the system is said

to enter an emergency operating condition. Therefore, for detecting the possibility of appearance

of emergency operating conditions, analysis of the post-contingency scenario (henceforth termed as

contingency analysis) of the system needs to be carried out.

Now, in any practical sized power system, there is a very large number of elements. Hence, for

carrying out contingency analysis, outages of all these elements (preferably) need to be carried out

one-by-one corresponding to any particular operating condition. However, in any power system, the

operating point of the system changes quite frequently with change is loading/generating conditions.

With the change in system operating conditions, the contingency analysis exercise needs to be

carried out again at the new operating point. Thus, for proper monitoring of system security, a

large number of outage cases need to be simulated repeatedly over a short span of time. Ideally,

these outage cases should be studied with the help of full AC load flow solutions. However, analysis

of thousands of outage cases with full AC power flow technique will involve a significant amount of

computation time and as a result, it might not be possible to complete this entire exercise before the

new operating condition emerges. Therefore, instead of using full non-linear AC power flow analysis,

approximate, but much faster techniques based on linear sensitivity factors are used to estimate the

post contingency values of different quantities of interest. The basic concept of sensitivity factors

226

is described below. Essestially, the linear sensitivity factors approximately estimate the changes

in different line flows for any particular outage condition without the need of full AC power flow

solution.

Basically, there are two types of sensitivity factors and these are:

a. Generation outage sensitivity factor (GOSF)

b. Line outage sensitivity factor (LOSF)

GOSF relates the approximate change in power flow in line i-j (i.e. between bus i and j) due

to the outage of generator at bus k, whereas LOSF helps to calculate the approximate change in

power flow in line i-j due to outage of line m-n.

The generation outage sensitivity factor is defined by,

ijk =

fij

Pk

(5.1)

k

where, ij

GOSF of line i-j for generation change at bus k

Pk Change in generation at bus k

k

The factor ij

denotes the sensitivity of the line flow on line i-j due to change in generation

at bus k. In equation (5.1), it is assumed that the generation lost at bus k would be exactly

compensated by the reference or slack bus. Now, if the generation at bus k was generating an

amount of power equal to Pk0 , then to represent the outage condition, Pk = Pk0 .

Hence, the new power flow over the line i-j would be given as,

(5.2)

k

The factor ij

would be pre-calculated and stored in the memory. As we will see later, the values

k

of ij depend only on the network parameters and therefore, are constant. However, it should be

k

m

noted that for any particular line i-j, the factors ij

and ij

(for generation outage at bus m) are

different and therefore need to be pre-calculated separately. Once these factors are pre-calculated

and stored, the new values of line flow over any line can easily be estimated very quickly from

equation (5.2). If the new power flow over any line is found to be more than the corresponding limit,

then the operator can be alerted for taking an appropriate pre-emptive action.

In equation (5.2), it is assumed that the lost generation at bus k would be taken up by the

slack bus. However, it is also quite possible that the lost generation would be compensated by

all the remaining on-line generators combinedly, in which, each of the on-line generators would

take up some fraction of the lost generation in some particular ratio. One of the most frequently

used methods assumes that the on-line generators share the lost generation in proportion to their

maximum MW rating. Thus, the proportion of generation picked up by generation g is given by

227

g k,

gk =

Pgmax

(5.3)

Pamax

a=1

k

Pamax Maximum MW rating for generator a.

Now, as the sensitivity factors shown in equation (5.1) are linear in nature, the effects of simultaneous generation change in several generators on a particular line can be obtained by following

superposition principle. Hence, the new line flow in the line i-j becomes,

m

(5.4)

a=1

In equation (5.4) it is assumed that no remaining on-line generation hits the generation limit.

The line outage distribution factors are also defined similarly. The LOSF is defined by,

ij, mn =

fij

(5.5)

(0)

fmn

Where, ij, mn Line outage distribution factor for line i-j under outage of line m-n.

(0)

fmn

Power flow over line m-n in the pre-outage condition.

Therefore, for the outage of line m-n, the new flow over line i-j is given by,

(0)

fij(n) = fij(0) + ij, mn fmn

(5.6)

Again, as we will show later, the factors ij,mn are constant as they are dependent only on the line

parameters. Therefore, they would be pre-calculated and stored in the memory. As a result, for the

outage of any line m-n, the new power flows over all the other lines can be estimated very quickly.

5.2

We have already discussed the concepts of linear sensitivity factors. These factors are calculated

based on the concept of DC power flow and hence, let us first have a look at DC power flow

technique.

5.2.1

DC power flow

From FDLF method, we know, P = [B ] , where each elements of the matrix [B ] is negative

BUS bus matrix. Now, in DC power

of the imaginary parts of the corresponding elements of the Y

228

flow analysis, apart from using the above decoupled relation between P and , several other

simplifying assumptions are also taken as follows:

a. The system is lossless (i.e. line resistance is neglected) and therefore, each line is represented

by its reactance only.

b. The voltage of each bus is maintained at the rated voltage, i.e. 1.0 p.u.

c. For any line m-n, the angular difference between its terminal buses is quite small, and hence,

cos m cos n (as m n ) and sin(m n ) (m n ) rad (as m n 0) .

With these assumptions, the power flow over a line becomes,

Pij =

Vi Vj

1

sin(i j )

(i j ) (p.u)

xij

xij

(5.7)

In equation (5.7), the quantity xij denotes the reactance of the line i-j. From this equation it

is observed that the line power flow is basically a linear combination of the terminal bus voltage

angles. Moreover, the current flow over the line i-j is given by,

Vi Vj

Iij =

jxij

(Vi cos i Vj cos j ) + j(Vi sin i Vj sin j )

=

jxij

1

1

=

(sin i sin j )

(i j )

xij

xij

(5.8)

Equation (5.8) has been written under an added assumption that both the angles i and j are

individually quite small in magnitude. From equations (5.7) and (5.8) it is observed that in DC

power flow model, the expressions of line power flow and line current are same in per unit. We will

utilize this fact for computing LOSF in future.

In the next lecture, we will discuss a method for calculating GOSF.

229

5.2.2

Calculation of GOSF

1

X

3 32 X33 X3n P3

(5.9)

In equation (5.9), the matrix [X] is of size (n 1) (n 1) and any element Xij is actually

located in the location (i 1), (j 1). As the matrix [B ] is a constant real matrix dependent only

on the line parameters, matrix [X] is also a constant real matrix dependent on the line parameters.

Furthermore, in equation (5.9), the quantity 1 is not included in the vector as the reference

angle does not change with any outage in the system.

Now, to calculate the GOSF for the outage of generator at bus k, the perturbation at bus k

is set to Pk and the perturbation at the slack bus is set to Pk (assuming that the entire lost

generation is taken up by the slack bus) while keeping the perturbations at the other buses equal to

zero. Therefore, the perturbed values of the bus angles can be given as,

i = Xik Pk for i = 2, n

(5.10)

Now, from equation (5.7), the change in power flow over line i-j is given by,

Pij =

Therefore,

1

1

(i j ) = (Xik Xjk )Pk , where, xl = xij is the reactance of the line i-j.

xl

xl

ijk =

=

Pk

xl

(5.11)

k

As can be seen from equation (5.11), the factor ij

is dependent only on the line parameters.

Let us now look at the application and utility of these sensitivity factors. For this purpose, let

as consider the IEEE-14 bus system (the data of which are given in Tables A.3 and A.4). In this

system, apart from the slack bus,there are two other generations at bus 2 and bus 6 (refer Table A.3).

The real power flows in all the lines have been calculated with all the three generatiors operating in

the system and are shown in column 2 of Table 5.1 (under the heading Pline(ori)). The GSOFs for

these two generators have been calculated using equation (5.11) and are shown is columns 3 and 7 of

Table 5.1 respectively (under the heading GSOF(2) and GSOF(6) respectively). From Table A.3 it

can be seen that the specified real power generated by these two generations are 18.3 MW and 11.2

MW respectively. Hence, following the argument given for equation (5.2), the quantities P2 and

P6 are equal to -0.183(p.u) and 0.112 (p.u) respectively (on a 100 MVA base) as shown in columns

4 and 8 of Table 5.1. With these information, the estimated line flows after the outage of generation

2 and 6 are calculated using equation (5.2) and are shown in columns 5 and 9 respectively. Lastly,

full AC power flow studies have been carried out by removing generator 2 and 6 one by one (by

modeling them as PQ bus after reducing their real power generation to zero) and the results of line

230

flows (obtained with full AC power flow) are shown in columns 6 and 10 respectively. From columns

5 and 6 as well as from columns 9 and 10 it is observed that the post-outage line-flows estimated by

the sensitivity analysis technique match quite closely with those obtained by the full AC power flow

method.

Table 5.1: Results of generator outage analysis in IEEE 14 bus system (all powers are given in p.u.)

For outage of generator at bus 2

Line Pline

GSOF

Pline

Pline

P2

no.

(ori)

(2)

(cal)

(ACLF)

1

1.6262 -0.9709 -0.183 1.803875 1.7891

2

0.7464 -0.1935 -0.183 0.781811 0.7776

3

0.8655 0.0089 -0.183 0.863871 0.8606

4

0.5314 0.0556 -0.183 0.521225 0.5207

5

0.3662 0.0821 -0.183 0.351176 0.3511

6

-0.358

0.047 -0.183 -0.3666

-0.3622

7

-0.7068 0.1064 -0.183 -0.72627 -0.7217

8

0.2689 -0.0013 -0.183 0.269138 0.2691

9

0.1063 -0.0004 -0.183 0.106373 0.1064

10

0.2893 -0.0078 -0.183 0.290727 0.2887

11

0.1156 -0.0059 -0.183 0.11668

0.1154

12

0.0852 -0.0007 -0.183 0.085328 0.0851

13

0.2005 -0.0031 -0.183 0.201067 0.2003

14

0.0025 -0.0065 -0.183 0.00369

0.0025

15

0.2664 0.0052 -0.183 0.265448 0.2667

16

0.0123 0.0055 -0.183 0.011294 0.0124

17

0.0655 0.0037 -0.183 0.064823 0.0657

18 -0.0777 0.0057 -0.183 -0.07874 -0.0776

19

0.0233 -0.0012 -0.183 0.02352

0.0232

20

0.0857 -0.0038 -0.183 0.086395 0.0854

For outage of

GSOF

P6

(6)

-0.7628 -0.112

-0.4344 -0.112

-0.1568 -0.112

-0.2928 -0.112

-0.2977 -0.112

-0.1203 -0.112

-0.0033 -0.112

-0.2562 -0.112

-0.1009 -0.112

-0.6729 -0.112

0.2459 -0.112

0.0277 -0.112

0.1312 -0.112

-0.0204 -0.112

-0.2358 -0.112

-0.2287 -0.112

-0.1548 -0.112

-0.2368 -0.112

0.05

-0.112

0.1574 -0.112

generator at bus 6

Pline

Pline

(cal)

(ACLF)

1.711634 1.7203

0.795053 0.7753

0.883062 0.8888

0.564194 0.5678

0.399542

0.395

-0.34453 -0.3357

-0.70643 -0.7189

0.297594 0.3173

0.117601 0.1255

0.364665 0.3309

0.088059 0.0748

0.082098 0.0778

0.185806 0.1782

0.004785 0.0022

0.29281

0.3151

0.037914 0.0512

0.082838 0.0944

-0.05118

-0.039

0.0177

0.016

0.068071 0.0567

To calculate the LOSF, we first need to understand the concept of Thevenin equivalent impedance

of a power system. Let as first have a look at that.

5.2.3

V

where I, V

and Y

are the vector of bus injection currents, vector of bus voltages

We know

I=Y

=Z

I where Z

is the bus impedance matrix and

and the admittance matrix respectively. Hence,V

=Y

1 . As the matrix Z

is a constant matrix, the relation V

=Z

I denotes a linear

is given by Z

and I and hence, for incremental charges in V

and I the same relation also

equation connecting V

231

= Z

I. Expanding this relation we get,

holds good, i.e. V

V1 Z11 Z12 Z1n I1

I

V Z

Z

2 21

2

22

2n

Vn Zn1 Zn2 Znn In

(5.12)

Now, suppose that there is an incremental charge is the current of bus k only while the incremental changes at the other buses are zero. Hence, Ik 0 and Ii = 0 for i = 1, n; k . Hence,

ik Ik for i = 1, n. Hence,

from equation (5.12), the changes in bus voltages are given by, Vi = Z

(0)

if the initial bus voltage is Vk , then the final voltage after perturbation is given by,

Vk = Vk(0) + Zkk Ik

(5.13)

Equation (5.13) can be represented as an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 5.1, which shows

the Thevenins equivalent circuit at bus k. From this circuit, the Thevenins equivalent impedance

kk .

of the system (looking from bus k) in equal to Z

In the next lecture, we will use the Thevenins equivalent impedance for calculating LOSF.

232

5.3

Calculation of LOSF

In the last lecture, we have looked at the Thevenins impedance of the system looking from a

particular bus k. Let us now look at the Thevenins equivalent impedance of any system between

bus m and bus n. To achieve that let us assume that the incremental currents Im and In are

injected at bus m and n respectively (the incremental current at all the other buses are zero).

Consequently, from equation (5.12), the changes in the bus voltages (Vm and Vn ) can be given

as,

Vm = Zmm Im + Zmm In

(5.14)

Vn = Znm Im + Znn In

(5.15)

= Vm(0) + (Zmm Zmn )Im + Zmn (Im + In )

(5.16)

= Vn(0) + Znm (Im + In ) + (Znn Znm )In

(5.17)

From equations (5.16) and (5.17), the equivalent circuit of the power system looking from bus

m and bus n can be drawn as shown in Fig. 5.2.

(0)

(0)

From Fig. 5.2 it is observed that the open-circuit voltage between bus m and bus n is Vm Vn

233

and the Thevenins equivalent impedance between bus m and bus n is given by,

(5.18)

From Fig. 5.2 it is also observed that the Thevenins equivalent impedance between bus m and

mm Znm + Znm ) = Zmm and that between bus n and the reference is (Znn Znm +

reference is (Z

Zmn ) = Znn which is in complete agreement with the results already obtained in equation (5.13).

b is connected between

Also, from Fig. 5.2 it can be readily seen that if a line having an impedance Z

bus m and n, then the current through this line is given by,

Vm(0) Vn(0)

Ib =

ZT h, mn + Zb

(5.19)

b is removed

Now, let as consider the case when a line or transformer having an impedance Z

from the system. Let us assume that this branch is removed between bus m and n. The removal

b between bus m and n. The

of this branch can be represented by addition of an impedance Z

situation is shown in Fig. 5.3.

b and this

Now, in Fig. 5.3, it can be seen that the current Ia flows in the added impedance Z

current is given by,

Vm(0) Vn(0)

Ia =

ZT h, mn Zb

(5.20)

This current Ia flows out of bus m and flows into bus n. Therefore, because of the addition

234

of impedance Z

n by In = Ia . However, at all the other buses (not equal to m or n), the current injections do

not change. Because of these changed current injections at bus m and n, the voltages at all the

bues will get changed. The changes in voltages at any bus p and q can be given as,

Vp = Zpm Im + Zpn In = (Zpn Zpm )Ia

(5.21)

(5.22)

and

Ipq =

=

Ia

Zc

Zc

(5.23)

In equation (5.23), the quantity Z

and (5.23) we get,

(Zpn Zpm ) (Zqn Zqm ) Vm(0) Vn(0)

[

]

Ipq =

Zc

ZT h, mn Zb

(5.24)

If the impedance of the line m-n is Z

Vm(0) Vn(0)

Imn =

Zb

(5.25)

Or,

Ipq =

[

]

Zc

ZT h, mn Zb

Zb

(5.26)

=

[

]

Imn Zc

ZT h, mn Zb

(5.27)

Now, in equations (5.7) and (5.8) we have seen that under the assumptions of DC power flow

method, the expressions of power flow and current flow in a line are same in per unit. Therefore,

if we impose the same assumptions in equation (5.27), then all the impedances would be replaced

by the corresponding reactances and Ipq (Imn ) would be replaced by Ppq (Pmn ). Therefore, the

LOSF (pq, mn ) is given by,

pq, mn =

= [

]

Pmn xc

XT h, mn Xb

(5.28)

Again, as an example, IEEE 14 bus system is chosen and the estimated and calculated line-power

flows for two line outage cases are shown in Table 5.2. In this table, the pre-outage real power flows

235

in the line are shown in column 2. The values of LOSF are shown in columns 3 and 7. Using these

LOSF, the estimated values of power flow in the lines are tabulated in columns 5 and 9. Finally,

the actual power flow in the lines obtained with full AC power flow (after removing the line under

consideration) are shown in columns 6 and 10 respectively. From this table, it is observed that

the estimated and calculated values are reasonably close to each other, thereby establishing the

usefulness of the line outage sensitivity factors.

Table 5.2: Results of line outage analysis in IEEE 14 bus system (all powers are given in p.u.)

For outage of line no. 18

Line Pline

LSOF

Pline

Pline

P18

no.

(ori)

(2)

(cal)

(ACLF)

1

1.6262 -0.0363 -0.0777 1.6290205 1.6309

2

0.7464 0.0351 -0.0777 0.7436727

0.742

3

0.8655 -0.0294 -0.0777 0.8677844

0.869

4

0.5314 -0.0682 -0.0777 0.5366991 0.5364

5

0.3662 0.0574 -0.0777 0.36174

0.362

6

-0.358 -0.0363 -0.0777 -0.355179 -0.3545

7

-0.7068 0.5224 -0.0777 -0.747390 -0.7442

8

0.2689 -0.4868 -0.0777 0.3067244 0.3014

9

0.1063 -0.1923 -0.0777 0.1212417 0.1192

10

0.2893 0.6604 -0.0777 0.2379869 0.2433

11

0.1156 0.9961 -0.0777 0.038203

0.0351

12

0.0852 -0.0857 -0.0777 0.0918589 0.0925

13

0.2005 -0.325 -0.0777 0.2257525 0.2277

14

0.0025 -0.0125 -0.0777 0.0034713 0.0024

15

0.2664 -0.4743 -0.0777 0.3032531 0.2991

16

0.0123 -1.0039 -0.0777 0.090303

0.0904

17

0.0655 0.4085 -0.0777 0.0337596 0.0329

18 -0.0777

-0.0777

19

0.0233 -0.1021 -0.0777 0.0312332 0.0305

20

0.0857 -0.4102 -0.0777 0.1175725 0.1192

LSOF

Pline

P2

(6)

(cal)

1.0113 0.7464 2.381034

0.7464

0.3597 0.7464 0.799880

0.4845 0.7464 0.727830

0.1716 0.7464 -0.22991

0.4944 0.7464 -0.3377

0.0258 0.7464 0.288157

0.0101 0.7464 0.113838

-0.0288 0.7464 0.267803

-0.0166 0.7464 0.103209

-0.0024 0.7464 0.083408

-0.0086 0.7464 0.19408

0.0048 0.7464 0.006082

0.021 0.7464 0.282074

0.0168 0.7464 0.024839

0.011 0.7464 0.073710

0.0167 0.7464 -0.06523

-0.0025 0.7464 0.02143

-0.011 0.7464 0.077489

2

Pline

(ACLF)

2.4451

0.9987

0.7986

0.7256

-0.2352

-0.3481

0.2815

0.1113

0.272

0.1046

0.0842

0.1952

0.0024

0.2791

0.0234

0.0719

-0.0666

0.0224

0.0794

So far, we have discussed the case of single contingency only. In the next lecture, we will start

looking into the procedure of analysis of multiple contingencies.

236

5.4

Let us now examine the case of outage of more than one elements. We will discuss here the case

of outage of two transmission lines. Although theoretically the outage of any number of lines can

be analyzed, but practically it is not feasible as outage of more than two lines would almost surely

overload the other existing lines and hence trip the whole system. We will also not discuss the case

of outage of two generations as outage of two generators would also most probably create a huge

deficit of power supply in the system, which would necessitate shedding of loads to maintain the

frequency of the grid within acceptable limits. Hence, we will confine ourselves to the case of outage

of two lines only. Towards this goal, let us first analyze the situation where two transmission lines are

simultaneously added to the power system, as the expressions derived would be directly applicable

to the case of our interest, i.e. outage of two lines.

Let us consider an N-bus power system in which I1 , I2 , IN are the bus injection currents and

V1 , V2 , VN are the bus voltages. The bus voltages and the bus injection currents are related by

and the relation is given as,

the bus impedance matrix Z

V1 Z11 Z12 Z1N I1

V Z

2 21 Z22 Z2N I2

=

VN ZN 1 ZN 2 ZN N IN

(5.29)

Now, let as consider that a line of impedance Z

b in connected between buses g-h. It is to be again noted that the lines Za and

line of impedance Z

Zb are not part of the original system described by equation (5.29) and our objective is to analyze

the effect of these two line additions on the bus voltages and power flowers in the lines of the original

system. To accomplish this, we assume that the bus injections currents I1 , I2 , IN remain constant

i.e. they are un-effected by the addition of these two lines. Now, due to the addition of these two

= [V1 , V2 , VN ] be the vector of the

lines, the bus voltages of the system would charge. Let V

new bus voltages. Also, due to the addition of these two lines, currents Ia and Ib would flow through

a and Zb respectively as shown in Fig. 5.4.

the impedance Z

a 0 Ia

e V

Z

V

a Ia = Ve V and Zb Ib = Vg V . Hence, [

From Fig. 5.4, Z

] [ ] = [ f ].

f

h

0 Zb Ib

Vg Vh

237

Or,

Za

[

0

V

1

V2

V

e

e

f

g

h

0 Ia

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Vf

][ ] = [

]

Zb Ib

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

V

g

Vh

VN

= AV

238

(5.30)

In equation (5.30), the matrix A can easily be identified. Now, from Fig. 5.4 it can be seen

a and Zb , extra currents Ia and Ib are being injected into buses f

that due to the addition of lines Z

and h respectively (which were not present before the addition of these two lines). Similarly, extra

currents Ia and Ib are being extracted from the buses e and g respectively (which were also not

present before the addition of these two lines). Therefore, it can be said that, due to the addition

of these two lines, injection currents at these four buses have changed by Ie , If , Ig and Ih

respectively, where Ie = Ia ; If = +Ia ; Ig = Ib and Ih = +Ib and due to these extra injection

to V

. Therefore, the addition of these two lines can

currents, the bus voltages have changed from V

be indirectly represented by these extra four injection currents which will produce the same effect

on the existing system. This situation is shown in Fig. 5.5.

Now, the vector of change in injection currents can be expressed as;

T

I = [00 Ie If Ig Ih 00] . Or,

0 0 0

0 0 0

I 1 0

Ia 1 0 Ia

[ ] = AT [Ia ]

I = =

Ib

Ib

Ib 0 1

Ib 0 1

0 0 0

(5.31)

= Z

I

Due to the above change in current

I, the bus voltages would undergo a change V

=V

V

. Or, V

=V

+ V

.

Where Z

Or,

= V

+ Z

I = V

ZA

T [Ia ]

V

Ib

Ia

Ib

= AV

AZA

T [ ];

Or, AV

Or,

(5.32)

Za 0 Ia

AZA

T [Ia ] (from equation (5.30))

]

[

]

=

A

V

0 Zb Ib

Ib

Or, [

1

Ia

Za 0

T } AV

=Z

1

[ ] = {[

] + AZA

1 AV

Ib

0 Zb

(5.33)

Where,

1 = [Za 0 ] + AZA

T

Z

0 Zb

239

(5.34)

Performing the matrix operation in equation (5.34) we get,

1 = [(Zee Zef ) (Zf e Zf f ) + Za

Z

]

(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )

(Zgg Zgh ) (Zhg Zhh ) + Zb

(5.35)

ZT h,ef + Za

(Zeg Zeh ) (Zf g Zf h )

1 = [

Z

]

(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )

ZT h,gh + Zb

(5.36)

Or,

T h,gh and ZT h,gf denote the thevenin equivalent impedance of the system as observed

Where, Z

from terminals e-f and g-h respectively (please see equation (5.18)). Reproducing equation (5.33)

we have,

Ia

1 Ve Vf

1

[] = Z

A

V

=

Z

[

]

1

1

Ib

Vg Vh

(5.37)

From equations (5.36) and (5.37), the vector [Ia Ib ]T is calculated and subsequently, from

can be calculated.

equation (5.32), the new bus voltage vector V

We are now ready to analyze the effect of outages of two lines, which we will do in the next

lecture.

240

5.5

Let us now consider a case where two lines, having impedances Z

a

terminals e-f and g-h respectively. Here it is to be noted that in the original system, impedance Z

b are already included and we are now considering the outages of these two lines. As has been

and Z

done previously, here also we assume that the bus injection currents do not change on account of

outages of these two lines. Now, we have already seen that outage of any line having an impedance of

Zb can be simulated by adding an impedance of Zb between the same two terminals. Therefore, the

a and Zb can be simulated by connecting impedances Za and

outages of lines having impedance Z

Zb between the terminals e-f and g-h respectively. Subsequently, following the same procedure

1 can be formed as;

as discussed in the best lecture, the matrix Z

ZT h, ef Za

(Zeg Zeh ) (Zf g Zf h )

1 = [

Z

]

(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.38)

a by Za and Zb by Zb respectively

Note that equation (5.38) has been obtained by replacing Z

in equation (5.36). Hence, from equation (5.37) we have,

ZT h, ef Za

(Zeg Zef ) (Zf g Zf h ) Ia

Ve Vf

]

]

=

[

[

]

[

Vg Vh

Ib

(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.39)

V V

e

f

(

Z

Z

)

(

Z

Z

)

eg

ef

fg

fh

1

Ia ZT h, ef Za

ZT h, ef Za

(Z Z ) (Z Z )

ge

gf

he

hf

Ib Vg Vh

ZT h, gh Zb

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.40)

=

[

] = Lef, gh (say)

Igh

Za

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.41)

=

[

] = Lgh, ef

Ief

Zb

ZT h,ef Za

(5.42)

241

(say)

Nothing that the matrix Z

Za

Lef, gh

Zb

V V

e

f

Zb

Lgh, ef Ia ZT h, ef Za

Za

I Vg Vh

1

ZT h, gh Zb

Or,

a

1

1L

gh, ef Lef, gh Za

Ib

Lef, gh

Zb

V V

e

f

Zb

Lgh, ef ZT h, ef Za

Za

Vg Vh

1

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.43)

(5.44)

Now, the pre-outage currents in lines Z

Ve Vf

Ief =

Za

and Igh =

Vg Vh

Zb

(5.45)

Ia =

Ib =

1

1 Lgh, ef Lef, gh

1

1 Lgh, ef Lef, gh

Z 2 Lgh, ef

Za

Ief + b

Igh ]

ZT h, ef Za

Za ZT h, gh Zb

(5.46)

Zb

Za2 Lef, gh

Ief +

Igh ]

Zb ZT h, ef Za

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.47)

c ) is given by,

Now, the change in current in line i-j (having an impedance Z

Iij =

Vi Vj

Zc

(5.48)

Now,

Thus,

Iij =

= (Zif Zie )Ia + (Zih Zig )Ib

(5.49)

= (Zjf Zje )Ia + (Zjh Zjg )Ib

(5.50)

Ia +

Ib

Zc

Zc

242

(5.51)

Iij =

1

1 Lgh, ef Lef, gh

1 Ief + X

2 Igh ]

[X

(5.52)

Where,

2

Lef, gh

1 = Za (Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje ) + Za

[(Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )]

X

Zc

ZT h, ef Za

Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za

(5.53)

Now, we recognize,

Lij, ef =

Zc

ZT h, ef Za

(5.54)

Hence,

Lef, gh

Za2

X1 = Lij, ef +

Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za

(5.55)

Now, expanding the second term of equation (5.55), we have [using equation (5.41)],

Lef, gh

Za2

[(Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )]

Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za

Z 2 Zb (Zeh Zeg ) (Zf h Zf g ) (Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )

= a

Zb Zc Za

ZT h,gh Zb

ZT h,ef Za

=[

Za (Zeh Zeg ) (Zf h Zf g )

][

]

Zc

ZT h, gh Zb

Zb

ZT h, ef Za

Or,

Lef, gh

Za2

[(Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )] = Lij, gh Lgh, ef

Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za

(5.56)

Equation (5.56) has been written using equation (5.42) and by noting that,

Lij, gh =

Zc

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.57)

Hence,

X

(5.58)

2

Lgh, ef

Zb (Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )

2 = Zb

[(Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )] +

X

Za Zc ZT h, gh Zb

Zc

ZT h, gh Zb

Again,

Lgh, ef

Zb2

[(Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )]

Za Zc ZT h, gh Zb

243

(5.59)

Za Zc Zb

ZT h, ef Za

ZT h, gh Zb

Za (Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )

Zb (Zgf Zge ) (Zhf Zhe )

=[

][

]

Zc

ZT h, ef Za

Za

ZT h, gh Zb

Or,

Lgh, ef

Zb2

[(Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )] = Lij, ef Lef, gh

Za Zc ZT h, gh Zb

(5.60)

Please note that equation (5.60) has been obtained by using equations (5.41) and (5.54). Hence,

X

(5.61)

Iij =

1

1 Lef, gh Lgh, ef

(5.62)

Equation (5.62) gives the change in the current of line i-j in terms of the original currents of

the lines which have gone out of service. Now, in equation (5.62) all the factors are in terms of

complex impedances. However, imposition of the conditions of the DC power flow makes all the

factors being represented by the corresponding reactances (i.e. all complex impedances are replaced

by their corresponding reactances). Now, from equation (5.28) we see that when these functions are

represented by reactances only, they actually represent the different line outage sensitivity factors

(LOSF). As already noted earlier, there LOSFs are already pre-calculated and stored. Also, as

discussed earlier, under the assumption of DC power flow, for contingency calculation, the current

flow quantities are replaced by corresponding power flow quantities. Therefore, the change in power

flow in line i-j can very easily be calculated from equation (5.62) using the information of pre-outage

power flow in lines e-f and g-h.

In the next lecture, we will look into an example of contingency analysis for outages of two lines.

244

5.5.1

As an example, let us consider outage of two lines in the IEEE-14 bus system. Towards this goal,

let us assume that line no. 3 (let it be considered as line e-f) and 17 (let it be considered as line

g-h) have been taken out of the system. Subsequently, for any line i-j (in the set of lines which

are still remaining in the system), the factors LOSFM1 and LOSFM2 are calculated as follows.

LOSF M 1 =

1 Lef,gh Lgh,ef

(5.63)

LOSF M 2 =

1 Lef,gh Lgh,ef

(5.64)

Now, under the assumption of DC power flow, for contingency calculation, the impedances are

replaced by corresponding reactances. Therefore, for calculating the quantities Lef, gh , Lgh, ef , Lij, ef

and Lij, gh , the expressions given in equations (5.41), (5.42), (5.54) and (5.57) have been used respectively, with the impedances replaced by the corresponding reactances. After obtaining the values of

these four quantities, the factors LOSFM1 and LOSFM2 have been calculated from equations (5.63)

and (5.64). The calculated values of these two factors for all the lines remaining in the system are

shown in columns 5 and 6 of Table 5.3. Please note that for lines 3 and 17, thes two factors have

no relevance and therefore, these values have been indicated as zero in this table for these two lines.

After obtaining these two factors, the change in power flow in line i-j are calculated from equation

(5.62) using the information of pre-outage power flow in line no. 3 and 17. For ready reference, the

pre-outage power flows of line 3 and 17 are given in columns 3 and 4 of Table 5.3 respectively. After

calculating the change in power flow of any line i-j, its post-outage power flow is obtained by adding

its pre-outage power flow to the change in power flow. Again, for ready reference, the pre-outage line

power flows for all the lines are given in column 2 of Table 5.3. The calculated post-outage power

flows in all the lines are given in column 7 of this table. Please note that, as line no. 3 and 17 are now

out of the circuit, the post-outage power flows in these two lines are zero. Finally, for the purpose

of comparison, complete AC power flow solution of the IEEE-14 bus system has been obtained after

removing line no. 3 and 17 from the system. The line power flows obtained through AC power flow

study are shown in the last column of Table 5.3. From the results given in last two columns it is

observed that there is some difference between the power flows calculated by complete AC power

flow analysis and contingency analysis. Moreover, comparison of Tables 5.2 and 5.3 shows that this

difference is more for double line contingencies as compared to that for single line contingency.

5.6

From the results of the Tables 5.1 and 5.2 it can be observed that the sensitivity factors give

reasonably close estimates of real power flows in the lines in the event of outage of a generator

or a line. However, the sensitivity factors give the estimate of only the real power flows over the

lines. On the other hand, in several situations, it is also equally important to consider the bus

245

Table 5.3: Contingency calculation for outage of line no. 3 and 17 (all powers are given in p.u.)

Line Pline

P3

P17

LOSFM1

no.

(ori)

1

1.6262 0.8655 0.0655 -0.2053

2

0.7464 0.8655 0.0655

0.2177

3

0.8655 0.8655 0.0655

0

4

0.5314 0.8655 0.0655

0.4758

5

0.3662 0.8655 0.0655

0.3491

6

-0.358 0.8655 0.0655

-1.072

7

-0.7068 0.8655 0.0655 -0.5508

8

0.2689 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0274

9

0.1063 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0107

10

0.2893 0.8655 0.0655

0.0238

11

0.1156 0.8655 0.0655

0.0237

12

0.0852 0.8655 0.0655

0

13

0.2005 0.8655 0.0655

0

14

0.0025 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0097

15

0.2664 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0177

16

0.0123 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0237

17

0.0655 0.8655 0.0655

0

18 -0.0777 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0237

19

0.0233 0.8655 0.0655

0

20

0.0857 0.8655 0.0655

0

LOSFM2

-0.025

0.0237

0

-0.0678

0.0389

-0.004

0.4444

-0.3998

-0.1579

0.5427

-0.5152

0.2174

0.7805

-0.01

-0.3898

0.507

0

0.5111

0.2304

0.9991

Pline

Pline

(cal)

(ACLF)

1.44687535

1.5449

0.9363717

0.9864

0

0

0.938764

0.9803

0.670894

0.7059

-1.286078

-1.1902

-1.1544092 -1.1585

0.2189984

0.218

0.0866967

0.0862

0.34544575

0.3668

0.10236675

0.1236

0.0994397

0.0994

0.25162275

0.2558

-0.00655035 0.0023

0.22554875

0.2157

0.02499615

0.0069

0

0

-0.0647353 -0.0833

0.0383912

0.0373

0.15114105

0.1533

voltage variations as well as the reactive power flows over the lines in the event of any outage. In

these situations, the full AC power flow analysis needs to be carried out as the sensitivity factors are

not able to estimate the changes in bus voltage and the reactive power flows in the lines. However,

the full AC power flow analysis is considerably slower than the sensitivity based methods and these

are not suitable for analyzing thousands of potential outage cases within the time frame required by

on-line contingency analysis.

Thus, we have a contradicting situation here. On one hand, for fast evaluation of contingencies,

sensitivity based methods need to be used whereas, for accurate estimation of the effects of any

outage, slower, full AC power flow analysis needs to be carried out. To break this dilemma, a middle

path is followed. Initially, all the outage studies are carried out using the sensitivity factors. Based on

the results of the sensitivity analysis, all the outage cases are ranked according to a suitably chosen

performance index (PI). Once the outage cases are ranked and sequentially arranged in decreasing

order of the performance index, the top few outage cases are analyzed further in detail using the AC

power flow analysis.

Therefore, for contingency ranking, the choice of the performance index is very important. The

PI should be such that it should satisfy the following criteria.

a. It should adequately reflect the severity of any particular contingency.

b. The final list of contingencies for which full AC power flow analysis is to be carried out, should

246

c. The PI should consider both real and reactive power variation in the system.

To achieve the above objectives, different performance indices are used. Below, some of the most

prominent performance indices used are discussed. The PI can be categorized into two groups; i) MW

ranking method (in which the changes in real power flows only are considered) and ii) reactive power

or voltage security ranking (in which the variations of voltage magnitude or reactive power only are

considered). Of course, for considering both real and reactive power variations, the performance

indices from these two categories need to be suitably combined. Now, let us look at the various

indices from these two categories.

5.6.1

MW ranking methods

L

P I = Wj [

j=i

Pj

Pj max

(5.65)

In equation (5.65), L is the number of lines in the system, Pj and Pj max are MW flow and MW

capacity of the line j respectively and n is a suitable index. However, the PI given in equation

(5.65) is prone to masking phenomenon in which a contingency causing many lines to be heavily

loaded with no lines being overloaded is ranked higher than a contingency causing few lines to be

overloaded with the remaining lines being lightly loaded. However, this masking phenomenon can be

removed if the summation in equation (5.65) is taken over only the set of overloaded lines as shown

in equation (5.66).

P I = Wj [

jSL

Pj

Pj max

(5.66)

Even with the PI of equation (5.66), there is a chance of misranking. For example, if a contingency

C1 causes many lines to be slightly overloaded and another contingency C2 causes some lines to be

heavily overloaded, then C2 is more severe than C1 . However, equation (5.66) may identify C1 to

be more severe than C2 . To prevent this, a two term PI can be used as shown in equation (5.67).

P I = Hd1 + Wj [

n1

jSL

n2

Pj

Pj max

(5.67)

In equation (5.67), Hd1 is the change in power flow in the highest overloaded line while n1 and

n2 are suitable indices. In case the highest overload in two cases of contingency are same, then the

effect of second highest overloaded line is also taken into account as shown in equation (5.68).

P I = Hd1 + Hd2 + Wj [

n1

n2

jSL

Pj

Pj max

n3

(5.68)

In equation (5.68), Hd2 denotes the change in power flow in the second highest overloaded

247

line. Similarly, if both the highest and second highest overloading conditions are same for two

contingencies, then the third highest overloaded line is taken into account separately.

n1

n2

n3

jSL

Pj

Pj max

n4

(5.69)

As before,Hd3 denotes the change in power flow in third highest overloaded line. Of course, this

same philosophy can be extended further to include more number of lines for the calculation of PI,

if necessary.

5.6.2

These are several PIs suggested for properly ranking the voltage /reactive power contingencies. Some

of them are:

i)

2

i Vi

]

P Iv = [

lim

i=1 2 Vi

N

Where,

(5.70)

1

Vi = Vi Visp ;

Vilim = (Vimax Vimin ) ;

2

Vi = post-contingency voltage magnitude of bus i;

Visp = Nominal or specified voltage of bus i;

Vimax , Vimin = Maximum and minimum limit of voltage magnitudes of bus i

i = User selected weighting factor

P Iv = Performance index corresponding to voltage security

N = number of buses in the system

ii)

Vi Vilim

P Iv = Wvi

Vilim

iS1

(5.71)

where,

= Vimin if Vi < Vimin

(5.72)

Wvi in the weighting factor for bus i and S1 in the set of all buses at which the voltage limits

have been violated.

iii)

P Iv = Wvi (Vi )2

iS1

where,

Vi =

Vinom

1;

Vilim

Vinom = Vi Vinom ;

248

(5.73)

1

Vinom = (Vimax + Vimin );

2

1

Vilim = (Vimax Vimin )

2

iv)

2

N

dmax

dmin

i

P Iv = [ max ] + [ imin ]

i=1 ai

i=1 ai

N

(5.74)

Where,

Vi V amax

if Vi > Viamax

Vinom

= 0 otherwise

(5.75)

Vimin Vi

if Vi < Viamin

nom

Vi

= 0 otherwise

(5.76)

dmax

=

i

dmin

=

i

amax

=

i

1

V

nom

i

(Vimax Viamax );

amin

=

i

1

Vinom

(Viamin Vimin )

Viamax and Viamin are the higher and lower volatage alarm limits for bus i.

v)

N o

nom

V

+

V

i

i

P Iv = i max

min

V

i=1

i

i

(5.77)

vi)

m

m

Vi

]

P Iv = [ Wi

Vimax

i=1

(5.78)

The value of m is taken to be very large ( 20) to avoid the masking effect.

One popular way of combining the above discussed real power and reactive power ranking method

is to use the 1P1Q method. In this method, a decoupled power flow is used and after one iteration,

(one P-Q computation and one Q-V computation), the bus voltages are noted and with these bus

voltages, the line power flows are calculated. It generally appears that there is sufficient information

available (in the bus voltages) to arrive at a reasonable values of the performance indices. After

calculating the real power and reactive power performance indices separately, the combined PI is

calculated by adding the appropriate real power and reactive power indices together.

With these descriptions of contingency ranking methods, we conclude our discussion of contingency analysis. From the next lecture, we will start our discussion of stability analysis.

249

Module 6

Power system stability

6.1

Introduction

In general terms, power system stability refers to that property of the power system which enables

the system to maintain an equilibrium operating point under normal conditions and to attain a

state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. As primarily synchronous generators

are used for generating power in grid, power system stability is generally implied by the ability

of the synchronous generators to remain in synchronism or in step. On the other hand, if the

synchronous generators loose synchronism after a disturbance, then the system is called unstable.

The basic concept of synchronism can be explained as follows.

In the normal equilibrium condition, all the synchronous generators run at a constant speed and

the difference between the rotor angles of any two generators is constant. Under any disturbance, the

speed of the machines will deviate from the steady state values due to mismatch between mechanical

and electrical powers (torque) and therefore, the difference of the rotor angles would also change.

If these rotor angle differences (between any pair of generators) attain steady state values (not

necessarily the same as in the pre-disturbance condition) after some finite time, then the synchronous

generators are said to be in synchronism. On the other hand, if the rotor angle differences keep on

increasing indefinitely, then the machines are considered to have lost synchronism. Under this out

of step condition, the output power, voltage etc. of the generator continuously drift away from the

corresponding pre-disturbance values until the protection system trips the machine.

The above phenomenon of instability is essentially related with the instability of the rotor angles

and hence, this form of instability is termed as rotor angle instability. Now, as discussed above,

this instability is triggered by the occurrence of a disturbance. Depending on the severity of the

disturbance, the rotor angle instability can be classified into two categories:

Small signal instability: In this case, the disturbance occurring in the system is small. Such

kind of small disturbances always take place in the system due to random variations of the loads

and the generation. It will be shown later in this chapter that under small perturbation (or

disturbance), the change in the electrical torque of a synchronous generator can be resolved into

two components, namely, a) synchronizing torque (Ts ) - which is proportional to the change in

the rotor angle and b) damping torque (Td ), which is proportional to the change in the speed

250

of the machine. As a result, depending on the amounts of synchronizing and damping torques,

small signal instability can manifest itself in two forms. When there is insufficient amount of

synchronizing torque, the rotor angle increases steadily. On the other hand, for inadequate

amount of damping torque, the rotor angle undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude.

These two phenomena are illustrated in Fig. 6.1. In Fig. 6.1(a), both the synchronizing

and damping torques are positive and sufficient and hence, the rotor angle comes back to a

steady state value after undergoing oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In Fig. 6.1(b), the

synchronizing torque is negative while the damping toque is positive and thus, the rotor angle

envelope is increasing monotonically. Fig. 6.1(c) depicts the classic oscillatory instability in

which Ts is positive while Td is negative.

In an integrated power system, there can be different types of manifestation of the small signal

instability. These are:

251

a. Local mode: In this type, the units within a generating station oscillate with respect to

the rest of the system. The term local is used because the oscillations are localized in a

particular generating station.

b. Inter-area mode: In this case, the generators in one part of the system oscillate with

respect to the machines in another part of the system.

c. Control mode: This type of instability is excited due to poorly damped control systems

such as exciter, speed governor, static var compensators, HVDC converters etc.

d. Torsional mode: This type is associated with the rotating turbine-governor shaft. This

type is more prominent in a series compensated transmission system in which the mechanical system resonates with the electrical system.

Transient instability: In this case, the disturbance on the system is quite severe and sudden

and the machine is unable to maintain synchronism under the impact of this disturbance. In

this case, there is a large excursion of the rotor angle (even if the generator is transiently stable).

Fig. 6.2 shows various cases of stable and unstable behavior of the generator. In case 1, under

the influence of the fault, the generator rotor angle increases to a maximum, subsequently

decreases and settles to a steady state value following oscillations with decreasing magnitude.

In case 2, the rotor angle decreases after attaining a maximum value. However, subsequently,

it undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. This type of instability is not caused by

the lack of synchronizing torque; rather it occurs due to lack of sufficient damping torque in the

post fault system condition. In case 3, the rotor angle monotonically keeps on increasing due

to insufficient synchronizing torque till the protective relay trips it. This type of instability, in

which the rotor angle never decreases, is termed as first swing instability.

Apart from rotor angle instability, instability can also occur even when the synchronous generators

are maintaining synchronism. For example, when a synchronous generator is supplying power to an

induction motor load over a transmission line, the voltage at the load terminal can progressively

252

reduce under some conditions of real and reactive power drawn by the load. In this case, loss of

synchronism is not an issue but the challenge is to maintain a stable voltage. This type of instability

is termed as voltage instability or voltage collapse. We will discuss about the voltage instability issue

later in this course.

Now, for analysing rotor angle stability, we have to first understand the basic equation of motion

of a synchronous machine, which is our next topic.

6.2

The equation of motion of a synchronous generator is based on the fact that the accelerating torque

is the product of inertia and its angular acceleration. In the MKS system, this equation can be

written as,

d2 m

= Ta = Tm Te

dt2

(6.1)

In equation (6.1),

m The angular displacement of the rotor with respect to a stationary axis, in mechanical

radians

t Time in seconds

Ta The net accelerating torque, in N-m

Tm The mechanical or shaft torque supplied by the prime mover less retarding torque due

to rotational losses, in N-m

Under steady state operation of the generator, Tm and Te are equal and therefore, Ta is zero.

In this case, there is no acceleration or deceleration of the rotor masses and the generator runs

at constant synchronous speed. The electrical torque Te corresponds to the air gap power of the

generator and is equal to the output power plus the real power loss of the armature winding.

Now, the angle m is measured with respect to a stationary reference axis on the stator and

hence, it is an absolute measure of the rotor angle. Thus, it continuously increases with time

even with constant synchronous speed. However, in stability studies, the rotor speed relative to

the synchronous speed is of interest and hence, it is more convenient to measure the rotor angular

position with respect to a reference axis which also rotates at synchronous speed. Hence, let us

define,

m = sm t + m

(6.2)

In equation (6.2), sm is the synchronous speed of the machine in mechanical radian/sec. and

m (in mechanical radian) is the angular displacement of the rotor from the synchronously rotating

reference axis. From equation (6.2),

dm

dm

= sm +

dt

dt

or,

253

dm dm

=

sm

dt

dt

(6.3)

d2 m d2 m

=

(6.4)

dt2

dt2

dm

represents the deviation of the actual rotor speed

Equation (6.3) shows that the quantity

dt

from the synchronous speed in mechanical radian per second. Substituting equation (6.4) into

equation (6.1) one gets,

d2 m

= Ta = Tm Te

dt2

(6.5)

Jm

dm

. From equation (6.5) we get,

dt

d2 m

= m Ta = m Tm m Te

dt2

Or,

Jm

d2 m

= Pa = Pm Pe

dt2

(6.6)

In equation (6.6), Pa , Pe and Pm denote the accelerating power, electrical output power and the

input mechanical power (less than the rotational power loss) respectively.

The quantity Jm is the angular momentum of the rotor and at synchronous speed, it is known

as the inertia constant and is denoted by M . Strictly, the quantity Jm is not constant at all

operating conditions since m keeps on varying. However, when the machine is stable, m does not

differ significantly from sm and hence, Jm can be taken approximately equal to M . Hence, from

equation (6.6) we obtain,

d2 m

= Pa = Pm Pe

dt2

(6.7)

Now, in machine data, another constant related to inertia, namely H-constant is often encountered. This is defined as;

H=

machine rating in MVA

Or,

1 Jsm 2 1 M sm

H=

=

2 Smc

2 Smc

MJ/MVA =

1 M sm

2 Smc

sec.

(6.8)

In equation (6.8), the quantity Smc is the three phase MVA rating of the synchronous machine.

Now, from equation (6.8),

M=

2HSmc

sm

MJ/mech. rad

(6.9)

2H d2 m Pa Pm Pe

=

=

sm dt2

Smc

Smc

(6.10)

In equation (6.10), both m and sm are in mechanical units. Now, the corresponding quantities

254

s =

P

sm ;

2

P

m ;

2

(6.11)

In equation (6.11), P is the number of pole in the generator, s is the synchronous speed of the

machine in electrical radian/sec. and (in electrical radian) is the angular displacement of the rotor

from the synchronously rotating reference axis. Substituting equation (6.11) in equation (6.10) we

get,

2H d2

= Pa = Pm Pe per unit

s dt2

(6.12)

Equation (6.12) is known as the swing equation of the synchronous machine. As this is a

second order differential equation, it can be written as a set of two first order differential equations

as below.

2H d

= Pm Pe per unit

s dt

(6.13)

d

= s

dt

(6.14)

In equations (6.13) - (6.14), the quantity is the speed of the synchronous machine and is

expressed in electrical radian per second. Now, in the above two equations, no damping of the

machine is considered. If damping is considered (which opposes the motion of the machine), a term

proportional to the deviation of the speed (from the synchronous speed) is introduced in equation

(6.13). Therefore, the modified equation becomes;

2H d

= Pm Pe d( s ) per unit

s dt

(6.15)

In equation (6.15), d is called the damping co-efficient. However, in the presence of damping, equation

(6.14) does not change. Therefore, in the presence of damping, this pair of equations ((6.14) and

(6.15)) describe the motion of the synchronous machine.

With this introduction of motion of synchronous machine, we are now ready to address the various

stability issues. From the next lecture we will start with transient stability analysis.

255

6.3

Before solving the differential equations to determine the transient stability or instability of the

system, it is necessary to compute the initial conditions.

6.3.1

Let us consider an n bus power system with m generators (m < n). Without loss of generality, it

is assumed that the m generators are located at first m buses of the system. Towards computation

of initial conditions, initially the load flow solution of the system is computed. From the load flow

solution, following quantities are availbale:

a. Vi i

for i = 1, 2, n

b. PLi , QLi

for i = m + 1, m + 2, n

for i = 1, 2, m

In the above, PLi and QLi denote the real and reactive power load at bus i respectively. Similarly,

PGi and QGi denote the real and reactive power generation at bus i respectively. Further, the

quantities Vi and i denote the voltage magnitude and angle of it h bus respectively. With these

information, following calculations are carried out:

(i) At any bus i, the loads are converted to equivalent admittance as;

yLi =

PLi jQLi

Vi 2

for i = 1, 2, n

(6.16)

old

BUS (i, i) = Y

BUS

Y

(i, i) + yLi

for i = 1, 2, n

(6.17)

old

BUS

BUS matrix of the system used in load flow calculation.

where, Y

is the original Y

(iii) At the generator buses, the generators are represented as equivalent voltage sources behind

the direct axis transient reactances as,

PGi jQGi

Ei = Vi + jxdi Ii = jxdi

= Ei i

Vi

for i = 1, 2, m

(6.18)

In equation (6.18), the quantity xdi denotes the direct axis transient reactance of the ith machine.

While performing the transient stability analysis, the magnitude Ei is held constant. The equivalent

diagram of the n bus power system is shown in Fig. 6.3.

With the initial conditions computed as above, we are now ready to solve the transient stability

problem. Basically, the transient stability problem is solved by two techniques: i) partition explicit

(PE) method and ii) simultaneous implicit (SI) method. In the PE method, the network algebraic

equations and the generator differential equations are solved separately. In the SI method, these

256

algebraic and differential equations are solved together. In this course, however, we are going to

discuss PE method only. Before, discussing the PE method, it is necessary to describe the network

algebraic equations.

6.3.2

IBUS = Y

BUS V

BUS

(6.19)

In equation (6.19), Y

IBUS = [I1 I2 Im Im+1 In ]T

BUS = [V1 V2 Vm Vm+1 Vn ]T

V

257

(6.20)

vk = jxdiik

ik = yk vk

(6.21)

In equation (6.21), ik and vk are the current through and voltage across the generator reactance

1

= j/xdi . Now, at the generator terminals, Ik = ik = yk vk ; or, Ik =

jxdi

yk (Ek Vk ) as (vk = Ek Vk ). Or,

Ik + yk Vk = yk Ek

(6.22)

respectively and yk =

(Y11 + y1 ) V1

Y21 V1

Ym1 V1

Y(m+1),1 V1

Yn1 V1

+

Y12 V2

+ (Y22 + y2 ) V2

+

+

Ym2 V2

+ Y(m+1),2 V2

+

+

Yn2 V2

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Y1m Vm

+

Y2m Vm

+

+ (Ymm + ym ) Vm

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Y1n Vn

+

Y2n Vn

+

+

Ymn Vn

+ Y(m+1),n Vn

+

+

Ynn Vn

= y1 E1

= y2 E2

=

= ym Em

=

0

=

=

0

(6.23)

1 ,

From equation (6.23), the voltages V1 , V2 Vn can be solved, for known values of E

E2 En . With these known terminal voltages, the electrical power output of each generator

can be calculated as;

for i = 1, 2, m

Pei = Re (EI Ii )

(6.24)

Where,

Ii = yi (Ei Vi )

for i = 1, 2, m

(6.25)

With the above equations, we are now in a position to discuss the PE method.

6.3.3

In the PE method, the numerical integration of the generator differential equations are carried

out separately from the solution of the network algebraic equations. For numerical integration of

differential equations, the total simulation time (tT ) is divided into N intervals, each interval being

tT

. Now, the major steps for solving the transient stability

N

problem, with PE method, are as follows.

1. Obtain the load flow solution of the given system. Thereafter, compute the internal

i , for i = 1, 2, m) using equations (6.16) - (6.18). Please note

voltages of all the generators (E

that the magnitudes Ei would be kept constant at these calculated values throughout the simulation.

i obtained above, solve the equation set (6.23) to obtain the terminal

2. With the values of E

voltages at all the buses (Vi , for i = 1, 2, n). Subsequently, the electrical power output of all

the generators (Pei , for i = 1, 2, m) are computed from equations (6.24) - (6.25).

258

3. Under steady state condition, mechanical power input to each generator is equal to its

generator electrical output power (neglecting losses). Therefore, Pmi = Pei , for i = 1, 2, m.

Also, under steady state, all the generators are assumed to operate at synchronous speed (s ).

4. Thus, after the above three steps, at t = 0, the variables pertaining to generators (Ei , i ,

i , Pmi for i = 1, 2, m) and the network bus voltages (Vi , for i = 1, 2, n) are all known.

5. The simulation process advances to t = t. At this instant, first the network equations

given in the equation set (6.23) are solved to compute the bus voltages and subsequently, the output

electrical power of each generator is calculated by using equations (6.24) - (6.25). Now, if the

steady state condition is still maintained, i.e. if there is no change in the network (as compared

to the network condition at t = 0), then the calculated values of Pei would be again equal to the

corresponding value of Pmi .

6. With the solution of the network equations at hand, we should now solve the solve the

generator differential equations for calculating the values of i and i at t = t. Towards that end,

let us first re-write the swing equations of ith machine for convenience in equations (6.26) - (6.27)

below.

2Hi di

= Pmi Pei

(6.26)

s dt

di

= i s

(6.27)

dt

di

Now, from equation (6.26), as Pmi = Pei ,

= 0. In other words, there is no change in the

dt

di

speed of the generator and hence i = s . As a result, from equation (6.27),

= 0 and hence, the

dt

angle i would also be maintained at the value calculated at t = 0. Therefore, under steady state

condition, at t = t, both i and i would be maintained at the values calculated at t = 0.

7. Assume that the steady state condition continues from t = 0 to t = (k 1)t, where, k is

a positive integer. Following the arguments described at steps 5 and 6, it can be easily seen that at

the end of t = (k 1)t sec., both i and i would still be maintained at the values calculated at

t = 0.

8. Now, let us assume that a three phase to ground short circuit fault occurs in the system

at t = to = kt at the `th bus. To accommodate this fault condition in the network equations,

the element Y`` is increased manyfold to reflect very high admittance from bus ` to ground. With

this imposed condition, the network bus voltages are calculated from equation set (6.23). Subsequently, the output electrical power of each generator is calculated by using equations (6.24) - (6.25)

corresponding to time t = to .

9. With the values of Pei calculated in step 8, the swing equations (6.26) - (6.27) are integrated

to obtain the values of i and i at t = to . Now, for integrating the swing equations, initial values of

i and i are required. These initial values are taken to be equal to the values of i and i obtained

at the end of t = (k 1)t. For brevity, the value of i (i = 1, 2, m) calculated at t = to is

denoted as i (to ). With this value of i (to ), the voltage behind the transient reactance is updated

i = Ei i (to ), for i = 1, 2, m, where the magnitude Ei has been taken to be equal to the

as E

constant value calculated at step 1.

259

10. The simulation advances to t = to + t. If the fault still persists, the values of Pei are

i in equation set (6.23)

calculated as described in step 8. However, for this purpose, the values of E

are taken to be equal to the latest values calculated at the end of t = to sec.

11. With the values of Pei calculated at t = to + t, step 9 is repeated to update the variables

i , i and Ei at the end of t = to + t. Again, please note that for integrating the differential

equations, the latest values of i and i (calculated at t = to ) have been taken as the initial values.

12. Steps 10 and 11 are repeated to update the variables at t = to + 2t, to + 3t, to +

4t, till the fault clears.

13. At t = tcl (tcl = pt, p being a positive integer and p > k ), the fault clears. This condition

is imposed in the network equations by restoring Y`` to its original pre-fault value and subsequently,

steps 8 - 12 are repeated to obtain the variations of i and i . By observing the variation of i , the

stability of the system is assessed.

In step 9, the generator differential equations are numerically integrated. In the next lecture, we

will look into two such numerical integration techniques, namely, i) modified Eulers method and ii)

4th order Runga-Kutta technique.

260

6.3.4

Before discussing the application of Eulers method for solving the swing equations, let us first review

the basic Eulers method of numerical integration. Let the general from of a differential equation is

given by;

dy

= f (x, y);

dx

y(xo ) = yo ;

(6.28)

In equation (6.28), x and y are independent and dependent quantities respectively and xo and yo

are initial values of x and y respectively. For the purpose of numerical integration, the independent

axis (x-axis) is divided into intervals of length h such that discrete points on the independent axis

are xo , xo + h, xo + 2h, etc. As indicated in equation (6.28), the value of y at x = xo is yo .

The task is to calculate the values y1 , y2 , corresponding to the x co-ordinates xo + h, xo + 2h,

respectively. Once these values are obtained, the smooth curve representing the solution of the

differential equation given in equation (6.28) can be plotted.

In the modified Eulers method, the values y1 , y2 , are calculated in two steps:

Predictor

(1)

y1(1) = yo + h

dy

= yo + hf (xo , yo )

dx x=xo

Corrector

(1)

dy

= f (xo + h, y1(1) )

dx x=xo +h

b) With this updated value of

(6.29)

dy

at x = xo + h as;

dx

(6.30)

dy

at x = x1 = xo + h, the final value of y1 is calculated as;

dx

dy

h dy

[

+

]

2 dx x=xo dx x=xo +h

h

= yo + [f (xo , yo ) + f (xo + h, y1(1) )]

2

y1 = yo +

or,

y1

(6.31)

With this final value of y1 obtained at x = xo + h = x1 , the above two steps are repeated to

calculate y2 at x = xo + 2h = x2 and subsequently, this process is repeated to obtain the complete

solution of the differential equation.

Now, for our application, let us note that the independent axis (x-axis) denotes time. Therefore,

as already discussed, for solving the differential equations, the time axis is divided into intervals of duration t sec. (i.e. h = t). Further, let us also assume that the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m)

have already been obtained at t = to and these values are denoted as io and io respectively. More(o)

over, the initial values of Pei (denoted as Pei ) are also assumed to be calculated utilising the values

261

of io . With thse known values, the values of i and i at t = to + t are calculated as follows.

Predictor step

(1)

respectively);

di

= io + t(io s )

dt t=to

(6.32)

di

s

(Pmi Pei(o) )

= io + t

dt t=to

2Hi

(6.33)

i(1) = io + t

i(1) = io + t

(1)

and i

Corrector step

(1)

With the new values of i (i = 1, 2, m) obtained in the predictor step, the values of Pei

(i = 1, 2, m) are updated using equations (6.23)-(6.25) (after appropriately incorporating the

(1)

network conditions in the equation set (6.23)). Let these updates values of Pei be denoted as Pei .

Thereafter, the derivatives at the end of the present time step are calculated as follows:

di

= i(1) s

dt t=to +t

(6.34)

di

s

=

(Pmi Pei(1) )

dt t=to +t 2Hi

(6.35)

With the above new derivative values obtained, the final values of i and i at t = to +t (denoted

as i1 and i1 respectively) are calculated as;

i1 = io +

t di

di

[ +

]

2 dt t=to dt t=to +t

(6.36)

i1 = io +

t di

di

[

+

]

2 dt t=to dt t=to +t

(6.37)

Proceeding further, for calculating i and i at t = to +2t, the quantities io and io are replaced

by i1 and i1 respectively and equations (6.32)-(6.37) are followed again.

6.3.5

Let us again consider the same general form of a differential equation as in equation (6.28):

dy

= f (x, y);

dx

y(xo ) = yo ;

(6.38)

Again, the meanings of different notations used in equation (6.38) are same as those in equation

262

h

y1 = yo + (k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4 )

6

(6.39)

k1 = hf (xo , yo )

(6.40)

In equation (6.39),

k1

h

k2 = hf (xo + , yo + )

2

2

h

k2

k3 = hf (xo + , yo + )

2

2

k4 = hf (xo + h, yo + k3 )

(6.41)

(6.42)

(6.43)

Now, for solving the transient stability problem with RK 4th order method, let us again assume

that the value of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are known at t = to (denoted as io and io respectively). Moreover, the values of Pei are also assumed to be known (calculated utilising the values

of io ). From these initial values, the procedure of calculation of i1 and i1 (values of i and i at

t = to + t) is as follows.

In this step, the first estimates of the derivatives for the ith machine (i = 1, 2, m) are

calculated as:

di (1)

= io s

dt

(6.44)

di (1) s

[Pmi Pei(o) ]

=

dt

2Hi

(6.45)

With these first estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are updated

as:

(1)

i

1 di (1)

= io + t

2

dt

(6.46)

(1)

i

1 di (1)

= io + t

2

dt

(6.47)

(1)

(1)

from equations (6.23) - (6.25). Let these newly calculated values of Pei be denoted as Pei (i =

1, 2, m). We now proceed to the next step.

263

di (2)

= i(1) s

dt

(6.48)

di (2) s

[Pmi Pei(1) ]

=

dt

2Hi

(6.49)

With these second estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are

updated as:

1 di (2)

i(2) = io + t

2

dt

(6.50)

1 di (2)

= io + t

2

dt

(6.51)

(2)

i

(2)

With these values of i , the values of Pei are again updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25). Let

(2)

these newly calculated values of Pei be denoted as Pei (i = 1, 2, m). We now proceed to the

next step.

The third estimates of the derivatives are calculated as;

di (3)

= i(2) s

dt

(6.52)

di (3) s

[Pmi Pei(2) ]

=

dt

2Hi

(6.53)

With these third estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are updated

as;

(3)

i

di (3)

= io + t

dt

(6.54)

(3)

i

di (3)

= io + t

dt

(6.55)

(3)

With these values of i , the values of Pei are again updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25). Let

(3)

these newly calculated values of Pei be denoted as Pei (i = 1, 2, m). We now proceed to the

next step.

264

di (4)

= i(3) s

dt

(6.56)

di (4) s

[Pmi Pei(3) ]

=

dt

2Hi

(6.57)

After the fourth estimates are obtained, we are now in a position to calculate i1 and i1

(i = 1, 2, m).

Calculation of final values

The final, updated values are calculated as:

t di (1)

di (2)

di (3) di (4)

i1 = io +

[ +2 +2 +

]

6 dt

dt

dt

dt

(6.58)

di (2)

di (3) di (4)

t di (1)

[

+2

+2

+

]

i1 = io +

6 dt

dt

dt

dt

(6.59)

Proceeding further, for calculating i and i at t = to +2t, the quantities io and io are replaced

by i1 and i1 respectively and equations (6.44)-(6.59) are followed again.

In the next lecture, we will illustrate the applicaion of Modified Eulers method for transient

stability calculation.

265

6.3.6

As an illustration of the Modified Eulers method, let us consider a three machine, 9 bus system.

The schematic diagram of this system is shown in Fig. 6.4. The bus data of this system is given

in Table A.7 while the line data are given in Table A.8. Further, the values of xdi , di (damping

constant) and Hi (inertia constant) for all the three generators are given in Table 6.1.

With the data given in Tables A.7 and Table A.8, the load flow solution of this system has been

carried out and the load flow results are given in Table 6.2. With the help of load flow results and

and ) of the internal voltages of all the generators

values of xdi , the magnitudes and angles (E

have been calculated by utilising equations (6.16)-(6.18) and are also shown in Table 6.2. It is to

i (i = 1, 2, 3) are to

be noted that, throughout the transient stability simulation, the values of E

be kept constant at the values given in Table 6.2. Also, at steady state, the speed of all generators

are assumed to be equal to s (i.e. io = s ; i = 1, 2, 3). Now, following the arguments given in

step 7 of sub-section 6.3.3, under steady state, the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) will remain constant

at those values given in Table 6.2. Similarly, under steady state, the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) will

all be equal to s (= 376.9911184307752 rad./sec for a 60 Hz. system). Moreover, for transient

stability simulation, a time step of 0.001 sec. (t = 0.001) has been taken. Further, to start with,

the damping of the generators have been neglected.

Now, let us assume that a three phase to ground fault takes place at bus 7 at t = 0.5 sec. To

simulate this fault, the element Y77 is increased 1000 times to represent very high admittance to

ground. With this modification in Y77 , the equation set (6.23) are solved to calculate the faulted

266

Gen.

xdi

di

Hi

no.

(p.u)

1

0.0608 0.0254 23.64

2

0.1198 0.0066 6.40

3

0.1813 0.0026 3.01

Gen.

PG

QG

V

no.

(MW)

(MVAR)

(p.u)

(deg.)

(p.u)

(deg.)

1

71.64102147 27.0459235334 1.04

0.0

1.0566418430 2.2716458404

2

163.0

6.6536603184 1.025 9.2800054816 1.0502010147 19.7315857693

3

85.0

-10.8597090709 1.025 4.6647513331 1.0169664112 13.1664110346

values of Vi (i = 1, 2, 3). These values are shown in second column of Table 6.3. With these

(o)

calculated values of the generator terminal voltages, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) have been

calculated using equations (6.24)-(6.25) and are shown in third column of Table 6.3. Now, from Fig.

6.4, bus 7 is the terminal bus of generator 2 (just after the transformer) and therefore, for any short

circuit fault at bus 7, the real power output of generator 2 is expected to fall drastically. Indeed,

(o)

from Table 6.3, after the fault, Pe2 is indeed very low (0.0003691143 p.u.). Also, note that the

values of io and io (i = 1, 2, 3), which are to be used for calculation at this time instant, are all

equal to the corresponding steady state values as there was no fault prior to this time instant.

Table 6.3: Calculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

V (p.u)

0.8515307492 - 0.0053320553i

0.3391142785 + 0.1215867116i

0.6169489129 + 0.0743553183i

(o)

Pe(o)

(p.u)

0.6791748939

0.0003691143

0.3821503052

di

di

and

(i = 1, 2, 3) are

dt

dt

calculated from equations (6.27) and (6.26) respectively and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table

(1)

(1)

6.4 respectively. Finally, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated by using equations

(6.32) - (6.33) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.4 respectively. From Tables 6.1 - 6.4 it

is observed that the steady state values of i (for i = 1, 2, 3; shown in the last column of Table 6.1)

(1)

are equal to the corresponding values of i (for i = 1, 2, 3; shown in the fourth column of Table

di

(i = 1, 2, 3) are all equal to zero.

dt

(1)

However, due to fall in Pei (i = 1, 2, 3), from equation (6.33), the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) are all

6.4). This is due to the fact that at this predictor stage,

267

greater than s .

Table 6.4: Calculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

d

dt

0

0

0

(1)

d

dt

(1)

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.2968990107 2.2716458404 376.9914153297

47.9965914231 19.7315857693 377.0391150221

29.2982026019 13.1664110346 377.0204166333

Once the calculations pertaining to the predictor stage at t = 0.5 sec. are over, we move on

to the calculations pertaining to the corrector stage. Towards this goal, initially the values of Pei

(1)

(i = 1, 2, 3) are updated using the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) in equations (6.23) - (6.25). As

(1)

(1)

discussed earlier, the updated value of Pei is denoted as Pei . Now, as the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3)

(1)

are equal to the corresponding steady state values, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) are also equal

(1)

(1)

to the values given in Table 6.3. Subsequently, with the values of Pei and i (i = 1, 2, 3), the

values of

di

di

and

(i = 1, 2, 3) at the end of the present time step are calculated from equations

dt

dt

(6.34) - (6.35) and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table 6.5 respectively. Lastly, the final values

of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) at t = 0.5 sec. are calculated by using equations (6.36) - (6.37), which are

shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.5 respectively.

Table 6.5: Calculations with Eulers method for corrector stage at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

d

d

no.

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

dt

dt

1

0.0002968990 0.2968990107 2.2716543459 376.9914153297

2

0.0479965914 47.9965914231 19.7329607703 377.0391150221

3

0.0292982026 29.2982026019 13.1672503663 377.0204166333

With these final values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to t = 0.5 sec. at hand, we now

increment the time by t (= 0.001 sec.) and repeat the calculations for predictor and corrector

stages for t = 0.501 sec. The detailed calculations are shown in Tables 6.6 - 6.9. Initially, with the

values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) just obtained, the generator terminal voltages and the generator

output electrical powers are calculated and are shown in Table 6.6. With these newly calculated

di di (1)

(1)

,

, i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to the

dt dt

(1)

(1)

predictor stage are calculated and are shown in Table 6.7. With these updated values of i and i

(i = 1, 2, 3), the values of the generator terminal voltages and Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) are re-calculated

values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3), the values of

corresponding to the corrector stage and are shown in Table 6.8. Lastly, using these updated values

di

di

and

corresponding to the corrector stage are calculated and

dt

dt

are shown in Table 6.9. Finally, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) at t = 0.501 sec. are calculated

by using equations (6.36)-(6.37), which are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.9 respectively.

268

Table 6.6: Caculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

V (p.u)

0.8515306823 - 0.0053313633i

0.3391113605 + 0.1215948479i

0.6169476981 + 0.0743625981i

Pe

(p.u)

0.6791650241

0.0003691288

0.3821597463

Table 6.7: Calculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

(1)

(1)

d

d

no.

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

dt

dt

1

0.0002968990 0.2969777087 2.2716713570 376.9917123074

2

0.0479965914 47.9965909948 19.7357107724 377.0871116131

3

0.0292982026 29.2976113769 13.1689290296 377.0497142447

Table 6.8: Caculations with Eulers method for corrector stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

V (p.u)

0.8515305484 - 0.0053299791i

0.3391055238 + 0.1216111204i

0.6169452683 + 0.0743771578i

Pe

(p.u)

0.6791452844

0.0003691579

0.3821786281

Table 6.9: Calculations with Eulers method for corrector stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

d

d

no.

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

dt

dt

1

0.0005938767 0.2971351045 2.2716798648 376.9917123861

2

0.0959931824 47.9965901381 19.7370857735 377.0871116127

3

0.0585958139 29.2964289348 13.1697683443 377.0497136535

For subsequent time instants, the calculations proceed exactly in the same way as described

above. The fault is assumed to be cleared at t = 0.6 sec. To simulate this event (clearing of fault),

the value of Y77 is restored to its pre-fault value and subsequently, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3)

are calculated from equations (6.23)-(6.25). Please note that, while doing so, the latest values of i

(i = 1, 2, 3) obatained at t = 0.599 sec. are used in equation set (6.23). For subsequent instances

(beyond t = 0.6 sec.), the calculations proceed in the identical manner and finally, the simulation

study is stopped at t = 5.0 sec. The variations of i (i = 1, 2, 3) with respect to the center of inertia

(COI) are shown in Fig. 6.5. For calculating the value of i with respect to the COI (denoted as

269

iCOI ) at each time step, the following expression has been used:

iCOI = i COI ;

for i = 1, 2, 3;

(6.60)

where,

m

COI =

Hi i

i=1

m

(6.61)

Hj

j=1

In equation (6.61), m denotes the number of generators in the system (in our present case, m

= 3). At each time step, with the final calculated values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) calculated at the end

of corrector step, the value of COI is computed and thereafter, each value of iCOI (i = 1, 2, 3)

is computed with the help of equation (6.60). With the values of iCOI thus obtained for all time

steps, the plots shown in Fig. 6.5 are obtained. These plots show that the generators experience

sustained oscillations. This is due to the fact that in this study, the damping of the generators have

been neglected.

Figure 6.5: Variation of 1COI (with no damping) obtained with Eulers method

Let us now consider the damping of the generators. As discussed earlier (in the context of

equations (6.14) and (6.15)), when damping is considered, an extra term (representing damping)

is introduced in the differential equation corresponding to rate of change of speed. However, there

would be no change in the differential equation representing the rate of change of generator angle.

Therefore, the set of differential equations for ith generator is given by;

di

= i s

dt

(6.62)

2Hi di

= Pmi Pei di (i s )

s dt

(6.63)

In equation (6.63), the extra term di (i s ) represnts the damping of the generator. There

would be, of course, no change in the algebraic equations and the set of algebraic equations would

270

still be represented by equation set (6.23). With these sets of differential and algebraic equations,

the calculations proceed in identically the same way as described above and the variations of iCOI

(i = 1, 2, 3) for the same fault considered above are shown in Fig. 6.6. Comparison of these

three plots with those shown in Fig. 6.5 shows that when damping of the generators are taken into

consideration, the oscillations in all the three generators reduce gradually with time, which, indeed

should be the case. As the generator oscillations are decreasing with time, the generators will remain

in synchronism and therefore, the system is stable.

Figure 6.6: Variation of 1COI (with damping) obtained with Eulers method

We will now discuss the application of Runga Kutta (RK) 4th order method of integration for

solving the transient stability problem in the next lecture.

271

6.3.7

Again, as an example, 3 machine, 9 bus system shown in Fig. 6.4 is again considered. Initially, the

damping of the generators are neglected (i.e. di = 0 for i = 1, 2, 3). The load flow results and the

initial values of the magnitudes and angles (E and ) of the internal voltages of all the generators

are same as those already given in Table 6.2. As before, it is again assumed that at t = 0.5 sec.,

a three phase to ground short circuit fault takes place at bus 7. The faulted generator terminal

voltages and generator output powers are same as those shown in Table 6.3. With these values of

(o)

ei

di (1)

di (1)

and io , the estimates

and

(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.44)

dt

dt

and (6.45) respectively and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table 6.10 respectively. With these first

(1)

(1)

estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations

(6.46) - (6.47) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.10 respectively.

Table 6.10: Calculations with RK method for first estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.

di (1)

dt

1

2

3

0

0

0

di (1)

dt

(1)

(1)

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.2968990107 2.2716458404 376.99126688

47.9965914231 19.7315857693 377.01511672

29.2982026019 13.1664110346 377.00576753

(1)

With the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained above, the generator terminal voltages and output

powers are updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25) and are shown in Table 6.11. Please note that

(1)

following the notations used earlier, the output powers calculated at this stage are denoted as Pei

(i = 1, 2, 3).

Table 6.11: Caculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

(1)

V (p.u)

0.8515307492 - 0.0053320553i

0.3391142785 + 0.1215867116i

0.6169489129 + 0.0743553183i

(1)

Pe(1)

(p.u)

0.6791748939

0.0003691143

0.3821503052

di (2)

di (2)

and

dt

dt

(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.48) - (6.49) and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table

(2)

(2)

6.12 respectively. Subsequently, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations

(6.50) - (6.51) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.12 respectively.

(2)

Again, with the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained above, the generator terminal voltages and

output powers are updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25) and are shown in Table 6.13. Please note

272

Table 6.12: Calculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.

1

2

3

di (2)

dt

di (2)

dt

(2)

(2)

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.0001484495 0.2968990107 2.2716500931 376.9912668802

0.0239982957 47.9965914231 19.7322732698 377.0151167264

0.0146491013 29.2982026019 13.1668307004 377.0057675320

that following the notations used earlier, the output powers calculated at this stage are denoted as

Pei(2) (i = 1, 2, 3).

Table 6.13: Caculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

Pe(2)

V (p.u)

0.8515307158 - 0.0053317093i

0.3391128195 + 0.1215907798i

0.6169483055 + 0.0743589582i

(2)

(p.u)

0.6791699590

0.0003691216

0.3821550258

(2)

di (3)

di (3)

and

(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.52) - (6.53) and are shown in

dt

dt

(3)

(3)

columns 2 and 3 of Table 6.14 respectively. Subsequently, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are

calculated from equations (6.54) - (6.55) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.14 respectively.

Table 6.14: Calculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.

1

2

3

di (3)

dt

di (3)

dt

(3)

(3)

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.0001484495 0.2969383597 2.2716543459 376.9914153691

0.0239982957 47.9965912089 19.7329607703 377.0391150219

0.0146491013 29.2979069891 13.1672503663 377.0204163377

(3)

Again, with the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained above, the generator terminal voltages and

output powers are updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25) and are shown in Table 6.15. Please note

that following the notations used earlier, the output powers calculated at this stage are denoted as

Pei(3) (i = 1, 2, 3).

Lastly, with the values of

and

(3)

i

and P

(3)

ei

di (4)

(i = 1, 2, 3) calculated above, the quantities

dt

di (4)

(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.56) - (6.57) and are shown in columns 2

dt

273

Table 6.15: Calculations with RK method for final estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

V (p.u)

0.8515306823 - 0.0053313633i

0.3391113605 + 0.1215948479i

0.6169476981 + 0.0743625981i

Pe(3)

(p.u)

0.6791650241

0.0003691288

0.3821597463

and 3 of Table 6.16 respectively. Finally, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) at the end of t = 0.5

sec. are calculated from equations (6.58) - (6.59) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.16

respectively.

Table 6.16: Calculations with RK method for final estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

di (4)

dt

Gen. no.

1

2

3

di (4)

dt

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.0002969383 0.2969777087 2.2716543463 376.9914153560

0.0479965912 47.9965909948 19.7329607703 377.0391150220

0.0292979069 29.2976113769 13.1672503634 377.0204164363

After the final values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to t = 0.5 sec. are obtained, we

increment the time by t (= 0.001 sec.) and repeat the calculations for t = 0.501 sec. Towards

this goal, the quantities i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) shown in Table 6.16 are substituted for io and io

(i = 1, 2, 3) in equations (6.44) - (6.59). With these values of io (i = 1, 2, 3), equations (6.23) (6.25) are solved to calculate the initial values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) at t = 0.501 sec. The results are

shown in Table 6.17.

Table 6.17: Calculations with RK method for initial estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

V (p.u)

0.8515306823 - 0.0053313633i

0.3391113605 + 0.1215948479i

0.6169476981 + 0.0743625981i

Pe(o)

(p.u)

0.6791650241

0.0003691288

0.3821597462

(o)

With the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) thus obtained, calculations pertaining to the first estimate

are carried out by using equations (6.44) - (6.47) and the results are shown in Table 6.18. Sub(1)

sequently, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated and the results are shown in Table 6.19.

(1)

(1)

(1)

With the values of Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained as above, the calculations pertaining

(2)

(2)

(2)

to second estimate are performed to obtain Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3). The results are shown

274

Table 6.18: Calculations with RK method for first estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

di (1)

dt

Gen. no.

1

2

3

di (1)

dt

(1)

(1)

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.0002969252 0.2969777084 2.2716628526 376.9915638448

0.0479965912 47.9965909948 19.7343357714 377.0631133175

0.0292980055 29.2976113792 13.1680896895 377.0350652419

Table 6.19: Calculations with RK method for first estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

Pe(1)

V (p.u)

0.8515306154 - 0.0053306712i

0.3391084422 + 0.1216029842i

0.6169464833 + 0.0743698779i

(p.u)

0.6791551544

0.0003691434

0.3821691871

Table 6.20: Calculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.

1

2

3

di (2)

dt

di (2)

dt

(2)

(2)

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.0004454140 0.2970564057 2.2716671065 376.9915638842

0.0719948867 47.9965905664 19.7350232719 377.0631133173

0.0439468112 29.2970201614 13.1685093468 377.0350649463

Table 6.21: Calculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

Pe(2)

V (p.u)

0.8515305819 - 0.0053303251i

0.3391069830 + 0.1216070523i

0.6169458758 + 0.0743735177i

(2)

(2)

(2)

(p.u)

0.6791502196

0.0003691506

0.3821739075

Proceeding further, using the values of Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3), the calculations pertaining

(3)

(3)

(3)

to third estimate are performed to obtain Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3). The results are shown in

Tables 6.22 and 6.23.

(3)

(3)

(3)

Using the values of Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3), the fourth estimates of the derivatives are

computed and subsequently, the final values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to t = 0.501

sec. are obtained. The calculations are shown in Table 6.24.

275

Table 6.22: Calculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.

1

2

3

di (3)

dt

di (3)

dt

(3)

(3)

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.0004454534 0.2970957537 2.2716798689 376.9917124517

0.0719948865 47.9965903523 19.7370857735 377.0871116124

0.0439465156 29.2967245580 13.1697683133 377.0497131608

Table 6.23: Calculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen.

no.

1

2

3

V (p.u)

0.8515304815 - 0.0053292869i

0.3391026052 + 0.1216192565i

0.6169440533 + 0.0743844372i

Pe(3)

(p.u)

0.6791354153

0.0003691725

0.3821880684

Table 6.24: Calculations with RK method for final estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.

1

2

3

di (4)

dt

di (4)

dt

(deg.)

(rad/sec.)

0.0005940209 0.2972137971 2.2716798685 376.9917124386

0.0959931816 47.9965897098 19.7370857735 377.0871116124

0.0585947300 29.2958377565 13.1697683161 377.0497132593

For subsequent time instants, the calculations proceed exactly in the same way as described

above. As in the case with Eulers method, in this case also, the fault is assumed to be cleared at t =

0.6 sec. and finally, the simulation study is stopped at t = 5.0 sec. The variations of i (i = 1, 2, 3)

with respect to the center of inertia (COI) are shown in Fig. 6.7 below. Please note that in this

figure, no damping of the generators has been considered.

The simulation studies have also been carried out by considering the damping of the generators.

The variations of i (i = 1, 2, 3) with respect to the center of inertia (COI) for this case are shown

in Fig. 6.8 below. Comaprison of Figs. 6.7 - 6.8 with Figs. 6.5 - 6.6 reveals that the responses

obtained with these two methods are almost identical to each other.

With this example, we are now at the end of discussion of transient stability analysis. From the

next lecture, we will start the discussion of small signal stability analysis.

276

Figure 6.7: Variation of 1COI (with no damping) obtained with Runga-Kutta method

Figure 6.8: Variation of 1COI (with damping) obtained with Runga-Kutta method

277

6.4

For small signal analysis of a multimachine power system, we need to linearise the differential equations of the machines and form the system A matrix. Thereafter, by computing the eigenvalues of

the A matrix, the system stability can be assessed. Now, let us consider an n bus power system

having m generators. Each generator is represented by its classical model. Further, without any

loss of generality, it is assumed that the generators are connected at the first m buses of the system.

Now, for linearising the differential equations, let us recall the swing equations of each generator

here for ready reference.

di

= i s

for i = 1, 2, m

dt

2Hi di

= Pmi Pei

for i = 1, 2, m

s dt

(6.64)

(6.65)

Linearising equation (6.64) for the ith generator, one can get,

di

= i

dt

(6.66)

= [1 , 2 , m ]

= [1 , 2 , m ]

(6.67)

(6.68)

In equations (6.67) and (6.68), the vectors and denote the vectors of perturbed values

of rotor angle and machine speed respectively. Please note that the size of each of these two vectors

is (m 1).

Now, collecting equation (6.66) for all the m generators and re-writing them in matrix notation

we can obtain,

d

= F1

dt

(6.69)

In equation (6.69), F1 is a (m m) identity matrix. Now, linearising equation (6.65) for the ith

generator, one can get,

2Hi di

= Pei

s dt

(6.70)

For performing linearisation of Pei , its expression its required. This expression can be derived as

follows. From equation (6.25), one can write,

Ii =

= e

e

jxdi

xdi

xdi

278

Or,

E i Vi

Ei

Ei Ii = Ei eji Ii = ej/2 ej(/2+i i )

xdi

xdi

Therefore,

E i Vi

Pei = Re (EI Ii ) = sin(i i )

xdi

(6.71)

(6.72)

Where,

k1i =

Ei Vi

cos(i i );

xdi

k2i =

Ei Vi

cos(i i );

xdi

k3i =

Ei

sin(i i );

xdi

(6.73)

In equation (6.73), the constants k1i , k2i and k3i are evaluated using the values of Ei , Vi , i and

i at the current operating point for i = 1, 2, m.

Now, again let us define,

g = [1 , 2 , m ]

Vg = [V1 , V2 , Vm ]

(6.74)

(6.75)

(6.76)

In equations (6.74) and (6.75), the vectors g and Vg denote the vectors of perturbed values

of generator terminal voltage angles and magnitudes respectively. Similarly, the vector Pe denotes

the perturbed values of the generator real powers. Please note that the size of each of these three

vectors is also (m 1).

Now, collecting equation (6.72) for all the m generators and re-writing them in matrix notation

we can obtain,

Pe = K1 + K2 g + K3 Vg

(6.77)

In equation (6.77), the size of each of the matrices K1 , K2 and K3 is (m m). Moreover, all

these three matrices are diagonal matrices and are given by;

K2 = diag (k21 , k22 , k2m )

K3 = diag (k31 , k32 , k3m )

279

(6.78)

6.4.1

To illustrate the procedure for linearisation of the network equations, let us first consider the first

equation of the equation set (6.23) below.

(6.79)

Now, let,

Vi = Vi exp (ji );

for i, j = 1, 2, n;

(6.80)

yk = yk exp (jk );

Ek = Ek exp (jk );

for k = 1, 2, m;

(6.81)

and

Y1m Vm exp (j (1m + m )) + + Y1n Vn exp (j (1n + n )) = y1 E1 exp (j (1 + 1 ))

(6.82)

Taking the real part of both the sides of equation (6.82), we get,

Y1m Vm cos (1m + m ) + + Y1n Vn cos (1n + n ) = y1 E1 cos (1 + 1 )

(6.83)

y1 V1 sin (1 + 1 )1 + Y12 cos (12 + 2 )V2 Y12 V2 sin (12 + 2 )2

+ + Y1m cos (1m + m )Vm Y1m Vm sin (1m + m )m + +

Y1n cos (1n + n )Vn Y1n Vn sin (1n + n )n = y1 E1 sin (1 + 1 )1

(6.84)

b11 1 + b12 2 + + b1m m + + b1n n = g1 1

(6.85)

In equation (6.85),

a1m = Y1m cos (1m + m ); a1n = Y1n cos (1n + n );

b11 = Y11 V1 sin (11 + 1 ) y1 V1 sin (1 + 1 ); b12 = Y12 V2 sin (12 + 2 );

b1m = Y1m Vm sin (1m + m ); b1n = Y1n Vn sin (1n + n );

g1 = y1 E1 sin (1 + 1 );

(6.86)

Again, taking the real part of both sides of the second equation of the equation set (6.23) (after

280

Y2m Vm cos (2m + m ) + + Y2n Vn cos (2n + n ) = y2 E2 cos (2 + 2 )

(6.87)

b21 1 + b22 2 + + b2m m + + b2n n = g2 2

(6.88)

In equation (6.88),

a2m = Y2m cos (2m + m ); a2n = Y2n cos (2n + n );

b21 = Y21 V1 sin (21 + 1 ); b22 = Y22 V2 sin (22 + 2 ) y2 V2 sin (2 + 2 );

b2m = Y2m Vm sin (2m + m ); b2n = Y2n Vn sin (2n + n );

g2 = y2 E2 sin (2 + 2 );

(6.89)

Similarly, continuing with linearisation of the real parts of first m equations (corresponding to

the generator buses) of the equation set (6.23), we get,

[A1

Vg

L

= [G] []

B1 ]

(6.90)

In equation (6.90),

is a (m n) matrix

A1 =

(6.91)

B1 =

is a (m n) matrix

(6.92)

281

g1 0 0 0

0 g2 0 0

is a (m m) diagonal matrix

G=

0 0 0 gm

(6.93)

aij = Yij cos (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

bij = Yij Vj sin (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m;

i = 1, 2, m;

(6.94)

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

gi = yi Ei sin (i + i );

i = 1, 2, m;

L = [m+1 , m+2 , n ]

VL = [Vm+1 , Vm+2 , Vn ]

(6.95)

(6.96)

Please note that the size of each of the above two vectors is ((n m) 1). So far, we have

considered only the algebraic equations at the generator buses. However, for completing the small

signal model, the algebraic equations at the load buses all need to be linearised. We will discuss this

issue in the next lecture.

282

6.4.2

Now, let us consider the algebraic equations at the load buses. For this, please recollect that the

loads have been assumed to be connected at the last (nm) buses. The real part of the pth equation

(p = (m + 1), (m + 2), n) of the equations set (6.23) is given by,

(6.97)

Yp1 cos (p1 + 1 )V1 Yp1 V1 sin (p1 + 1 )1 + Yp2 cos (p2 + 2 )V2

Yp2 V2 sin (p2 + 2 )2 + + Ypn cos (pn + n )Vn Ypn Vn sin (pn + n )n = 0

(6.98)

Or,

(6.99)

In equation (6.99),

bpj = Ypj Vj sin (pj + j ); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.100)

Please note that equation (6.99) can be written for all the n m load buses (by varying p from

m + 1 to n). In that case, in equation (6.100) also, p will vary from m + 1 to n. Collecting all

these n m equations and putting them in a matrix form, we get,

[R1

Vg

L

= [1 ] []

S1 ]

(6.101)

In equation (6.101), the matrix 1 is a (n m) m null matrix and the matrices R1 and S1

are given by,

r11

r12

r1n

r21

r22

r2n

R1 =

is a ((n m) n) matrix

283

(6.102)

s11

s12

s1n

s21

s

22

2n

is a ((n m) n) matrix

S1 =

(6.103)

rij = a(i+m),j ;

sij = b(i+m),j ;

i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;

i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.104)

In equation (6.104), the expressions of the co-efficients a(i+m),j and b(i+m),j are given by equation

(6.100). Now, taking the imaginary part of both the sides of equation (6.82), we get,

Y1m Vm sin (1m + m ) + + Y1n Vn sin (1n + n ) = y1 E1 sin (1 + 1 )

(6.105)

y1 V1 cos (1 + 1 )1 + Y12 sin (12 + 2 )V2 + Y12 V2 cos (12 + 2 )2

+ + Y1m sin (1m + m )Vm + Y1m Vm cos (1m + m )m + +

Y1n sin (1n + n )Vn + Y1n Vn cos (1n + n )n = y1 E1 cos (1 + 1 )1

(6.106)

d11 1 + d12 2 + + d1m m + + d1n n = h1 1

(6.107)

In equation (6.107),

c1m = Y1m sin (1m + m ); c1n = Y1n sin (1n + n );

d11 = Y11 V1 cos (11 + 1 ) + y1 V1 cos (1 + 1 ); d12 = Y12 V2 cos (12 + 2 );

d1m = Y1m Vm cos (1m + m ); d1n = Y1n Vn cos (1n + n );

h1 = y1 E1 cos (1 + 1 );

(6.108)

Again, taking the imaginary part of both sides of the second equation of the equation set (6.23)

(after substituting equations (6.80) and (6.81) into it), we get,

Y2m Vm sin (2m + m ) + + Y2n Vn sin (2n + n ) = y2 E2 sin (2 + 2 )

284

(6.109)

d21 1 + d22 2 + + d2m m + + d2n n = h2 2

(6.110)

In equation (6.110),

c2m = Y2m sin (2m + m ); c2n = Y2n sin (2n + n );

d21 = Y21 V1 cos (21 + 1 ); d22 = Y22 V2 cos (22 + 2 ) + y2 V2 cos (2 + 2 );

d2m = Y2m Vm cos (2m + m ); d2n = Y2n Vn cos (2n + n );

h2 = y2 E2 sin (2 + 2 );

(6.111)

Continuing with linearisation of the imaginary parts of first m equations (corresponding to the

generator buses) of the equation set (6.23), we get,

[C1

Vg

L

= [H] []

D1 ]

(6.112)

In equation (6.112),

C1 =

is a (m n) matrix

is a (m n) matrix

D1 =

h1 0 0 0

0 h2 0 0

H=

is a (m m) diagonal matrix

0 0 0 hm

285

(6.113)

(6.114)

(6.115)

cij = Yij sin (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

dij = Yij Vj cos (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m;

i = 1, 2, m;

(6.116)

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

hi = yi Ei cos (i + i );

i = 1, 2, m;

Now, let us consider the imaginary parts of the algebraic equations at the load buses. The real

part of the pth equation (p = (m + 1), (m + 2), n) of the equations set (6.23) is given by,

(6.117)

Yp1 sin (p1 + 1 )V1 + Yp1 V1 cos (p1 + 1 )1 + Yp2 sin (p2 + 2 )V2

+Yp2 V2 cos (p2 + 2 )2 + + Ypn sin (pn + n )Vn + Ypn Vn cos (pn + n )n = 0

(6.118)

Or,

(6.119)

In equation (6.119),

dpj = Ypj Vj cos (pj + j ); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.120)

Again, equation (6.119) can be written for all the n m load buses (by varying p from m + 1

to n). In that case, in equation (6.120) also, p will vary from m + 1 to n. Collecting all these

n m equations and putting them in a matrix form, we get,

[U1

Vg

L

= [2 ] []

V1 ]

(6.121)

In equation (6.121), the matrix 2 is a (n m) m null matrix and the matrices U1 and V1

286

u11

u12

u1n

u21

u22

u2n

U1 =

is a ((n m) n) matrix

(6.122)

v11

v12

v1n

v21

v22

v2n

V1 =

is a ((n m) n) matrix

(6.123)

uij = c(i+m),j ;

vij = d(i+m),j ;

i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;

i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.124)

In equation (6.124), the expressions of the co-efficients c(i+m),j and d(i+m),j are given by equation

(6.120).

Now, combining equations (6.90), (6.101), (6.112) and (6.121), one can write,

A1

R

1

C1

U1

Or,

Where,

B1 Vg G

S1 VL 1

= []

D1 g H

V1 L 2

Vg

L

[J1 ]

= [J2 ] []

g

A1

R

1

[J1 ] =

C1

U1

B1

S1

;

D1

V1

G

1

[J2 ] =

H

2

(6.125)

(6.126)

(6.127)

Now, let us recollect that the dimensions of various sub-matrices are as follows: A1 (m n),

B1 (m n), G (m m), R1 ((n m) n), S1 ((n m) n), 1 ((n m) m),

C1 (m n), D1 (m n), H (m m), U1 ((n m) n), V1 ((n m) n),

287

2 ((n m) m). Therefore, the size of the matrix J1 is (2n 2n) and that of the matrix J2 is

(2n m). Hence, matrix J1 is a square matrix and hence invertible. Thus, from equation (6.126),

A2

Vg

B

V

1

2

L

= [J1 ] [J2 ] [] = []

C2

g

D2

L

(6.128)

[Vg ] = [A2 ] [] ;

[g ] = [C2 ] [] ;

(6.129)

Please note that the dimension of both the matrices A2 and C2 is (mm). We are now ready to

form the system state matrix which we will discuss in the next lecture. Further, in the next lecture,

we will also look at an example of small signal stability analysis.

288

6.4.3

From equation (6.70), let us recall the following linearised equation for ith generator,

2Hi di

= Pei

s dt

(6.130)

Collecting equation (6.130) for all the m generators, the following matrix equation can be

written;

d

2

HM = Pe

s

dt

(6.131)

HM = diag (H1 , H2 , Hm )

(6.132)

2

d

HM = (K1 + K2 g + K3 Vg )

s

dt

(6.133)

Further, substituting equation (6.129) into equation (6.133) one can write,

d

2

HM = (K1 + K2 C2 + K3 A2 )

s

dt

(6.134)

d

= K4

dt

(6.135)

Or,

Where,

K4 =

s 1

H (K1 + K2 C2 + K3 A2 )

2 M

(6.136)

d

= F1

dt

(6.137)

O F1

d

[

]=[

][

]

dt

K4 O

(6.138)

O F1

]

K4 O

Equation (6.138) is the required state space equation of the system and the matrix A = [

is the corresponding state matrix. The eigenvalues of the matrix A gives the necessary information

about the small signal stability of the system under study.

Now, let us consider the damping of the generators. Towards this goal, let us now linearize

289

2Hi di

= Pei di i

s dt

(6.139)

Collecting equation (6.139) for all the m generators, the following matrix equation can be

written;

d

2

HM = Pe DM

s

dt

(6.140)

DM = diag (d1 , d2 , dm )

(6.141)

Following the same procedure as in equations (6.133) and (6.134), we can get,

d

2

HM = (K1 + K2 C2 + K3 A2 ) DM

s

dt

(6.142)

d

= K4 + K5

dt

(6.143)

Or,

Where,

K5 =

s 1

H DM

2 M

(6.144)

O F1

d

[

]=[

][

]

dt

K4 K5

(6.145)

Equation (6.145) is the required state space equation of the system when damping of the gener-

O F1

] is the corresponding state matrix.

K4 K5

6.5

As an illustration of small signal stability, let us consider the three machine, 9 bus system (m = 3

and n = 9) shown in Fig. Fig. 6.4. The complete data of this system are given in Tables A.7, A.8

and 6.1. Further, the different quantities pertaining to the initial condition are given in Table 6.2.

The load flow solution of the system is shown in Table 6.25.

Initially, the damping of the machines are neglected (di = 0; i = 1, 2, 3). With these initial

values, the different matrices are calculated as follows:

18.0599

0

0

K1 = 0

8.8364

0

0

0

5.6864

290

(6.146)

Bus No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Voltage (p.u.)

1.0400

1.0116 + 0.1653i

1.0216 + 0.0834i

1.0250 - 0.0397i

0.9932 - 0.0693i

1.0106 - 0.0651i

1.0236 + 0.0665i

1.0158 + 0.0129i

1.0317 + 0.0354i

18.0599

0

0

K2 =

0

8.8364

0

0

0

5.6864

0.6889

0

0

K3 = 0

1.5902

0

0

0

0.8293

(6.147)

(6.148)

0.0000

0

0

0.6715 0 0

0

0

0

A1 = 0

(6.149)

3.9262

0

0

0 0 1.0380 0

0

0

0

1.8364

0

0 0

0

0 0.5856

35.1608

0

0

17.7955 0 0

0

0

0

B1 = 0

(6.150)

24.6293

0

0

0 0 16.3777 0

0

0

0

23.0684

0

0 0

0

0 17.6066

17.3653

0

0

G = 0

(6.151)

8.2516

0

0

0

5.4618

0.0000

0

0

1.7844 0.5547 1.2622

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.9153 2.5634

0

1.5727

0

0

0

0

0

1.5342

0

3.0558

0

0

1.4730

R1 =

2.5802

0

0

0.7691

0

5.0984 1.7909

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2.5024 4.0411 1.4902

0

0

1.3878

0

0

0.9200

0

1.2792 3.5391

(6.152)

The matrix S1 is given in parts in equations (6.153) and (6.154) below, as the width of the page

is not sufficient enough to accomodate the complete matrix S1 .

291

The matrix S1 (, 1 5) (comprising of the elements in columns 1 to 5 for all rows) is given by;

18.0556

0

0

40.4237 11.6200

0

0

0

11.9486 17.9858

0

0

0

10.8507

0

S1 (, 1 5) =

0

16.1854

0

0

6.0169

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

17.4335

0

0

(6.153)

The matrix S1 (, 6 9) (comprising of the elements in columns 6 to 9 for all rows) is given by;

10.7481

0

0

0

0

6.0372

0

0

16.5710

0

0

5.7202

S1 (, 6 9) =

0

36.0958 13.8936

0

0

13.9138 23.9677 10.0539

5.7307

0

9.9240 33.0882

33.8085

0

0

17.3481 0 0

0

0

0

C1 =

0

24.0286

0

0

0 0 15.9663 0

0

0

0

22.5058

0

0 0

0

0 17.0548

0.0000

0

0

0.6889 0 0

0

0

0

D1 = 0

4.0244

0

0

0 0 1.0648 0

0

0

0

1.8823

0

0 0

0

0 0.6046

0.6889

0

0

H = 0

2.9596

0

0

1.2777

(6.154)

(6.155)

(6.156)

(6.157)

The matrix U1 is given in parts in equations (6.158) and (6.159) below, as the width of the page

is not sufficient enough to accomodate the complete matrix U1 .

The matrix U1 (, 1 5) (comprising of the elements in columns 1 to 5 for all rows) is given by;

17.3611

0

0

39.4074 11.6710

0

0

11.6482

18.0647

0

0

10.5779

0

U1 (, 1 5) =

15.7906

0

0

6.0433

0

0

0

0

0

0

17.0083

0

0

292

(6.158)

The matrix U1 (, 6 9) (comprising of the elements in columns 6 to 9 for all rows) is given by;

10.6138

0

0

0

0

5.8855

0

0

16.3639

0

0

5.5410

U1 (, 6 9) =

0

35.1890 13.6763

0

0

13.5642 23.5930 9.7389

5.6591

0

9.7688 32.0513

(6.159)

0.0000

0

0

1.8304 0.5523 1.2782

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.9389 2.5522

0

1.6133

0

0

0

0

0

1.5737

0

3.0944

0

0

1.5207

V1 =

2.6447

0

0

0.7657

0

5.2297 1.8194

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2.5669 4.1053 1.5384

0

0

1.4225

0

0

0.9316

0

1.2995 3.6536

(6.160)

The matrix J1 is given in parts in equations (6.161) - (6.163) below, as the width of the page is

not sufficient enough to accomodate the complete matrix J1 .

The matrix J1 (, 1 6) (comprising of the elements in columns 1 to 6 for all rows) is given by;

0.0000

0

0

0.6715

0

0

0

3.9262

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.8364

0

0

0

0.0000

0

0

1.7844

0.5547

1.2622

0

0

0

0.9153

2.5634

0

0

0

0

1.5342

0

3.0558

0

2.5802

0

0

0.7691

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.3878

0

0

0.9200

J1 (, 1 6) =

0

0

17.3481

0

0

33.8085

0

24.0286

0

0

0

0

0

0

22.5058

0

0

0

0

0

39.4074 11.6710 10.6138

17.3611

0

0

0

11.6482

18.0647

0

0

0

0

10.5779

0

16.3639

0

15.7906

0

0

6.0433

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

17.0083

0

0

5.6591

(6.161)

The matrices J1 (, 7 12) (comprising of the elements in columns 7 to 12 for all rows) and

293

J1 (, 13 18) (comprising of the elements in columns 13 to 18 for all rows) are given by;

0

0

0

35.1608

0

0

1.0380

0

0

0

24.6293

0

0

0

0.5856

0

0

23.0684

0

0

0

18.0556

0

0

1.5727

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.4730

0

0

0

5.0984

1.7909

0

0

16.1854

0

2.5024

4.0411

1.4902

0

0

0

0

1.2792

3.5391

0

0

17.4335

J1 (, 7 12) =

0

0

0

0.0000

0

0

15.9663

0

0

0

4.0244

0

0

0

17.0548

0

0

1.8823

0

0

0

0.0000

0

0

5.8855

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5.5410

0

0

0

35.1890 13.6763

0

0

2.6447

0

0

0

0

0

9.7688 32.0513

0

0

1.4225

(6.162)

17.7955

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

16.3777

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

17.6066

0

0

0

11.9486 17.9858

0

6.0372

0

0

10.8507

0

16.5710

0

0

5.7202

0

6.0169

0

36.0958 13.8936

0

0

0

0

13.9138

23.9677

10.0539

0

0

5.7307

0

9.9240

33.0882

J1 (, 13 18) =

0

0

0

0

0

0.6889

0

0

0

1.0648

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.6046

0.5523 1.2782

0

0

0

1.8304

0.9389

2.5522

0

1.6133

0

0

1.5737

0

3.0944

0

0

1.5207

0

0.7657

0

5.2297

1.8194

0

0

0

0

2.5669

4.1053

1.5384

0

0

0.9316

0

1.2995

3.6536

(6.163)

294

17.3653

0

0

0

8.2516

0

0

0

5.4618

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

J2 =

0

0

0.6889

0

2.9596

0

0

0

1.2777

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

HM

23.6400

0

0

= 0

6.4000

0

0

3.0100

24.1837 13.5322

10.6514

1 0 0

F1 = 0 1 0

0 0 1

295

(6.164)

(6.165)

(6.166)

(6.167)

(6.168)

(6.169)

With all the above calculated matrices, the system state matrix is finally computed as;

0

0

0

1.0000

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.0000

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.0000

A=

10.6514

0

0

0

24.1837 13.5322

0

0

0

0

0

0

(6.170)

The eigenvalues of the system state matrix are lastly computed and are shown in Table 6.26.

Table 6.26: Eigenvalues of the 3 machine system with damping neglected

No.

Eigenvalue

1

0.0000 +13.3602i

2

0.0000 -13.3602i

3

0.0000 + 8.6898i

4

0.0000 - 8.6898i

5

-0.0000 + 0.0000i

6

-0.0000 - 0.0000i

There are total 6 eigenvalues. This indeed should be the case as we have three machines in the

system and each machine has two state variables.

There are two zero eigenvalues. One zero eigenvalue is due to the absence of damping in the

system and the other eigenvalue is corresponding to 1 (which is taken to be zero to provide

the reference for load flow calculation).

All the non-zero eigenvalues appear in pairs.

The real parts of all the non-zero eigenvalues are zero. In other words, upon a disturbance,

the oscillations in the system would be persisting (i.e. the magnitudes of the oscillations would

not reduce with time). Indeed, from the plots shown in Figs. 6.5 and 6.7 it is observed that

upon a fault, the oscillations are indeed sustaining with a constant amplitude.

Now let us consider the damping of the generators. For this case, the matrices given above would

remain the same. However, one extra matrix, K5 would appear (as shown in equation (6.145)) and

this matrix is computed as;

0.2025

0

0

K5 = 0

0.1944

0

0

0

0.1628

296

(6.171)

0

0

0

1.0000

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.0000

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.0000

A=

10.6514 0.2025

0

0

24.1837 13.5322

0

0.1944

0

0

0

0.1628

(6.172)

Table 6.27: Eigenvalues of the 3 machine system with damping neglected

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Eigenvalue

-0.0844 +13.3599i

-0.0844 -13.3599i

-0.0970 + 8.6893i

-0.0970 - 8.6893i

-0.0000

-0.1970

When damping is considered, there is only one zero eigenvalue corresponding to 1 .

The second zero eigenvalue in Table 6.26 is replaced with a real, negative eigenvalue.

The complex eigenvalues still appear in pairs.

The real parts of the complex eigenvalues are negative implying that upon a disturbance, the

oscillations in the system will be damped (i.e. the amplitudes of the oscillations will decrease

with time). In fact, Figs. 6.6 and 6.8 show that this is indeed the case.

With this example, we are now at the end of discussion of small signal stability analysis. From

the next lecture, we will start the discussion of voltage stability analysis.

297

6.6

Voltage stability

Voltage collapses usually occur on power system which are heavily loaded or faulted or have shortage

of reactive power. Voltage collapse is a system instability involving many power system components.

In fact, a voltage collapse may involve an entire power system.

Voltage collapse is typically associated with reactive power demand of load not being met due to

shortage in reactive power production and transmission.

Voltage collapse is a manifestation of voltage instability in the system. The definition of voltage

stability as proposed by IEEE/CIGRE task force is as follows:

Voltage stability refer to the ability of power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in

the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating point. The system

state enters the voltage instability region when a disturbance or an increase in load demand or

alteration in system state results in an uncontrollable and continuous drop in system voltage.

A system is said to be in voltage stable state if at a given operating condition, for every bus in

the system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is

increased.

A system is voltage unstable if for at least one bus in the system, the bus voltage magnitude

decreases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is increased. It implies that if, V-Q

sensitivity is positive for every bus the system is voltage stable and if V-Q sensitivity is negative

for at least one bus, the system is voltage unstable. The term voltage collapse is also often used for

voltage instability conditions. It is the process, by which, the sequence of events following voltage

instability leads to abnormally low voltages or even a black out in a large part of the system.

The driving force for voltage instability is usually the loads and load characteristics, hence, voltage

stability is sometimes also called load stability. In response to a disturbance, the power consumed

by the loads tends to be restored by load dynamics. This in turn increases the stress on the high

voltage network by increasing the reactive power consumption and further reducing the voltage.

A major factor contributing to voltage instability is the voltage drop in the line impedances when

active and reactive powers flow through it. As a result, the capability of the transmission network

for power transfer and voltage support reduces. Voltage stability of a system is endangered when

a disturbance increases the reactive power demand beyond the sustainable capacity of the available

reactive power resources.

The voltage stability has been further classified into four categories: Large disturbance voltage

stability, small disturbance voltage stability, short term voltage satiability and long term voltage

stability. A summary of these classifications is as follows:

Large disturbance voltage stability: It refers to the systems ability to maintain steady voltage

following large disturbances such as, system faults, loss of generation or circuit contingencies.

This ability is determined by the system load characteristics and interaction of both continuous

and discrete controls and protections. The study period of interest may be from few seconds

to tens of minutes. This requires long term dynamic simulation study of the system to capture

the interactions of under-load tap changer and generator field current limiter.

298

If following a large disturbance and subsequent system control actions, voltages at all the buses

in the system settle down at acceptable levels, the system is said to be large disturbance voltage

stable.

Small-disturbance voltage stability: This stability is concerned with the ability of the system

to maintain acceptable level of steady voltages, when subjected to small perturbations such as

incremental changes in system load. This form of stability is also influenced by the characteristics of loads, continuous controls, and discrete controls at a given instant of time. The basic

processes contributing to small disturbance stability are essentially of a steady state nature.

Therefore, static analysis can be effectively used to estimate stability margins.

Short term voltage satiability: It involves dynamics of fast acting load components such as

induction motors, electronically controlled loads and HVDC converters. The study period of

interest is in the order of several seconds and the analysis requires solution of appropriate

system differential equations.

Long term voltage stability: The study of long term voltage stability involves the dynamics of

slower acting equipment such as tap changing transformers, thermostatically controlled loads

and generator current limiters. The study period of interest may extend to several or many

minutes, and requires long term dynamics system simulation.

Voltage instability may arise due many reasons, but some significant contributors are:

Increase in loading

Generators, synchronous condensers, or SVC reaching reactive power limits

Action of tap changing transformers

Load recovery dynamics

Line tripping or generator outages

Most of these changes have a significant impact on the reactive power production, consumption

and transmission in the system.

Some counter measures to prevent voltage collapse are:

Blocking of tap-changing transformers

Redispatch of generation

Load shedding

Temporary reactive power overloading of generators

299

Voltage stability may occur in different ways. A simple case of voltage stability can be explained

by considering the two terminal network of Fig. 6.9.

In this system, the network is represented by an equivalent generator that can be modeled in the

behind the equivalent impedance Zg .In general, the

steady state by an equivalent voltage source E

L . The load

generator, transformer and line impedances are combined together and represented as Z

D and V is the receiving end or load voltage. The current I in the circuit is given

impedance is Z

by:

I =

=

=

E

ZL + ZD

E

ZL + ZD

E

(ZL cos + ZD cos ) + j(ZL sin + ZL sin )

(6.173)

E

I=

(ZL cos + ZD cos )2 + (ZL sin + ZL sin )2

which may be written as:

I=

ZL FL

300

(6.174)

where,

ZD

ZD 2

FL = 1 + [ ] + 2 [ ] cos ( )

ZL

ZL

Where

The magnitude of the receiving and voltage is given by:

V = ZD I

E ZD

= [ ]

FL ZL

(6.175)

PL = V Icos

ZD

E 2

PL = ( ) [ ] cos

FL ZL

The plots of I,V and PL are shown in Fig. 6.10 as a function of

and .

(6.176)

ZL

ratio for a specific value of

ZD

Figure 6.10: Receiving end voltage, Current and Power as a function of Load

An explanation of the chracteristics of Fig. 6.10 is as follows:

As the load demand is increased by reducing ZD , the load power PL increases rapidly at first

and then slowly, before reaching a maximum value and then starts decreasing. There is thus, a

maximum value of active power that can be transmitted through an impedance from a constant

voltage source.

301

The transmitted power reaches a maximum when the voltage drop in the line is equal to the

load voltage V. This occurs, when the load impedance ZD is equal to line impedance ZL . As

ZD is gradually reduced, current in the line I increases and load voltage V decreases. Initially,

for high values of ZD , the enhancement in I is more than the reduction in V, and hence load

power PL increases rapidly with reduction in ZD . As ZD approaches ZL , the effect of the

enhancement in I is only slightly greater than that of the reduction in V, hence increase in PL

is slow. Finally, when ZD is quite less than ZL the reduction in V dominates over increase in

I and hence, PL decreases.

The critical operating condition, corresponding to maximum power, is the limiting point of

satisfactory operation. For higher load demand, control of power by varying load would be

unstable, as a reduction in load impedance will reduce power. The load characteristics decides

whether the system voltage decreases progressively and the system will become unstable. With

a constant impedance static load characteristic, the system stabilizes at power and voltage levels

lower than the desired values. For a constant power load characteristic, the system becomes

unstable through collapse of load bus voltage. If the load is supplied by transformers with

automatic under load-tap- changing (ULTC), the tap changer will try to raise the effective

load impedance ZD as seen from the system. This will lower the load bus voltage still further

and lead to a progressive reduction of voltage. This is the ease of simple voltage instability.

From the study of voltage stability the relationship between PL and V is important and this will

be discussed in the next lecture.

302

6.7

Neglecting the resistance of generator transformer and transmission line, the equivalent circuit of

the system and its phasor diagram are shown in Fig. 6.11 (a) and (b).

Figure 6.11: Equivalent circuit of the system(a) and the phasor diagram (b)

From the phasor diagram of Fig. 6.11 (b), it can be observed that IX cos = E sin and

IX sin = E cos V

IX cos EV

=

sin

X

X

PL (V ) = V I cos = V

(6.177)

QL (V ) = V I sin = V

IX sin EV

V

=

cos

X

X

X

The angle between E

and thus one can obtain:

303

EV 2

V2 2

2

[

] = [PL (V )] + [QL (V ) +

]

X

X

(6.178)

This static power-voltage equation determines all the possible network solutions when the voltage

characteristics PL (V ) and QL (V ) are taken into account.

For an ideally stiff load, the power demand of the load is independent of voltage and is constant

PL (V ) = PL and QL (V ) = QL , where, PL and QL are the real and reactive power demand of the

load at the rated voltage V.

For stiff load the equation (6.178) can now be written as:

EV 2

V2 2

2

[

] = [PL ] + [QL +

]

X

X

(6.179)

EV 2

V2 2

V2

=[

] [ ]

P + P tan + 2 PL tan

X

X

X

2

L

Substituting tan =

2

L

(6.180)

sin

and noting that sin2 + cos2 = 1 equation (6.180) can be further

cos

simplified as

V2

V2 2

P + 2 PL

sin cos = 2 (E V 2 ) cos2

X

X

2

L

(6.181)

2

V2

Adding and subtracting (

sin cos ) to the right hand side of equation (6.181), gives

X

2

V2

V2 2

V2

(PL +

sin cos ) ( ) sin2 cos2 = ( 2 ) (E 2 V 2 ) cos2

X

X

X

PL +

V

V2

sin cos =

cos E 2 V 2 cos2

X

X

(6.182)

The voltage at the load bus can be expressed in per unit as V/E. Equation (6.182) can be

expressed as:

E2 V 2

E2 V

PL = ( ) ( ) sin cos + ( ) ( ) cos

X

E

X

E

Or

Where p =

V 2

1 ( ) cos2

E

(6.183)

PL

V

, and v =

2

(E /X)

E

Equation (6.183) describes a family of curves with as a parameter. One such P-V curve is

shown, for a particular value of power factor cos in Fig. 6.12.

The Power-Voltage curve (PV-curve) presents load voltage as a function of load real power. For

304

static load (PL =constant) as shown in the figure, two operating points (A) and (B) are possible.

Point (A) represents low current high voltage solution and is the desirable operating point, while

point (B) represents high current low voltage solution. Operation at point B is possible, although,

perhaps non-viable due to low voltage and high current condition. Further, with system initially

at point A, if the load is increased then from the curve it can be seen that the voltage will drop.

Increase in load will result in an increase in the current flowing in the transmission line, hence the

voltage will reduce and this is a perfectly normal response of the system. Hence, point A and the

upper portion of PV curve represent stable system operation region. At point B, however, as the

load is increased the system voltage increases which is not possible at all. Hence, point B and the

lower portion of PV curve represent unstable operating region. Power systems are operated in the

upper part of the PV-curve. As the load increases point (A) and (B) come closer and coincide at

the tip of P-V curve. This point is called the maximum loading point or critical point. Further

increase in the load demand results in no intersection between the load-characteristic and PV curve

and hence, represents voltage instability this is shown in Fig. 6.13.

The impact of large a disturbance on voltage stability can also be explained with the help of PV

curves. Suppose, a large disturbance causes the loss of a transmission line resulting in increases in

reactance X or loss of generator resulting in reduction in E. The post-disturbance and pre-disturbance

PV characteristics along with load characteristic are shown in Fig. 6.14. The large disturbance causes

the network characteristic to shrink drastically, so that the post disturbance PV curve and the load

characteristic do not intersect at all. This causes voltage instability leading to a voltage collapse.

Assuming a smooth increase in load, the point where the load characteristic becomes tangent to

the network PV characteristic defines the loadability limit of the system. Any increase in load beyond

the loadability limit results in loss of voltage stability, and system can no longer function. In Fig.

6.13, the point where the load characteristic is tangent to network PV curve, coincides with the maximum deliverable power for a constant power load. However, a loadability limit need not necessarily

coincide with the maximum deliverable power, as it is dependent on the load characteristic.

305

Figure 6.15: Maximum deliverable power and loadabilty limit for polynomial load

V

This is shown in Fig. 6.15 for a polynomial load P = P0 ( ) , where, P0 represents the base

V0

value of load active power at rated voltage V0 = 1 p.u. and represents the voltage exponent. = 0

represents a constant power load.

Equation (6.183) when plotted for different values of gives a family of PV curves. Because of

306

their characteristic shape, these curves are referred to as nose curves. The following observations

can be made regarding the curves shown in Fig. 6.16:

For a given load below the maximum, there are two possible solutions- one with higer voltage

and lower current and the other with lower voltage and higher current. The former corresponds

to normal operating conditions, with the load voltage V closer to the generator voltage.

As the load is more and more compensated (corresponding to smaller tan ), the maximum

deliverable power increases, and the voltage at which this maximum occurs also increases.

For over-compensated loads (tan < 0 , leading power factor), there is a part of the upper

PV curve along which the voltage increases, as the load power increases. This can be explained

as follows: when tan is negative then, with more active power consumption more reactive

power is produced by the load. At low values of load, the voltage drop due to increased active

power is offset by the increase in voltage due to increased reactive power. The more negative

tan is, the larger is the portion of PV curve where this voltage rise occurs.

The usefulness of the nose curve is high in practice as the difference between a particular load

and maximum load, determined by the peak of the characteristic, is equal to stability margin for a

given power factor.

From equation (6.183), when QL = 0 ( and hence = 0), p = v 1 v 2 . To find the value of PL

dp

= 0 and the solution of the resulting equation gives the values

dv 2

1

1

E

E2

of v = and p = . Hence, PL =

. Note that

is the short circuit power at the load bus,

2

2

2X

X

at the peak of the nose curve set

as it is the product of no load voltage E and the short circuit current (E/X). The maximum power

limit for a lossless line, with unity power power, thus corresponds to half the short circuit power.

PV-curves (nose curves), illustrate the dependency of the voltage on real power of a composite

load assuming that the power factor is a parameter. The QV curves discussed next are derived

assuming that the voltage is a parameter.

307

For given value of V, equation (6.179) describes a circle in the (PL QL ) plane as shown in Fig.

6.17 (a). The centre of the circle lies on the QL -axis and is shifted vertically down from the origin

by (V 2 /X) , the radius of the curve is (EV /X) . Increasing the voltage V produces a family of

circles of increasing radius and increasing downward shift, bounded by an envelope as shown in Fig.

6.17 (b).

Figure 6.17: QP curves for stiff load (a) one circle for a given V (b) family of curves for different

voltages and their envelope

For each point inside envelope, for example, point A, there are two possible solutions to equation

(6.179), at voltages V1 and V2 , as it lies on both the circles. For any point on the envelope, say point

B, there is only one value of V for which the equation (6.179) is satisfied. By determining the values

of PL and VL for which only one solution to equation (6.179) exists, the equation of the envelope

can be developed. Rearranging equation (6.179), one gets:

V2 2

E2 V 2

( ) + (2QL

) ( ) + (PL2 + Q2L ) = 0

X

X

X

(6.184)

E2 2

D = (2QL

) 4 (PL2 + Q2L ) = 0

X

(6.185)

QL = (

P2

E2

)[ 2L ]

4X

(E /X)

(6.186)

This represents the equation of an inverted parabola that crosses PL axis at E 2 /2X and has its

maximum at

308

PLmax = 0; QLmax =

E2

4X

(6.187)

Thus the maximum reactive power supplied to a load with PL = 0 i.e. a purely reactive load

is equal to one fourth of the short-circuit power. Also a point with coordinates PL = E 2 /2X and

QL = 0 corresponds to the peak of the nose curve for = 0 and QL = 0.

The parabola as described equation (6.186) defines the shape of envelope in Fig. 6.17 (b) that

encloses all the possible solutions to the network equation (6.179). Every point (PL , QL ) inside the

parabola satisfies two possible network solutions corresponding to two distinct values of load voltage

V, and each point on the parabola satisfies only one network solution corresponding to only one

possible value of voltage. Further, there are no network solutions outside the parabola implying that

it is not possible to deliver power for a (PL , QL ) point lying outside the parabola.

Various stability criteria to assess the system voltage stability are discussed in the next lecture.

309

6.8

With reference to Fig. 6.17 (b), for each point inside the envelope of network solution, there are

two voltage solutions, one with a higher value of voltage and the other with a lower value. It then

becomes necessary, to find out which of these two solutions represents a stable operating point. This

can be done by employing voltage stability criteria which are discussed next.

(a) The dQ/dV criterion

The classical voltage stability criterion is based on the capability of the system to supply reactive

power for a given amount of load real power demand. For the explanation of this criterion, it is

convenient to notionally separate the real and reactive power demands of the load as represented in

Fig. 6.18.

Figure 6.18: Equivalent circuit for determining the reactive power characteristics of the system

Let PL (V ) and QL (V ) be the load real and reactive power demands respectively.

Also, let PS (V ) and QS (V ) be the real and reactive powers supplied by the source to the load.

As the real power demand is always connected to the transmission link, PL (V ) = PS (V ) also

during normal operation QL (V ) = QS (V ) , but for the purpose of stability analysis, this link

between QL (V ) and QS (V ) is theoretically separated, hence, QS (V ) is treated as the reactive

power supplied to the load and is assumed to be independent of the load reactive power demand

QL (V ) .

The real and reactive load powers are given as

PL (V ) = PS (V ) =

EV

sin

X

(6.188)

and

QS (V ) =

EV

V2

cos

X

X

(6.189)

Squaring and adding the above two equations and using the identity sin2 + cos2 = 1, and

then solving for QS (V ) one can obtain,

310

EV 2

V2

2

QS (V ) = {

} {PL (V )} ( )

X

X

(6.190)

This equation determines the reactive power-voltage characteristic of a system, and shows how

much reactive power will be supplied by the source if the system is loaded only with the real power

PL (V ) and the load voltage is treated as a variable. For a constant power load PL (V ) = PL =

constant equation (6.186) takes the form of an inverted parabola as shown in Fig. 6.18. The first

term of the equation (6.186) depends on the equivalent system reactance X and the load real power

PL and has the effect of shifting the parabola downwards and towards the right.

EV

V2

)

and the parabola crosses the horizontal axis at V = E and

X

X

dQS (V )

V = 0. For finding the maximum value Qmax , set the derivative

= 0. On solving the

dV

E

E2

resulting equation, the value of V at which Qmax occurs is

and Qmax is equal to

.

2

4X

2

E 2

PL (V )X

Similarly, for PL > 0,the maximum values of QS (V ) occurs at voltage V =

( ) +(

)

2

E

E

which is greater than

2

For PL = 0, QS (V ) = (

Next, the QS (V ) and QL (V ) characteristics can be drawn on the same diagram as shown in

Fig. 6.20 (a). At equilibrium the supply must equal the demand i.e., QL (V )=QS (V ) and the two

possible equilibrium points VS and VU are obtained. This situation is similar to the one shown in

Fig. 6.17 (b).

The stability of the two equilibrium points can be evaluated using small perturbation method and

the fact that an excess of reactive power produces an increase in voltage while a deficit of reactive

power decreases the voltage.

Now, consider the equilibrium points of Fig. 6.20(a), and assume a small reduction in voltage

V . At point S, this reduction will result in the supplied reactive power QS (V ) being greater

than the reactive power demand QL (V ). This excess reactive power will try to increase the voltage

311

Figure 6.20: QS (V ) and QL (V ) Characteristics for (a) two equilibrium points S and U (b) the

classical stability representation

and therefore, force the voltage to return to point S. If there is a small increase in V , then at

point S the supplied reactive power QS (V ) becomes smaller than the load reactive power QL (V ).

This deficit in reactive power brings the voltage back to point S and thus, it can be concluded that

the equilibrium point S is a stable operating point.

At point U, the other equilibrium point, a small reduction in voltage results in QL (V ) becoming

greater than QS (V ). This deficit of reactive power, further reduces the voltage, and thus, the system

fails to return to the equilibrium point U. Hence, the system is unstable at point U. Similarly,

an increase in the voltage in the vicinity of U results in QS (V ) becoming greater than QL (V ).

This excess of reactive power increases the voltage further. Again the system fails to come back to

equilibrium point, and hence, the equilibrium point U is unstable.

From Fig. 6.20(b), it can be observed that at the two equilibrium points S and U the derivative

d (QS QL )

of the surplus reactive power

dV

and positive at the unstable point U. Hence, it can be concluded that for stability:

d

dQ

=

(QS QL ) < 0

dV

dV

or

dQS dQL

<

dV

dV

From Fig. 6.20(b), it can be clear that at point U,

(6.191)

dQS

dQL

>

, and hence, point U is

dV

dV

not stable as per the criterion established in equation (6.191). While at point S the condition of

equation (6.191) is satisfied and hence, it is a stable point.

For the simple system of Fig. 6.18, the supplied real and reactive powers are functions of two

variables V and

312

PS (V ) = PL (V ) = fP (V, )

(6.192)

QS (V ) = fQ (V, )

Hence, the incremental values of PS and QS can be expressed as :

PS

PS

V +

PL = PS =

(6.193)

QS =

QS

QS

V +

PS 1

PS

= [

] [PL

V ]

(6.194)

Substituting in the expression of QS of equation (6.193) and dividing both sides of the

resulting expression by V one gets

QS QS QS PS 1 PL PS

=

+

[

] [

]

V

V

V

V

(6.195)

dQS QS QS PS 1 dPL PL

+

[

] [

]

dV

V

dV

V

(6.196)

The partial derivatives are calculated from equation (6.188) and equation (6.189)

PS

PS

V

QS

QS

V

EV

cos

X

E

=

sin

X

EV

=

sin

X

E

V

=

cos 2

X

X

2V EV

X

dPL E

dQS E

cos

sin

[

sin ]

dV

X

X

X

EV cos dV

X

313

(6.197)

Figure 6.21: QS (V ) and QL (V ) Characteristics indicating stable and unstable operating points

E

2V dPL

QS

[

+

tan ]

V

Xcos

X

dV

(6.198)

dQL

E

2V dPL

>[

{

+

tan }]

dV

Xcos

X

dV

(6.199)

dPL

dQL

and

are calculated from

dV

dV

the load characteristics expressed in terms of V.

For a load reactive power characteristic QL (V ) , different QS (V ) ,the supplied reactive power

can be plotted for different values of source voltage E. The resulting curves are shown in Fig. 6.21.

The points of interaction of these curves correspond to the two possible equilibrium points S and

U. The curve QS4 is tangential to the QL (V ) characteristic and the point S4 represents the critical

operating point. For any QS curve below QS4 , the system operation is not possible. In the figure

Vcr represents the critical voltage and for normal stable operation it is necessary that V > Vcr .

(b) The dE/dV criterion

From equation (6.178) E can be expressed in terms of V as,

E(V ) =

PL (V )X

QL (V )X

(V +

) +(

)

V

V

2

314

(6.200)

QL (V )X

In this equation,

represents the voltage drop component in phase with V and

V

represents the voltage drop component in quadrature with V.

PL (V )X

V

A typical E(V) characteristic is shown in Fig. 6.22 with the normal operating point of the load

as S. V is large at this point and is much greater than both in phase and quadrature components of

the voltage drop. In this case then, a drop in voltage V will result in a drop in the emf E(V). As V

is reduced further, the in phase and quadrature components of the voltage drop become prominent

and below a certain value of V, they will force E(V) to rise. As a result each value of E(V) may

correspond to two possible network solutions of voltage V. The stability of these two solutions can

be examined using small perturbation method.

dE

dV

Let us examine the system behavior at point S as shown in Fig. 6.22 with the assumption

that source emf is maintained at a constant value. A reduction in the load voltage by V will

cause a reduction in the required value of the emf E(V). As the available E is constant and greater

than the required value of E(V), it will force the voltage to return to its initial value V. Thus, the

system returns to the initial equilibrium point after the disturbance. Similarly, when the voltage is

increased by V , the required emf E(V) to maintain the enhanced voltage (V + V ) is larger than

the available source emf E. Hence, the voltage is again forced to return to its initial value V by the

constant emf E. Thus, it can be safety established that the point S is a stable equilibrium point.

Next, consider the other equilibrium point U. As the voltage is reduced, a higher value of emf

E(V) is required to maintain it. But as E is constant and less than the required value of emf E(V),

this will result in further reduction in voltage. As a result, the voltage further reduces and moves

away from the equilibrium point. Similarly, if the voltage is increased by V , then, the required emf

E(V) is smaller than the available source emf E. This larger available emf E will cause the voltage

to increase further and move further away from the initial equilibrium point U. Hence, it can be

concluded that point U is an unstable equilibrium point.

From the above arguments, it is apparent that the system is stable if the equilibrium point lies

on the right hand side of the characteristics, that is when :

dE

>0

dV

315

dE

criterion of volatge stability

dV

Vcr is the minimum system voltage at which the system can be operated stably. The usual

system operation voltage is greater than Vcr .

(c) The dQS /dQL criterion

Let QS (V ) be the reactive power generation by the source and QL (V ) be the load demand.

Then, QS (V ) = QL (V ) +line reactive power loss. From Fig. 6.11(b) one can write:

E

E

=

IX sin cos +

IX cos sin

X

X

(6.201)

Substituting IXsin = E cos V and IX cos = E sin in equation (6.201), one gets:

E

E

(E cos V ) cos + (E sin ) sin

X

X

E 2 EV

QS (V ) =

cos

X

X

QS (V ) =

(6.202)

Substituting the expression for QL (V ) from equation (6.177) in the above equation, we get:

QS (V ) =

E2 V 2

QL (V )

X X

Or

V 2 E2

=

QL (V ) QS (V )

X

X

(6.203)

Substituting this expression into equation (6.178) and rearranging the terms gives,

Q2S (V )

PL2 (V )

QL (V ) = 2

+ QS (V )

(E /X)

(E 2 /X)

316

(6.204)

If the load is a constant real power load with PL (V ) = PL = constant, then equation (6.204)

describes a horizontal parabola in the (QS , QL ) plane and is shown in Fig. 6.24(a). The vertex of

the parabola is at a constant QS value equal to E 2 /2X while the minimum value of QL depends

on PL and for PL = 0, the minimum is at E 2 /4X . An increase in PL shifts the parabola to the left

along the QL axis with no corresponding shift with respect to the QS axis.

Again a small perturbation in QL can be used to analyze the stability of the two equilibrium

points. For a constant QL , less than the minimum value, the two equilibrium points are labeled as

S and U as shown in Fig. 6.24.

At the point S a small increase QL in the load reactive power is accompanied by an increase in

generated reactive power QS and a small reduction in load reactive power causes a reduction in the

generated reactive power. Thus, the balance between the load reactive demand and the generated

reactive power is always maintained. Hence, the equilibrium pointS is always stable.

At the upper equilibrium point U, an increase in QL produce a reduction in QS , while a

reduction in QL causes an increase in QS . Thus, the changes in reactive generation are now in

opposite direction to the changes in demand and hence the equilibrium point U is unstable.

The stability criterion then can be stated as follows:

A system is stable, if a small change in reactive load demand produces a change in the generation

which has the same sign. In other words the derivative dQS /dQL is positive i.e. :

dQS

>0

dQL

(6.205)

Further, at the maximum loading point at the nose of QS QL characteristic of Fig. 6.24, the

derivative dQG /dQL tends to infinity.

It is worth noting that the QG QL characteristic is a parabola only for ideally stiff real power

load PL (V ) = P =constant. For voltage dependant loads an explicit expression for QL (QG ) with

PL (V ) cannot be obtained, and an iteractive procedure is required.

317

Voltage stability can be improved by adopting the following means:

Enhancing the load reactive power support using shunt compensators.

Line length compensation using series compensation.

Load shedding during contingencies.

Constructing additional transmission lines.

Using FACTS controllers.

318

Appendix A

The system data

Bus

no.

1

2

3

4

5

Type

1

2

2

3

3

PG

1

0

0

1

0

50

1

0

100

1

0

0

1

0

0

QG

PL

QL

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

115

60

0

85

40

Base MVA = 100

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)

0

-500

-500

-500

-500

(MVAR)

0

500

500

500

500

Branch no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

0.042

1

5

0.031

2

3

0.031

3

4

0.031

3

5

0.053

4

5

0.063

319

X (p.u)

0.168

0.126

0.126

0.126

0.210

0.252

B/2 (p.u)

0.041

0.031

0.031

0.031

0.051

0.061

Tx. Tap

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u) (p.u)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bus

no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Type

1

2

3

3

3

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

PG

QG

PL

QL

1.06

0

0

0

0

0

1.045

0

18.3

5.857

0

0

1

0

0

0

119

8.762

1

0

0

0

47.79

3.9

1

0

0

0

7.599

1.599

1.07

0

11.2

44.2

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

12.9

1

0

0

0

29.499

16.599

1

0

0

0

9

5.799

1

0

0

0

3.501

1.8

1

0

0

0

6.099

1.599

1

0

0

0

13.5

5.799

1

0

0

0

14.901

5.001

Base MVA = 100

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)

0

-500

0

0

0

-500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

(MVAR)

0

500

0

500

0

500

0

0

0

0

500

0

0

0

Branch no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1

2

0.0194

1

5

0.054

2

3

0.047

2

4

0.0581

2

5

0.0569

3

4

0.067

4

5

0.0134

4

7

0

4

9

0

5

6

0

6

11

0.095

6

12

0.1229

6

13

0.0661

7

8

0

7

9

0

9

10

0.0318

9

14

0.127

10

11

0.082

12

13

0.2209

13

14

0.1709

320

X (p.u)

0.0592

0.223

0.1979

0.1763

0.1738

0.171

0.0421

0.209

0.5562

0.2522

0.1989

0.2557

0.1302

0.1762

0.011

0.0845

0.2703

0.192

0.1999

0.3479

B/2 (p.u)

0.0528

0.0492

0.0438

0.0374

0.0339

0.0346

0.0128

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tx. Tap

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u)

(p.u)

0

0

0

0

0.0002 0.502

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.0023 0.1325

0

0.0633

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bus

no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Type

1

2

3

3

2

3

3

2

3

3

2

3

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

PG

QG

PL

QL

1.05

0

0

0

0

0

1.0338

0

57.56

2.47

21.7

12.7

1

0

0

0

2.4

1.2

1

0

0

0

7.6

1.6

1.0058

0

24.56

22.57

94.2

19

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

62.8

10.9

1.023

0

35

34.84

80

30

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

5.8

2

1.0913

0

17.93

30.78

0

0

1

0

0

0

11.2

7.5

1.0883

0

16.91

37.83

0

0

1

0

0

0

6.2

1.6

1

0

0

0

8.2

2.5

1

0

0

0

3.5

1.8

1

0

0

0

9

5.8

1

0

0

0

3.2

0.9

1

0

0

0

9.5

3.4

1

0

0

0

2.2

0.7

1

0

0

0

17.5

11.2

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

3.2

1.6

1

0

0

0

8.7

6.7

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

3.5

2.3

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2.4

0.9

1

0

0

0

10.6

1.9

Base MVA = 100

321

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)

0

-500

0

0

-500

0

0

-500

0

0

-500

0

-500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

(MVAR)

0

500

0

0

500

0

0

500

0

0

500

0

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u) (p.u)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.19

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.04

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Branch no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

1

2

0.0192

1

3

0.0452

2

4

0.057

3

4

0.0132

2

5

0.0472

2

6

0.0581

4

6

0.0119

5

7

0.046

6

7

0.0267

6

8

0.012

6

9

0

6

10

0

9

11

0

9

10

0

4

12

0

12

13

0

12

14

0.1231

12

15

0.0662

12

16

0.0945

14

15

0.221

16

17

0.0824

15

18

0.107

18

19

0.0639

19

20

0.034

10

20

0.0936

10

17

0.0324

10

21

0.0348

10

22

0.0727

21

22

0.0116

15

23

0.1

22

24

0.115

23

24

0.132

24

25

0.1885

25

26

0.2544

25

27

0.1093

27

28

0

27

29

0.2198

27

30

0.3202

29

30

0.2399

8

28

0.0636

6

28

0.0169

322

X (p.u)

0.0575

0.1852

0.1737

0.0379

0.1983

0.1763

0.0414

0.116

0.082

0.042

0.208

0.556

0.208

0.11

0.256

0.14

0.2559

0.1304

0.1987

0.1997

0.1932

0.2185

0.1292

0.068

0.209

0.0845

0.0749

0.1499

0.0236

0.202

0.179

0.27

0.3292

0.38

0.2087

0.396

0.4153

0.6027

0.4533

0.2

0.0599

B/2 (p.u)

0.0528

0.0408

0.0368

0.0084

0.0418

0.0374

0.009

0.0204

0.017

0.009

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.0418

0.013

Tx. Tap

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

Bus

no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Type

1

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

PG

QG

PL

QL

1.04

0

0

0

0

0

1.025

0

163

0

0

0

1.025

0

85

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

125

50

1

0

0

0

90

30

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

100

35

1

0

0

0

0

0

Base MVA = 100

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)

0

-500

-500

-500

-500

-500

-500

-500

-500

(MVAR)

0

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

Branch no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

2

7

0.0

1

4

0.0

3

9

0.0

4

6

0.017

4

5

0.01

5

7

0.032

6

9

0.039

9

8

0.0119

8

7

0.0085

323

X (p.u)

0.0625

0.0576

0.0586

0.092

0.085

0.161

0.17

0.1008

0.072

B/2 (p.u)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.079

0.088

0.153

0.179

0.1045

0.0745

Tx. Tap

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u) (p.u)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

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