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Module 1

Introduction
Electricity is the most preferred used form of energy used in industry, homes, businesses and transportation. It can be easily and efficiently transported from the production centers to the point of
use. It is highly flexible in use as it can be converted to any desired form like mechanical, thermal,
light, chemical etc.
An electrical power system is made up of many components connected together to form a large,
complex system that is capable of generating, transmitting and distributing electrical energy over
large areas.

1.1

The structure of electrical power system

The basic structure of modern day power system is shown in Fig. 1.1. A power system is usually
divided into three parts: generation, transmission and distribution system.

1.1.1

Generation

Electricity is produced by converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy. In majority of
cases, the mechanical energy is either obtained from thermal energy or provided by the flowing water.
The main sources of thermal energy sources are coal, natural gas, nuclear fuel and oil. The use of
non-fossil fuels such as wind, solar, tidal, and geothermal and biogas in electricity generation is also
increasing. Hydro-power is the main non-thermal source of mechanical energy used in electricity
generation. The conversion of mechanical to electrical energy is done using synchronous generators
in majority of power plants. Few wind generation systems use induction generators. The power is
usually generated at low voltage, between 11 and 35 KV, and then fed into the transmission system
using a step up transformer.

1.1.2

Transmission system

The electricity is generated in bulk in the generating stations and then transmitted over long distances
to the load points. The transmission system interconnects all the generating stations and major load
centers in the system. It forms the back bone of the power system. Since the power loss in a
transmission line is proportional to the square of line current, the transmission lines operate at the
1

Figure 1.1: Structure of a Power System


highest voltage levels, usually 220 KV and upwards. Usually the transmission network has a meshed
structure in order to provide many alternate routes for the power to flow from the generators to the
load points. This improves the reliability of the system.
High voltage transmission lines are terminated at substations. Very large industrial customers
may be provided power directly from these substations. At these substations, the voltage is stepped
down to a lower level and fed into the sub-transmission system. This part of the transmission system
connects the high voltage substation through step down transformers to distribution substation.
Typically the sub-transmission voltage levels are from 66 KV to 132 KV. Some large industrial
consumers may be served directly from the sub-transmission system.
The transmission lines connect the neighboring power systems at transmission levels, thus forming
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a grid. The grid is the network of multiple generating resources and several layers of transmission
network. The interconnections of power systems offer the following advantages.
(a) Quality: The voltage profile of the transmission network improves as more generators contribute
to the system, resulting in an increased total system capability. This also improves the frequency
behavior of the system following any load perturbation due to increased inertia of the system.
(b) Economy: In interconnected systems, it is possible to reduce the total set of generating plants
required to maintain the desired level of generation reserve. This results in reduction of operational and investment costs. Also, operational (including plant start-ups and shut down) and
generation scheduling of units can be more economically coordinated.
(c) Security: In case of emergency, power can be made available from the neighboring systems and
each system can benefit even when individual spinning reserves may not be sufficient for isolated
operation.

1.1.3

Distribution system

The distribution represents the final stage of power transfer to the individual consumer. The distribution network is generally connected in a radial structure. The primary distribution voltage is
typically between 11 KV and 33 KV. Small industrial customers are supplied by primary feeders at
this voltage level. The secondary distribution feeders supply residential and commercial at 415/240
V. Small generating plants located near the load centers are usually connected to sub-transmission
or distribution system directly.
A power system operates in a normal state, if the following conditions are satisfied:
The bus voltages are within the prescribed limits.
The system frequency is within the specified limits.
The active and reactive power balance exists in the system.
However, the system load varies continuously and hence, in order to ensure satisfactory system
operation, proper controls have to be provided in a power system.

1.1.4

Power system control structure

The various elements of power system operation and control are shown in Table 1.1 along with the
time-scale of operation.

1.2

Power system control

A properly designed and operated power system must meet the following requirements:
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Table 1.1: Various elements of power system operation and control

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Operation and control action


Relaying execution control, system voltage control
System frequency control tie-line power control
Economic dispatch
System security analysis
Unit commitment
Maintenance scheduling
System planning

Time period
Multi seconds
Few seconds to few minutes
Few minutes to few hours
Few minutes to few hours
Few hours to few weeks
One month to one year
One year to 10 years

(a) The system must have adequate capability to meet the continuously varying active and reactive
power demand of system load. This requires maintaining and approximately controlling adequate
spinning reserve of active and reactive power at all time instants.
(b) The system should be designed and operated so as to supply electrical energy at minimum cost
and with minimum adverse ecological impact.
(c) The electrical power supplied to the consumers must meet certain minimum quality standards
with respect to the following:
i) The network frequency should be maintained within a range of 3 percent of its nominal
value.
ii) The voltage magnitudes should be maintained within a range of 10 percent of the corresponding nominal value at each network bus bar.
iii) The supply should meet a desired level of reliability to ensure supply continuity as far as
possible.
(d) It should maintain scheduled tie-line flow and contractual power exchange.
To meet the requirements at points i), ii) and iii) above, several levels of controls incorporating
a large number of devices are needed. These controls are as shown in Fig. 1.2.
A brief explanation of various power system controllers is given next.

1.2.1

Generating unit controls

The controls provided in generating units consist of prime mover control and excitation controls as
shown in Fig. 1.3. The controls are also called as local frequency control (LFC) and automatic
voltage control (AVC).
These controllers are set for a particular operating condition and maintain the frequency and
voltage magnitude within the specified limits following small changes in load demand. If the input to
the prime mover is constant, then an increase in the active power of load at the generator terminals
results in a drop in the prime mover speed. This then, causes a reduction in the frequency. On
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Figure 1.2: Controls in a Power System


the other hand, an increase in reactive power demand at the generator results in the reduction of
terminal voltage, if the excitation (generation field current) is kept constant. As the time constant
of excitation system is much smaller than that of prime mover system, the coupling between LFC
and AVC loop is negligible and hence they are considered independently.

1.2.2

Load frequency control

In LFC, two feedback loops namely, primary and secondary loops are provided. Both the loops
help in maintaining the real power balance by adjusting the turbine input power. The primary LFC
loop senses the generator speed and accordingly controls the turbine input. This is a faster loop
5

Figure 1.3: Generator controls


and operates in the order of seconds. But this loop provides only a coarse frequency control. The
secondary LFC loop which senses the system frequency and tie-time power, fine tunes the frequency
back to the nominal value. This is a slower loop and may take minutes to eliminate frequency error.

1.2.3

Automatic voltage control

In AVC, the bus voltage is measured and compared to a reference. The resulting error voltage is
then amplified and applied to the excitation control system. The output of the exciter controls the
generator field current. An increase in the reactive power load of the generator causes the terminal
voltage to decrease and this results in generation of voltage error signal. The amplified error signal
then increases the exciter field current which in turn increases the exciter terminal voltage. This
increases the generator field current, which results in an increase in the generated emf. The reactive
power generation of the generator is thus increased and the terminal voltage is brought back to its
nominal value.
The generation control maintains the active power balance in the system. It also controls the
division of load active power between the generators in the system to ensure economic operation.

1.2.4

Economic dispatch

Economic operation and planning of electric energy generating system has been accorded due importance by the power system operators. Power systems need to be operated economically to make
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electrical energy cost-effective to the consumer and profitable for the operator. The operational
economics that deals with power generation and delivery can be divided into two sub-problems.
One dealing with minimum cost of power generation and other dealing with delivery of power with
minimum power loss. The problem of minimum production cost is solved using economic dispatch.
The main aim of economic dispatch problem is to minimize the total cost of generating real
power at different plants in the system while maintaining the real power balance in the system.
For system having hydro-plants, a coordinated dispatch of hydro-thermal units is carried out. The
economic dispatch and minimum loss problems can be solved by means of optimal power flow (OPF)
method. The OPF calculations involve a sequence of load flow solutions in which certain controllable
parameters are automatically adjusted to satisfy the network constraints while minimizing a specified
objective function.
The power system control objectives are dependent on the operating state of the system. Under
normal operating conditions, the controller tries to operate the system as economically as possible
with voltages and frequency maintained close to nominal values.
But abnormal conditions like outage of a larger generator, of a major transmission line or sudden
increase or reduction of system load can cause havoc in the system, if not properly controlled.
Different operating objectives have to be met in order to restore the system to normal operation
after the occurrence of such contingencies.

1.2.5

Security analysis and contingency evaluation

For the analysis of power system security and development of approximate control systems, the
system operating conditions are classified into five states: normal, alert, emergency, in extremis and
restorative. The state and the transitions between them are shown in Fig. 1.4.

Figure 1.4: Power system state transition diagram


Normal state: In this state, all the system variables are within the normal range with no
equipment being overloaded. The system is in a secure state with both equality (total system
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generation eqauls total system load) and inequality(bus voltages and equipment currents within
the limits) constraints being satisfied. In this state, a single contingency cannot disrupt the system
security and cannot cause any variable to violate the limit. The system has adequate spinning
reserve.
Alert state: If the security level of the system falls below some specified threshold, the system
then enters the alert state and is termed as insecure. The system variables are still within limits.
This state may be brought about by a single contingency, large increase in system load or adverse
weather conditions. Preventive control steps taken to restore generation or to eliminate disturbace
can help in restoring the system to the normal state. If these restorative steps do not succeed, the
system remains in the alert state. Occurence of a contingency with the system already in alert state,
may cause overloading of equipments and the system may enter emergency state. If the disturbance
is very severe, the system may enter into extremis state directly from alert state.
Emergency state: If the preventive controls fail or if a severe disturbance occurs, the system
enters emergency state. The transition to this state can occur either from normal state or alert state.
In this state the balance between generation and load is still maintained (equality constraints still
satisfied) and the system remains in synchronism. Some components are however overloaded(some
inequality constrints violated). Failure of these components results in system disintegration. Emergency control actions like disconnection of faulted section, re-routing of power excitation control,
fast valving, and load curtailment have to be taken. It is most urgent that the system be restored
to normal or alert state by means of these actions.
In-extremis state: If the emergency control actions fail when the system is in emergency state,
then the system enters into in-extremis state. The system starts to disintegrate into sections or
islands. Some of these islands may still have sufficient generation to meet the load. The components
are overloaded and the active power balance is also disrupted. Overloaded generators start tripping
leading to cascade outages and possible blackout. Control actions, such as load shedding and
controlled system operation are taken to save as much of the system as possible from a widespread
blackout.
Restorative state: The restorative state represents a condition in which control action is being
taken to restart the tripped generators and restore the interconnections. The system transition can
be either to normal or alert state depending on system conditions. The sequence of events that result
in system transition from normal to in-extremis state may take from few seconds to several minutes.
Bringing the system back to normal through the restorative state is an extremely time consuming
process and may last for hours or may be days. A large generator may require many hours from
restart to synchronization. The switched off loads can be picked up gradually and resynchronization
of operating islands to the grids is also a time consuming process.
The control actions may be initiated from the central energy control centre either through operators or automatically.

1.2.6

Unit Commitment
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The total load in the power system varies throughout a day and its value also changes with the
day of the week and season. Hence, it is not economical to run all the units available all the time.
Thus, the problem of unit commitment is to determine in advance, the start and the shut down
sequence of the available generators such that the load demand is met and the cost of generation is
minimum.

1.2.7

Maintenance scheduling

Preventive maintenance has to be carried out on power system components to ensure that they
continue to operate efficiently and reliably. Generators are usually put on maintenance once every
year. Their maintenance has to be so scheduled such that the available generation is sufficient to
meet the system load demand. The problem of maintenance scheduling deals with the sequencing of
generator maintenance such that sufficient generation is always available to meet the load demand
and the cost of maintenances and cost of lost generation is minimum.

1.3

System planning

To meet ever increasing load demand, either new power systems have to be built or the existing
power systems are expanded by adding new generators and transmission lines. Many analyses must
be performed to design and study the performance of the system and plan expansion. To study the
system feasibility and performance, the following analyses need to be carried out:
(a) Load flow analysis
(b) Fault analysis/short circuit studies
(c) Stability studies
(d) Contingency analysis

1.3.1

Load flow analysis

The load flow analysis involves the steady state solution of the power system network to determine power flows and bus voltages of a transmission network for specified generation and loading
conditions. These calculations are required for the study of steady state and dynamic performance
of the system.
The system is assumed to be balanced and hence, single phase representation is used. These studies are important in planning and designing future expansion of power system and also in determining
the best operation of the existing systems.

1.3.2

Fault studies

In these studies the line currents and bus voltages of a system are calculated during various
types of faults. Faults on power system are divided into balanced and unbalanced faults. Three
phase symmetrical faults are balanced faults in which the system retains its balanced nature. The
unbalanced faults are single line to ground fault, line to line fault and double line to ground fault.
The fault currents values are useful in relay setting and co-ordination as well as for selecting the
proper rating of the circuit breakers.

1.3.3

Stability studies

The stability studies ascertain the impact of disturbances on the electrochemical dynamic behavior of the power system. These studies are of two types; small signal stability study and transient
stability study.
The small signal stability studies deal with the behavior of a system following any small disturbances like small change in load, small change in AVR gain etc. As the disturbance is small, the
equations that describe the dynamics of the power system are linearized for the purpose of analysis.
The system is small signal stable for a particular operating point, if following a small disturbance it
returns to essentially the same steady state operating condition.
Transient stability study deals with the response of a power system subjected to a large disturbance such a short circuit, line tripping or loss of large genration. In this study the equations
describing system dynamics are solved using numerical techniques. The power system transient stability problem is then defined as that of assessing whether or not the system will reach an acceptable
steady state operating point following a large disturbance.
We will now start with the study of load flow analysis technique from the next lecture.

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Module 2
Load Flow Analysis
AC power flow analysis is basically a steady-state analysis of the AC transmission and distribution
grid. Essentially, AC power flow method computes the steady state values of bus voltages and line
power flows from the knowledge of electric loads and generations at different buses of the system
under study. In this module, we will look into the power flow solution of the AC transmission grid
only (the solution methodology of AC distribution grid will not be covered). Further, we will also
study the power flow solution technique when an HVDC link is embedded into an AC transmission
grid. Also, we will be considering only a balanced system in which the transmission lines and loads
are balanced (the impedances are equal in all the three phases) and the generator produces balanced
three phase voltages (magnitudes are equal in all the phases while the angular difference between
any two phases is 120 degree).

2.1

Modeling of power system components

Basically, an AC transmission grid consists of, i) synchronous generator, ii) loads, iii) transformer
and iv) transmission lines. For the purpose of power flow solution, synchronous generators are not
represented explicitly, rather their presence in implicitly modeled. We will look into the implicit
representation of synchronous generators a little later. However, the other three components are
modeled explicitly and their representations are discussed below.

2.1.1

Loads

As we all know, loads can be classified into three categories; i) constant power, ii) constant impedance
and iii) constant current. However, within the normal operating range of the voltage almost all the
loads behave as constant power loads. As the objective of the AC power flow analysis is to compute
the normal steady-state values of the bus voltages, the loads are always represented as constant
power loads. Hence, at any bus k (say), the real and reactive power loads are specified as 100 MW
and 50 MVAR (say) respectively. An important point needs to be mentioned here. As the loads
are always varying with time (the customers are always switching ON and OFF the loads), any
specific value of load (MW and/or MVAR) is valid only at a particular time instant. Hence, AC
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power flow analysis is always carried out for the load and generator values at a particular instant.

2.1.2

Transmission line

In a transmission grid, the transmission lines are generally of medium length or of long length. A
line of medium length is always represented by the nominal- model as shown in Fig. 2.1, where
z is the total series impedance of the line and Bc is the total shunt charging susceptance of the
line. On the other hand, a long transmission line is most accurately represented by its distributed
parameter model. However, for steady-state analysis, a long line can be accurately represented by
the equivalent- model, which predicts accurate behavior of the line with respect to its terminal
measurements taken at its two ends. The equivalent- model is shown in Fig. 2.2.

Figure 2.1: Normal model of a line connected between buses i and j

Figure 2.2: Equivalent model of a long transmission line connected between buses i and j
In Fig. 2.2,
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z
is the characteristic impedance of the line
y

= zy is the propagation constant


z = series impedance of the line per unit length
y = shunt admittance of the line per unit length
L = length of the line
zc =

Hence, for power system analysis, a transmission line (medium or long) is always represented by
a circuit.

2.1.3

Transformer

For power system steady-state and fault studies, generally the exciting current of the transformer is
neglected as it is quite low compared to the normal load current flowing through the transformer.
Therefore, a two winding transformer connected between buses i and j is represented by its per
unit leakage impedance as shown in Fig. 2.3.

Figure 2.3: Equivalent Equivalent circuit of a two winding transformer


It is to be noted that in Fig. 2.3, the transformer tap ratio is 1:1. For a regulating transformer
with transformation ratio 1:t, the equivalent circuit of the transformer is shown in Fig. 2.4.
Sometimes the transformer ratio is also represented as a:1. In that case, the equivalent circuit is
as shown in Fig. 2.5.
Please note that in Figs. 2.4 and 2.5, the quantities t and a are real (i.e. the transformer is
changing only the voltage magnitude, not its angle). Further, in these two figures, the quantity y is
the per unit admittance of the transformer. Also, Fig. 2.5 can be derived from Fig. 2.4 by noting
t = 1/a and by interchanging the buses i and j.
With the models of above components in place, we are now in a position to start systematic study
of an n bus power system. Towards that goal, we first must understand the concept of injected
power and injected current, which is our next topic.

2.2

Concept of injected power and current

As the name suggests, the injected power (current) indicates the power (current) which is fed in to
a bus. To understand this concept, let us consider Fig. 2.6. In part (a) of this figure, a generator is
connected at bus k supplying both real and reactive power to the bus and thus, the injected real
and reactive power are taken to be equal to the real (reactive) power supplied by the generator. The
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Figure 2.4: Equivalent circuit of a regulating transformer with transformation ratio 1:t

Figure 2.5: Equivalent circuit of a regulating transformer with transformation ratio a:1
corresponding injected current is also taken to be equal to the current supplied by the generator.
On the other hand, for a load connected to bus k (as shown in Fig. 2.6(b)), physically the real
(reactive) power consumed by the load flows away from the bus and thus, the injected real (reactive)
power is taken to be the negative of the real (reactive) power consumed by the load. Similarly, the
corresponding injected current Ik is also taken as the negative of the load current. If both a generator
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and a load are connected at a particular bus (as depicted in Fig. 2.6(c)), then the net injected real
(reactive) power supplied to the bus is equal to the generator real (reactive) power minus the real
(reactive) power consumed by the load. Similarly, the net injected current in this case is taken to
be the difference of the generator current and the load current.

Figure 2.6: Illustration of injected power


To summarize, if Pk , Qk , and Ik denote the injected real power, reactive power and complex
current at bus k respectively,
Pk = PG ; Qk = QG and Ik = IG if only a generator is connected to the bus k.
Pk = PL ; Qk = QL and Ik = IL if only a load is connected to the bus k.
Pk = PG PL ; Qk = QG QL and Ik = IG IL if both generator and load are connected to
the bus k.
Pk = 0 ; Qk = 0 ; Ik = 0 If neither generator nor load is connected to the bus k.
With this concept of injected power and current, we are now in a position to start analysis of
any general n bus power system. The first step towards this goal is to derive the bus admittance
matrix, which we will take up next.

2.3

BUS)
Formation of bus admittance matrix (Y

Let us consider a 5 bus network as shown in Fig. 2.7. In this network, all the transmissions are
represented by models. Therefore, the equivalent circuit of the above network is shown in Fig.
2.8.
In Fig. 2.8, Ik ; k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 are the injected currents at bus k. Further, the quantity yij
denotes the series admittance of the line i-j whereas the quantity yijs denotes the half line charging
susceptance of the line i-j. Now applying KCL at each bus k one obtains,

I1 = yT 1 (V1 V2 ) = yT 1 V1 yT 1 V2
15

(2.1)

Figure 2.7: A sample 5 bus network

Figure 2.8: Equivalent circuit of Fig. 2.7

I2 = yT 1 (V2 V1 ) + V2 y23s + (V2 V3 )


y23 + V2 y24s + (V2 V4 )
y24
=
yT 1 V1 + (
yT 1 + y23s + y23 + y24s + y24 )V2 y23 V3 y24 V4
16

(2.2)

I3 = (V3 V2 )
y23 + V3 y23s + (V3 V5 )t
yT 2 + t(t 1)
yT 2 V3 + (V3 V4 )
y34 + V3 y34s
= V2 y23 + {
y23 + y23s + t
yT 2 + t(t 1)
yT 2 + y34 + y34s } V3 y34 V4 t
yT 2 V5
(2.3)

I4 = (V4 V2 )
y24 + y24s V4 + (V4 V3 )
y34 + y34s V4
= V2 y24 V3 y34 + (
y24 + y24s + y34 + y34s )V4

(2.4)

I5 = (V5 V3 )t
yT 2 + (1 t)
yT 2 V5
= V3 t
yT 2 + {t
yT 2 + (1 t)
yT 2 } V5

(2.5)

Equations (2.1) - (2.5) can be represented in a matrix form as,

I1 Y11


I2 Y21


I3 = Y31

I Y
4 41

I5 Y51

Y12
Y22
Y32
Y42
Y52

Y13
Y23
Y33
Y43
Y53

Y14
Y24
Y34
Y44
Y54

Y15 V1

Y25 V2

Y35 V3
Y45 V4

Y55 V5

(2.6)

Where, Y11 = yT 1 ;

Y12 =
yT 1 ; Y13 = Y14 = Y15 = 0; Y21 =
yT 1 ;

Y22 = (
yT 1 + y23s + y23 + y24s + y24 ); Y23 =
y23 ; Y24 =
y24 ; Y25 = 0;
Y31 = 0; Y32 =
y23 ; Y33 = {
y23 + y23s + t
yT 2 + t(t 1)
yT 2 + y34 + y34s } ;

Y34 =
y34 ; Y35 = t
yT 2 ; Y41 = 0; Y42 =
y24 ; Y43 =
y34 ;
Y44 = (
y24 + y24s + y34 + y34s ); Y45 = 0; Y51 = Y52 = 0;
Y53 = t
yT 2 ; Y54 = 0; Y55 = {t
yT 2 + (1 t)
yT 2 }
Equation (2.6) can be written as,

IBUS = Y
BUS V
BUS

(2.7)

Where,

IBUS = [I1 , I2 I5 ]T (5 1) is the vector of bus injection currents


BUS = [V1 , V2 V5 ]T (5 1) is the vector of bus voltages measured with respect to the
V
ground

BUS (5 5) is the bus admittance matrix


Y
BUS it can be observed that for i = 1, 2, 5;
Furthermore, from the elements of the Y
Yii = sum total of all the admittances connected at bus i
Yij = negative of the admittance connected between bus i and j (if these two buses are physically connected with each other)
Yij = 0; if there is no physical connection between buses i and j

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Similarly, for a n bus power system, the relation given in equation (2.7) holds good, where,
IBUS = [I1 , I2 In ]T (n 1) is the vector of bus injection currents

BUS = [V1 , V2 Vn ]T (n 1) is the vector of bus voltages


V
BUS (n n) is the bus admittance matrix
Y
BUS matrix are calculated in the same way as described above.
Furthermore, the elements of the Y
BUS matrix when there is no mutual coupling
So far, we have considered the formation of the Y
among the elements of the network. In the next lecture, we will look into the procedure for forming
BUS matrix in the presence of mutual coupling between the elements.
the Y

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2.4

BUS matrix in the presence of mutually


Formation of Y
coupled elements

c connected between nodes u and v is


Let us consider Fig. 2.9. In this figure, the impedance Z
d connected between nodes x and y through a mutual
mutually coupled with the impedance Z
m . The currents through the impedances, the voltages across the impedances and the
impedance Z
injected currents at all the four nodes are also shown in Fig. 2.9.

Figure 2.9: Two mutually coupled impedances


From Fig. 2.9, the relationship between the voltages and currents associated with the two
impedances can be written as,

Zc Zm Ic
Vc
][ ]
[ ] = [
Zm Zd Id
Vd
Or,

1
Vc
Zc Zm
Ic
Vc
Zd Zm
1
]
=
]
[
[ ] = [
]
]
[
[
2
Vd
Zm Zd
Id
Zm
Zc Vd
Zc Zd Zm

Or,

Ic
Yc Ym Vc
][ ]
[ ] = [
Ym Yd Vd
Id

(2.8)

Where,

Yc =

Zd
;
2
Zc Zd Zm

Yd =

Zc
;
2
Zc Zd Zm

and Ym =

Zm
2
Zc Zd Zm


Vu

Vc
Vu Vv
1 1 0 0 Vv
Now from Fig. 2.9, [ ] = [
]=[
]
Vd
Vx Vy
0 0 1 1 Vx

Vy

Or,

Vu

V
Vc
1 1 0 0
v
[ ] = [C] where, C = [
]

Vd
0 0 1 1
Vx

Vy

19

(2.9)

(2.10)

Again, from Fig. 2.9,


Iu Ic


I I
v c
= =
Ix Id



Iy Id

1 0

c
T I
1 0 Ic
[ ] = [C] [ ]
Id
0 1 Id

0 1

(2.11)

From equations (2.8) and (2.10),

Ic
Yc Ym Vc
Yc
[ ] = [
]
[
]
=
[
Id
Ym Yd Vd
Ym

Or,


Vu

V
Ym
v
[C]

]
Vx
Yd


Vy



Vu
Iu


V
I
c
T I
Yc Ym
T
v
v
[C]
[C] [ ] = = [[C] ] [

]
Vx
Ix
Ym Yd
Id




Vy
Iy

(2.12)

Now,

c
T Y
[C] [
Ym

Ym

[C]

=
]

Yd

1 0

1 0 Yc Ym 1 1 0 0
[
][
]
0 1 Ym Yd
0 0 1 1

0 1

(2.13)

Or,

c
T Y
[C] [
Ym

Ym

[C]

]
=

Yd

1 0

1 0
[
0 1

0 1

Yc Yc
Ym Ym

Ym Ym
]
Yd Yd
(2.14)

Or,

c
T Y
[C] [
Ym

Yc Yc Ym Ym

Y
Ym
Yc Ym Ym

] [C] =
Ym Ym
Yd
Yd Yd

Ym Ym Yd
Yd

20

(2.15)

Hence, from equations (2.12) and (2.15)



Iu Yc Yc Ym Ym Vu


I Y
Yc Ym Ym Vv
v
c

=
Ix Ym Ym
Yd Yd Vx



Iy Ym Ym Yd
Yd Vy

(2.16)

From equation (2.16),

Iu = Yc Vu Yc Vv + Ym Vx Ym Vy
= Yc Vu Yc Vv + Ym Vx Ym Vy + Ym Vu Ym Vu
= Yc (Vu Vv ) + (Ym )(Vu Vx ) + Ym (Vu Vy )

(2.17)

Or,

Iu = Iuv + Iux + Iuy

(2.18)

Similarly,

Iv = Yc Vu + Yc Vv Ym Vx + Ym Vy
= Yc Vu + Yc Vv Ym Vx + Ym Vy + Ym Vv Ym Vv
= Yc (Vu Vv ) + (Ym )(Vv Vy ) + Ym (Vv Vx )

(2.19)

Or,

Iv = Ivu + Ivy + Ivx

(2.20)

Ix = Ym Vu Ym Vv + Yd Vx Yd Vy
= Ym Vu Ym Vv + Yd Vx Yd Vy + Ym Vx Ym Vx
= Yd (Vx Vy ) + (Ym )(Vx Vu ) + Ym (Vx Vu )

(2.21)

Or,

Ix = Ixy + Ixu + Ixv

(2.22)

Equations (2.18), (2.20) and (2.22) can be represented by the partial networks shown in Figs.
2.10, 2.11 and 2.12 respectively. Combining Figs. 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12, Fig. 2.13 is obtained.
Again from the last row of equation (2.16),

Iy = Ym Vu + Ym Vv Yd Vx + Yd Vy
= Ym Vu + Ym Vv Yd Vx + Yd Vy + Ym Vy Ym Vy
= Yd (Vy Vx ) + (Ym )(Yy Vv ) + Ym (Yy Vu )

(2.23)

It can be observed that equation (2.23) is also represented by Fig. 2.13. Therefore, the voltage21

Figure 2.10: Partial network corresponding to equation (2.18)


current relationship of equation (2.16) is adequately represented by Fig. 2.13. Thus, Fig. 2.13
can be considered as an equivalent circuit of Fig. 2.9. As Fig. 2.13 does not contain any mutual
BUS formulation can be adopted for this circuit also.
admittance, usual method for Y
Fig. 2.13 shows the most general case in which all the four nodes are distinct from each other.
However, in many cases mutual coupling exists between two elements which have one common node
between them. The equivalent circuit for this case can also be derived from Fig. 2.13. For example,
in Fig. 2.13, if nodes v and y are common (say w), then the equivalent circuit becomes as shown
in Fig. 2.14. Moreover, if the nodes u and x are also common (say s), then the equivalent circuit
BUS formulation can be adopted for these two
is shown in Fig. 2.15. Again, the usual method for Y
circuits also.
We are now in a position to write down the basic power flow equation, which we will take up in
the next lecture.

22

Figure 2.11: Partial network corresponding to equation (2.20)

Figure 2.12: Partial network corresponding to equation (2.22)

23

Figure 2.13: Combined network of Figs. 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12

Figure 2.14: Equivalent circuit with one common node

24

Figure 2.15: Equivalent circuit with two common nodes

25

2.5

Basic power flow equation

From equation (2.7), for a n bus system,


I1 Y11

I Y
2 21
=



In Yn1

Or,


Y12 Y1n V1

Y22 Y2n V2



Yn2 Ynn Vn

(2.24)

Ii = Yij Vj

(2.25)

j=1

Complex power injected at bus i is given by,

Si = Pi + jQi = Vi Ii
Now, Vi = Vi eji ;

Vj = Vj ejj ;

(2.26)

Yij = Yij ejij ;

Hence, Si = Pi + jQi = Vi eji [ Yij Vj ej(j + ij ) ]

j=1

Or,
n

Pi = Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij )

(2.27)

j=1
n

Qi = Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij )

(2.28)

j=1

Equations (2.27) and (2.28) are known as the basic load flow equations. It can be seen that for
any ith bus, there are two equations. Therefore, for a n-bus power system, there are altogether 2n
load-flow equations.
Now, from equations (2.27) and (2.28) it can be seen that there are four variables (Vi , i , Pi and
Qi ) associated with the ith bus. Thus for the n-bus system, there are a total of 4n variables. As
there are only 2n equations available, out of these 4n variables, 2n quantities need to be specified
and remaining 2n quantities are solved from the 2n load-flow equations. As 2n variables are to
be specified in a n bus system, for each bus, two quantities need to be specified. For this purpose,
the buses in a system are classified into three categories and in each category, two different quantities
are specified as described below.
1. PQ Bus: At these buses loads are connected and therefore, these buses are also termed as load
buses. Generally the values of loads (real and reactive) connected at these buses are known
and hence, at these buses Pi and Qi are specified (or known). Consequently, Vi and i need to
be calculated for these buses.
26

2. PV Bus: Physically, these buses are the generator buses. Generally, the real power supplied
by the generator is known (as we say that the generation is supplying 100 MW) and also, the
magnitude of the terminal voltage of the generator is maintained constant at a pre-specified
value by the exciter (provided that the reactive power supplied or absorbed by the generator
is within the limits). Thus, at a PV bus, Pi and Vi are specified and consequently, Qi and i
need to be calculatd.
3. Slack Bus: To calculate the angles i (as discussed above), a reference angle (i = 0) needs to
be specified so that all the other bus voltage angles are calculated with respect to this reference
angle. Moreover, physically, total power supplied by all the generation must be equal to the
sum of total load in the system and system power loss. However, as the system loss cannot be
computed before the load flow problem is solved, the real power output of all the generators in
the system cannot be pre-specified. There should be at least one generator in the system which
would supply the loss (plus its share of the loads) and thus for this generator, the real power
output cant be pre-specified. However, because of the exciter action, Vi for this generator can
still be specified. Hence for this generator, Vi and i (= 0) are specified and the quantities Pi
and Qi are calculated. This generator bus is designated as the slack bus. Usually, the largest
generator in the system is designated as the slack bus.
To summarise, the details of different types of buses in a n bus, m generator power system are
shown in Table 2.1. Now, please note that in a load flow problem, the quantities Pi and Qi (Qi at
Table 2.1: Classification of buses
Type

Total no. of buses

Specified quantity

Solution quantity

PQ

n-m

P i , Qi

Vi , i

PV

m-1

Pi , Vi

Qi , i

Slack

Vi , i

P i , Qi

PV while Pi and Qi at slack buses) are not directly solved. Only the quantities Vi and i are directly
solved (Vi for all PQ buses while i for all PV and PQ buses). This is because of the fact that once
Vi and i at all PV and PQ buses are solved, then the voltage magnitudes and angles at all the buses
are known (Vi , i at the slack bus are already specified) and subsequently, using equations (2.27)
and (2.28), Pi and Qi at any bus can be calculated.
Therefore, in a n bus, m generator system, the unknown quantities are: Vi (total n-m of
them) and i (total n-1 of them). Therefore, total number of unknown quantities is 2n-m-1. On
the other hand, the specified quantities are: Pi (total n-1 of them) and Qi (total n-m of them).
Hence total number of specified quantities is also 2n-m-1. As the number of unknown quantities is
equal to the number of specified quantities, the load-flow problem is well-posed.
27

Equations (2.27) and (2.28) represent a set of simultaneous, non-linear, algebraic equations. As
the set of equations is non-linear, no closed form, analytical solution for these equations exist. Hence,
these equations can only be solved by using suitable numerical iterative techniques. For solving the
load flow problem, various iterative methods exist. These are:
1. Gauss-seidel method
2. Newton Raphron (polar) technique
3. Newton Raphron (rectangular) technique
4. Fast-decoupled load flow
We will discuss these methods one by one and we start with the Gauss-Seidel method.

2.6

Basic Gauss Seidel solution method

Before discussing the Gauss-Seidel load flow (GSLF) technique, let we first review the basic GaussSeidel procedure for solving a set of non-linear algebraic equations.
Let the following n equations are given for the n unknown quantities x1 , x2 , xn ;

f1 (x1 , x2 xn ) = 0

f2 (x1 , x2 xn ) = 0

fn (x1 , x2 xn ) = 0

(2.29)

It is to be noted that in equation (2.29), the function f1 , f2 , fn are all non-linear in nature
and no particular form of these equations is assumed. Now, with some algebraic manipulation, from
the first equation of equation set (2.29), the variable x1 can be represented in terms of the other
variables. Similarly from the second equation, the variable x2 can be represented in terms of the
other variables. Proceeding in the same way, from the nth equation, the variable xn can be expressed
in terms of the other variables. Therefore, let,

x1
x2

xk

xn

= g1 (x2 , x3 xn )
= g2 (x1 , x3 xn )

= gk (x1 , x2 xk1 , xk+1 xn )

= gn (x1 , x2 xn1 )

(2.30)

To compute the variables x1 , x2 , xn from these equations g1 , g2 , gn , the first step is to


(0)
(0)
(0)
assume the initial values of these solution variables (x1 , x2 xn ). With these initially assumed
28

values, various steps of the basic Gauss-Seidel algorithm are as follows.

Basic Gauss-Seidel procedure


Step 1: Set iteration count k = 1
Step 2: Update the variables ;

x(k)
= g1 (x(k1)
, x(k1)
, x(k1)
);
n
1
2
3
(k1)
x(k)
= g2 (x(k)
, x(k1)
);
n
2
1 , x3

(k)
(k)
(k1)
(k1)
xp(k) = gp (x(k)
);
1 , x2 , xp1 , xp+1 , xn
(k)
(k)
x(k)
= gn (x(k)
n
1 , x2 , xn1 );
(k)

(k)

(k1)

for all i = 1, 2, n;
Step 3: Compute ei = xi xi
(k) (k)
(k)
Step 4: Compute er = max(e1 , e2 , en ) ;
Step 5: If er  (tolerance limit), stop and print the solution. Else set k = k + 1 and go to step
2.
It is to be noted that in step 2, for updating the variable xp , the most updated values of
x1 , x2 , xp1 (which are before xp in the sequence of the solution variables) are used while for the
variables xp+1 , xp+2 , xn (which are after xp in the sequence of the solution variables), the values
pertaining to previous iteration are used (as these variables have not been updated yet). Subsequently, in steps 3 and 4, the maximum absolute error between the solutions of the current iteration
and previous iteration is calculated. If this maximum absolute error is less then a pre-specified
tolerance value, then the algorithm is considered to be converged. Otherwise, the solution variables
are again updated.
With this background of basic Gauss-Seidel method, we are now in a position of discussing GSLF,
which we will do next.

2.7

Gauss Seidel Load Flow technique

Let us now proceed for discussing GSLF. From equation (2.25),

n
1

Ii Yik Vk . Now, from the relation


Ii = Yik Vk = Yii Vi + Yik Vk . Hence, Vi =

Yii
k=1
k=1
k=1

i
i

29

Pi jQi
. Thus,
Pi + jQi = Vi Ii we get, Ii =
Vi

P jQ

n
1

i
i
ik Vk

Vi =

Yii Vi
k=1

(2.31)

Equation (2.31) is the basic equation for performing GSLF. It is to be noted that without loss
of generality, it is assumed that the m generators are connected to the first m buses (bus 1
being the slack bus) and remaining (n-m) buses are load buses. Now, initially to understand the
basic GSLF procedure, let us assume that m = 1, i.e., there is only one generator (which is also the
slack bus) and the rest (n-1) buses are all load buses. To perform load-flow computation, initial
guesses of the bus voltages are necessary. As any power system is generally expected to operate at
the normal steady-state operating condition (with the bus voltage magnitudes maintained between
(0)
0.95 - 1.05 p.u.), all the unknown bus voltage are initialized to 1.00o p.u (i.e. Vj = 1.00o for
j = 2, 3, n). This process of initializing all bus voltage to 1.00o is called flat start. With these
initial bus voltages, the complete procedure for GSLF (having no PV bus) is as follows.

GSLF without PV bus


Step 1: Set iteration count k = 1.
Step 2: Update the bus voltages as;

P jQ

n
1

2
2
(k1)

(k1) Y2j Vj

V
=

Y22 {V2
} j =1

n
1 Pp jQp p1 (k)
(k1)
(k)

Vp
=
(k1) Ypj Vj Ypj Vj

Ypp {Vp
j=p+1
} j=1

Pn jQn n1

1
(k)
(k)

nj Vj
Vn
=

Ynn {Vn(k1) }
j=1

(k)
2

(k)

(k)

(k1)

for all i = 2, n;
Step 3: Compute ei = Vi Vi
(k) (k)
(k)
(k)
Step 4: Compute e = max(e2 , e3 , en ) ;
Step 5: If e(k)  (tolerance limit), stop and print the solution. Else set k = k+1 and go to step 2.
With the above understanding of the basic GSLF, we are now in a position to discuss the GSLF
procedure for a system having multiple generators. Before we discuss the GSLF procedure, let
us look into the procedure of initialisation of bus voltages (which is little different than assuming
a flat start for all the bus volatges). For a system having multiple generators, the bus voltage
30

initialisation is carried out in a two step procedure; i) the load buses are initialised with flat start
(0)
(i.e. Vj = 1.00o for j = (m + 1), (m + 2), n) and ii) the magnitudes of the voltages of the
PV buses are initialised with the corresponding specified voltage magnitudes while initialising all
(0)
these voltage angles to 0o (i.e. Vj = Vjsp 0o for j = 2, 3, m, where Vjsp is the specified bus
voltage magnitude of the j th generator). Now, as discussed earlier, the reactive power supplied or
absorbed by a generator (QG ) is calculated by the load flow procedure. However any generator has
a maximum and minimum limit on QG . If the QG from the generator is within these limits, then the
generator excitation system is able to maintain the terminal voltage at the specified value. On the
other hand, if the generator reaches its limit on QG (either maximum or minimum), then because
of the insufficient amount of reactive power (either supplied or absorbed), the generator excitation
system would not be able to maintain the terminal voltage magnitude at the specified value. In that
case the generator bus would behave as a PQ bus (P being already specified for the generator and
Q is set at either maximum or minimum limiting value of QG ). In power system terminology, this
phenomenon (where the generator is behaving like a PQ bus) is termed as PV to PQ switching
which should also be accounted for in any load-flow solution methodology.
This is incorporated in GSLF by the following procedure. At the beginning of each iteration, QG
injection by each generator is calculated. If this calculated QG is found to be within the corresponding limits then this generator continues to behave as a PV bus. Hence Vi of this bus (at which the
generator is connected ) is still maintained at the corresponding specified value and only the angle
of this bus voltage is calculated in the present iteration. On the other hand if QG is found to exceed
any limit (either maximum or minimum), then it is fixed at that limit and the bus is considered
to act like a PQ bus. Thus, both the magnitude and angle of the bus voltage are calculated in
the present iteration. With this background, the complete algorithm of GSLF involving multiple
generator buses is as follows.

Complete GSLF algorithm


(0)

(0)

Step 1: Initialise Vj = Vjsp 0o for j = 2, 3, m and Vj = 1.00o for j = (m + 1), (m +


2), n. Set iteration count k = 1.
Step 2: For i = 2, 3, m, carry out the following operations.
a) Calculate,
n

Q(k)
= Vi(k1) Vj(k1) Yij sin (i(k1) j(k1) ij )
i
j=1

(k)

b) If, Qmin
Qi
i
is given by,

(k)
(k)
(k)
(k)
Qmax
; then assign Vi = Visp and i = (Ai ). The quantity Ai
i

(k)
i

n
1 Pi jQi(k) i1 (k)
(k1)

=
Yij Vj
Yij Vj

Yii {Vi(k1) }
j=1
j=i+1

31

(k)

c) If Qi

Qmax
, then calculate
i
(k)
i

V
(k)

d) If Qi

i1
n

1 Pi jQmax
(k)
(k1)
i

ij Vj Yij Vj
=

Yii {Vi(k1) }
j=1
j=i+1

Qmin
, then calculate
i
(k)
i

i1
n

1 Pi jQmin
(k)
(k1)
i

ij Vj Yij Vj
=

Yii {Vi(k1) }
j=1
j=i+1

Step 3: For i = (m + 1), n, calculate


(k)
i

(k)

i1
n

1 Pi jQ(k)
(k)
(k1)
i

ij Vj Yij Vj
=

Yii {Vi(k1) }
j=1
j=i+1

(k)

(k1)

for all i = 2, n;
Step 4: Compute ei = Vi Vi
(k) (k)
(k)
(k)
Step 5: Compute e = max(e2 , e3 , en ) ;
Step 6: If e(k) , stop and print the solution. Else set k = k + 1 and go to step 2.
We will illustrate the GSLF algorithm with an example in the next lecture.

32

2.7.1

Example of Gauss Seidel load flow technique

To illustrate the basic procedure of GSLF, let as consider a small 5-bus system as shown in Fig.
2.16. In this system, buses 1-3 are generator buses and buses 4-5 are load buses. Therefore, in this
system, n = 5 and m = 3. Moreover, bus 1 is taken to be the slack bus and thus, buses 2-3 are
considered to be PV buses. The bus data and line data of this system are given in Tables A.1 and
A.2 respectively. From Table A.1, the injected real and reactive powers at different buses can be
obtained as follows: P2 = 0.5 p.u, P3 = 1.0 p.u, P4 = 1.15 p.u, P5 = 0.85 p.u, Q4 = 0.6 p.u, and
BUS of this system (computed from the line data given in Table
Q5 = 0.4 p.u. Moreover, the Y
A.2) is shown in equation (2.32). Note that in this equation, the real part (G) and the imaginary
BUS matrix (Y
BUS = G + jB) are shown separately.
part (B) of the Y

Figure 2.16: The example 5 bus system

3.2417 1.4006
0
0
1.8412

1.4006 3.2417 1.8412


0
0

G= 0
1.8412 4.2294 1.2584 1.1298

0
0
1.2584 2.1921 0.9337

1.8412
0
1.1298 0.9337 3.9047

13.0138 5.6022
0
0
7.4835

5.6022 13.0138 7.4835

0
0

B=
0
7.4835 18.9271 7.1309
4.4768

0
0
7.1309 10.7227 3.7348

7.4835

0
4.4768
3.7348
15.5521

33

(2.32)

For applying GSLF, initially the flat start profile is assumed. Please note that the flat voltage
profile is followed for PQ buses. For PV buses, the initial voltage magnitude is taken to be equal
to their corresponding specified voltage magnitude. However, the initial voltage angles are always
assumed to be zero. Therefore, from the data given in Table A.1, all the 5 bus voltages are initialised
to 1.00o p.u. Now as the system contains both PV and PQ buses, we follow the complete
GSLF algorithm. In step 2(a) of this algorithm, we first calculate the reactive power absorbed
or generated by generators 2 and 3 (corresponding to i = 2 and i = 3). The calculated values of Q2
and Q3 at iteration 1 (in p.u.) are shown in Table 2.2 (denoted as Qcal in this table). Now, the data
in Table A.1 show that the minimum and maximum reactive power limits for both these generators
are -5 p.u. and 5 p.u respectively. Hence, the calculated values of Q2 and Q3 are well within the
corresponding reactive power limits. Therefore, both bus 2 and bus 3 are continued to operate as PV
buses and as a result, their voltage magnitudes are maintained at the corresponding specified values
and only the voltage angles are calculated in step 2(b) (utilising the calculated values of Q2 and Q3 ).
Subsequently in step 3, both the magnitude and angles of buses 4 and 5 are calculated. The results
of iteration 1 are shown in Table 2.2. Finally in steps 4-5, the error is calculated, which is also shown
in Table 2.2. The error is found to be more than the threshold value (taken to be equal to 1.0e12 )
and therefore the algorithm goes back to step 2 again. The iteration wise result for first 6 iterations
are shown in Tables 2.2 and 2.3. Please observed from these two tables that because of high Qmax
G
min
and QG limits, the reactive powers supplied or observed by these two generators are always within
these limits and thus bus 2 and 3 continue to act as PV buses from iteration to iteration. Also note
from Tables 2.2 and 2.3 that the error reduces with iteration. Finally, the algorithm converges after
69 iterations and the final solution is shown in Table 2.4. Please note from this table that the final
values of Q2 and Q3 are -18.51 and 68.87 MVAR respectively. These values are well within their
corresponding reactive power limits and thus, the voltage magnitudes of bus 2 and 3 maintained at
1.0 p.u (pre-specified values). The finally computed values of real and reactive power injection at
all the buses are also shown in Table 2.4, which are also found to be exactly equal to the specified
injected values.
Table 2.2: GSLF results in 5 bus system without any generator Q limit for iterations 1-3
Iteration = 1
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Qcal

Iteration = 2

Qcal

Iteration = 3

Qcal

(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
1.0
0
1.0
0
1.0
0
-0.0720
1.0
2.0533 -0.0663
1.0
4.1038 -0.2022
1.0
3.7091
-0.0932
1.0
3.5968 0.2937
1.0
2.6494 0.5142
1.0
1.6234
0.9394 -3.2379
0.9167 -5.0548
0.9101 -6.0776
0.957 -2.5257
0.9482 -3.2562
0.946 -3.797
error = 0.081708
error = 0.037148
error = 0.017906

Let us now study the behaviour of GSLF when generator reactive power limit is violated. Towards
this goal, let us assume that the maximum reactive power which can be supplied by generator 3 in
34

Table 2.3: GSLF results in 5 bus system without any generator Q limit for iterations 4-6
Iteration = 4
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Qcal

Iteration = 5

Qcal

Iteration = 6

Qcal

(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
1.0
0
1.0
0
1.0
0
-0.2129
1.0
3.1318 -0.2071
1.0
2.6927 -0.2013
1.0
2.3782
0.5926
1.0
0.8641 0.6263
1.0
0.3228 0.6461
1.0
-0.0546
0.9082 -6.7844
0.9074 -7.266
0.9069 -7.5985
0.9452 -4.1735
0.9448 -4.435
0.9446 -4.6163
error = 0.013252
error = 0.0094475
error = 0.0065856

Table 2.4: Final Results of the 5 bus system with GSLF

Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Without generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1.0
0
0.56743 0.26505
1.0
1.65757
0.5
-0.18519
1.0
-0.91206
1.0
0.68875
0.90594 -8.35088
-1.15
-0.6
0.94397 -5.02735
-0.85
-0.4
Total iteration = 69

50 MVAR (it supplies 68.87 MVAR when no limit is imposed on the generators). The iteration
wise solutions for first 6 iterations of the load flow computation with this maximum limit are shown
in Tables 2.5 and 2.6. Now, let us compare Tables 2.2 and 2.5. From these two tables it can be
observed that the load flow solution with generator Q limit proceeds in identical fashion for first two
iterations as in the case with no reactive power limit on the generators. However, from iteration 3
onwards the solution changes. In iteration 3, Q3 calculated is found to be equal to 51.42 MVAR. As
a result, Q3 is limited to 50 MVAR and Bus 3 is converted to a PQ bus, and therefore its voltage
magnitude is calculated using the expression shown in step 2(c). Please observe that this voltage
magnitude is not maintained at 1.0 p.u (in fact, it becomes less than 1.0 p.u. because of insufficient
reactive power). In the subsequent iteration also, calculated Q3 is always found to be more than the
maximum limit and as a result, Q3 is always maintained at 50 MVAR thereby making V3 < 1.0
p.u. The algorithm finally converges with a tolerance of 1.0e12 p.u. after 66 iterations and the final
solution are shown in Table 2.7. In this table, the GSLF results without any reactive power limit (as
shown in Table 2.4) are also reproduced for comparison. Please note from Table 2.7 that because of
cap on Q3 , the overall voltage profile of the system is little lower than that obtained with no limit
on generator reactive power.
As a second example, let us now consider the IEEE-14 bus system. The data of the IEEE 14
bus system are shown in Tables A.3 and A.4. The power flow solution without any limit on the
35

Table 2.5: GSLF results in 5 bus system with generator Q limit on bus 3 for iterations 1-3
Iteration = 1
Bus no.

Qcal

Iteration = 2

Qcal

Iteration = 3

Qcal

(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
1.0
0
1.0
0
1.0
0
-0.0720
1.0
2.0533 -0.0663
1.0
4.1038 -0.2022
1.0
3.7091
-0.0932
1.0
3.5968 0.2937
1.0
2.6494 0.5142 0.9955 1.6318
0.9394 -3.2379
0.9167 -5.0548
0.9071 -6.0918
0.957 -2.5257
0.9482 -3.2562
0.944 -3.8036
error = 0.081708
error = 0.037148
error = 0.019063

1
2
3
4
5

Table 2.6: GSLF results in 5 bus system with generator Q limit on bus 3 for iterations 4-6
Iteration = 1
Bus no.

Qcal

Iteration = 2

Qcal

Iteration = 3

Qcal

(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
1.0
0
1.0
0
1.0
0
-0.1784
1.0
3.1067 -0.1365
1.0
2.6692 -0.1082
1.0
2.3656
0.5337 0.991 0.9288 0.5178 0.9882 0.4399 0.5109 0.9864 0.1025
0.9012 -6.8046
0.8973 -7.2918
0.8947 -7.6271
0.9409 -4.1739
0.9388 -4.4292
0.9374 -4.6044
error = 0.012967
error = 0.0088975
error = 0.0061049

1
2
3
4
5

Table 2.7: Final Results of the 5 bus system with GSLF with generator Q limit

Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Without generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

With generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1.0
0
0.56743 0.26505
1.0
0
0.56979 0.33935
1.0
1.65757
0.5
-0.18519
1.0
1.69679
0.5
-0.04769
1.0
-0.91206
1.0
0.68875 0.9825 -0.63991
1.0
0.5
0.90594 -8.35088
-1.15
-0.6
0.88918 -8.35906
-1.15
-0.6
0.94397 -5.02735
-0.85
-0.4
0.93445 -4.98675
-0.85
-0.4
Total iteration = 69
Total iteration = 66

generator reactive power is shown in Table 2.8. Note that all the terminal voltage of the generators
are maintained at their corresponding specified values. Also observe that the generator connected
at bus 6 supplies a reactive power of 37.27 MVAR. Now assume that generator 6 is constrained to
supply only 30 MVAR. With this Q limit, the power flow solution is also shown in Table 2.8. From
these result followings salient point can be noted:
a. Reactive power supplied by generator 6 is limited at 30 MVAR.
b. As a result, V6 goes down to 1.05497 p.u. (from the specified value of 1.07 p.u.).
36

Table 2.8: Final Results of the 14 bus system with GSLF


Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

(p.u)
1.06
1.045
1.04932
1.03299
1.04015
1.07
1.02076
1.0224
1.0201
1.0211
1.04144
1.0526
1.04494
1.01249

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.37259
-5.17113
0.183
-14.54246
-1.19
-10.39269 -0.4779
-8.76418 -0.07599
-12.52265
0.112
-13.44781
0
-13.47154
0
-13.60908 -0.29499
-13.69541
-0.09
-13.22158 -0.03501
-13.42868 -0.06099
-13.50388 -0.135
-14.60128 -0.14901
Total iteration = 676

Qinj

(p.u)
-0.3308
-0.166
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.37278
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

(p.u)
1.06
1.045
1.04697
1.02902
1.03615
1.05497
1.01266
1.01391
1.0118
1.01154
1.02915
1.03787
1.03063
1.00136

With generator Q limit

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.37188
-5.17845
0.183
-14.55556
-1.19
-10.35987 -0.4779
-8.71027 -0.07599
-12.45871
0.112
-13.49478
0
-13.5185
0
-13.66101 -0.29499
-13.73679
-0.09
-13.21814 -0.03501
-13.39145 -0.06099
-13.48166 -0.135
-14.64504 -0.14901
Total iteration = 718

Qinj
(p.u)
-0.31249
-0.1066
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.3
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

c. Because of the limit on generator reactive power, the overall voltage profile is on the lower side
as compared to that obtained without any Q limit.
As the last example the 30 bus system is considered. The data of this system are given in Tables
A.5 and A.6. Again initially the load flow solution has been computed without any limit on the
generator reactive power and the result are shown in Table 2.9. Subsequently Q limits have been
imposed on both the generator connected at bus 11 (20 MVAR) and the generator connected at bus
13 (30 MVAR). However, with a tolerance of 10e12 p.u. GSLF algorithm fails to converge even
after 10,000 iteration. When the tolerance is reduced to 10e6 p.u., the algorithm converges in 348
iteration and the result are again shown in Table 2.9. As can be seen from these results, for both
the generation, the reactive power supplied have been fixed at their corresponding limits and as a
result, the overall voltage profile of the system has gone down.
From these results it is observed that the convergence characteristics of the GSLF technique is
quite poor. Usually the number of iteration taken by GSLF is quite large and moreover in many
cases, GSLF even fails to converge. To overcome these difficulties of GSLF, Newton- Raphson(NR)
techniques have been developed, which are our next topics of discussion. These are two versions of
NR techniques, namely, i) NR in polar co-ordinate and ii) NR in rectangular co-ordinate. We will
study both these versions one by one and will start with the NR in polar co-ordinate from the next
lecture.

37

Table 2.9: Final Results of the 30 bus system with GSLF


Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

(p.u)
1.05
1.0338
1.03128
1.02578
1.0058
1.02178
1.00111
1.023
1.04608
1.03606
1.0913
1.04859
1.0883
1.03346
1.02825
1.0359
1.0306
1.01873
1.01626
1.02041
1.02305
1.02343
1.0165
1.00939
1.00048
0.9825
1.00379
1.02049
0.98353
0.97181

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.38673
-4.97945 0.3586
-7.96653
-0.024
-9.58235
-0.076
-13.60103 -0.6964
-11.50296
0
-13.9994
-0.628
-12.56853
-0.45
-13.04088
0
-14.88589 -0.058
-11.16876 0.1793
-13.74947 -0.112
-12.56078 0.1691
-14.71704 -0.062
-14.86737 -0.082
-14.50539 -0.035
-14.98291
-0.09
-15.58107 -0.032
-15.81066 -0.095
-15.63819 -0.022
-15.35955 -0.175
-15.35222
0
-15.41998 -0.032
-15.81043 -0.087
-15.84004
0
-16.27422 -0.035
-15.59587
0
-12.1474
0
-16.87497 -0.024
-17.79427 -0.106
Total iteration = 851

Qinj
(p.u)
-0.29842
-0.05698
-0.012
-0.016
0.05042
0
-0.109
0.12343
0
-0.02
0.24018
-0.075
0.31043
-0.016
-0.025
-0.018
-0.058
-0.009
-0.034
-0.007
-0.112
0
-0.016
-0.067
0
-0.023
0
0
-0.009
-0.019

38

With generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1.05
0
2.3865 -0.29386
1.0338 -4.98084 0.35861 -0.04562
1.03045 -7.95523 -0.02399 -0.012
1.02477 -9.56929 -0.07598 -0.016
1.0058 -13.60836 -0.6964 0.05532
1.02084 -11.49304 0.00003
0
1.00055 -13.99792 -0.628
-0.109
1.023 -12.57567
-0.45
0.15111
1.04006 -13.02865 0.00001
0
1.03117 -14.8866 -0.05797 -0.02001
1.07807 -11.12256 0.1793
0.2
1.04456 -13.75755 -0.11198 -0.075
1.08311 -12.55854 0.1691
0.3
1.02931 -14.73168 -0.062
-0.016
1.02403 -14.88097 -0.08199 -0.025
1.03148 -14.51198 -0.035
-0.018
1.02583 -14.98712
-0.09
-0.058
1.01422 -15.59618 -0.03199 -0.009
1.01159 -15.8251 -0.09499 -0.034
1.01568 -15.64961 -0.022
-0.007
1.01825 -15.36524 -0.17496 -0.11201
1.01867 -15.3581
0
0
1.01226 -15.43637 -0.032
-0.016
1.00517 -15.8277
-0.087
-0.067
0.99748 -15.86849
0
0
0.97944 -16.30534 -0.035
-0.023
1.00158 -15.62827
0
0
1.01959 -12.14235
0
0
0.98126 -16.91314 -0.024
-0.009
0.96951 -17.83675 -0.106
-0.019
Total iteration = 348 (totlerance 10e6 )

2.8

Basic Newton - Raphson (NR) Techniques

Before discussing the application of NR technique in load flow solution, let us first review the basic
procedure of solving a set of non-linear algebraic equation by means of NR algorithm. Let there be
n equations in n unknown variables x1 , x2 , xn as given below,

f1 (x1 , x2 , xn )
f2 (x1 , x2 , xn )

fn (x1 , x2 , xn )

= b1

= b2

= bn

(2.33)

In equation (2.33), the quantities b1 , b2 , bn as well as the functions f1 , f2 , fn are known.


To solve equation (2.33), first we take an initial guess of the solution and let these initial guesses be
(0)
(0)
(0)
denoted as, x1 , x2 , xn . Subsequently, first order Taylors series expansion (neglecting the
higher order terms) is carried out for these equation around the initial guess of solution. Also let
(0)
(0)
(0) T
the vector of initial guess be denoted as x(0) = [x1 , x2 , xn ] . Now, application of Taylors
expansion on the equations of set (2.33) yields,

f1
f1
f1

x1 +
x2 + +
xn = b1

x1
x2
xn

f2
f2
f2
(0)
(0)
(0)

f2 (x1 , x2 , xn ) +
x1 +
x2 + +
xn = b2

x1
x2
xn

fn
fn
fn

(0)
(0)
(0)

fn (x1 , x2 , xn ) +
x1 +
x2 + +
xn = bn

x1
x2
xn

(0)
(0)
f1 (x(0)
1 , x2 , xn ) +

(2.34)

Equation (2.34) can be written as,

f1

f1 (x(0) ) x1

(0)
f2 (x ) 2

+ x1

fn (x(0) ) f

x1

f1
x2
f2
x2

fn
x2

f1

xn x1 b1


f2

x2 = b2
xn


bn
x

n
fn

xn

(2.35)

In equation (2.35), the matrix containing the partial derivative terms is known as the Jacobin
39

matrix (J). As can be seen, it is a square matrix. Hence, from equation (2.35),

m1
b1 f1 (x(0) )
x1

x
(0) )
1 m2
1 b2 f2 (x

= [J]
= [J]

mn
bn fn (x(0) )
xn

(2.36)

Equation (2.36) is the basic equation for solving the n algebraic equations given in equation
(2.33). The steps of solution are as follow:
Step 1: Assume a vector of initial guess x(0) and set iteration counter k = 0.
Step 2: Compute f1 (x(k) ), f2 (x(k) ), fn (x(k) ).
Step 3: Compute m1 , m2 , mn .
Step 4: Compute error =max [m1 , m2 , mn ]
Step 5: If error  (pre - specified tolerance), then the final solution vector is x(k) and print
the results. Otherwise go to step 6.
Step 6: Form the Jacobin matrix analytically and evaluate it at x = x(k) .
T
Step 7: Calculate the correction vector x = [x1 , x2 , xn ] by using equation (2.36).
Step 8: Update the solution vector x(k+1) = x(k) +x and update k = k+1 and go back to step 2.
With this basic understanding of NR technique, we will now discuss the application of NR
technique for load flow solution. We will first discuss the Newton Raphson load- flow (NRLF) in
polar co-ordinates.

2.9

Newton Raphson load flow (NRLF) in polar co-ordinates

For NRLF techniques, the starting equations are same as those in equations (2.27) and (2.28), which
are reproduced below:
n

Pi = Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij )

(2.37)

j=1
n

Qi = Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij )

(2.38)

j=1

Now, as before let us again assume that in a n bus, m machine system, the first m buses
are the generator buses with bus 1 being the slack bus. Therefore, the unknown quantities are;
2 , 3 , n (total n-1 quantities) and Vm+1 , Vm+2 , Vn (total n-m quantities). Thus the total
number of unknown quantities is n 1 + n m = 2n m 1. Against these unknown quantities, the
sp
sp
specified quantities are; P2sp , P3sp , Pnsp (total n-1 quantities) and Qsp
m+1 , Qm+2 , Qn (total
n-m quantities). Hence, the total number of specified quantities is also (2n m 1). Let the
T
T
vectors of unknown quantities be denoted as = [2 , 3 , n ] and V = [Vm+1 , Vm+2 , Vn ] .
T
Similarly let the vector of the specified quantities be denoted as Psp = [P2sp , P3sp , Pnsp ] and
sp
sp
Qsp = [Qsp
m+1 , Qm+2 , Qn ]. Also note from equations (2.37) and (2.38) that the real and reactive
power injections at any bus are functions of and V. Thus, these injection quantities can be
40

written as Pi = Pi (, V) for i = 2, 3, n and Qi = Qi (, V) for i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n.


(0)
For proceeding with NRLF, we assume initial guesses of the bus voltage angles ( ) and the bus
voltage magnitudes (V(0) ). Subsequently, Taylors series expansion of equations (2.37) and (2.38)
yields (following the same procedure as in the basic N-R technique),

P2

Pn

Qm+1

Qn

P2
P2
n
Vm+1

Pn
Pn

n
Vm+1
Qm+1 Qm+1

n
Vm+1

Qn
Qn

n
Vm+1

P2
(0)
sp

2 P2 P2 ( , V(0) )

Vn

Pn

(0)
sp

(0)

(
)
P

P
,
V

n
Vn n n

= sp

(0)
(0)
Qm+1 Vm+1 Q
, V )
m+1 Qm+1 (

Vn


Qn
Qsp Q ( (0) , V(0) )
V

m+1

n
n

Vn

(2.39)

(0)

In equation (2.39), the quantity Pi ( , V(0) ) is nothing but the calculated value of Pi with
(0)
(0)
vectors , V(0) . As a result, commonly, the quantity Pi ( , V(0) ) is denoted as Pical . With
these notations, equation (2.39) can be written as,

Psp Pcal
J1 J2
P
][
] = [ sp
[
]=[
]
cal
J3 J4 V
Q Q
Q

(2.40)

In equation (2.40) the vectors Pcal and Qcal are defined as; Pcal = [P2cal , P3cal , Pncal ] and
cal
cal
sp are of dimension (n 1) 1
Qcal = [Qcal
m+1 , Qm+2 , Qn ]. Also note that the vectors and P
each and the vectors V and Qsp are of dimension (n m) 1 each. Therefore, from equations (2.39)
and (2.40),
T

P2 P2
P2

2 3
n

P3 P3

P
3

= 2 3
J1 =
n

Pn Pn
Pn

2 3
n

(2.41)

P2
P2
P2

Vm+1 Vm+2
Vn

P3

P
P
3
3

= Vm+1 Vm+2
J2 =
Vn
V

Pn
Pn
Pn

Vm+1 Vm+2
Vn

(2.42)

41

Qm+1 Qm+1
Qm+1

2
3
n

Qm+2 Qm+2
Q
m+2

J3 =
= 2
3
n

Qn
Qn
Qn

2
3
n

(2.43)

Qm+1 Qm+1
Qm+1

Vm+1 Vm+2
Vn

Qm+2 Qm+2
Q
m+2

J4 =
= Vm+1 Vm+2
Vn
V

Qn
Qn
Qn

Vm+1 Vm+2
Vn

(2.44)

In equations (2.41) to (2.44) the sizes of the various matrices are as follows: J1 (n1)(n1),
J2 (n 1) (n m), J3 (n m) (n 1) and J4 (n m) (n m). Now, equation (2.40)
can be written in compact form as,

[J] [X] = [M ]

(2.45)

J1 J2
] is known as the Jacobian matrix, the vector X =
J3 J4

Psp Pcal
[
] is known as the correction vector and the vector M = [ sp
] is known as the
V
Q Qcal
mismatch vector. Further, the size of the matrix J is (2n m 1) (2n m 1) while the sizes of
both the vectors X and M is (2n m 1) 1.
In equation (2.45), the matrix J = [

Equation (2.45) forms the basis of the NRLF (polar) algorithm, which is described below. Please
note that in the algorithm described below it is assumed that there is no generator which violates
its reactive power generation or absorption limit. The case of violation of reactive power generation
or absorption limit would be dealt with a little later.
Basic NRLF (polar) algorithm
(0)

(0)

Step 1: Initialise Vj = Vjsp 0o for j = 2, 3, m and Vj = 1.00o for j = (m + 1), (m +


2), n. Let the vectors of the initial voltage magnitudes and angles be denoted as V(0) and (0)
respectively.
Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.
(k1)
Step 3: Compute the vectors Pcal and Qcal with the vectors
and V(k1) thereby forming
T
the vector M . Let this vector be represented as M = [M1 , M2 , M2nm1 ] .
Step 4: Compute error = max (M1 , M2 , M2nm1 ).
(k1)
Step 5: If error  (pre - specified tolerance), then the final solution vectors are
and
42

V(k1) and print the results. Otherwise go to step 6.

(k1)

Step 6: Evaluate the Jacobian matrix with the vectors


and V(k1) .
Step 7: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.45).
(k)
Step 8: Update the solution vectors
= (k1) + and V(k) = V(k1) + V . Update
k = k + 1 and go back to step 3.
In the above algorithm, the Jacobian matrix needs to be evaluated at each iteration. Therefore,
the element of the Jacobian matrix needs to be found out analytically. This is discussed next.

Formation of Jacobian matrix elements for NRLF (polar) technique


To derive the elements of the Jacobian matrix, let us revisit equations (2.37) and (2.38).
n

Pi = Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij ) = V Gii + Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij )


2
i

j=1

j =1
i

j=1

j =1
i

Qi = Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij ) = Vi2 Bii + Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij )

(2.46)

(2.47)

In the above two equations, the relations Gii = Yii cos(ii ) and Bii = Yii sin(ii ) have been used.
From the expressions of the Pi and Qi in equations (2.46) and (2.47) respectively, the elements of
the Jacobian matrix can be calculated as follows.
Matrix J1 (=

P
) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,

j = 2, 3, n)

n
Pi
= Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik );
j
k=1

j=i

(2.48)

Pi
= Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij );
j
Matrix J2 (=

P
) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,
V

ji

(2.49)

j = (m + 1), (m + 2), n)

n
Pi
= 2Vi Gii + Vk Yik cos(i k ik );
Vj
k=1

j=i

(2.50)

Pi
= Vi Yij cos(i j ij );
Vj
43

ji

(2.51)

Matrix J3 (=

Q
) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,

j = 2, 3, n)

n
Qi
= Vi Vk Yik cos(i k ik );
j k = 1

j=i

(2.52)

Qi
= Vi Vj Yij cos(i j ij );
j
Matrix J4 (=

Q
) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,
V

ji

(2.53)

j = (m + 1), (m + 2), n).

n
Qi
= 2Vi Bii + Vk Yik sin(i k ik );
Vj
k=1

j=i

(2.54)

Qi
= Vi Yij sin(i j ij );
Vj

ji

(2.55)

With these expressions of Jacobian elements given in equations (2.48)-(2.55), the Jacobian matrix
can be evaluated at each iteration as discussed earlier.
Now, in the basic NRLF (polar) algorithm described earlier, the generator Q-limits have not
been considered. To accommodate the generator Q-limits, at the beginning of each iteration, reactive power absorbed or produced by each generator is calculated. If the calculated reactive power
is within the specified limits, the generator is retained as PV bus, otherwise the generator bus is
converted to a PQ bus, with the voltage at this bus no longer held at the specified value. The
detailed algorithm is as follows.
Complete NRLF (polar) algorithm
(0)

(0)

Step 1: Initialise Vj = Vjsp 0o for j = 2, 3, m and Vj = 1.00o for j = (m + 1), (m +


2), n. Let the vectors of the initial voltage magnitudes and angles be denoted as V(0) and (0)
respectively.
Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.
Step 3: For i = 2, 3, m, carry out the following operations.
a) Calculate,
n

= Vi(k1) Vj(k1) Yij sin (i(k1) j(k1) ij )


Q(k)
i
j=1

(k)

(k)

b) If, Qmin
Qi Qmax
; then assign Vi = Vispec and the ith bus is retained as PV bus
i
i
for k th iteration.
(k)
(k)
sp
max
min
c) If Qi > Qmax
, then assign Qsp
or, if Qi < Qmin
. In
i
i = Qi
i , then assign Qi = Qi
44

both the cases, this bus is converted to PQ bus. Hence, its voltage magnitude becomes an unknown
for the present iteration (thereby introducing an extra unknown quantity) and to solve for this extra
unknown quantity, an extra equation is required, which is obtained by the new value of Qsp
i (as
th
shown above). Therefore, when the i bus is converted to a PQ bus, the dimensions of both V
and Q vectors increases by one.
In general, if l generator buses (l (m 1)) violate their corresponding reactive power limits at
step 3, then the dimensions of both V and Q vectors increases from (n m) to (n m + l).
However, the dimensions of both P and vectors remain the same. Therefore, the size of
matrix J2 becomes (n 1) (n m + l), that of matrix J3 becomes (n m + l) (n 1) and the
matrix J4 becomes of size (n m + l) (n m + l). The size of matrix J1 , however, does not change.
Hence, the size of the matrix J becomes (2n m 1 l) (2n m 1 l) while the sizes of both
the vectors X and M (in equation (2.45)) becomes (2n m 1 l) 1. Of course, if there is
no generator reactive power limit violation, then l = 0.
(k1)
Step 4: Compute the vectors Pcal and Qcal with the vectors
and V(k1) thereby forming
T
the vector M . Let this vector be represented as M = [M1 , M2 , M2nm1l ] .
Step 5: Compute error = max (M1 , M2 , M2nm1l ).
(k1)
Step 6: If error  (pre - specified tolerance), then the final rotation vectors are
and
(k1)
V
and print the results. Otherwise go to step 7.
(k1)
Step 7: Evaluate the Jacobian matrix with the vectors
and V(k1) .
Step 8: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.45).
(k)
Step 9: Update the solution vectors
= (k1) + and V(k) = V(k1) + V . Update
k = k + 1 and go back to step 3.
In the next lecture, we will look at an example of NRLF (polar) technique.

45

2.9.1

Example for NRLF (polar) technique

As an example, let us consider again the 5-bus system shown in Fig. 2.16. In this System, n = 5 and
m = 3 (as the number of generator in 3). Initially, let us assume that there is no violation of reactive
power limit at any generator. Therefore, the sizes of The Jacobian sub-matinees are as follows;
J1 (4 4), J2 (4 2), J3 (2 4) and J4 (2 2). Therefore, the size of the combined
Jacobian matrix J is (66). As before, the NRLF algorithm starts with flat voltage profile and with
this assumed voltage profile, the different quantities in the first iteration are calculated as shown in
Table 2.10:
Table 2.10: Initial calculation with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system

Pcal = [0.0444 0.1776 0.0333 0.0444] 1014 ;


T

Qcal = [0.143 0.143] ;


T

M = [0.5 1.0 1.15 0.85 0.457 0.257] ;

error = 1.15;

As the error is more than the tolerance value ( = 1012 p.u), the algorithm proceeds and in
the next few steps, the Jacobian matrix, correction vector and the updated values of the error are
calculated as shown in Table 2.11.
As the error is still more than the tolerance value, the algorithm continues and enters 2nd
iteration. The values of the relevant qualities in second iteration are shown in Table 2.12 below.
Since the error is still more than the tolerance value, the algorithm continues and finally converges
after 4 iterations. The final converged solution is shown in Table 2.13. Comparsion of Tables 2.13
and 2.4 (GSLF results) shows that the final results obtained by these two methods are identically
same. However, NRLF achieves this solution in 4 iterations as opposed at 69 iterations required by
GSLF. The convergence behavior of both GSLF and NRLF are shown in Fig. 2.17. From this figure
it can be observed that, NRLF has certainly much better convergence characteristics as compared
to GSLF.
Now let us consider the case where reactive power generation of generator 3 is limited to 50
MVAR. The algorithm again starts with a flat start and the initial calculation are same as shown
in Table 2.10 earlier. As Q3 calculated has not crossed the limit, the program proceeds in the same
way as shown in Table 2.11 till the end of first iteration. With the voltage magnitudes and angles
obtained at the end of first iteration, the reactive power generated by all the machines are again
calculated and the value of Q3 is found to be 53.42 MVAR (0.5342 p.u). Hence, bus 3 (generator
3) is converted to a PQ bus and hence, the PQ buses in the system now are (4, 5, 3). The vectors
of calculated injected real and reactive powers, mismatch vector and final mismatch at the end of
1st iteration are shown in Table 2.14. Note that without any generator reactive power violation, the
size of M vector was (6 1) and with generator limit violation in Q3 , the size has now increased
to (7 1).
At the end of 1st iteration, n = 5 and m = 2 (as the number of generator buses is 2). Hence,
the sizes of the various Jacobian sub-matrices are: J1 (4 4), J2 (4 3), J3 (3 4) and
46

Table 2.11: Calculation at 1st iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system without any generator
Q limit violation

13.0858

7.4835

J1 =
0

J3 = [

7.4835
0
0

19.0911 7.1309 4.4768


;
7.1309 10.8657 3.7348

4.4768 3.7348 15.6951

0 1.2584 2.1921 0.9337


];
0 1.1298 0.9337 3.9047

13.0858

7.4835

J=
0

0
0

1.2584 1.12982

J2 =
2.1921 0.9337

0.9337 3.9047

10.5797 3.7348
J4 = [
];
3.7348 15.4091

7.4835
0
0
0
0

19.0911 7.1309 4.4768 1.2584 1.1298

7.1309 10.8657 3.7348 2.1921 0.9337


;
4.4768 3.7348 15.6951 0.9337 3.9047

1.2584 2.1921 0.9337 10.5797 3.7348

1.1298 0.9337 3.9047 3.7348 15.4091


T

X = [0.0331 0.0090 0.1275 0.0799 0.0783 0.0475] ;


T

= [0.0331 0.0090 0.1275 0.0799] ;

V = [0.0783 0.0475]

= [0 0.0331 0.0090 0.1275 0.0799] ;


T

V = [1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9217 0.9525] ;


T

Pcal = [0.5023 0.9293 1.0413 0.8128] ;

Qcal = [0.5158 0.3472] ;


T

M = [0.0023 0.0707 0.1087 0.0372 0.0842 0.0528] ;

error = 0.1087;

J4 (3 3). Thus, the size of the Jacobian matrix increases to (7 7). The Jacobian matrix,
correction vector and the updated value of the mismatch as computed in the 2nd iteration are shown
in Table 2.15. As the mismatch is still more than the tolerance value, the algorithm proceeds further
and finally, the algorithm converges in 5 iterations. The final converged values are shown in Table
2.16. In this table also, the NRLF (polar) results without any reactive power limit (as shown in
Table 2.13) are also reproduced for comparison. Moreover, it is observed that the final converged
values are identically same as those calculated by the GSLF method (Table 2.7).
The results with IEEE - 14 bus system are shown in Table 2.17 with and without limit on
generator reactive power. For this case also, the limit on the generator at bus 6 has been maintained
at 30 MVAR. Comparison of Tables 2.8 and 2.17 shows that the results obtained by GSLF and NRLF
are identical, but due to quadratic convergence characteristics, the number of iteration required by
47

Table 2.12: Calculation at 2nd iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system without any generator
Q limit violation

13.1998

7.3995

J1 =
0

J3 = [

7.5543
0
0

18.3929 6.6638 4.3296


;
6.3896 9.6258 3.2363

4.1771 3.3143 14.3457

0 1.9289 2.9037 0.9748


];
0 1.3756 0.6628 4.3554

13.1998

7.3995

J=
0

0
0

0.4065 0.8098

;
J2 =
0.8909 1.0234

0.7191 2.8658

9.3239 3.3977
J4 = [
];
3.5957 14.4487

7.5543
0
0
0
0

18.3929 6.6638 4.3296 0.4065 0.8098

6.3896 9.6258 3.2363 0.8909 1.0234


;
4.1771 3.3143 14.4567 0.7191 2.8658

1.9289 2.9037 0.9748 9.3239 3.3977

1.3756 0.6628 4.3554 3.5957 14.4487


T

X = [0.0041 0.0068 0.0179 0.0154 0.0783 0.0084] ;


T

= [0.0331 0.0090 0.1275 0.0799] ;

V = [0.0783 0.0475] ;
T

= [0 0.0290 0.0158 0.1453 0.0876] ;


T

V = [1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9063 0.9441] ;


T

Pcal = [0.5000 0.9988 1.1474 0.8501] ;

Qcal = [0.5980 0.3990] ;


T

M = [0.0000 0.0012 0.0026 0.0001 0.0020 0.0010] ;

error = 0.0026 ;

NRLF to reach the same solution is much less compared to that taken by GSLF for a tolerance of
10e12 p.u.
The results for 30-bus system are shown in Table 2.18. Without any generator Q-limit, the results
obtained by GSLF and NRLF (polar) are identical, although NRLF (polar) takes only 4 iterations
against 851 iterations taken by GSLF. Also,as mentioned earlier, with a tolerance of 10e12 (p.u),
GSLF does not converge for Q limit on gen 11 and 13 (20 and 30 MVAR respectively). However,
NRLF (polar) does not face any such difficulty in convergence in this case and the algorithm converges
with 7 iterations in this case. The corresponding results are also shown in Table 2.18.
In the next lecture, we will discuss another version of NRLF, namely, the rectangular version,
in which, all the complex quantities are represented in the rectangular co-ordinates instead of polar
co-ordinates as is done in the case of NRLF (polar) technique.

48

Table 2.13: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (polar) without any generator Q limit
violation
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Without generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1.0
0
0.56743 0.26505
1.0
1.65757
0.5
-0.18519
1.0
-0.91206
1.0
0.68875
0.90594 -8.35088
-1.15
-0.6
0.94397 -5.02735
-0.85
-0.4
Total iteration = 4

Figure 2.17: Convergence characteristics of GSLF and NRLF


Table 2.14: Calculations at the end of 1st iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system for limit
on Q3
T

Pcal = [0.5023 0.9293 1.0413 0.8128] ;

Qcal = [0.5158 0.3472 0.5342] ;


T

M = [0.0023 0.0707 0.1087 0.0372 0.0842 0.0528 0.0342] ;


error = 0.1087 ;

49

Table 2.15: Calculations at 2nd iteration with NRLF (polar) in the 5 bus system for limit on Q3

0
0
1.5250
7.5543
0
0

0.4065 0.8098 5.1587


18.3929 6.6638 4.3296

;
; J2 =

6.3896 9.6258 3.2363


0.8909 1.0234 1.9289

0.7191 2.8658 1.3756


4.1771 3.3143 14.3457

9.3239 3.3977 6.3896


0
1.9289 2.9037 0.9748

1.3756 0.6628 4.3554 ; J4 = 3.5957 14.4487 4.1771;


J3 = 0

7.2296 4.5456 19.4614


2.1541 3.3002 0.3747 0.7713

13.1998 7.5543
0
0
0
0
1.5250

7.3995 18.3929 6.6638 4.3296 0.4065 0.8098 5.1587

0
6.3896 9.6258 3.2363 0.8909 1.0234 1.9289

4.1771 3.3143 14.4567 0.7191 2.8658 1.3756;


J= 0

1.9289
2.9037
0.9748
9.3239
3.3977
6.3896

1.3756
0.6628
4.3554
3.5957
14.4487
4.1771

2.1542 3.3002 0.3747 0.7713 7.2296 4.5456 19.4614

13.1998

7.3995

J1 =
0

X = [0.0033 0.0022 0.0174 0.0069 0.0310 0.0173 0.0167] ;


T

= [0.0033 0.0022 0.0174 0.0069] ;

V = [0.0310 0.0173 0.0167] ;


T

= [0 0.0297 0.0112 0.1449 0.0868] ;


T

V = [1.0000 1.0000 0.9833 0.8907 0.9352] ;


T

Pcal = [0.5002 0.9949 1.1421 0.8498] ;

Qcal = [0.5964 0.3984 0.5015] ;


T

M = [0.0002 0.0051 0.0073 0.0002 0.0036 0.0016 0.0015] ;


error = 0.0073;

50

Table 2.16: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (polar) with generator Q limit

Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Without generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

With generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1.0
0
0.56743 0.26505
1.0
0
0.56979 0.33935
1.0
1.65757
0.5
-0.18519
1.0
1.69679
0.5
-0.04769
1.0
-0.91206
1.0
0.68875 0.9825 -0.63991
1.0
0.5
0.90594 -8.35088
-1.15
-0.6
0.88918 -8.35906
-1.15
-0.6
0.94397 -5.02735
-0.85
-0.4
0.93445 -4.98675
-0.85
-0.4
Total iteration = 4
Total iteration = 5

Table 2.17: Final Results of the 14 bus system with NRLF (Polar)
Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

(p.u)
1.06
1.045
1.04932
1.03299
1.04015
1.07
1.02076
1.0224
1.0201
1.0211
1.04144
1.0526
1.04494
1.01249

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.37259
-5.17113
0.183
-14.54246
-1.19
-10.39269 -0.4779
-8.76418 -0.07599
-12.52265
0.112
-13.44781
0
-13.47154
0
-13.60908 -0.29499
-13.69541
-0.09
-13.22158 -0.03501
-13.42868 -0.06099
-13.50388 -0.135
-14.60128 -0.14901
Total iteration = 4

Qinj

(p.u)
-0.3308
-0.166
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.37278
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

(p.u)
1.06
1.045
1.04697
1.02902
1.03615
1.05497
1.01266
1.01391
1.0118
1.01154
1.02915
1.03787
1.03063
1.00136

51

With generator Q limit

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.37188
-5.17845
0.183
-14.55556
-1.19
-10.35987 -0.4779
-8.71027 -0.07599
-12.45871
0.112
-13.49478
0
-13.5185
0
-13.66101 -0.29499
-13.73679
-0.09
-13.21814 -0.03501
-13.39145 -0.06099
-13.48166 -0.135
-14.64504 -0.14901
Total iteration = 6

Qinj
(p.u)
-0.31249
-0.1066
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.3
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

Table 2.18: Final Results of the 30 bus system with NRLF (Polar)
Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

(p.u)
1.05
1.0338
1.03128
1.02578
1.0058
1.02178
1.00111
1.023
1.04608
1.03606
1.0913
1.04859
1.0883
1.03346
1.02825
1.0359
1.0306
1.01873
1.01626
1.02041
1.02305
1.02343
1.0165
1.00939
1.00048
0.9825
1.00379
1.02049
0.98353
0.97181

Pinj

Qinj

With generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
0
2.38673 -0.29842
1.05
0
2.3865 -0.29386
-4.97945 0.3586 -0.05698 1.0338 -4.98084 0.35861 -0.04562
-7.96653
-0.024
-0.012 1.03045 -7.95523 -0.02399 -0.012
-9.58235
-0.076
-0.016 1.02477 -9.56929 -0.07598 -0.016
-13.60103 -0.6964 0.05042 1.0058 -13.60836 -0.6964 0.05532
-11.50296
0
0
1.02084 -11.49304 0.00003
0
-13.9994
-0.628
-0.109 1.00055 -13.99792 -0.628
-0.109
-12.56853
-0.45
0.12343
1.023 -12.57567
-0.45
0.15111
-13.04088
0
0
1.04006 -13.02865 0.00001
0
-14.88589 -0.058
-0.02
1.03117 -14.8866 -0.05797 -0.02001
-11.16876 0.1793 0.24018 1.07807 -11.12256 0.1793
0.2
-13.74947 -0.112
-0.075 1.04456 -13.75755 -0.11198 -0.075
-12.56078 0.1691 0.31043 1.08311 -12.55854 0.1691
0.3
-14.71704 -0.062
-0.016 1.02931 -14.73168 -0.062
-0.016
-14.86737 -0.082
-0.025 1.02403 -14.88097 -0.08199 -0.025
-14.50539 -0.035
-0.018 1.03148 -14.51198 -0.035
-0.018
-14.98291
-0.09
-0.058 1.02583 -14.98712
-0.09
-0.058
-15.58107 -0.032
-0.009 1.01422 -15.59618 -0.03199 -0.009
-15.81066 -0.095
-0.034 1.01159 -15.8251 -0.09499 -0.034
-15.63819 -0.022
-0.007 1.01568 -15.64961 -0.022
-0.007
-15.35955 -0.175
-0.112 1.01825 -15.36524 -0.17496 -0.11201
-15.35222
0
0
1.01867 -15.3581
0
0
-15.41998 -0.032
-0.016 1.01226 -15.43637 -0.032
-0.016
-15.81043 -0.087
-0.067 1.00517 -15.8277
-0.087
-0.067
-15.84004
0
0
0.99748 -15.86849
0
0
-16.27422 -0.035
-0.023 0.97944 -16.30534 -0.035
-0.023
-15.59587
0
0
1.00158 -15.62827
0
0
-12.1474
0
0
1.01959 -12.14235
0
0
-16.87497 -0.024
-0.009 0.98126 -16.91314 -0.024
-0.009
-17.79427 -0.106
-0.019 0.96951 -17.83675 -0.106
-0.019
Total iteration = 4
Total iteration = 7

52

2.10

NRLF in Rectangular co-ordinates [NRLF (Rect.)]

In rectangular co-ordinates, every complex quantity is expressed in terms of its real and imaginary
parts. Hence, let Vk = Vk ejk = ek + jfk ; Ii = ai + jci and Yik = gik + jbik .
n

k=1

k=1

Thus, from equation (2.25), Ii = Yik Vk . Or, ai + jci = (gik + jbik )(ek + jfk ).
Or,

k=1

= (bik ek + gik fk )

k=1

ai = (gik ek bik fk )
ci

(2.56)

Complex power injected at bus i is, Si = Pi + jQi = Vi Ii . Or, Pi + jQi = (ei + jfi )(ai jci ).
Or,

Pi = ai ei + ci fi = [ei (gik ek bik fk ) + fi (bik ek + gik fk )]

(2.57)

k=1

and

Qi = fi ai ei ci = [fi (gik ek bik fk ) ei (bik ek + gik fk )]

(2.58)

k=1

Equations (2.57) and (2.58) can be re-written as;


n

Pi = gii (e2i + fi2 ) + [ei (gik ek bik fk ) + fi (bik ek + gik fk )]


k=1
i

(2.59)

Qi = bii (e2i + fi2 ) + [fi (gik ek bik fk ) ei (bik ek + gik fk )]


k=1
i

(2.60)

Now, again let us consider a n bus system having m generators (bus 1 being the slack bus). For
each of the (n-m) PQ buses, both voltage magnitude and angle are unknown. In other words, for
these buses both real and imaginary parts of the voltages are unknown. For each of the (m-1) PV
buses, even though the voltage magnitude is known, real and imaginary parts of the voltage are not
known as there can be many combination of ei and fi to give a specified value of Vi . Hence, for
each of the PV buses also, the real and imaginary parts of the voltage are unknown. Therefore, total
number of unknown quantities is = 2(n m) + 2(m 1) = (2n 2). To solve for these (2n 2)
unknown quantities, (2n 2) independent equations are also needed.
Now, let us look at the specified quantities. As discussed earlier, for each of the (n-1) buses,
the quantity Pi is specified [given in equation (2.59)]. Similarly, for each of the (n-m) buses, the
quantity Q1 is also known [given in equation (2.60)]. Thus, total number of specified quantities is
(n 1 + n m) = (2n m 1). Hence, still 2n 2 (2n m 1) = (m 1) specified quantities are
needed to make the NRLF (rectangular) a well posed problem. These additional specified quantities
would be available from the specified voltage magnitudes at each of the (m-1) buses. At each of
these (m-1) PV buses, following relation holds good between the specified quantity (Vi ) and the
53

unknown quantities (ei , fi ).

Vi2 = e2i + fi2

(2.61)

Thus, in NRLF rectangular co-ordinates method, the unknown quantities are; (ei , fi ) for i =
2, 3, n (total (2n 2) in number). The specified quantities are; a) Pi ; for i = 2, 3, n; b) Qi ;
for i = (m + 1) n and c) Vi ; for i = 2, 3, m. Hence, the total number of specified quantities
is also (2n 2). The relations connecting the unknown quantities to the specified quantities are
given by equations (2.59) - (2.61), which are solved by the standard Newton-Rabhosn technique to
determine the unknown quantities. As in the case of NRLF (polar) method, in NRLF (rectangular)
technique also, flat voltage profile is assumed at the starting.
The standard, linearized form of Newton-Raphron solution of the equations (2.59) - (2.61) are
given below (following the basic Newton-Raphron solution method discussed previously);

P J J

1 2


Q = J3 J4 [e]
f


V2 J5 J6

(2.62)

In equation (2.62), the sizes of different vector are as follows: e (n 1) 1; f (n


1) 1; P (n 1) 1; Q (n m) 1; V2 (m 1) 1. From these sizes

e
Q
J4

of the vectors, the sizes of different sub-matrices J1 J6 can be deduced as; J1

(n 1) (n 1);
(n m) (n 1);

Q
P
(n 1) (n 1); J3
(n m) (n 1);
f
e
V 2
V 2
J5
(m 1) (n 1); J6
(m 1) (n 1).
e
f

J2

Equation (2.62) can be succinctly written as,

[J] [X] = [M ]

(2.63)

In equation (2.63), as before, the quantities M , X and J are known as the mismatch vector,
correction vector and the Jacobian matrix respectively. Note that the vector M and X each
has a size of (2n 2) 1 whereas the Jacobian matrix has a size of (2n 2) (2n 2).
Equation (2.63) forms the basis of NRLF (rectangular) algorithm as discussed below. Note that
the algorithm discussed below assumes that there is no violation of generator reactive power limits.

Basic NRLF (Rectangular) algorithm


Step 1: Assume flat start profile and denote the initial real and imaginary parts of the bus
voltages as e(0) and f (0) respectively.
Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.
Step 3: Compute the vectors Pcal and Qcal with the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) thereby forming
T
the vector M . Let this vector be represented as M = [M1 , M2 , M2n2 ] .
54

Step 4: Compute error = max (M1 , M2 , M2n2 ).


Step 5: If error  (pre - specified tolerance), then the final solution vectors are e(k1) and
f (k1) and print the results. Otherwise go to step 6.
Step 6: Evaluate the Jacobian matrix with the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) .
Step 7: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.63).
Step 8: Update the solution vectors e(k) = e(k1) +e and f (k) = f (k1) +f . Update k = k +1
and go back to step 3.
As can be seen, in step 6, the Jacobian matrix needs to be evaluated at each iteration. For this
purpose, the analytical expressions of the elements of the Jacobian matrix are needed, which are
derived next.
Derivation of Jacobian matrix elements for NRLF (rectangular) technique
We derive the elements of the Jacobian matrix by utilising equations (2.59), (2.60) and (2.61). From
these three equations, the Jacobian matrix elements can be obtained as follows:
Matrix J1 (=

P
) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,
e

j = 2, 3, n)

n
Pi
= 2ei gii + (gik ek bik fk );
ej
k=1

j=i

(2.64)

Pi
= (ei gij + fi bij );
ej
Matrix J2 (=

P
) (in this case, i = 2, 3, n,
f

ji

(2.65)

j = 2, 3, n)

n
Pi
= 2fi gii + (bik ek + gik fk );
fj
k=1

j=i

(2.66)

Pi
= (fi gij ei bij );
fj
Matrix J3 (=

ji

Q
) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,
e
n
Qi
= 2ei bii + (bik ek gik fk );
ej
k=1

(2.67)

j = 2, 3, n)
j=i

(2.68)

Qi
= (fi gij ei bij );
ej
55

ji

(2.69)

Matrix J4 (=

Q
) (in this case, i = (m + 1), (m + 2), n,
f
n
Qi
= 2fi bii + (gik ek bik fk );
fj
k=1

j = 2, 3, n)
j=i

(2.70)

Qi
= (fi bij + ei gij );
fj
Matrix J5 (=

V 2
) (in this case, i = 2, 3, m,
e
Vi2
= 2ei for j = i;
ej

Matrix J6 (=

Vi2
= 2fi for j = i;
fj

(2.71)

j = 2, 3, n)

and

V 2
) (in this case, i = 2, 3, m,
f

ji

Vi2
= 0 for j i;
ej

(2.72)

j = 2, 3, n)

Vi2
and
= 0 for j i;
fj

(2.73)

With these expressions of Jacobian elements, the matrix J can be evaluated at each iteration as
discussed earlier.
Now, in the above algorithm, the violations of generation reactive power limits have not been
taken into account. As in the case of NRLF (polar), in this case also, if a generator violates its Qlimits at any particular iteration, it is treated as a PQ bus for that iteration. Otherwise, it continues
to be treated as a PV bus. The detailed step-by-step procedure for taking the generation Q limit
violation into account in given below.
Complete NRLF (rectangular) algorithm
(0)

(0)

Step 1: Initialise ej = Vjsp for j = 2, 3, m and ej = 1.0 for j = (m + 1), (m + 2), n.


(0)
Also initialise fj = 0.0 for j = 2, 3, n. Let the vectors of the initial real and imaginary parts
of the voltages be denoted as e(0) and f (0) respectively.
Step 2: Set iteration counter k = 1.
(k)
Step 3: For i = 2, 3, m, calculate Qi from equation (2.60) by using e(k1) and f (k1) . If
(k)
the calculated Qi is within its respective limit, then this bus would be retained as a PV bus in the
current iteration. If either the lower limit or the upper limit is violated, then this bus is converted to
a PQ bus. In general, if l generator buses (l (m 1)) violate their corresponding reactive power
limits at step 3, then the size of Q vector increases from (n m) to (n m + l) and the size
of V 2 vector decreases from (m 1) to (m l 1). As a result, the new sizes of the matrices
J3 , J4 , J5 and J6 become (n m + l) (n 1), (n m + l) (n 1), (m l 1) (n 1) and
56

(m l 1) (n 1) respectively. The sizes of the matrices J1 and J2 remain same. Also, the total
sizes of the mismatch vector, correction vector and the Jacobian matrix remain same.
Step 4: Compute the calculated vectors P, Q and V2 from equations (2.59) - (2.61) with
the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) thereby forming the vector M . Let this vector be represented as
T
M = [M1 , M2 , M2n2 ] .
Step 5: Compute error = max (M1 , M2 , M2n2 ).
Step 6: If error  (pre - specified tolerance), then the final rotation vectors are e(k1) and
f (k1) and print the results. Otherwise go to step 7.
Step 7: Evaluate the Jacobian matrix with the vectors e(k1) and f (k1) .
Step 8: Compute the correction vector X by solving equation (2.63).
Step 9: Update the solution vectors e(k) = e(k1) +e and f (k) = f (k1) +f . Update k = k +1
and go back to step 3.
In the next lecture, we will look at an example of NRLF (rectangular) technique.

57

2.10.1

Example for NRLF (rectangular) technique

Taking the 5 bus system as an example again, the NRLF algorithm starts with the flat voltage profile
and subsequently different quantitative are calculated as shown in Table 2.19.
Table 2.19: Initial calculation with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system

Pcal = [0 0.2220 0 0] 1015 ;


T

Qcal = [0.143 0.143] ;


T

M = [0.5 1.0 1.15 0.85 0.457 0.257 0 0] ;

Vcal = [1.0 1.0] ;


error = 1.15;

As the mismatch (= 1.15) is greater than the tolerance (= 1.0e12 ), the algorithm proceeds further
and calculates the Jacobian matrix. Following the discussion presented earlier, the sizes of various
Jacobian sub matrices should be as follows: J1 (4 4); J2 (4 4); J3 (2 4); J4
(24); J5 (24); J6 (24) and J (88). The computed Jacobian matrices are shown
in Table 2.20. From this set observe that the sizes of the calculated Jacobian matrices are indeed the
same as they are indicated above. After calculating the Jacobian matrix, the algorithm calculates
the correction vector (X) and extracts the vectors e and f from X . With these obtained
vectors e and f , the updated vectors e and f are computed and lastly the mismatch vector
(M ) and the final mismatch are calculated. All these calculations are also shown in Table 2.20.
As the mismatch in still more than the tolerance (although it has reduced from the last value), the
algorithm repeats all these calculation and finally converges with 5 iterations. The final load flow
result is shown in Table 2.21. Observe that the result obtained with NRLF (rectangular) method
are identically same as obtained by NRLF (polar) and GSLF techniques.
The load flow solutions of IEEE-14 bus and 30-bus systems have also been computed with NRLF
(rectangular) method. The results are shown in Tables 2.22 and 2.23 and respectively. Again confirm
yourself that the results shown in these two tables are identically same as the corresponding results
shown earlier with NRLF (polar) and GSLF methods.
Now, let us study the behavior of the algorithm when generator Q-limit is considered. Towards
this end, again let us first consider the 5-bus system and as before, let us consider the limit on Q3 to
be 50 MVAR. TO begin with, the initial calculations for this case are identically same as that shown
in Table 2.19. As no violation of Q3 is detected in this initial calculation, the algorithm proceeds as
usual (without any consideration of generation Q-limit violation) and repeats the same calculations
as shown in Table 2.20. As there is still no violation in Q3 , the algorithm advances to 2nd iteration
and the calculations at the end of 2nd iteration are shown in Table 2.24. At the end of 2nd iteration,
it is found that the calculated value of Q3 is 0.6824 p.u. and as a result, this bus is now converted
from a PV bus to a PQ bus. Hence, the PQ buses are now (4, 5, 3) and only bus 2 is retained as a
PV bus. The corresponding calculated vectors Qcal , Vcal and M are shown in Table 2.24 along
with the final value of the mismatch quantity. As this final value is still more than the tolerance,
the algorithm enters the third iteration.
58

Table 2.20: Calculations at 1st iteration with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system

3.2417 1.8412
0
0

1.8412 4.2294 1.2584 1.1298

;
J1 =

0
1.2584
2.1921
0.9337

0
1.1298
0.9337
3.9047

0 7.1309 10.5797 3.7348


J3 = [
];
0 4.4768 3.7348 15.4091
2 0 0 0
J5 = [
];
0 2 0 0
3.2417

1.8412

0
J =
0

2.000

13.0858

7.4835

J2 =
0

7.4835
0
0

19.0911 7.1309 4.4768


;
7.1309 10.8657 3.7348

4.4768 3.7348 15.6951

0 1.2584 2.1921 0.9337


J4 = [
];
0 1.1298 0.9337 3.9047
J6 = [

0 0 0 0
];
0 0 0 0

1.8412
0
0
13.0858 7.4835
0
0

4.2294 1.2548 1.1298 7.4835 19.0911 7.1309 4.4768

1.2548 2.1921 0.9337


0
7.1309 10.8657 3.7348

1.1298 0.9337 3.9047


0
4.4768 3.7348 15.6951
;
7.1309 10.5797 3.7348
0
1.2584 2.1921 0.9337

4.4768 3.7348 15.4091


0
1.1298 0.9337 3.9047

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2.0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
T

X = [0.0 0.0 0.0783 0.0475 0.0331 0.009 0.1275 0.0799] ;


T

e = [0.0 0.0 0.0783 0.0475] ;


T

e = [1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9217 0.9525] ;

f = [0.0331 0.009 0.1275 0.0799] ;


T

f = [0 0.0331 0.009 0.1275 0.0799] ;


T

Pcal = [0.5041 1.0056 1.1211 0.8312] ;


T

Qcal = [0.4191 0.3205] ;

Vcal = [1.0011 1.0001] ;


T

M = [0.0041 0.0056 0.0289 0.0188 0.1809 0.0795 0.0011 0.0001] ;


error = 0.1809;

In the third iteration the numbers of PQ buses is 3 and the number of PV buses is 1 and
hence, the sizes of matrices J3 and J4 change to (3 4) and those of matrices J5 and J6 become
(1 4). The sizes of the matrices J1 , J2 and J remain same as earlier. With this Jacobian matrix,
the correction vector X is calculated and from this vector X , the vectors e and f are
extracted. Subsequently, the vectors e and f are updated. It is found that Q3 still violates the limit
and the mismatch is also found to be still more than the tolerance at the end of the third iteration.
59

Table 2.21: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with no generator Q limit
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

e
f
V

Pinj
Qinj
(p.u)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1
0
1
0
0.56743 0.26505
0.99958 0.02893
1
1.65757
0.5
-0.18519
0.99987 -0.01592
1
-0.91206
1
0.68875
0.89634 -0.13157 0.90594 -8.35088
-1.15
-0.6
0.94034 -0.08272 0.94397 -5.02735
-0.85
-0.4
Total iteration = 5

Table 2.22: Final Results of the 14 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with no generator Q limit
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

e
(p.u)
1.06
1.04075
1.0157
1.01604
1.02801
1.04455
0.99277
0.99427
0.99146
0.99207
1.01383
1.02382
1.01605
0.97979

f
V

(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
0
1.06
0
-0.09419 1.045
-5.17113
-0.26348 1.04932 -14.54246
-0.18634 1.03299 -10.39269
-0.15849 1.04015 -8.76418
-0.232
1.07
-12.52265
-0.23739 1.02076 -13.44781
-0.23818 1.0224 -13.47154
-0.24002 1.0201 -13.60908
-0.24176 1.0211 -13.69541
-0.23819 1.04144 -13.22158
-0.24445 1.0526 -13.42868
-0.24401 1.04494 -13.50388
-0.25524 1.01249 -14.60128
Total iteration = 5

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
2.37259
0.183
-1.19
-0.4779
-0.07599
0.112
0
0
-0.29499
-0.09
-0.03501
-0.06099
-0.135
-0.14901

(p.u)
-0.3308
-0.166
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.37278
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

All the relevant calculations pertaining to 3rd iteration are shown in Table 2.25. As the mismatch
is still more than the tolerance limit, the algorithm proceeds and finally converges with 5 iterations.
The final results are shown in Table 2.26.
Again the load flow solutions of the IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-30 bus system have been computed
for the same generator reactive power limits as taken for GSLF and NRLF (polar) techniques. The
final solutions are shown in Tables 2.27 and 2.28 respectively. Again cross-check for yourself that the
final solution computed by this method are same as those computed by GSLF and NRLF (polar)
techniques.
We will now discuss the fast-decoupled load flow (FDLF) technique in the next lecture.

60

Table 2.23: Final Results of the 30 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with no generator Q limit
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

e
(p.u)
1.05
1.0299
1.02132
1.01147
0.97759
1.00126
0.97138
0.99849
1.0191
1.00129
1.07063
1.01854
1.06225
0.99956
0.99383
1.00288
0.99556
0.98129
0.97781
0.98263
0.98651
0.98691
0.97991
0.9712
0.96249
0.94313
0.96684
0.99764
0.94118
0.92532

f
V

Pinj
Qinj
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
0
1.05
0
2.38673 -0.29842
-0.08973 1.0338 -4.97945 0.3586 -0.05698
-0.14293 1.03128 -7.96653
-0.024
-0.012
-0.17076 1.02578 -9.58235
-0.076
-0.016
-0.23652 1.0058 -13.60103 -0.6964 0.05042
-0.20376 1.02178 -11.50296
0
0
-0.24218 1.00111 -13.9994
-0.628
-0.109
-0.22261 1.023 -12.56853
-0.45
0.12343
-0.23604 1.04608 -13.04088
0
0
-0.26616 1.03606 -14.88589 -0.058
-0.02
-0.21138 1.0913 -11.16876 0.1793 0.24018
-0.24923 1.04859 -13.74947 -0.112
-0.075
-0.23668 1.0883 -12.56078 0.1691 0.31043
-0.26255 1.03346 -14.71704 -0.062
-0.016
-0.26383 1.02825 -14.86737 -0.082
-0.025
-0.25946 1.0359 -14.50539 -0.035
-0.018
-0.26644 1.0306 -14.98291
-0.09
-0.058
-0.27363 1.01873 -15.58107 -0.032
-0.009
-0.27689 1.01626 -15.81066 -0.095
-0.034
-0.27506 1.02041 -15.63819 -0.022
-0.007
-0.27098 1.02305 -15.35955 -0.175
-0.112
-0.27096 1.02343 -15.35222
0
0
-0.27028 1.0165 -15.41998 -0.032
-0.016
-0.27501 1.00939 -15.81043 -0.087
-0.067
-0.27308 1.00048 -15.84004
0
0
-0.27533 0.9825 -16.27422 -0.035
-0.023
-0.26987 1.00379 -15.59587
0
0
-0.21474 1.02049 -12.1474
0
0
-0.2855 0.98353 -16.87497 -0.024
-0.009
-0.29698 0.97181 -17.79427 -0.106
-0.019
Total iteration = 5

Table 2.24: Calculation at the end of 2nd iteration with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system for
limit on Q3

Pcal = [0.5000 1.0016 1.1502 0.8500] ;


T

Qcal = [0.5944 0.3988 0.6824] ;

Vcal = [1.0];
T

M = [0.0 0.0016 0.0002 0.0 0.0056 0.0012 0.1824 0.0] ;

61

error = 0.1824;

Table 2.25: Calculations at 3rd iteration with NRLF (rectangular) in the 5 bus system with limit on

Q3

13.3023
3.3566 1.6230
0
0

7.4539
1.9584 5.5167 1.3701 1.2000

; J2 =
J1 =
0

0
2.0669 2.2170 1.3289

0
1.4328 1.1870 4.0987

0
0
6.2313 8.4978 3.2275

4.1175 3.4358 13.8060 ; J4 = 0


J3 = 0

1.9584
7.4539 19.5569 7.1104 4.4586

J5 = [1.9992 0 0 0] ;
3.3566

1.9584

0
J =
0

7.4539

1.992

7.5339
0
0

18.1609 7.1104 4.4586


;
6.2313 10.1633 3.2275

4.1175 3.4358 14.8052


2.0669 4.5371 1.3289

1.4328 1.1870 5.8182;

3.5351 1.3701 1.2000

J6 = [0.0581 0 0 0];

1.6230
0
0
13.3023 7.5339
0
0

5.5167 1.3701 1.2000 7.4539 18.1609 7.1104 4.4586

2.0669 2.2170 1.3289


0
6.2313 10.1633 3.2275

1.4328 1.1870 4.0987


0
4.1175 3.4358 14.8052
;
6.2313 8.4978 3.2275
0
2.0669 4.5371 1.3289

4.1175 3.4358 13.8060


0
1.4328 1.1870 5.8182

19.5569 7.1104 4.4586 1.9584 3.5351 1.3701 1.2000

0
0
0
0.0581
0
0
0
T

X = [0.0000 0.0171 0.0169 0.0095 0.0006 0.0047 0.0024 0.0015] ;


T

e = [0.0000 0.0171 0.0169 0.0095] ;

f = [0.0006 0.0047 0.0024 0.0015] ;


T

e = [1.0 0.9996 0.9828 0.8801 0.9311] ;


T

f = [0 0.0297 0.0109 0.1292 0.0812] ;


T

Pcal = [0.4999 1.0005 1.1496 0.8499] ;


T

Qcal = [0.5997 0.4000 0.5031] ;

Vcal = [1.0] ;
T

M = [0.0001 0.0005 0.0004 0.0001 0.0003 0.0000 0.0031 0.0000] ;


error = 0.0031;

62

Table 2.26: Final Results of the 5 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with limit on Q3
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

e
f
V

Pinj
Qinj
(p.u)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1
0
1
0
0.56979 0.33935
0.99956 0.02961
1
1.69679
0.5
-0.04769
0.98244 -0.01097 0.9825 -0.63991
1
0.5
0.87973 -0.12927 0.88918 -8.35906
-1.15
-0.6
0.93092 -0.08123 0.93445 -4.98675
-0.85
-0.4
Total iteration = 5

Table 2.27: Final Results of the 14 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with generator Q limits
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

e
(p.u)
1.06
1.04073
1.01336
1.01224
1.0242
1.03013
0.9847
0.98582
0.98318
0.98261
1.00189
1.00965
1.00223
0.96883

f
V

(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
0
1.06
0
-0.09432 1.045
-5.17845
-0.26312 1.04697 -14.55556
-0.18505 1.02902 -10.35987
-0.15691 1.03615 -8.71027
-0.22759 1.05497 -12.45871
-0.23631 1.01266 -13.49478
-0.23701 1.01391 -13.5185
-0.23896 1.0118 -13.66101
-0.2402 1.01154 -13.73679
-0.23533 1.02915 -13.21814
-0.24037 1.03787 -13.39145
-0.24028 1.03063 -13.48166
-0.25317 1.00136 -14.64504
Total iteration = 8

63

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
2.37188
0.183
-1.19
-0.4779
-0.07599
0.112
0
0
-0.29499
-0.09
-0.03501
-0.06099
-0.135
-0.14901

(p.u)
-0.31249
-0.1066
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.3
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

Table 2.28: Final Results of the 30 bus system with NRLF (rectangular) with generator Q limits
Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

e
(p.u)
1.05
1.0299
1.02053
1.01051
0.97756
1.00036
0.97083
0.99845
1.01327
0.99655
1.05781
1.01458
1.05718
0.99547
0.98968
0.99856
0.99092
0.97686
0.97323
0.97802
0.98184
0.98228
0.97574
0.96705
0.95946
0.94003
0.96454
0.99677
0.93881
0.9229

f
V

Pinj
Qinj
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
0
1.05
0
2.38676 -0.29389
-0.08977 1.0338 -4.98141 0.3586 -0.04555
-0.14263 1.03044 -7.95615
-0.024
-0.012
-0.17038 1.02477 -9.57038
-0.076
-0.016
-0.23666 1.0058 -13.6093 -0.6964 0.05533
-0.20342 1.02084 -11.49427
0
0
-0.24204 1.00055 -13.99903 -0.628
-0.109
-0.22276 1.023 -12.57695
-0.45
0.15116
-0.2345 1.04005 -13.0305
0
0
-0.26495 1.03117 -14.8887
-0.058
-0.02
-0.208 1.07807 -11.1244 0.1793
0.2
-0.24844 1.04456 -13.75943 -0.112
-0.075
-0.23554 1.08311 -12.56043 0.1691
0.3
-0.26178 1.02931 -14.73367 -0.062
-0.016
-0.26302 1.02403 -14.88301 -0.082
-0.025
-0.25851 1.03148 -14.51398 -0.035
-0.018
-0.26532 1.02583 -14.98919
-0.09
-0.058
-0.27271 1.01421 -15.59837 -0.032
-0.009
-0.2759 1.01159 -15.82733 -0.095
-0.034
-0.27402 1.01568 -15.65181 -0.022
-0.007
-0.26984 1.01825 -15.36745 -0.175
-0.112
-0.26983 1.01867 -15.36029
0
0
-0.26947 1.01226 -15.43846 -0.032
-0.016
-0.27419 1.00517 -15.82979 -0.087
-0.067
-0.27277 0.99748 -15.87039
0
0
-0.27501 0.97944 -16.30724 -0.035
-0.023
-0.26985 1.00158 -15.62998
0
0
-0.21448 1.01959 -12.14364
0
0
-0.2855 0.98126 -16.91488 -0.024
-0.009
-0.297 0.96951 -17.83848 -0.106
-0.019
Total iteration = 5

64

2.11

Fast-decoupled load-flow (FDLF) technique

An important and useful property of power system is that the change in real power is primarily
governed by the charges in the voltage angles, but not in voltage magnitudes. On the other hand,
the charges in the reactive power are primarily influenced by the charges in voltage magnitudes, but
not in the voltage angles. To see this, let us note the following facts:
(a) Under normal steady state operation, the voltage magnitudes are all nearly equal to 1.0.
(b) As the transmission lines are mostly reactive, the conductances are quite small as compared to the susceptance (Gij << Bij ).
(c) Under normal steady state operation the angular differences among the bus voltages are
quite small (i j 0 (within 5o 10o )).
(d) The injected reactive power at any bus is always much less than the reactive power
consumed by the elements connected to this bus when these elements are shorted to the ground
(Qi << Bii Vi2 ).
With these facts at hand, let us re-visit the equations for Jacobian elements in Newton-Raphson
(polar) method (equation (2.48) to (2.55)). From equations (2.50) and (2.51) we have,
n
Pi
= 2Vi Gii + Vk Yik cos(i k ik )
Vj
k=1
i
n

= 2Vi Gii + Vk Yik [cos(i k ) cos ik + sin(i k ) sin ik ]


k=1
i
n

= 2Vi Gii + Vk [Gik cos(i k ) + Bik sin(i k )] ;


k=1
i

j=i

(2.74)

Pi
= Vi Yij cos(i j ij )
Vj
= Vi Yij [cos(i j ) cos ij + sin(i j ) sin ij ]
= Vi [Gij cos(i j ) + Bij sin(i j )] ;

ji

(2.75)

Now, Gii and Gij are quite small and negligible and also cos(i j ) 1 and sin(i j ) 0, as
[(i j ) 0]. Hence,

Pi
Pi
0 and
0
Vi
Vj

J2 0

(2.76)

Similarly, from equations (2.52) and (2.53) we get,


n
Qi
= Vi Vk [Gik cos(i k ) + Bik sin(i k )] ;
j k = 1

j=i

(2.77)

Qi
= Vi Vj [Gij cos(i j ) + Bij sin(i j )] ;
j
65

ji

(2.78)

Again in light of the natures of the quantities Gii , Gij and (i j ) as discussed above,

Qi
Qi
0 and
0
i
j

J3 0

(2.79)

Substituting equations (2.76) and (2.79) into equation (2.40) one can get,

P
J1 0
[
]=[
][
]
Q
0 J4 V

(2.80)

In other words, P depends only on and Q depends only on V . Thus, there is a


decoupling between P - and Q - V relations. Now, from equations (2.48) and (2.49)
we get,
n
Pi
= Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik );
j
k=1

j=i

= Vi Vi Yii sin(i i ii ) Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik );

j=i

k=1

= Bii Vi2 Qi Bii Vi2 ;

j=i

[as Qi << Bii Vi2 ]

Pi
= Vi Vj Yij sin(i j ij ); j i
j
= Vi Vj Yij [sin(i j ) cos ij cos(i j ) sin ij ] ;
= Vi Vj [Gij sin(i j ) Bij cos(i j )] ;
= Vi Vj Bij ;

(2.81)

ji

ji

ji

(2.82)

Similarly, from equations (2.54) and (2.55) we get,


n
Qi
= 2Vi Bii + Vk Yik sin(i k ik );
Vj
k=1
i
n

or,

j=i

Qi
Vi = 2Vi2 Bii + Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik );
Vj
k=1

j=i

Qi
Vi = Vi2 Bii + Vi Vk Yik sin(i k ik ) = Qi Vi2 Bii ;
Vj
k=1
Qi
Vi = Vi2 Bii ; j = i [as Qi << Bii Vi2 ]
or,
Vj
Qi
or,
= Vi Bii ; j = i
Vj
or,

66

j=i

(2.83)

Qi
= Vi Yij sin(i j ij ); j i
Vj
= Vi Yij [sin(i j ) cos ij cos(i j ) sin ij ] ;
= Vi [Gij sin(i j ) Bij cos(i j )] ;
Vi Bij ;

ji

ji

ji

(2.84)
n

Combining equations (2.80)-(2.82) we get, Pi = Vi Vk Bik k . Or,


k=1

n
Pi
= Vk Bik k
Vi
k=1

(2.85)

Now, as Vi 1.0 under normal steady state operating condition, equation (2.85) reduces to,
n
Pi
= Bik k .
Vi
k=1

Or,

P
= [B] .
V

Or,

= [B ]
V

(2.86)

Matrix B is a constant matrix having a dimension of (n 1) (n 1). Its elements are the
negative of the imaginary part of the element (i, k) of the YBUS matrix where i = 2, 3, n and
k = 2, 3, n.
Again combining equations (2.80), (2.83) and (2.84) we get,

Qi = Vi Bik Vk .
k=1

Or,

n
Qi
= Bik Vk .
Vi
k=1

Or,

= [B ] V
V

(2.87)

Again, [B ] is also a constant matrix having a dimension of (n m) (n m). Its elements are the
negative of the imaginary part of the element (i, k) of the YBUS matrix where i = (m + 1), (m +

2), n and k = (m + 1), (m + 2), n. As the matrixes [B ] and [B ] are constant, it is not
necessary to invert these matrices in each iteration. Rather, the inverse of these matrices can be
stored and used in every iteration, thereby making the algorithm faster. Further simplification in
the FDLF algorithm can be made by,

a. Ignoring the series resistances is calculating the elements of [B ]. Also, by omitting the

elements of [B ] that predominantly affect reactive power flows, i.e., shunt reactances and
transformer off nominal in phase taps.

b. Omitting from [B ] the angle shifting effect of phase shifter, which predominantly affects real
power flow.

In the next lecture, we will look at an example of FDLF method.


67

2.11.1

Example for Fast-decoupled load-flow technique

As an example, the 5 bus system described earlier is considered again. Starting from the flat start,
the initial calculations are shown in Table 2.29. As the mismatch is more than the tolerance, the
BUS matrix of this system is shown in Table 2.30. In this table, the
algorithm proceeds. The Y
BUS (, m n) represents the elements (of the Y
BUS matrix) corresponding to all rows
notation Y
(denoted by the notation :) and columns spanning from mth column to nth column (denoted by the
BUS matrix, the matrices [B ] and [B ] are constructed as shown in
notation m:n). From this Y

Table 2.30. Note that the size of the matrix [B ] is (4 4) (corresponding to the non slack buses,

i.e. 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the size of the [B ] matrix is (2 2) (corresponding to the PV buses 4

and 5). Also note that the matrices [B ] and [B ] have been formed by taking the negative of the
BUS matrix. With these constant matrices,
imaginary parts of the corresponding elements of the Y
the vectors and V are calculated and subsequently, the vectors and V have been updated.
With these updated values of and V, the final mismatch (error) is again calculated as shown in
Table 2.30. As the error is still more than the tolerance, the algorithm proceeds further and finally
converges in 19 iterations for a tolerance value of 1012 p.u. The final solution is shown in Table
2.31, which happens to be the same as the results obtained by the other methods described earlier.

Table 2.29: Initial calculation with FDLF in the 5 bus system

Pcal = [0.0444 0.1776 0.0333 0.0444] 1014 ;


T

Qcal = [0.1430 0.1430] ;


T

M = [0.5000 1.0000 1.1500 0.8500 0.4570 0.2570] ;


error = 1.15 ;

Now, let us impose the reactive power limit on the generation at bus 3. Starting from the flat
start, the calculation up to 1st iteration are same and hence are not shown here. The calculation
pertaining to 2nd iteration are shown in Table 2.32. From this set, observe that the calculated value
of Q3 has exceeded the limit of 50 MVAR and hence it should be now treated as PQ-bus. Thus,

the dimension of the matrix [B ] increases to (3 3) (corresponding to the buses 4, 5 and 3).

This new, augmented matrix is shown in Table 2.33. With these [B ] and [B ] matrices ([B ]
matrix remains the same), the calculations are further carried out and the algorithm converges in
20 iterations. The final solution is shown in Table 2.31. Comparison of this result with the earlier
results (obtained with other methods) shows that because of the approximations made in FDLF, the
results obtained with FDLF are not identically the same with those obtained by the other methods
but are very close.
The results corresponding to 14-bus and 30-bus systems are shown in Tables 2.34 and 2.35
respectively. From these tables note that the number of iterations taken by FDLF is much higher than
those required by NRLF. This is because of approximations adopted by FDLF (to achieve decoupling)
due to which, the convergence is slower. However, because of the constant Jacobrian matrices, the
68

Table 2.30: Calculations at 1st iteration with FDLF in the 5 bus system

3.2417 13.0138i 1.4006 + 5.6022i


0

1.4006 + 5.6022i 3.2417 13.0138i 1.8412 + 7.4835i

0
1.8412 + 7.4835i 4.2294 18.9271i ;
YBUS (, 1 3) =

0
0
1.2584
+
7.1309i

1.8412 + 7.4835i
0
1.1298
+
4.4768i

0
1.8412 + 7.4835i

0
0

BUS (, 4 5) = 1.2584 + 7.1309i 1.1298 + 4.4768i;


Y

2.1921 10.7227i 0.9337 + 3.7348i

0.9337 + 3.7348i 3.9047 15.5521i

13.0138 7.4835
0
0

7.4835 18.9271 7.1309 4.4768


10.7227 3.7348

; [B ] = [
[B ] =
];
0
7.1309 10.7227 3.7348
3.7348 15.5521

0
4.4768 3.7348 15.5521

= [0.0306 0.0136 0.1492 0.0944] ;

V = [0.0528 0.0292] ;
T

= [0 0.0306 0.0136 0.1492 0.0944] ;


T

V = [1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9472 0.9708] ;


T

Pcal = [0.5045 1.0488 1.1725 0.8975] ;

Qcal = [0.2931 0.1267] ;


T

M = [0.0045 0.0488 0.0225 0.0475 0.3069 0.2733] ;


error = 0.3069;

execution of each iteration is much faster (as the Jacobrian matrix need not be recomputed and
reversed at each iteration) and hence, the total time taken by FDLF is quiet comparable to that
needed by NRLF. From the two tables it is further noted that, in the absence of any generation
reactive power limit, the results obtained by FDLF are almost identical to those obtained by other
methods. However, in the presence of generation reactive power limits, FDLF results are quiet close
to the results obtained by other methods, though not identical.
We are now at the end of our discussion of AC load flow techniques. In the next lecture, we will
study the method of load flow analysis of an AC system in which a HVDC link is also embedded
(namely, the AC-DC load flow technique).

69

Table 2.31: Final Results of the 5 bus system with FDLF

Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Without generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

With generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1.0
0
0.56743 0.26505
1.0
0
0.56985 0.34069
1.0
1.65757
0.5
-0.18519
1.0
1.69742
0.5
-0.04522
1.0
-0.91206
1.0
0.68875 0.98219 -0.63507
1.0
0.49668
0.90594 -8.35088
-1.15
-0.6
0.88888 -8.35938
-1.15
-0.6
0.94397 -5.02735
-0.85
-0.4
0.93428 -4.9861
-0.85
-0.4
Total iteration = 19
Total iteration = 20

Table 2.32: Calculations at 2nd iteration with FDLF in the 5 bus system with limit on Q3
T

= [0.0010 0.0012 0.0026 0.0034] ;

V = [0.0399 0.0277] ;
T

= [0 0.0296 0.0148 0.1465 0.0910] ;


T

V = [1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9074 0.9431] ;


T

Pcal = [0.4999 1.0353 1.1526 0.9012] ;

Qcal = [0.5830 0.4020 0.6775] ;


T

M = [0.0001 0.0353 0.0026 0.0512 0.0170 0.0020 0.1775] ;


error = 0.1775;

70

Table 2.33: Calculations at 3rd iteration with FDLF in the 5 bus system with limit on Q3

13.0138

7.4835

[B ] =
0

7.4835
0
0

18.9271 7.1309 4.4768


;
7.1309 10.7227 3.7348

4.4768 3.7348 15.5521


T

= [0.0006 0.0010 0.0008 0.0034] ;

10.7227 3.7348 7.1309

[B ] = 3.7348 15.5521 4.4768;

7.1309 4.4768 18.9271

V = [0.0167 0.0090 0.0178] ;


T

= [0 0.0290 0.0157 0.1457 0.0875] ;


T

V = [1.0 1.0 0.9822 0.8906 0.9341] ;


T

Qcal = [0.5939 0.4125] ;

Pcal = [0.5268 0.9223 1.1174 0.8408] ;

M = [0.0268 0.0777 0.0326 0.0092 0.0061 0.0125] ;


error = 0.0777;

Table 2.34: Final Results of the 14 bus system with FDLF


Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

(p.u)
1.06
1.045
1.04932
1.03299
1.04015
1.07
1.02076
1.0224
1.0201
1.0211
1.04144
1.0526
1.04494
1.01249

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.37259
-5.17113
0.183
-14.54246
-1.19
-10.39269 -0.4779
-8.76418 -0.07599
-12.52265
0.112
-13.44781
0
-13.47154
0
-13.60908 -0.29499
-13.69541
-0.09
-13.22158 -0.03501
-13.42868 -0.06099
-13.50388 -0.135
-14.60128 -0.14901
Total iteration = 123

Qinj

(p.u)
-0.3308
-0.166
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.37278
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

(p.u)
1.06
1.045
1.04697
1.02902
1.03615
1.05497
1.01266
1.01391
1.0118
1.01154
1.02915
1.03787
1.03063
1.00136

71

With generator Q limit

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.37188
-5.17845
0.183
-14.55556
-1.19
-10.35987 -0.4779
-8.71026 -0.07599
-12.4587
0.112
-13.49478
0
-13.5185
0
-13.66102 -0.29499
-13.73679
-0.09
-13.21814 -0.03501
-13.39144 -0.06099
-13.48166 -0.135
-14.64504 -0.14901
Total iteration = 119

Qinj
(p.u)
-0.31249
-0.1066
-0.08762
-0.039
-0.01599
0.29999
0
-0.129
-0.16599
-0.05799
-0.018
-0.01599
-0.05799
-0.05001

Table 2.35: Final Results of the 30 bus system with FDLF


Without generator Q limit

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

(p.u)
1.05
1.0338
1.03128
1.02578
1.005 8
1.02178
1.00111
1.023
1.04608
1.03606
1.0913
1.04859
1.0883
1.03346
1.02825
1.0359
1.0306
1.01873
1.01626
1.02041
1.02305
1.02343
1.0165
1.00939
1.00048
0.9825
1.00379
1.02049
0.98353
0.97181

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.38673
-4.97945 0.3586
-7.96653
-0.024
-9.58235
-0.076
-13.60103 -0.6964
-11.50296
0
-13.9994
-0.628
-12.56853
-0.45
-13.04088
0
-14.88589 -0.058
-11.16876 0.1793
-13.74947 -0.112
-12.56078 0.1691
-14.71704 -0.062
-14.86737 -0.082
-14.50539 -0.035
-14.98291
-0.09
-15.58107 -0.032
-15.81066 -0.095
-15.63819 -0.022
-15.35955 -0.175
-15.35222
0
-15.41998 -0.032
-15.81043 -0.087
-15.84004
0
-16.27422 -0.035
-15.59587
0
-12.1474
0
-16.87497 -0.024
-17.79427 -0.106
Total iteration = 115

Qinj

(p.u)
-0.29842
-0.05698
-0.012
-0.016
0.05042
0
-0.109
0.12343
0
-0.02
0.24018
-0.075
0.31043
-0.016
-0.025
-0.018
-0.058
-0.009
-0.034
-0.007
-0.112
0
-0.016
-0.067
0
-0.023
0
0
-0.009
-0.019

(p.u)
1.05
1.0338
1.03026
1.02455
1.0058
1.0206
1.00041
1.023
1.03842
1.02995
1.07426
1.04384
1.0824
1.02853
1.0232
1.03054
1.02469
1.01323
1.01052
1.01457
1.01706
1.0175
1.01136
1.00418
0.99677
0.97872
1.00105
1.01937
0.98073
0.96897

72

With generator Q limit

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0
2.38678
-4.98182 0.3586
-7.95403
-0.024
-9.56795
-0.076
-13.6111 -0.6964
-11.49172
0
-13.9986
-0.628
-12.5786
-0.45
-13.02612
0
-14.88705 -0.058
-11.11026 0.1793
-13.76458 -0.112
-12.56395 0.1691
-14.73984 -0.062
-14.88791 -0.082
-14.51633 -0.035
-14.98908
-0.09
-15.60231 -0.032
-15.83038 -0.095
-15.65374 -0.022
-15.36723 -0.175
-15.36018
0
-15.44311 -0.032
-15.83356 -0.087
-15.87684
0
-16.31432 -0.035
-15.63737
0
-12.14228
0
-16.92364 -0.024
-17.84827 -0.106
Total iteration = 112

Qinj
(p.u)
-0.29289
-0.0429
-0.012
-0.016
0.05654
0
-0.109
0.15797
0
-0.02
0.18809
-0.075
0.29991
-0.016
-0.025
-0.018
-0.058
-0.009
-0.034
-0.007
-0.112
0
-0.016
-0.067
0
-0.023
0
0
-0.009
-0.019

2.12

A.C.-D.C. LOAD FLOW

For solving the load flow problem of an A.C. system in which one or more HVDC links are present,
either of the following two approaches are followed;
a. Simultaneous solution technique
b. Sequential solution technique
In simultaneous solution technique, the equations pertaining to the A.C. system and the equations pertaining to the DC system are solved together. In the sequential method, the AC and DC
systems are solved separately and the coupling between the AC and DC system in accomplished
by injecting an equivalent amount of real and reactive power at the terminal AC buses. In other
words, for an HVDC link existing between buses i and j of an AC system (rectifier at bus i
and inverter at bus j), the effect of the DC link in incorporated into the AC system by injections
(R)
(R)
(I)
(I)
PDCi
and QDCi at the rectifier bus i and PDCj and QDCj at bus j (the super scripts R and
I denote the rectifier and inverter respectively). Therefore the net injected power at bus i and
(R)
(R)
(I)
(I)
j are: Pitotal = PACi + PDCi ; QTi otal = QACi + QDCi ; PjT otal = PACj + PDCj ; QTj otal = QACj + QDCj .
With these net injected powers the AC system is again solved and subsequently, the equivalent in(R)
(R)
(I)
(I)
jected powers (PDCi , QDCi , PDCj , QDCi ) and the total injected powers (PiT otal , QTi otal , PjT otal , QTj otal )
are updated. This process of alternately solving AC and DC system quantities is continued till the
changes in AC system and DC system quantities between two consecutive iterations become less then
a threshold value. Although simultaneous technique gives the solution of the system without any
to and fro switching between the AC and DC systems, the sequential solution technique is actually
quite easy to implement as we will see later. Now let as look at the equations of the DC system.

2.12.1

DC system model

For deriving a suitable model of a HVDC system for steady state operation, few basic assumptions
are adopted as described below;
a. The three A.C. voltages at the terminal bus bar are balanced and sinusoidal.
b. The converter operation is perfectly balanced.
c. The direct current and voltages are smooth.
d. The converter transformer is lossless and the magnetizing admittance is ignored.

With the above assumptions, the equivalent circuit of the converter (either rectifier or inverter)
is shown in Fig. 2.18. In this figure, the notations are as follows;
73

Figure 2.18: Equivalent circuit of the converter under the steady state operation

Vt t
a
Es s
Ip , Is
Vd , Id

Magnitude and angle of the terminal bus bar of the converter


Converter transformer tap ratio
Magnitude and angle of the secondary side of the converter transformer
Primary and secondary current of the converter transformer respectively
DC voltage and DC current respectively

It is to be noted that in Fig. 2.18, the angles are referred to the common reference of the entire
AC-DC system. With the above notations, the basic equation governing the HVDC systems are as
follow:
For rectifier

3 2
Vdr =
Nr ar Etr cos r = Vdor cos r

3
Vdr = Vdor cos Xcr Nr Id

For inverter

3 2
Vdi =
Ni ai Eti cos i = Vdoi cos i

3
Vdi = Vdoi cos Xci Ni Id

(2.88)

(2.89)

(2.90)

(2.91)

In the above equations, the subscripts r and i denote the rectifier and inverter side respectively.
The quantity N denotes the number of six-pulse bridges at any partienlar side and the angle
denotes the angular difference between the terminal voltages and primary current of the transformer,
i.e. the power factor of the converter as seen by the AC bus. Xc denotes the commutating reactance
of the converter transformer and the angles and denote the firing angle of the rectifier and
the extinction angle of the inverter respectively.
74

The rectifie and the inverter are interconnected though the following equation:

Vdr Vdi
= Id
Rd

(2.92)

In equation (2.92), the quantity Rd denotes the DC link resistance. Equations (2.88)-(2.92)
describe the operation of a two-terminal HVDC link. Now, as the basic objective of a HVDC link
is to provide complete controllability of power over a transmission corridor, both the rectifies and
the inverter stations are suitably controlled and thus, suitable control equations also need to be
incorporated in the above model. We will discuss these control equations shortly. However, to solve
the above equations, appropriate solution variables must be chosen. Now, for the reason of simplicity,
following set of solution variables is chosen for each converter;

x = [Vd Id a cos ]

(2.93)

Therefore, for a two terminal HVDC link, the complete set of solution vector is;

xc = [Vdr Vdi Id ar ai cos cos r i ]

(2.94)

In equation (2.94), Id has been taken only once as the DC current is same at both the ends. From
equation (2.94) it is observed that there are total 9 unknown variables which need to be solved to
completely determine the HVDC link. However, we have only 5 independent equations as shown in
equations (2.88)-(2.92). Therefore, out of 9 unknown variables, any 4 variables need to be specified
and thereafter, remaining 5 variables can be solved using equations (2.88)-(2.92).
These 4 variables can be specified using the control specification. There can be several combinations of control specification and some of their combination are;
i) , Pdr , , Vdi ;
iii) ar , Pdr , ai , Vdi ;
v)
ar , Pdr , , ai ;
vii)
, Id , , Vdi ;

ii) , Pdr , ai , Vdi ;


iv) ar , Pdr , , Vdi ;
vi)
ar , Pdr , , ;
viiii) , Vdr , , Pdi ;

With any of these four specified control values, the remaining 5 variables can be solved from
equations (2.88)-(2.92) by using standard Newton-Raphoson technique. However, for the sequential
(R)
(R)
(I)
(I)
solution techniques, the quantities PDci , QDci , PDcj and QDcj can be competed in a much easier
way by algebraic manipulation of equations (2.88)-(2.92). we will show this procedure by two of the
eight combinations listed above.

75

Combination 1

In this case, , Pdr , and Vdi are specified. With these known quantities, the calculation procedure
is as follows:
Step 1: We know, Pdr = Vdr Id .

Or, Pdr =

Or, Vdr2 Vdr Vdi Rd Pdr = 0.

Vdr =

Vdr (Vdr Vdi )


(from equation (2.92)).
Rd

Or,

Vdi

Vdi2 + 4Rd Pdr


2

(2.95)

From equation (2.95), two values of Vdr are obtained. Out of these two values, the value of Vdr
which is greater than Vdi is chosen, i.e.

1
Vdr = (Vdi + Vdi2 + 4Rd Pdr )
2
Step 2: Id is calculated as,

Id =

Pdr
Vdr

(2.96)

(2.97)

Step 3: Using equation (2.89), Vdor is calculated as,

3
Vdr + Xcr Nr Id

Vdor =
cos

(2.98)

Step 4: Using equation (2.88), ar and cos r are calculated as,

cos r =

Vdr
Vdor

Vdor
ar =
3 2Nr Etr

(2.99)

(2.100)

In equation (2.100) Etr is known as in the sequential solution method, the terminal voltages are
known from the immediate past solution of the AC system equations.
(R)
(R)
Step 5: The quantities PDCi and QDCi are calculated as;
(R)
PDCi
= Pdr

Q(R)
DCi = Pdr tan r

and

(2.101)

Step 6: From equation (2.91), Vdoi is calculated as,

3
Vdi + Xci Ni Id

Vdoi =
cos
76

(2.102)

Step 7: Using equation (2.90), ai and cos i are calculated as,

cos i =

Vdi
Vdoi

(2.103)

Vdoi
ai =
3 2Ni Eti
(I)

(2.104)

(I)

Step 8: The quantities PDCj and QDCj are calculated as,


(I)
PDCj
= Vdi Id
(R)

(R)

(I)
Q(I)
DCj = PDCj tan i

and
(I)

(2.105)

(I)

With these values of PDCi , QDCi , PDCj and QDCj , the AC system equations are again solved
to obtain the updated values of Etr and Eti and subsequently, steps (1)-(8) are repeated again to
(R)
(R)
(I)
(I)
update the values of PDCi , QDCi , PDCj and QDCj . This alternate process of solving AC and DC
system equations are repeated till convergence in obtained.
Combination 8
In this case, , , Pdi and Vdr are known. With these known quantities, the calculation procedure
is as follows:

Vdr Vdi Vdi Vdr Vdi2


=
.
Step 1: We know Pdi = Vdi Id = Vdi
Rd
Rd
Or, Vdi2 + Rd Pdi Vdi Vdr = 0.
Or,
Vdi =

Vdr

Vdr2 4Rd Pdi


2

(2.106)

From the two values of Vdi in equation (2.106), the final value of Vdi is calculated as,

1
Vdi = (Vdr + Vdr2 4Rd Pdi )
2
Step 2: Id is calculated as,

Id =

(2.107)

Pdi
Vdi

(2.108)

With these calculated values of Vdi and Id , steps (3)-(8) of combination-1 are followed to calculate
(R)
the Equivalent power injection values, where PDCi = Vdr Id . With these injected power values, the
AC and DC systems are continued to be solved alternately till convergence in achieved. It is to be
R
noted that at the rectifier end, P(DCi)
= Pdr and Q(R)
DCi = Qdr as the rectifier draws both real and
(I)

I
reactive power from the grid. On the other hand, at the inverter end, P(DCj)
= Pdi and QDCj = Qdi
as the inverter supplies real power to the AC grid and draws reactive power from the AC grid.
In the next lecture, we will look at an example of AC-DC load flow method.

77

2.12.2

Example for A.C-D.C load flow

To illustrate the application of the above procedure, let us first consider the 5-bus system. In this
system, it is now assumed that one bipolar HVDC link is connected between bus 4 and 5 (rectifier
at bus 4 and inverter at bus 5). Other relevant data for this link are as follows; Rd = 10.0 ;

Nr = Ni = 2;

3
3
Xcr = Xci = 6.0 . Further, let us also assume that the specified values have been

taken according to combination 1 and the values are as follows:


Combination-1

= 5o , Pdr = 100 MW; = 18o , Vdi = 250 kV


With the above specification, the calculation procedure for the DC system is as follows. Initially,
the flat start is assumed for all the buses in the system. Therefore, V4 = V5 = 1.0 p.u. Let us also
assume that the base voltage of the AC system is 132 kV. Now, before commencing the AC load flow,
the equivalent power injections (both real and reactive) at buses 4 and 5 need to be calculated. For
this purpose, equations (2.95) - (2.105) are used to calculate the values of different DC variables as
follows: Vdr = 253.938 kV; id = 393.8 Amp.; Qdr = 16.276 MVAR; Pdi = 98.45 MW; Qdi = 35.024
MVAR.
Now, let us look at equations (2.95) - (2.105) more closely. Equations (2.96) - (2.99) show that
the quantities Vdr , id , Vdor and cos r depend only on the DC system data. As the DC system data
are constant, the calculatd values of these four quantities would also be constant (i.e. their values
would not change from iteration to iteration). Similarly, from equations (2.102) and (2.103) it can
be seen that the quantities Vdoi and cos i are also constant. As cos r and cos i are constant,
(R)
(I)
from equations (2.101) and (2.105), QDCi and QDCj are also constant. Thus, the equivalent real
and reactive power injections at buses 4 and 5 are constant (they need not be updated at every
iteration) and hence these values can be pre-calculated and suitably adjusted into the injected real
and reactive powers at buses 4 and 5 before solving the AC system equations. Thus, for the example
at hand, the net injected real and reactive powers at bus 4 and bus 5 can be calculated as follows;
P4 = 1.15 1.0 = 2.15 p.u., Q4 = 0.6 0.16276 = 0.76276 p.u., P5 = 0.85 + 0.9845 = 0.1345
p.u. and Q5 = 0.4 0.35024 = 0.75024 p.u. With these net injected real and reactive powers,
the load flow solution of the AC system is computed and the final solution is shown in Table 2.36.
It is to be noted that in Table 2.36, it has been assumed that no violation of reactive power limit
has taken place for any of the generators. After the final solution of voltage magnitudes is obtained,
the quantities ar and ai can be calculated from equations (2.100) and (2.104) as ar = 0.8714 and
ai = 0.8149. Please note that in these two equations, the quantities Etr and Eti should be taken in
actual values (i.e. in kV), not in per unit.
Let us now turn our attention to combination 8. Following the same reasonong as described
above, from equations (2.107) - (2.108) it can be observed that the quantities Vdi and Id are constant. Moreover, as steps (3)-(8) of combination 8 are same as in combination 1, it immediately
follows that for combination 8 also, the equivalent real and reactive power injections (representing
78

Table 2.36: Final Results of AC-DC load flow of 5 bus system without any generator Q limit violation

Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Without generator Q limit

Pinj

Qinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
1.0
0
0.68984 0.46301
1.0
-0.63995
0.5
-0.17235
1.0
-4.91128
1.0
1.54134
0.82813 -17.48682
-2.15
-0.76277
0.91332 -3.89028 0.13449 -0.75025
Total iteration = 5

the DC system) are constant. Therefore, by pre-calculating these equivalent power injections and
subsequently incorporating these calculated values into net bus power injections, standard AC load
flow solution can be computed to obtain the solution of the composite AC-DC system.
From the above discussion regarding combination 1 and 8, it may appear that the equivalent real
and reactive power injections (representing the DC system) are always constant for any combination
of the specified control variables. However, this is not true. Depending on the specified control
variables, the equivalent real and reactive power injections may vary from iteration to iteration and
therefore, they need to be calculated in every iteration. As an example, let us consider combination
3. For this combination, the various steps are as follows:
Step 1: Initialise all the bus voltages with flat start. Hence, Etr and Eti are known.
Step 2: From the specified values of Pdr and Vdi , calculate Vdr and Id using equations (2.96)
and (2.97) respectively.
Step 3: Calculate Vdor from equation (2.100).
Step 4: Calculate cos and cos r using equations (2.98) and (2.99) respectively.
(R)
Step 5: From the knowledge of Pdr and cos r , calculate QDCi using equation (2.101).
Step 6: Calculate Vdoi from equation (2.104).
Step 7: Calculate cos and cos i using equations (2.102) and (2.103) respectively.
(I)
(I)
Step 8: Calculate PDCj and QDCj from equation (2.105).
(R)

Please note that in steps 3-5, the quantities Vdor , cos r and QDCi are all dependent on the
(I)
rectifier side AC bus voltage, Etr . Similarly, in steps 6-8, the quantities Vdoi , cos i and QDCj are all
(I)
dependent on the inverter side AC bus voltage, Eti . The quantity PDCj however, depends only on
the DC system quantities and hence remain constant. Thus, the equivalent reactive power injections
at both rectifier and inverter side depend on the AC bus voltage magnitudes (although the equivalent
real power injections at both the sides are independent of AC bus voltage magnitudes). Hence, the
equivalent reactive power injections need to be updated at each iteration and with these updated
power injection values, another iteration of AC load flow is carried out. This process is continued till
convergence is achieved. To illustrate this procedure further, let us assume that the specified values
corresponding to combination 3 are as follows:
79

ar = 1.0; Pdr = 100 MW; ai = 1.0; Vdi = 250 kV


From the information of Pdr and Vdi , the quantities Pdi and Id are calculated as; Pdi = 98.45
MW and Id = 393.8 Amp. The calculated values for different other DC quantities corresponding to
first 3 iterations are shown in Table 2.37. In this table, the symbols In and MM denote iteration
number and mismatch respectively. Proceeding in this fashion, the algorithm finally converges in
70 iterations with a convergence threshold value of 1.0e12 . The final converged values of different
(R)
DC quantities are as follows: Vdr = 253.938 kV; = 19.82o ; = 34.84o ; QDCi = 41.52 MVAR;
Q(I)
DCj = 72.44 MVAR. The final converged values of the AC system quantities are shown in Table
2.38. Note that, as in the case of Table 2.36, in this case also, no generator reactive power violation
has been assumed.
Table 2.37: Calculated DC quantities for first three iterations in 5 bus system

In
0
1
2

V4

V5

Vdor

Q(R)
DCi

(p.u.) (p.u.)
(kV)
(rad.) (MVAR)
1.0
1.0
356.52 0.778
98.54
0.7843 0.8731 279.63 0.432
46.11
0.7682 0.8703 273.91 0.3842
40.43

Vdoi

Q(I)
DCj

(deg.) (kV)
(rad.) (MVAR)
43.48 356.52 0.7937
100.09
22.33 311.29 0.638
73.04
19.20 310.29 0.634
72.37

MM
(deg.)
44.4
2.15
35.08 0.5578
34.82 0.038

Table 2.38: Final Results of AC-DC load flow of 5 bus system for combination 3 without any
generator Q limit violation

Bus no.
1
2
3
4
5

Without generator Q limit

Pinj

(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
1.0
0
0.75382
1.0
-0.99374
0.5
1.0
-5.52481
1.0
0.82813 -18.69153
-2.15
0.91332 -3.65137 0.13449
Total iteration = 70

Qinj
(p.u)
0.78420
-0.16893
2.17338
-1.01522
-1.12440

For further illustration, let us now consider the 30-bus system. In this system, it is now assumed
that one bipolar HVDC link is connected between bus 9 and 28 (rectifier at bus 9 and inverter at bus
28). Other relevant data for this link are as follows; Rd = 10.0 ; Nr = Ni = 2;

3
3
Xcr = Xci = 6.0 .

The load flow has been solved for combination-1, combination-3 and combination-8 (of specified quantities). The specified values which have been considered are as follows;
Combination-1
80

= 5o ; Pdr = 100 MW; = 18o ; Vdi = 250 kV


Combination-3

ar = 0.75; Pdr = 100 MW; ai = 0.75; Vdi = 250 kV


Combination-8

= 5o ; Pdi = 100 MW; = 18o ; Vdr = 250 kV


The results of the 30-bus system for combination 1 and 8 are shown in Table 2.39 for a tolerance of
1012 p.u. Furthermore, the results corresponding to combination 3 are shown in Table 2.40. It is to
be noted that for these results, no reactive power limit on the generators have been considered. The
final solutions of corresponding DC system quantities are also shown in these tables for these three
cases. Comparison of Tables 2.18, 2.39 and 2.40 shows that because of the reactive power absorption
at both bus 9 and 28, the overall voltage profile of the system is lower in the presence of HVDC
link. Moreover, when the equivalent injected real and reactive powers are constant (i.e. do not vary
from iteration to iteration), the number of iterations taken by the algorithm is quiet comparable
with that taken by the normal NRLF (polar) method (without any HVDC link). However, when
these equivalent injected powers vary from iteration to iteration, the number of iterations taken by
the sequential algorithm is appreciably more as compared that taken by the normal NRLF (polar)
method (without any HVDC link).
In the above, the detail calculation procedures for three combinations (1, 3 and 8) have been
shown. For the remaining combinations, the DC quantities can be calculated following the procedure
of either combination 1 or combination 3 and thus, these are not detailed here.
Let us now turn our attention to simultaneous techniques. As discussed earlier, in the simultaneous technique, the AC and DC system equations are solved together. Now, in a N-bus, M-generator
power system having a HVDC link between lens k and l (bus k being the rectifier and bus l being
the inverter), the total number of unknown are (N 1) + (N M ) + 5 = 2N M + 4. To solve these
unknowns, we also have (N 1) + (N M ) + 5 = 2N M + 4 equations. Therefore the size of Jacobrian matrix would be (2N M +4)(2N M +4), as compared to the (2N M 1)(2N M 1)
Jacobrian matrix of the AC system.
The additional 5 rows and 5 columns pertain to the DC equations which need to be evaluated
in each iteration. Also, the Jacobian matrix also needs to be inverted in each iteration, thereby
increasing the computation burden appreciably. Apart from that, depending upon the combination
of specified quantities, the DC equations [(2.88)-(2.92)] need to be recasted appropriately before
starting the solution procedure. Therefore, the simultaneous solution technique does not give any
computational advantage vis--vis the sequential method and thus, this method is not further discussed here.
81

Table 2.39: Results of the 30 bus system with a bipolar HVDC link between bus 9 and 28

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

(p.u)
1.05
1.0338
1.02345
1.01637
1.0058
1.01055
0.99437
1.023
1.01796
1.00713
1.0913
1.04132
1.0883
1.02408
1.01562
1.01841
1.00471
0.99979
0.9938
0.99623
0.99497
0.99578
1.00064
0.98942
0.98869
0.97048
0.99711
1.00723
0.97669
0.96489

With combination 1

Pinj

Qinj

With combination 8

Pinj

Qinj

(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(p.u)
(deg)
(p.u)
(p.u)
0
2.42039 -0.26099
1.05
0
2.42229 -0.26023
-5.0387
0.3586 0.06523 1.0338 -5.04273
0.3586
0.06857
-8.08233
-0.024
-0.012 1.02325 -8.08809
-0.024
-0.012
-9.72937
-0.076
-0.016 1.01613 -9.73654
-0.076
-0.016
-13.69708 -0.6964 0.10883 1.0058 -13.70427 -0.6964 0.11036
-11.35395
0
0
1.01026 -11.35703
0
0
-13.96765 -0.628
-0.109 0.99419 -13.97288 -0.628
-0.109
-12.18127
-0.45
0.47454
1.023 -12.18265
-0.45
0.48393
-20.00269
-1
-0.16277 1.01711 -20.13217 -1.01653 -0.16832
-19.52942 -0.058
-0.02
1.00633 -19.6175
-0.058
-0.02
-18.07884 0.1793 0.38778 1.0913 -18.20671 0.1793
0.39224
-16.16702 -0.112
-0.075 1.04109 -16.21744 -0.112
-0.075
-14.97002 0.1691 0.36696 1.0883 -15.02017 0.1691
0.36879
-17.34016 -0.062
-0.016 1.02379 -17.39439 -0.062
-0.016
-17.64022 -0.082
-0.025 1.01524 -17.69657 -0.082
-0.025
-17.83191 -0.035
-0.018 1.01792 -17.89732 -0.035
-0.018
-19.23196
-0.09
-0.058 1.00399 -19.31323
-0.09
-0.058
-19.02914 -0.032
-0.009 0.99925 -19.09708 -0.032
-0.009
-19.66267 -0.095
-0.034 0.99317 -19.73758 -0.095
-0.034
-19.69028 -0.022
-0.007 0.99555 -19.76851 -0.022
-0.007
-19.72658 -0.175
-0.112 0.99419 -19.81012 -0.175
-0.112
-19.62149
0
0
0.99501 -19.7033
0
0
-18.30125 -0.032
-0.016 1.00016 -18.3595
-0.032
-0.016
-18.8339
-0.087
-0.067 0.98881 -18.89458 -0.087
-0.067
-16.70952
0
0
0.98823 -16.73336
0
0
-17.15432 -0.035
-0.023 0.97001 -17.17859 -0.035
-0.023
-15.12179
0
0
0.99676 -15.12284
0
0
-9.39718 0.98449 -0.35025 1.00683 -9.35718
1
-0.35723
-16.41847 -0.024
-0.009 0.97633 -16.42047 -0.024
-0.009
-17.35084 -0.106
-0.019 0.96452 -17.35353 -0.106
-0.019
Total iteration = 4
Total iteration = 4

DC system solutions
Vdr = 253.938 kV; idr = 393.8 Amp.;
ar = 0.7088; Qdr = 16.276 MVAR;
ai = 0.7389; Pdi = 98.45 MW;
Qdi = 35.024 MVAR;

DC system solutions
Vdi = 245.93 kV; idr = 406.613 Amp.;
ar = 0.6988; Pdr = 101.65 MW;
ai = 0.7275; Qdr = 16.831 MVAR;
Qdi = 35.723 MVAR;

We are now at the end of our theoretical study of various load flow techniques. However, in
production grade implementatin of these techniques, the sparsity of the linear equations (connecting
the mismatch and solution vectors) is exploited to reduce the computation time as well as memory requirement. From the next lecture, we will study some methods for solution of sparse linear
82

Table 2.40: Further results of the 30 bus system with a bipolar HVDC link between bus 9 and 28

Bus no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

(p.u)
1.05000
1.03380
1.02180
1.01437
1.00580
1.00804
0.99286
1.02300
1.00248
0.99624
1.09130
1.03787
1.08830
1.01972
1.01042
1.01181
0.99507
0.99250
0.98530
0.98713
0.98445
0.98541
0.99404
0.98099
0.98192
0.96358
0.99144
1.00345
0.97089
0.95901

With combination 3

Pinj

(deg)
(p.u)
0.00000
2.42241
-5.04581 0.35860
-8.07176 -0.02400
-9.71785 -0.07600
-13.71987 -0.69640
-11.32909 0.00000
-13.96633 -0.62800
-12.20102 -0.45000
-20.07763 -1.00000
-19.56171 -0.05800
-18.12405 0.17930
-16.26936 -0.11200
-15.06838 0.16910
-17.44774 -0.06200
-17.72802 -0.08200
-17.89806 -0.03500
-19.27534 -0.09000
-19.10546 -0.03200
-19.73134 -0.09500
-19.74984 -0.02200
-19.76760 -0.17500
-19.66188 0.00000
-18.37832 -0.03200
-18.89414 -0.08700
-16.75594 0.00000
-17.20702 -0.03500
-15.15766 -0.00000
-9.34449 0.98449
-16.46954 -0.02400
-17.41321 -0.10600
Total iteration = 23

Qinj
(p.u)
-0.25233
0.09175
-0.01200
-0.01600
0.12191
0.00000
-0.10900
0.55554
-0.33808
-0.02000
0.46906
-0.07500
0.39377
-0.01600
-0.02500
-0.01800
-0.05800
-0.00900
-0.03400
-0.00700
-0.11200
-0.00000
-0.01600
-0.06700
0.00000
-0.02300
-0.00000
-0.38369
-0.00900
-0.01900

DC system solutions
Vdr = 253.938 kV; idr = 393.8 Amp.;
= 15.21o ; Qdr = 33.808 MVAR;
= 18.31o ; Pdi = 98.45 MW;
Qdi = 38.37 MVAR;

equations.

83

Module 3
Sparsity Technique
3.1

Sparse matrices

Sparse matrix is a matrix in which most (or, at least, significant number) of the elements are zero.
In the context of power system analysis, the matrices associated with power flow solution are sparse.
For example, let us consider the YBU S matrix. As we have already seen, the off-diagonal elements of
YBU S matrix signifies the connectivity between the nodes. To be more precise, the element (i,j) of
YBU S matrix is non-zero if there is a direct connection between node i and node j, while it is zero if
there is no direct connectivity between these two nodes. Now, in many power systems, generally any
bus is connected to mostly 3-4 buses directly. Therefore, in a 100 buses system (say), there would
be at best 4-5 non-zero terms (including the diagonal) in any row of the YBU S matrix, rest of the
elements being zero. Therefore, out of (100 100) = 10, 000 elements, only about 500 terms would
be non-zero and the other terms (elements) would be zero. Thus, in this case, the YBU S matrix is
almost 95 percent sparse. For any larger system, the percentage of sparsity of the associated YBU S
matrix would be even more.
Because of the sparsity of the YBU S matrix, the Jacobian matrix for load flow solution is also
sparse. To see that, please consider equations (2.48) - (2.55). From these equations it can be seen
that all the elements of the Jacobian matrix depend on the element Yij . Therefore, if this element
Yij is zero, the corresponding elements of the Jacobian matrix would also be zero. As most of the
elements (Yij ) of the YBU S matrix are zero, it immediately follows that most of the elements of the
Jacobian matrix would also be zero, thereby making the Jacobian matrix also quite sparse.
Now, in each iteration of the NRLF technique, (we are considering the polar form here), the
correction vector (X) is computed by inverting the Jacobian matrix and thereafter multiplying
the inverse of the Jacobian matrix with the mismatch vector (M ) (please see equation (2.45)).
However, even though the Jacobian matrix is sparse, its inverse is a full matrix. Hence, computation
of the direct inverse of the sparse matrix involves a lot of computational burden. Therefore, it would
be much less intensive if equation (2.45) can be solved exploiting the sparse nature of the Jacobian
matrix. Apart from this, storing all the elements of a highly sparse matrix also consumes the memory
unnecessarily. Therefore, if only the non-zero elements are stored in appropriate fashion, a lot of
memory can be freed. Of course, with the storage of only the non-zero elements, the complexity of
84

programming will increase. However, for any general purpose load flow program, which is expected
to handle any large size power system, enhancement in the complexity of programming is often a
small cost as compared to the advantage of optimized memory utilization.
Below we will discuss some schemes for solving a set of linear equations (note that equation (2.48)
is a set of linear equations) utilizing the sparse nature of the Jacobian matrix and also some schemes
for storing a sparse matrix. We will start with the Gaussian Elimination method for solving a set of
linear equations.

3.2

Gaussian elimination technique

Let us consider a linear system of equations:

Ax = b

(3.1)

Where x and b are both (n1) vectors and A is a (nn) co-efficient matrix. The most obvious
method for solving equation (3.1) is to invert matrix A, that is x = A1 b. However, equation
(3.1) can also be solved indirectly by converting the matrix A into an upper triangular form with
appropriate changes reflected in the vector b and then by back substitution. To illustrate the basic
procedure, let us consider a 4th order system as shown in equations (3.2)-(3.5).

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 + a14 x4 = b1

(3.2)

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 + a24 x4 = b2

(3.3)

a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 + a34 x4 = b3

(3.4)

a41 x1 + a42 x2 + a43 x3 + a44 x4 = b4

(3.5)

The Gaussian elimination proceeds in certain sequential steps as described below:


Step 1:
a) Equation (3.2) is divided throughout by a11 .

x1 +

a13
a14
b1
a12
x2 +
x3 +
x4 =
a11
a11
a11
a11

(3.6)

b) Multiply equation (3.6) by a21 , a31 , a41 (one by one) and subtract the resulting expression
from equations (3.3), (3.4) and (3.5) respectively to yield:

(a22

a12 a21
a13 a21
a14 a21
b1 a21
) x2 + (a23
) x3 + (a24
) x4 = b2
a11
a11
a11
a11

(3.7)

(a32

a12 a31
a13 a31
a14 a31
b1 a31
) x2 + (a33
) x3 + (a34
) x4 = b3
a11
a11
a11
a11

(3.8)

85

(a42

a13 a41
a14 a41
b1 a41
a12 a41
) x2 + (a43
) x3 + (a44
) x4 = b4
a11
a11
a11
a11

(3.9)

Equations (3.6) to (3.9) can be written more compactly as,

x1 +

a12
a13
a14
b1
x2 +
x3 +
x4 =
a11
a11
a11
a11

(3.10)

(1)
(1)
(1)
a(1)
22 x2 + a23 x3 + a24 x4 = b2

(3.11)

(1)
(1)
(1)
a(1)
32 x2 + a33 x3 + a34 x4 = b3

(3.12)

(1)
(1)
(1)
a(1)
42 x2 + a43 x3 + a44 x4 = b4

(3.13)

Where, in equations (3.10) - (3.13)

a(1)
jk = ajk

aj1 a1k
a11

for j, k = 2, 3, 4

(3.14)

Step 2: In this step we will work with equations (3.11) - (3.13).


(1)
a) Equation (3.11) is divided throughout by a22 .

x2 +

(1)
a23

(1)
a22

x3 +

a(1)
24

a(1)
22

(1)

x4 =

b2(1)

(3.15)

a(1)
22

(1)

b) Multiplying equation (3.15) by a32 and a42 (one by one) and subtracting the resulting
expressions from equations (3.12) and (3.13) respectively one can obtain;
(1)
33

[a

(1)
43

[a

(1)
a(1)
23 a32
(1)
22

(1)
a(1)
23 a42
(1)
22

(1)
34

] x3 + [a

(1)
44

] x3 + [a

(1) (1)
a24
a32

(1)
22

(1) (1)
a24
a42

(1)
22

] x4 = [b

(1)
3

] x4 = [b

(1)
4

b2(1)

(1)
22

b2(1)

(1)
22

a(1)
32 ]

(3.16)

a(1)
42 ]

(3.17)

Similar to step 1, equations (3.15) - (3.17) are re-written as,

x2 +

(1)
a23
(1)
a22

x3 +

a(1)
24

a(1)
22

x4 =

b2(1)

a(1)
22

(3.18)

(2)
(2)
a33
x3 + a34
x4 = b3(2)

(3.19)

(2)
(2)
a43
x3 + a44
x4 = b4(2)

(3.20)

Where, in equations (3.19) - (3.20),


(2)
jk

(1)
jk

=a

(1) (1)
aj2
a2k
(1)
a22

for j, k = 3, 4

Step 3: In this step we will work with equations (3.19) and (3.20).
86

(3.21)

(2)

a) Equation (3.19) is divided throughout by a33 .

x3 +

(2)
a34

(2)
a33

x4 =

b3(2)

(3.22)

(2)
a33

(2)

b) Multiplying equation (3.22) by a43 and subtracting it from equation (3.20) one can obtain,
(2)
44

[a

(2)
a(2)
34 a43
(2)
33

] x4 = [b

(2)
4

b3(2)

(2)
33

(2)
]
a43

(3.23)

Equation (3.23) contains only one unknown, x4 . Therefore, the value of x4 can be calculated
from this equation. With the value of x4 thus calculated, x3 can be calculated from equation (3.22).
Going back in this manner, x2 can be calculated from equation (3.18) (with the known values of x3
and x4 ) and lastly, the value of x1 can be calculated from equation (3.10) (with the known values
of x2 , x3 and x4 ).
The steps described in equations (3.6)-(3.23) can easily be expressed in terms of standard matrix
operations. To see this, let us represent equations (3.2)-(3.5) in matrix notation as shown in equation
(3.24). In this equation, it is assumed that a11 0.

a11

a
21

a31

a41

a12
a22
a32
a42

a13
a23
a33
a43


a14 x1 b1

a24 x2 b2
=
a34 x3 b3

a44 x4 b4

(3.24)

Starting with this matrix, the various steps for Gaussian elimination are as follows.
Step M1
On equation (3.24), the operation R1/a11 (where R1 is the first row of the co-efficient matrix
of equation (3.24)) is carried out to obtain equation (3.6) and the resulting matrix equation is shown
in equation (3.25).

1 a12 /a11 a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

a
x b
a
a
a
21
2
22
23
24 2

a31

b3
a
a
a
x
32
33
34
3

a41

a
a
a
x
b
42
43
44
4
4

(3.25)

Step M2
On equation (3.25), the operations (R2 R1 a21 ), (R3 R1 a31 ) and (R4 R1 a41 ) are
carried out (where Ri denotes the ith (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) row of the co-efficient matrix of equation (3.25))
to obtain equations (3.10)-(3.13) and the resulting matrix equation is shown in equation (3.26). In
87

(1)

this equation, it is assumed that a22 0.

1 a /a a /a a /a x b /a

12
11
13
11
14
11 1
1 11

(1)
(1)

x2 b(1)
0 a(1)
a
a
2
22
23
24

=
(1)
(1)
(1)

0 a(1)
b
x
a
a
3 3

32
33
34

(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
0 a42
a43
a44 x4 b4

(3.26)

Step M3
(1)

On equation (3.26), the operation R2/a22 is carried out (corresponding to equation (3.15)) to
obtain the resulting matrix equation shown in equation (3.27).

1 a /a
a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12
11


(1) (1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

1
a23 /a22 a24 /a22 x2 b2 /a22

= (1)
(1)
(1)

0 a(1)
x b
a
a

3 3
32
33
34

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

0 a42
a43
a44 x4 b4

(3.27)

Step M4
(1)

(1)

On equation (3.27), the operations (R3 R2 a32 ) and (R4 R2 a42 ) are carried out corresponding to the equations (3.18)-(3.21) and the resulting matrix equation is shown in equation
(2)
(3.28). In this equation, it is assumed that a33 0.

1 a /a
a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12
11

(1) (1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
0

1
a23 /a22 a24 /a22 x2 b2 /a22

= (2)
(2)
(2)
0

x b
0
a33
a34

3 3

(2)
(2)
(2)
0

0
a
a
x
b
4
43
4
44

(3.28)

Step M5
(2)

On equation (3.28), the operation R3/a33 is carried out to obtain the matrix equation shown
in equation (3.29).

1 a /a
a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12
11

(1) (1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
0
1
a23 /a22 a24 /a22 x2 b2 /a22

= (2) (2)
(2)
(2)
0

0
1
a34
/a33

x3 b3 /a33

(2)
(2)
(2)
0

0
a43
a44 x4 b4

(3.29)

Step M6
(2)

Lastly, on equation (3.29), the operation (R4 R3 a43 ) is carried out to obtain the matrix
88

equation shown in equation (3.30).

1 a /a
a13 /a11 a14 /a11 x1 b1 /a11

12
11


(1) (1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

b
/a
x
1
a
/a
a
/a
22
23
22
24
22 2
2

=
(2)
(2)
b(2) /a(2)
0
x
0
1
a
/a

33
34
33 3

(3)
(3)

0
0
0
a44 x4 b4

(3)

(2)

In equation (3.30), a44 = a44

(2)
a(2)
34 a43
(2)
33

(3)

and b4

= b4(2)

b(2)
3

(2)
33

(3.30)

(2)
a43
. From this equation, the

unknowns can be easily solved by back-substitution starting from the last row of the final co-efficient
matrix in equation (3.30). Thus, Gaussian elimination enables us to solve the unknown quantities
in a systematic manner without inverting the co-efficient matrix. Therefore, by adopting the same
procedure, the correction vector (M ) can be computed from equation (2.48) without having to
invert the Jacobian matrix. When a large power system in analyzed, adopting Gaussian elimination
reduces computational burden to a large extent (as compared to inversion of the Jacobian matrix).
(1)
(2)
In the above procedure, the variables a11 , a22 and a33 have been assumed to be non-zero. These
variables, by which the rows of the co-efficient matrix are divided, are called the pivot variables.
However, during the elimination process, it is not necessary that the pivot variables would be always
non-zero. If any pivot variable turns out to be zero at any intermediate step, then the corresponding
row is interchanged with the next row so that the new pivot variable is non-zero and the elimination
process can continue.
We will look into an example of Gaussian elimination procedure in the next lecture.

89

3.2.1

Example of Gaussian elimination

We wish to solve the following matrix equation by Gaussian elimination:

11

23

22

12

17
27
32
15

18
25
34
41


16 x1 10

28 x2 20
=
36 x3 30

36 x4 40

(3.31)

Towards this goal, we proceed with the different steps as follows:


Step M1
On equation (3.31), the operation R1/A(1, 1) (where, A(1, 1) = 11) is performed to yield,

1 1.5455 1.6364 1.4545 x1 0.9091

23
27
25
28 x2 20

22
32
34
36 x3 30

12
15
41
36 x4 40

(3.32)

Step M2
On equation (3.32), the operations (R2 R1 A(2, 1)), (R3 R1 A(3, 1)) and (R4 R1 A(4, 1))
are carried out (where A(2, 1) = 23, A(3, 1) = 22 and A(4, 1) = 12) and the resulting matrix equation is given by;

1 1.5455
1.6364
1.4545 x1 0.9091

0 8.5455 12.6364 5.4545 x 0.9091

x
2.0
2.0
4.0
10
3

0 3.5455 21.3636 18.5455 x4 20.0909

(3.33)

Step M3
On equation (3.33), the operation R2/A(2, 2) (where, A(2, 2) = 8.5455) is carried out to get;

1 1.5455 1.6364 1.4545 x1 0.9091

0
1
1.4787 0.6383 x2 0.1064

0
2.0
2.0
4.0 x3 10

0 3.5455 21.3636 18.5455 x4 20.0909

(3.34)

Step M4
On equation (3.34), the operations (R3 R2 A(3, 2)) and (R4 R2 A(4, 2)) are carried
out to obtain (where A(3, 2) = 2.0 and A(4, 2) = 3.5455);

1 1.5455 1.6364 1.4545 x1 0.9091

0
1
1.4787 0.6383 x2 0.1064

0
0
0.9574 5.2766 x3 10.2128

0
0
26.6065 20.8085 x4 29.4681

90

(3.35)

Step M5
On equation (3.35), the operation R3/A(3, 3) (where A(3, 3) = 0.9574) is carried out to obtain
the matrix equation shown below:

1 1.5455 1.6364 1.4545 x1 0.9091

0
1
1.4787 0.6383 x2 0.1064

0
0
1
5.5114 x3 10.6672

0
0
26.6065 20.8085 x4 29.4681

(3.36)

Step M6
Lastly, on equation (3.36), the operation (R4 R3 A(4, 3)) (where A(4, 3) = 26.6065) is
carried out to get;

1 1.5455 1.6364 1.4545 x1 0.9091

x 0.1064
0
1
1.4787
0.6383

0
10.6672
x
0
1
5.5114
3

x4 254.3484
0
0
0
125.83

(3.37)

In equation (3.37), the co-efficient matrix has been converted to an upper-triangular matrix.
From the last row of this equation, x4 can be calculated as x4 = 254.3484/125.83 = 2.0214. Back
substituting this value of x4 in the third row of equation (3.37) one can obtain x3 = 10.6672
5.5114 2.0214 = 0.4735. Similarly, substitution of the values of x3 and x4 in the second row
of equation (3.37) yields the of x2 as x2 = 0.1064 + 1.4787 0.4735 0.6383 2.0214 = 0.4837.
Lastly, substituion of x2 , x3 and x4 in the first row of equation (3.37) gives x1 = 0.9091 + 1.5455
0.4837 + 1.6364 0.4735 1.4545 2.0214 = 0.5086.

3.3

Optimal order of elimination

We have seen that the Gaussian Elimination method is quite effective for solving a large set of spare
linear equations without having to invert the co-efficient matrix. Moreover, at every stage, if the
calculations pertaining to Gaussian elimination is carried out only using the non-zero terms, great
saving in the computational burden can be achieved. However, if the elimination process is carried
out in the normal sequence, at any stage of elimination, the original zero-elements may the concerted
into a non-zero element. This is normally termed as fill-in phenomenon. On the other hand, instead
of following the normal sequence, if the elimination process is carried out in an appropriate order,
then the occurrence of fill-in can be avoided to a great extent. A simple example given below
illustrates this point.
In equation (3.38), an initial co-efficient matrix is shown at the left hand side (part a) and the
structure of the co-efficient matrix after step-1 is shown at the right hand side (part b). It is to be
noted that in this equation, only the positions of non-zero terms (denoted by ) and zero terms
(denoted by o) are shown. As can be seen in equation (3.38), after step-1, all the original zero
elements have been converted to non-zero terms (denoted by ), or, in other words, significant
91

level of fill-in has occurred.

1
2
3
4


o o
o o
o o

1
2
3
4

a) Initial A matrix

1
o
o
o

(3.38)

b) A matrix after step 1

Now, if the original co-efficient matrix shown in part (a) of equation (3.38) is re-arranged as
shown in part (a) of equation (3.39), then after step 1, there would be no fill-in as can be observed
in part (b) of equation (3.39).

4
2
3
1

o o
o o
o o

a) Rearranged A matrix

4
2
3
1

1 o o
o o
o o
o

(3.39)

b) Rearranged A matrix after step 1

From the above example, it is apparent that if the rows are eliminated in an optimal order,
then the number of fill-in would be minimum. However, an ideal optimal order is very difficult to
develop and perhaps is impossible. As an alternative, various near optimal ordering schemes have
been developed. Some of them are discussed below:
Scheme 1
In this scheme, before elimination, number the rows of the co-efficient matrix A according to
the number of non-zero, off-diagonal terms. Thus, the rows with only one off-diagonal, non-zero
term are numbered first, those with two non-zero, off- diagonal terms are numbered second and
so on. However, this scheme does not take into account the changes occurring in the co-efficient
matrix during the elimination process. Therefore, this scheme in quite easy and straight forward to
implement.
Scheme 2
In this scheme the rows of the co-efficient matrix A are numbered such that at each step of the
elimination procedure, the row with the fewest number of non-zero off-diagonal terms would be
operated next. If more than one row meets this criterion, then any one row is chosen. Therefore,
this scheme requires the simulation of the elimination procedure to estimate the changes occurring
in the co-efficient matrix in advance. Thus, this method takes longer time as compared to scheme 1
to compute the solution, but is definitely better than scheme 1.
92

Scheme 3
In this scheme, the rows are numbered in such a way so that the row which will introduce fewest nonzero off-diagonal terms would be operated upon next. If more than one row satisfies this criterion,
choose any one row. Again, this scheme also requires the simulation of the elimination process to
study its effects on the co-efficient matrix in advance. Hence, this method also takes longer time
than scheme 1.
Let us now look at another technique for solving a set of linear equations without the need of
inverting the co-efficient matrix, namely, the triangular factorization or LU decomposition.

3.4

Triangular factorization:

In triangular factorization or decomposition method, a square matrix A is expressed as a product


of two triangular matrices as A = LU, where L is a lower triangular matrix and U is an upper
triangular matrix. As an example, let the matrix A be a 4 4 (N = 4) matrix. Upon triangular
factorization (or LU decomposition), the matrix A is represented as A = LU. Or,

a11

a
21

a31

a41

a12
a22
a32
a42

a13
a23
a33
a43



0
0 11 12 13
a14 11 0


0 0 22 23
a24 21 22 0
=

a34 31 32 33 0 0
0 33


a44 41 42 43 44 0
0
0

14

24

34

34

(3.40)

With this decomposition, the equation Ax = b can be written as,

Ax = b or, (LU)x = b or, L(Ux) = b

(3.41)

Ly = b

(3.42)

Or,
In equation (3.42), y = Ux. Expanding equation (3.42) we get,


11 0
0
0 y1 b1



0 y2 b2
21 22 0

=
31 32 33 0 y3 b3


41 42 43 44 y4 b4

(3.43)

From equation (3.43), the intermediate vector y can be calculated as,

b1
11
i1
1
=
[bi ij yj ] ;
ii
j=1

y1 =
yi

93

i = 2, 3, N

(3.44)

Again, expanding the expression y = Ux we get,


14 x1 y1

24 x2 y2
=
34 x3 y3

34 x4 y4

11 12 13

22
23

0
0 33

0
0
0

(3.45)

Now, With the knowledge of the intermediate vector y, from equation (3.45), the solution vector
x can be calculated as,

yn
N N
N
1

[yi ij xj ] ;
=
ii
j=1+1

xN =
xi

i = (N 1), (N 2), 1

(3.46)

We will now look into the basic procedure of obtaining the LU decomposition in the next lecturel.

94

3.4.1

Method of LU decomposition

To solve for the matrices L and U for given matrix A, let us write the i, j th element of equation
(3.40). In general, the element aij can be represented as (from equation (3.40)),

i1 1j + i2 2j + up to appropriate term = aij

(3.47)

The number of terms in the sum of equation (3.47) depends on whether i or j is the smaller
number. We have in fact three distinct cases:

i < j;

i1 1j + i2 2j + + ii ij = aij

(3.48)

i = j;

i1 1j + i2 2j + + ii jj = aij

(3.49)

i > j;

i1 1j + i2 2j + + ij jj = aij

(3.50)

In equations (3.48)-(3.50), total N 2 equations are available for a total of (N 2 + N ) unknown


and (the diagonals terms being repeated twice). As the number of unknown quantities is greater
than the number of equations, we need to specify N of the unknown quantities arbitrarily and then
the remaining unknown quantities can be solved. In fact, it is always possible to take

ii = 1;

i = 1, 2, N

(3.51)

With the condition of equation (3.51), an elegant procedure called Crouts algorithm quite
easily solves for the N 2 unknown and by just rearranging the equations in a certain order.
The algorithm is as follows:
step 1: Set ii = 1 for i = 1, 2, 3 N .
step 2: For each j = 1, 2, 3 N , perform the following operation:
a) For i = 1, 2, 3 N solve for ij as
i1

ij = aij ik kj

(3.52)

k=1

Note: when i = 1, the summation term in equation (3.52) is taken to be zero.


b) For i = j + 1, j + 2, N solve for ij as;
j1
1
[aij ik kj ]
ij =
jj
k=1

(3.53)

These first and second operations both need to be carried out before going to next value of
j.
95

3.4.2

Example of LU decomposition

3 2 7

Decompose the matrix A =


2 3 1 in LU form through Crouts algorithm.

3 4 1

3 2 7
0 11 12 13
11 0

= 21 22 0 0 22 23
Solution: Let A =
2
3
1

3 4 1 31 32 33 0
0

33

Applying Crouts algorithm; 11 = 1; 22 = 1; 33 = 1;


For j = 1;
i = 1 11 = a11 = 3;
1
(a21 0) =
i = 2 21 =
11
1
i = 3 31 =
(a31 0) =
11

2
;
3
3
= 1;
3

For j = 2;

i = 1 12 = a12 = 2;

5
i = 2 22 = a22 21 12 = ;
3
6
1
(a32 31 12 ) = ;
i = 3 32 =
22
5
For j = 3;

i = 1 13 = a13 = 7;
i = 2 23 = a23 21 13 =

11
;
13

8
i = 3 33 = a33 31 13 32 23 = ;
5
3 2 7 1
0 0 3 2
7

= 2/3 1 0 0 5/3 11/3


Hence,
2
3
1

3 4 1 1 6/5 1 0 0 8/5

3.5

Storage schemes for sparse matrices

There are several methods available in the literature for storing a sparse matrix. Some of these
schemes are described here.
96

Random packing:
In this method, every non-zero element of the matrix is stored in a primary array while its row and
column indices are stored in two secondary arrays. As each element in individually identified, the
elements can be stored in a random manner. For example, the sparse matrixes shown in equation
(3.54) are stored in one primary array and two secondary arrays as shown below.

0
0
0 0 0

A = 0
0 2.67 0 3.12

1.25 0.29 0 0 2.31

Primary array (elements)


X =
Secondary array (row indices)
i =
Secondary array (column indices) j =

{0.29
{3
{2

3.12
2
5

(3.54)

-1.25 2.67
3
2
1
3

2.31 0}
3
0}
5
0}

In the above, the zero at the end of each array denotes the termination of the array.

Systematic packing:
In case the elements of a sparse matrix are read or constructed or sorted in a systematic order, then
there is no need to adopt both row and column indices for each element. Instead some alternative,
more efficient schemes can be adopted as described below.
a) The use of row address:
In this scheme, the index of first non-zero element in each row is specified in a separate integer
array. As an example, for the matrix A in equation (3.54) the elements can be represented as,
Real array (elements) = {2.67
Integer array JA
=
{3
Integer array IST
=
{1

3.12
5
1

-1.25
1
3

0.29
2
6

2.31}
5}
}

In this case, the array of row address IST has been constructed such that the number of non-zero
elements in row i is IST(I+1)-IST(I). Thus, for a matrix with m rows, the array IST will have
(m+1) entries. For example, from the array IST, the number of non-zero elements in 1st row of
the matrix A is IST(2) - IST(1) = 1 - 1 = 0, which is indeed true as observed from equation (3.54).
Similarly, the array IST indicates that the number of non-zero elements in 2nd row of the matrix A
is IST(3) - IST(2) = 3 - 1 = 2 and from the first two elements of the array JA, these two elements
are located at columns 3 and 5 of the matrix whereas the elements themselves are given by the first
two elements of the real array (2.67 and 3.12) (which is again true from equation (3.54)). In a similar
way, the elements and the locations of the elements in the third row of the matrix A can easily be
identified from the above three arrays. Moreover, please note that, as the number of rows in the
matrix A is 3, the total number of entries in array IST is 4.

97

b) The use of dummy variables:


In this scheme, the integer array IST is not used. Instead, dummy variables are introduced in
the array JA itself to indicate the beginning of each row and the end of the matrix. For example,
a zero entry (except the last one) in the array JA could indicate the presence of dummy variables
and the dummy variables itself could specify the row number. Moreover, the non-zero elements
would indicate the column number of the elements. Also, as before, the zero at the end of the array
indicates the termination of the list. Hence the matrix A of equation (3.54) in this scheme looks like
Real array (elements)
Integer array JA

= {2 2.67
= {0
3

3.12 3
5
0

-1.25
1

0.29
2

2.31 0}
5
0}

c) Compound identifiers:
In the random packing scheme it in possible to reduce the storage requirement by combining the
two indices for each element so that these can be held in one integer storage. A suitable compound
identifier could be (n i + j) where n is an integer higher than the number of columns in the matrix
and (i, j) denote the position of the non-zero element in the matrix. For example, the matrix A in
equation (3.54) could look like
Real array (elements)
Integer array JA

=
=

{2.67
{2003

3.12 -1.25
2005 3001

0.29
3002

2.31
3005

0}
9999}

In the above, n has been chosen to be equal to 1000. Also, in the real array, the entry zero
indicates the end of the array and the corresponding entry in the integer array is 9999 (to signifies
the end of the integer array).
However, unless compound identifiers yield necessary or highly desirable storage saving, it should
not be used because of the following reasons:
i) Extra programming would be required to interpret the identifiers correctly.
ii) It should not be used for matrices whose order is so large that integer register overflow
results.
d) The use of mixed arrays:
It is possible to use a single array to store both the non-zero elements of the matrix and the
identifiers. For example, the matrix A in equation (3.54) could be stored as,
Real array (B)

{-2

2.67

3.12

-3

-1.25

0.29

2.31

0}

In the above scheme, each non-zero element is preceded by its column number and each non-zero
row is preceded by the negative of the corresponding row number.
With this discussion, we are now at the and of our study of sparse linear systems. From the next
lecture, we will start the discussion of short circuit analysis methods.

98

Module 4
Short Circuit analysis
4.1

BUS formation without mutual coupling between eleZ


ments

For a network with m buses and a reference bus, one can write a relation between bus currents
and bus voltages as
BUS ] [V
BUS ]
[IBUS ] = [Y
(4.1)
Where,

IBUS is (m 1) bus current injection vector


BUS is (m 1) bus voltage vector
V
BUS is (m m) bus admittence matrix
Y
equation (4.1) can also be written as

BUS ] [IBUS ]
BUS ] = [Z
[V

(4.2)

Where,

BUS is m m bus impedance matrix and is given by,


Z

BUS ] = [Y
BUS ]
[Z

From equation (4.2) for the ith bus one can write

Vi = Zi1 I1 + Zi2 I2 + Zii Ii + + Zim Im

(4.3)

ij can be written as
From equation (4.3), Z
Vi
Zij =
Ij Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m,
99

(4.4)
j

Vi
Zii =
Ii

(4.5)

Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m, i

BUS matrix
Following points should be noted for the Z
ij is the off-diagonal element of Z
BUS matrix and is called the
Z
impedance between ith and j th bus.
ii is the diagonal element of Z
BUS matrix and is called the
Z
impedance of ith bus.

open-circuit transfer

open-circuit driving point

BUS matrix is symmetrical, then the matrix Z


BUS is also symmetrical i.e. Zik = Zki .
If the Y
BUS matrix of
Since in a power network each bus is connected to very few other buses,the Y
the network has large number of zero elements and is therefore, sparse in nature. The ZBUS ,
matrix on the other hand, is invariably a full matrix.
BUS matrix of a network can be found out by inverting the Y
BUS matrix of the network.
The Z
BUS matrix
This is not an efficient method as every time there is a modification in the network, the Y
BUS matrix.
is modified and inversion has to be done again to obtain the modified the Z
BUS building algorithm overcomes these problems. It avoids the inversion
A step-by-step Z
BUS .
process and network modifications are easily incorporated in the existing Z
Few terms need to be defined before the step by step process can be explained. These are :
Graph : The graph of a network describes the geometrical structure of the network showing
the interconnections of network elements.
Tree : A tree of a graph is a connected sub graph that connects all the nodes without forming
a closed path or a loop. A graph can have a number of distinct trees.
Branches : The elements of a tree are called branches. The number of branches b of a tree
with n nodes, including reference, is given by

b=n1

(4.6)

Links : The elements of a graph not included in the tree of the graph are called links. Each
link is associated with a loop. If e is the number of elements in a graph, then the number of
links ` is given by
` = eb = en+1
(4.7)
The above definitions are explained with the help of illustrations as shown below :
Fig. 4.1 is a single line diagram of a power system. It has 4 buses, bus(1) to bus(4) and six
elements element e1 to element e6 . In this figure, bus(0) is taken as the reference bus.
Fig. 4.2 shows the graph of the network depicting the interconnection of the elements and the
reference node.
100

Figure 4.1: Single Line Diagram of a Power System

Figure 4.2: A graph of the Power system of Fig. 4.1


A tree of the graph of Fig. 4.2 is shown in Fig. 4.3. The branches and the links have been shown
with solid lines and dotted lines respectively.
Following points should be noted from Fig. 4.3 :
The total number of nodes (including reference node) is 5 (i.e. n = 5)
The number of branches is b = n 1 = 5 1 = 4 . As can be as in Fig. 4.3 where
101

Figure 4.3: A tree of the graph of Fig. 4.2

e1 , e2 , e5 , e6 , are such a set of branches that form a tree of the graph.


The total number of elements in the graph is e = 6 .
The number of links is ` = e n + 1 = 6 5 + 1 = 2. The two links in the graph are e3 and
e4 shown with dotted lines in Fig. 4.3.

Figure 4.4: Partial network with m buses


The bus impedance matrix is built up starting with a branch connected to the reference and
subsequently the elements are added one by one till all the nodes and elements are considered. Let
102

BUS matrix for a partial network with m buses and a reference bus 0, as
us assume that the Z
shown in Fig. 4.4, exists.
The bus voltages and bus currents for the partial network satisfy the relation
m
BUS
m
m
[V
] = [Z
BUS ] [IBUS ]

(4.8)

Where,
m
BUS
V
is m 1 bus voltage vector

Im
BUS is m 1 bus current injection vector
m
Z
BUS is m m bus impedence matrix of the partial network

BUS , one element at a time is added to the partial network, till all the elements are
To build Z
added to the network. The added element may be a branch or a link and hence the four possible
element additions to a partial network are:
a. Addition of a branch between a new node and the reference
b. Addition of a branch between a new node and an existing node
c. Addition of a link between an existing node and the reference
d. Addition of a link between two existing nodes
Let us now discuss these four cases one-by-one in detail.

4.1.1

Addition of a branch between a new node and the reference node


(case 1):

Fig. 4.5 shows the addition of a branch between a new node q and the reference 0.The addition of
BUS to (m + 1) (m + 1) with the addition
a new node to the partial network increases the size of Z
of a new row and a new column corresponding to the new node q, Let the impedance of this branch
be zq0 . The new network equation can be written as:

V1 Z11


V2 Z21




V Z
p p1
=



Vm Zm1




Vq Zq1

Z12 Z1p Z1m


Z22 Z2p Z2m
Zp2 Zpp Zpm
Zm2 Zmp Zmm

Zq2 Zqp Zqm
103

Z1q I1

Z2q I2



Zpq Ip



Zmq Im


Zqq Iq

(4.9)

Figure 4.5: Addition of a branch between a new node and the reference

BUS . Only the elements


The addition of branch does not change the elements of the original matrix Z
of the added new row and column corresponding to q th bus need to be calculated. Further,since the
qi = Ziq , i = 1, 2, m.
power system elements are linear and bilateral, Z
Now since,

Vq

Zqq =
Iq Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m
a current source of Iq = 1 p.u is connected to the q th bus, with all the others buses open, and the
voltage of q th bus (Vq ) is computed, as shown in Fig. 4.6.
From Fig. 4.6 one gets Vq = zq0 Iq , and thus with Iq = 1 p.u.

Vq
Zqq =
= zqo
Iq Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m,
qi , a current source Ii = 1 p.u. is connected between ith bus and the reference
For finding out Z
bus with all other buses open circuited as shown in Fig. 4.7.
From Fig. 4.7 , Vq = 0, and hence with Ii = 1 p.u.

Vq
Zqi =
Ii Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m,

=0

q1 , Zq2 , Zmq and Z1q , Z2q , Zqm are equal


This implies that all the off-diagonal elements Z
to zero.
Bus matrix after addition of an element between the new bus q and the
Hence, the modified Z
104

qq for Case 1
Figure 4.6: Calculation of Z

reference bus 0 is given as,

Z11

Z21

BUS = Zp1
Z

Zm1

4.1.2

Z12 Z1p Z1m


Z22 Z2p Z2m
Zp2 Zpp Zpm
Zm2 Zmp Zmm
0 0 0

zqo
0
0

(4.10)

Addition of a branch between a new node and an existing node


(Case 2):

Let a branch with impedance zpq be connected between an existing node p and a new node q as
Bus matrix increases by one to (m+1)(m+1) due
shown in Fig. 4.8. In this case also, the size of Z
to the addition of a new node q to the network. The modified network equations can be written
105

qi for case 1
Figure 4.7: Calculation of Z

as:

V1


V2




V
p
=



Vm



Vq

Z11
Z21

Zp1

Zm1

Zq1

Z12 Z1p Z1m


Z22 Z2p Z2m
Zp2 Zpp Zpm
Zm2 Zmp Zmm

Zq2 Zqp Zqm

I1


I2




Zpq Ip



Zmq Im


Zqq Iq
Z1q
Z2q

(4.11)

m
Even after the addition of branch p-q, the original matrix Z
Bus remains unchanged. Only the
additional elements corresponding to the q th row and column need to be calculated.
qq one can write
For calculating Z
Vq
Zqq =
Iq Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m
qq current source of Iq = 1 p.u is connected to the q th bus, with all the others buses
To evaluate Z
open circuited, and the voltage of q th bus Vq is computed, as shown in Fig. 4.9. From Fig. 4.9 with
106

Figure 4.8: Addition of a branch between an existing node p and a new node q

Iq = 1 p.u. and Ik = 0, k = 1, 2, , m one can write,


V1 = Z1q Iq = Z1q

V2 = Z2q Iq = Z2q

Vp = Zpq Iq = Zpq

Vm = Zmq Iq = Zmq

Vq = Zqq Iq = Zqq

(4.12)

From the Fig. 4.10, the voltages Vp and Vq can be related as

Vq = Vp vpq = Zpq Iq zpqipq = Zpq + zpq

(4.13)

pq and Vq = Zqq .
Because, from the Fig. 4.10 , ipq = Iq = 1 pu and from equation (4.12) Vp = Z
Thus,
Zqq = Zpq + zpq
(4.14)
qi one can write
For calculating Z
Vq
Zqi =
Ii

Ik = 0; k = 1, 2, m, i

qi a current source of I1 = 1 p.u is connected to the ith bus, with all the others
Hence, to compute Z
107

qq
Figure 4.9: Calculation of Z

Figure 4.10: Relation between Vp and Vq


buses open circuited, and the bus voltage Vi is computed for all the buses, as shown in Fig. 4.11.
From equation (4.11) one gets

V1 = Z1i Ii = Z1i

V2 = Z2i Ii = Z2i

Vp = Zpi Ii = Zpi

Vm = Zmi Ii = Zmi

Vq = Zqi Ii = Zqi

108

qi for case 2
Figure 4.11: Calculation of Z
From Fig. 4.11, Vq = Vp as the current in the branch p q is zero. Hence, from the above equations
one gets
(4.15)
Zqi = Zpi ; i = 1, 2, m

Bus matrix after addition of an element between an existing bus p the


Hence, the modified Z
new bus q is given as,

Z11

Z21

BUS = Zp1
Z

Zm1

Zp1

Z12 Z1p Z1m


Z22 Z2p Z2m
Zp2 Zpp Zpm
Zm2 Zmp Zmm
Zp2 Zpp Zpm

Zpp

Zmp

Zpq + zqp
Z1p
Z2p

(4.16)

So far in this lecture, we have considered the cases of addition of branches only. In the next lecture
we will consider the case of addition of links.

109

4.1.3

Addition of a link between an existing node and the reference


node (Case 3):

When an element is connected between an existing node and the reference, it creates a loop and
thus, the addition of this element is equivalent to the addition of a link. This will not generate any
Bus matrix remains unchanged. However, all the elements are
new node and the size of modified Z
modified and need to be recalculated. Let the added element,with an impedance of zqo , be connected
between an existing node q and the reference node 0 as shown in the Fig. 4.12. I` is the current

Figure 4.12: Addition of a link between an existing node q and the reference
through the link as shown in the Fig. 4.12. This current modifies the current injected into q th bus
from Iq to Iq I` . The modified network equations can be written as,

V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 + + Z1q (Iq I` ) + + Z1m Im

Vq = Zq1 I1 + Zq2 I2 + + Zqq (Iq I` ) + + Zqm Im

Vm = Zm1 I1 + Zm2 I2 + + Zmq (Iq I` ) + + Zmm Im

(4.17)

Vq = zqo I`

(4.18)

Also
Substuting Vq from the equation (4.17) into the equation (4.18) one can write

Zq1 I1 + Zq2 I2 + + Zqq (Iq I` ) + + Zqm Im = zqo I`


110

or

0 = Zq1 I1 Zq2 I2 Zqq Iq + Zqm Im + (Zqq + zqo )I`

(4.19)

Equations equation (4.17) and equation (4.19) together form the set of (m + 1) simultaneous
network equations which can be expressed in matrix form as:

V1


V2




V
q
=



Vm

Z11 Z12
Z21 Z22

Zq1 Zq2

Zm1 Zm2

Zq1 Zq2

Z1q
Z2q

Z1m
Z2m

Zqq

Zqm

Zmq Zmm

Zqq Zqm

Z1q

Z2q

Zqq

Zmq

Zqq + zqo

I1


I2




I
q




Im



I`

(4.20)

Bus matrix
The link current I` has to be eliminated and hence, the last row and column of modified Z
have to be eliminated. The partitioned matrix relation of equation (4.20) can be written in compact
form as:
m
(m)
[VBus ]

(m)
m
Z

Bus

=
[
T

(1)
[Z]

m
IBus


[Z]

Z``


I`

(1)

(4.21)

where,

= [Z1q Z2q Zqq Zmm ]T


[Z]

From equation (4.20) one can write

T [Im

0 = [Z]
Bus ] + Z`` I`
or,

T [Im ]
[Z]
Bus
I` =

Z``

(4.22)

From equation (4.21) one can also write,


m

Bus
m

[V
] = [Z
Bus ][IBus ] + [Z]I`

(4.23)

Substituting I` from equation (4.22) into equation (4.23) one obtains,

T
[Z][
Z]
m
Bus
m
] [Im
[V
] = [[Z
]

Bus
Bus ]
Z``
111

(4.24)

Hence,
m
Bus
Bus ][Im
[V
] = [Z
Bus ]

(4.25)

T
[Z][
Z]
Bus ] = [[Z
m
[Z
]

]
Bus
Z``

(4.26)

where

Bus ] matrix is an m m matrix i.e. the size of the [Z


Bus ] matrix
It is worth observing that the [Z
does not increase when a link is added to the partial network of m buses as no new node is created.

4.1.4

Addition of a link between two existing nodes (Case 4):

Let an element with impedance zpq be connected between two existing nodes p and q. This is an
addition of a link as it forms a loop encompassing nodes p and q as shown in Fig. 4.13. Let I`

Figure 4.13: Addition of a link between two existing nodes p and q

be the current through the link as shown in the Fig. 4.13. This link current changes the injected
current at pth node from Ip to (Ip I` ) , while the injected current at node q th is modified from Iq
to (Iq + I` ). The modified network equations can be written as:
112


V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 + + Z1p (Ip Il ) + + Z1q (Iq + I` ) + + Z1m Im

Vp = Zp1 I1 + Zp2 I2 + + Zpp (Ip Il ) + + Zpq (Iq + I` ) + + Zpm Im

Vq = Zq1 I1 + Zq2 I2 + + Zqp (Ip Il ) + + Zqq (Iq + I` ) + + Zqm Im

Vm = Zm1 I1 + Zm2 I2 + + Zmp (Ip Il ) + + Zmq (Iq + I` ) + + Zmm Im

(4.27)

Also from Fig. 4.13, the relation between Vp and Vq in terms of I` and zpq can be written as

Vp Vq = zpq I`

(4.28)

0 = Vp + Vq + zpq I`

(4.29)

or
Substituting Vp and Vq from the equation (4.27) into the equation (4.29) in the following relation
is obtained:

0 =(Zq1 Zp1 )I1 + (Zq2 Zp2 )I2 + + (Zqp Zpp )Ip + (Zqq Zpq )Iq + + (Zqm Zpm )Im
+ (Zpp + Zqq 2Zpq + zpq )I`
(4.30)
Equations (4.27) and (4.30) form a set of (m + 1) simultaneous equation which can be written in
matrix form as:

V1


V2




V
q
=



Vm

Z11
Z21

Zq1

Zm1

Z`1

Z12 Z1q Z1m


Z22 Z2q Z2m
Zq2 Zqq Zqm
Zm2 Zmq Zmm

Z`2 Z`q Z`m

Where,

Z1` = Z`1 = (Z1q Z1p ) ; Z2` = Z`2 = (Z2q Z2p )


Zq` = Z`q = (Zqq Zqp ) ; Zm` = Z`m = (Zmq Zmp )
also
and
113

I1


I2



Zq` Iq




Zm` Im


Z`` I`
Z1`
Z2`

(4.31)

Z`` = Zqq + Zpp 2Zpq + zpq .

For eliminating the link current I` equation (4.31) can be written in the compact form as:

m
(m)
VBus

(m)
m
Z

[ BusT

(1)
[Z]

m
IBus

[Z]

Z``


I`

(1)

(4.32)

where,

= [(Z1q Z1p )(Zpq Zpp )(Zqq Zqp )(Zmq Zmp )]T


[Z]
Bus ] matrix, after the elemination of the link current I` , can be
Now using equation (4.26), the [Z
Bus ] is still (m m) in size as no new node has been
determined. It is worth noting that the [Z
created.
Bus ] as follows:
Summarizing the step-by-step procedure for building the [Z
Step 1: Draw the graph of the network and select a tree of the graph. Identify the branches and
the links of the graph. A tree of a graph with branches and links is shown in Fig. 4.14.

Figure 4.14: Tree of a graph

Bus ] matrix building


Step 2: Select a branch connected to the reference node to initiate the [Z
process. From Fig. 4.14, it is evident that the first branch selected could be either 1 or 3 or 4 as
these are the only branches connected to the reference node. Let the branch 1 be selected as the
starting branch and zpo be the impedance of the branch then
(m)
Bus

(1)

= (1) [ zp0 ]

Step 3: Pick up another element from the graph. It should either be connected to an existing node
or the reference node. Never select an element connected to two new nodes as it will be isolated from
Bus ] matrix becoming infinite.
the existing partial network and this will result in the elements of [Z
Bus ] matrix building process, if
For instance, with reference to Fig. 4.14, in the next step of [Z
114

element 5 is next added to the partial network as shown in Fig. 4.15, the resultant network is
disjointed. This is an incorrect choice. The proper choice could be any one of the elements 2 or 3 or
4 or 6.

Figure 4.15: Selecting a wrong element in the step-by-step process

m
If the bus impedance matrix of a partial network with m-nodes, [Z
Bus ], is known, then depending
on whether the added (m + 1)th element is a branch or a link, the following steps are to be followed
Bus ] matrix:
to obtain the new [Z
(a) If the added element is a branch between a new node q and the reference node with an impedance
Bus ] matrix will increase by one and the new matrix is given as :
zqo , then the size of the new [Z

(1)

Bus =
Z

(m)
(q)

(1)

()

(m)

(q)

Z11 Z1m 0

Zm1 Zmm 0
0
0
0 zq0

(b) If the added element is a branch between an existing node p and a new node q with an
impedance zpq , then a new row and column corresponding to the new node q is added to the
m
existing [Z
Bus ] matrix. The new matrix is calculated as follows:

(1)

(p)

Bus =
Z

(m)

(q)

(1)

(p)

(m)

Z11 Z1p Z1m

Zp1 Zpp Zpm

Zm1 Zmp Zmm


Zp1 Zpp Zpm
115

(q)

Zpp + zpq
Z1p

Zpp

Zmp

(c) If the added element is a link between an existing node q and the reference node with an
impedance zqo , then no new node is added to the network. A two-step procedure has to be
followed to find the new bus impedance matrix.

m
In the first step, a column and a row will be temporarily added to existing [Z
Bus ] matrix as:

(1)

(temp)
Z
=
Bus

(q)

(m)
(`)

(1)

Z11

Zq1

Zm1
Zq1

(q)

Z1q

Zqq

Zmq
Zqq

(m)

(`)

Z1q

Zqq

Zmq
Z``

Z1m

Zqm

Zmm
Zqm

where,

Z`` = Zqq + zq0


The additional row and column have to be deleted so that [ZBus ] matrix is (m m) in size.
The elimination process is carried out using

Bus ] = [[Z
m
[Z
Bus ]

T
[Z][
Z]
]]
Z``

where,

= [Z1q Z2q Zqq Zmq ]T


[Z]
(d) If the added element is a link between two existing nodes p and q with an impedance zpq ,
then again the two step procedure as outlined in (step c) is to be followed. The temporary
(temp)
impedance matrix Z
is calculated as:
Bus
(1)

(1)

(p)

(q)

(m)
(`)

Z11

Zp1

Zq1

Zm1

(Zq1 Zp1 )

(p)

(q)

(m)

Z1p

Z1q

Z1m

Zpp

Zpq

Zpm

Zqp

Zqq

Zqm

Zmp
Zmq

Zmm
(Zqp Zpp ) (Zqq Zpq ) (Zqm Zpm )

where,

Z`` = Zpp + Zqq 2Zpq + zpq


116

(`)

(Z1q Z1p )

(Zpq Zpp )

(Zqq Zqp )

(Zmq Zmp )

Z``

Next eliminate the added row and column ` using the expression:

Bus ] = [[Z
m
[Z
Bus ]

T
[Z][
Z]
]
Z``

where,

= [(Z1q Z1p )(Zpq Zpp )(Zqq Zqp )(Zmq Zmp )]


[Z]

Step 4: Repeat Step 3 till all the elements are considered.


In the next lecture, we will be looking at an example of [ZBus ] matrix building algorithm.

117

4.2

Example of [ZBus] matrix building algorithm

The single line diagram of a power system is shown in the Fig. 4.16. The line impedances in pu are
Bus ] matrix formulation is explained as given below:
also given. The step-by-step procedure for [Z

Figure 4.16: Single Line Diagram of the Power System for the example
Preliminary Step: The graph of the network and a tree is shown in Fig. 4.17. Elements 1,2,4
and 5 are the tree branches while 3, 6 and 7 are the links.

Figure 4.17: Graph and a tree of the network of Fig. 4.17

Bus ] matrix building algorithm starts with element 1, which is


Step 1: The step-by-step [Z
a tree branch connected between nodes 1 and the reference node 0 and has an impedance of
z10 = j0.10 pu. This is shown in the accompanying figure ,Fig. 4.18.
118

Figure 4.18: Partial network of Step 1

Bus ] matrix is
The resulting [Z
(1)

(1)

Bus = (1) [ z10 ] = (1) [ j0.10 ]


Z
Step 2: Next, the element 2 connected between node 2 (q = 2) and the reference node 0 is
selected. This element has an impedance of z20 = j0.10 p.u. As this is the addition of a tree branch
Bus ] matrix. This addition is illustrated in Fig. 4.19.
it will add a new node 2 to the existing [Z

Figure 4.19: Partial network of Step 2

The new bus impedance matrix is given by :


(1)

(2)

(1)

(2)

0
Bus = (1) [ j0.10 0 ] = (1) [ j0.1
Z
]
(2)
0
z20
(2)
0
j0.10
Step 3: Element 3 connected between existing nodes, node 1 (p = 1) and node 2 (q = 2),
having an impedance of z12 = j0.20 p.u. is added to the partial network, as shown in Fig. 4.20.
Since this is an addition of a link to the network a two step procedure is to be followed. In the
119

Figure 4.20: Partial network of Step 3

first step a new row and column is added to the matrix as given below :
(1)

(1)

(temp)
Z
= (2)
Bus
(`)

(`)

(2)

j0.10
0.0
(Z12 Z11 )

0.0
j0.10
(Z22 Z21 )


(Z21 Z11 ) (Z22 Z12 )
Z``

(1)

= (2)

(`)

(1)

(2)

(`)

j0.10 0.0 j0.10

0.0 j0.10 j0.10

j0.10 j0.10 j0.40

where,

Z`` = Z11 + Z22 2Z12 + z20 = j0.10 + j0.10 0.0 + j0.20 = j0.40 p.u.
Bus ] matrix as given below:
Next this new row and column is eliminated to restore the size of [Z

Bus ] = [j0.10 0.0 ]


[Z
0.0 j0.10

j0.10
[
] [j0.10 j0.10]
j0.10
j0.40

Hence, the impedance matrix after the addition of element 3 is found out to be :

(1)

Bus ] =
[Z

(1)
(2)

(2)

j0.075 j0.025
]
j0.025 j0.075

Step 4: The element 4 , which is added next, is connected between an existing node, node 2
(p = 2) and a new node, node 3 (q = 3). The impedance of this element is z23 = j0.30 p.u. and
it is a tree branch hence, a new node, node 3 is added to the partial network. This addition, shown
Bus ] to (3 3).
in Fig. 4.21, thus increases the size of [Z
120

Figure 4.21: Partial network of Step 4

The new impedance matrix can be calculated as:


(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)
Z
(3)

(2)

(3)

j0.075 j0.025
Z12

j0.025 j0.0.075
Z22


Z21
Z22
Z22 + z23

(1)

= (2)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.075 j0.025 j0.025

j0.025 j0.0.075 j0.075

j0.025 j0.075 j0.375

Step 5: Element 5 is added next to the existing partial network. This is a tree branch connected
between an existing node, node 3 (p = 3) and a new node, node 4 (q = 4). This is illustrated
in Fig. 4.22.

Bus ] increases to (4 4). The


Since a new node is added to the partial network, the size of [Z
impedance of the new element is z34 = j0.15 p.u. The new bus impedance matrix is :
(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)
Z
(3)

(4)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075 j0.025 j0.025


Z31

j0.025 j0.075 j0.075


Z32

j0.025 j0.075 j0.375


Z33


Z13
Z23
Z33 Z33 + z34

(1)

(2)

=
(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075
j0.025
j0.025
j0.025

j0.025
j0.075
j0.075
j0.075

j0.025
j0.075
j0.375
j0.375

j0.025
j0.075
j0.375
j0.525

Step 6: Next,the element 6 connected between two existing nodes node 1 (p = 1) and node
4 (q = 4) is added to the network, as shown in the Fig. 4.23. The impedance of this element
is z23 = j0.25 p.u. As this is a link addition, the two step procedure is used. The bus impedance
121

Figure 4.22: Partial network of Step 5

Figure 4.23: Partial network of Step 6


matrix is modified by adding a new row and column as given below:
(1)

(1)
(temp)
Bus

(2)

= (3)
(4)
(`)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075
j0.025
j0.025
j0.025

j0.025
j0.075
j0.075
j0.075

j0.025
j0.075
j0.375
j0.375

j0.025
j0.075
j0.375
j0.525


(Z41 Z11 ) (Z42 Z12 ) (Z43 Z13 ) (Z44 Z14 )

122

(`)

(Z14 Z11 )
(Z24 Z21 )
(Z34 Z31 )
(Z44 Z41 )
Z``

Bus ] matrix elements in the last row and column the


Substituting the values of appropriate [Z
intermediate impedance matrix is:

(1)
(temp)
Bus

(2)

= (3)
(4)
(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.075
j0.025
j0.25
j0.025
j0.05

j0.025
j0.075
j0.075
j0.075
0.05

j0.025
j0.075
j0.375
j0.375
j0.35

(`)

j0.025 j0.05

j0.075 j0.05

j0.375 j0.35
j0.525 j0.50

j0.50 j0.80

where,

Z`` = Z44 + Z11 2Z14 + z14 = j0.075 + j0.525 2 j0.025 + j0.25 = j0.80 p.u.
The additional row and column ` are to be eliminated to restore the impedance matrix size to
Bus ] matrix after the addition of element 6 is calculated as:
(m m), and the [Z

j0.075

Bus ] = j0.025
[Z
j0.25

j0.025

j0.025
j0.075
j0.075
j0.075

j0.025
j0.075
j0.375
j0.375

j0.05

j0.50

j0.35 [j0.05 j0.05 j0.35 j0.50]


j0.025

j0.50
j0.075

j0.80
j0.375

j0.525

Hence,
(1)

Bus = (2)
Z
(3)
(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719
j0.0281
j0.0469
j0.0563

j0.0281
j0.0719
j0.0531
j0.0437

j0.0469
j0.0531
j0.2219
j0.1562

j0.0563
j0.0437
j0.1562
j0.2125

Step 7: Finally the element 7 connected between two existing nodes node 2 (p = 2) and node 4
(q = 4) is added to the partial network of step 6. The impedance of this element is is z23 = j0.40
pu. This is also a link addition, as shown in Fig. 4.24 and hence the two step precedure will be
Bus ] matrix. In the first step the Z
(temp)
is calculated after a row and a
followed to obtain the [Z
Bus

123

Figure 4.24: Partial network of Step 7

Bus as follows:
column are added to the exiting Z
(1)

(1)
(2)

(temp)
Z
= (3)
Bus
(4)
(`)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719
j0.0281
j0.0469
j0.0563

j0.0281
j0.0719
j0.0531
j0.0437

j0.0469
j0.0531
j0.2219
j0.1562

j0.0563
j0.0437
j0.1562
j0.2125


(Z41 Z21 ) (Z42 Z22 ) (Z43 Z23 ) (Z44 Z24 )

(`)

(Z14 Z12 )
(Z24 Z22 )
(Z34 Z32 )
(Z44 Z42 )
Z``

Substituing the values of the elements of impedance matrix one gets:

(1)
(temp)
Bus

(2)

= (3)
(4)
(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.0719
j0.02810
j0.0469
j0.0563
j0.281

j0.0281
j0.0719
j0.0531
j0.0437
j0.281

j0.0469
j0.0531
j0.2219
j0.1562
j0.1031

(4)

(`)

j0.0563 j0.281

j0.0437 j0.281

j0.1562 j1031
j0.2125 j0.1688

j0.1688 j0.5969

where,

Z`` = Z22 + Z44 2Z24 + z24 = j0.0719 + j0.2125 2 j0.0563 + j0.40 = j0.5969 p.u.
The additional row and column ` are to be eliminated to restore the impedance matrix size to
124

Bus ] after the addition of element 7 is calculated as:


(m m), and [Z

j0.0719

Bus ] = j0.0281
[Z
j0.469

j0.0563

j0.0281
j0.0719
j0.0531
j0.0437

j0.0469
j0.0531
j0.2219
j0.1562

j0.0281

j0.0281

j0.1031 [j0.0281 j0.0281 j0.1031 j0.1688]


j0.0563

j0.1688
j0.0437

j0.5969
j0.1562

j0.2125

Hence,
(1)

Bus = (2)
Z
(3)
(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0705
j0.0295
j0.0420
j0.0483

j0.0295
j0.0705
j0.0580
j0.0517

j0.0420
j0.0580
j0.2041
j0.1271

j0.0483
j0.0517
j0.1271
j0.1648

Bus ] matrix is a (4 4) matrix, as the network has 4 nodes and


As can be seen that the final [Z
a reference node. As there are 7 elements is the network, 7 steps are required for the formation of
Bus ] matrix.
[Z

4.2.1

Bus ] :
Modifications in the existing [Z

Bus ] matrix is known, some modification such as line


If in an existing network, for which the [Z
Bus ] matrix can be easily modified
removal or line impedance alteration is carried out then the [Z
without any need of reconstructing the matrix from scratch.
Bus matrix be the final bus impedance matrix given for the network of
As an example, let the Z
Fig. 4.16. Next, let the element 7 connecting nodes 2 and 4 be removed from the network and it
Bus .
is required to find the modified Z
Removal of element 7 is equivalent to setting its impedance z24 to infinite. This can be obtained
org
add
by connecting a fictitious element z24
in parallel to the existing element z24
such that the resultant
result
impedance z24
is infinite i.e.

1
result
24

1
1
1
+ add =
=0
z
z24

org
24

or
org
add
z24
=
z24
= j0.40 p.u.
org
add
Hence, by adding an element z24
= j0.4 p.u. in parallel to z24
the removal of line between nodes
2 and 4 can be simulated. The new added fictitious element is a link addition between the two nodes,
p = 2 and q = 4 and is shown in Fig. 4.25 . Hence, this will require a two-step procedure. The
addition of the fictitious element 8 , which is a link, will introduce a temporary row and column.

125

Figure 4.25: Adding a link to simulate the removal of element 7

(temp)
The Z
is given as:
Bus
(1)

(1)
(temp)
Bus

(2)

= (3)
(4)
(`)

(3)

(2)

(`)

(4)

j0.0705
j0.0295
j0.0420
j0.0483

j0.0295
j0.0705
j0.0580
j0.0517

j0.0420
j0.0580
j0.2041
j0.1271

j0.0483
j0.0517
j0.1271
j0.1648

(Z41 Z21 ) (Z42 Z22 ) (Z43 Z23 ) (Z44 Z24 )

(Z14 Z12 )
(Z24 Z22 )
(Z34 Z32 )
(Z44 Z42 )
Z``

Substituting the appropriate values one gets:

(1)
(2)

(temp)
Z
= (3)
Bus
(4)
(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.0705 j0.0295
j0.0295 j0.0705
j0.0420 j0.0580
j0.0483 j0.0517
j0.0188 j0.0188

j0.0420
j0.0580
j0.2041
j0.1271
j0.0691

(4)

(`)

j0.0483 j0.0188

j0.0517 j0.0188

j0.1271 j0.0691
j0.1648 j0.1131

j0.1131 j0.2681

where,
add
Z`` = Z22 + Z44 2Z24 + z24
= j0.0705 + j0.1648 2 j0.0483 + (j0.40) = j0.2681 p.u.

126

The additional row and column is eliminated in the following step:

j0.0705

Bus ] = j0.0295
[Z
j0.0420

j0.0483

j0.0295
j0.0705
j0.0580
j0.0517

j0.0420
j0.0580
j0.2041
j0.1271

j0.0188

j0.0188

j0.0691 [j0.0188 j0.0188 j0.0691 j0.1131]


j0.0483

j0.1131
j0.0517

j0.2681
j0.1271

j0.1648

Thus, the final impedance matrix after the removal of element 7 is :

(1)

Bus = (2)
Z
(3)
(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

j0.0719
j0.0281
j0.0469
j0.0563

j0.0281
j0.0719
j0.0531
j0.0437

j0.0469
j0.0531
j0.2219
j0.1562

j0.0563
j0.0437
j0.1562
j0.2125

Bus matrix is identical to the Z


Bus matrix obtained in step 6 of the previous
The obtained Z
example, which is the impdance matrix of the network before the addition of element 7.
Bus matrix building algorithm without any presence of mutually
So far we have considered the Z
coupled elements. In the next lecture, we will take into account the presence of mutually coupled
Bus matrix.
elements while forming the Z

127

4.3

BUS formation considering mutual coupling between


Z
elements

m
Assume that the bus impedance matrix [Z
BUS ] is known for a partial network of m nodes and
a reference node. The bus voltage and bus current relation for the partial network, shown in Fig.
4.26, can be expressed as:

Figure 4.26: Partial Network with m-buses

BUS ] = [Z
m

[V
BUS ] [IBUS ]

(4.33)

In equation (4.33),

BUS is (m 1) bus voltage vector


V
IBUS is (m 1) bus current vector
m
Z
BUS is (m m) bus impedance matrix
The new added element p-q may be a branch or may be a link as discussed in the previous
algorithm.
128

4.3.1

Addition of a branch to this partial network:

The performance equation of the network with an added branch p-q is


V1 Z11

V2 Z21





Vp = Zp1




Vm Zm1


Vq Zq1

Z12 Z1p Z1m


Z22 Z2p Z2m
Zp2 Zpp Zpm
Zm2 Zmp Zmm
Zq2 Zqp Zqm


Z1q I1

Z2q I2



Zpq Ip


Zmq Im

Zqq Iq

(4.34)

qi = Ziq for i =
The network is assumed to contain bilateral passive elements and hence, Z
1, 2, m, i q . The added branch p-q is assumed to be mutually coupled with one or more
elements of the partial network.
qi , inject a current at ith node and calculate the voltage at q th node with
To determine element Z
respect to reference, as shown in Fig. 4.27.

qi for the addition of branch


Figure 4.27: Calculation of Z

qi
Calculation of Z
As all other bus currents are zero, bus voltages can be written as,
129

V1 = Z1i Ii

V2 = Z2i Ii

Vp = Zpi Ii

Vm = Zmi Ii

Vq = Zqi Ii

(4.35)

Also from Fig. 4.27, Vp and Vq can be related as,

Vq = Vp vpq

(4.36)

Where vpq is the voltage across the added element p q . Also, the currents in the elements of
the network can be related to the voltages across the elements as,

ipq
ypq,pq y
pq, vpq
][ ]
[ ] = [

y
,pq y
, v
i

(4.37)

Where,

ipq = the current through the added element p q .


i = (m 1) current vector of the elements of the partial network.
v
= (m 1) voltage vector of the elements of the partial network.
ypq,pq = Self-admittance of the added element.
y
pq, = (m 1) vector of mutual admittances between the added element p q and the
elements of the partial network.
y
, = (m m) primitive admittance matrix of the partial network.
y
,pq = [
ypq, ]

The diagonal elements of primitive impedance matrix [


z] are the self impedance of the individual
elements while the off-diagonal elements are mutual impedances between the elements. The inverse
of primitive impedance matrix is the primitive admittance matrix [
y]. This can be explained with
the help of an illustrative example.
A single line diagram of a power system is shown in Fig. 4.28. The self-impedances of lines are
written by the side of the line and are in p.u.. The two lines between nodes 1 and 3 are mutually
coupled with a mutual impedance of j0.10. The primitive impedance matrix for the network can be
written as,

j0.60
0
0
0
0

0
j0.50
0
0
0

[
z] = 0
0
j0.50
0
0
0
0
0
j0.25 j1.0

0
0
j1.0
j0.20

130

Figure 4.28: Sample Power System

The inverse of [
z] is [
y], the primitive admittance matrix.

j1.67
0
0
0
0

0
j2.0
0
0
0

[
y] = 0
0
j2.0
0
0
0
0
0
j5.0 j2.5

0
0
j2.5
j6.25

The current ipq in the added branch p q equal to zero as node q is open.

ipq = 0

(4.38)

The voltage vpq , however, is not zero as the added branch is mutually coupled to one or more elements
of the partial network. Thus, the voltage across other elements of the network can be expressed as,

v
= V

(4.39)

and V
are the voltages of the nodes of the partial network. With ipq = 0 from equation
where V
(4.37) one can write,
ypq,pq vpq + y
pq, v
= 0

Hence,

vpq =

y
pq, v

ypq,pq

131

(4.40)

Substituting v
from equation (4.39) and vpq equation (4.36) in equation (4.40) one gets,

V
)
y
pq, (V
Vq = Vp +
ypq,pq
Substitution of Ii = 1 pu in equation (4.35) results in Vp , Vq , V and V being replaced by their
corresponding impedances and hence,

i Z
i )
y
pq, (Z
Zqi = Zpi +
ypq,pq

(4.41)

i = 1, 2, , m, i q
qq , a current Iq = 1 p.u. is injected into q th node with all
For calculating the self impedance Z
other currents equal to zero as shown in Fig. 4.29. Then the voltages of the nodes are calculated
from equation (4.35) , as
V1 = Z1q Iq

V2 = Z2q Iq

Vp = Zpq Iq

Vm = Zmq Iq

Vq = Zqq Iq

(4.42)

qq Can be calculated directly by calculating Vq .


With Iq = 1 p.u., Z
also,

Vq = Vp vpq

(4.43)

ipq = Iq = 1

(4.44)

ipq = 1 = ypq,pq vpq + y


pq, v

(4.45)

and

Hence, from equation (4.37) one gets

And thus vpq can be written as,

vpq =

1+y
pq, v

ypq,pq

(4.46)

Substituting vpq and v


, the above equation can be rewritten as,

V
)
1+y
pq, (V
Vq = Vp +
ypq,pq
132

(4.47)

Figure 4.29: Calculation of Zqq for the addition of a branch

and V
can be replaced by respective transfer
With Iq = 1 p.u., from equation (4.35) Vp , Vq , V
impedances,
q Z
q )
1+y
pq, (Z
Zqq = Zpq +
ypq,pq

4.3.2

(4.48)

Addition of a link to this partial network:

If the added element p q is a link, then a fictitious node ` is created by connecting an ideal voltage
in series with the added element, as shown in Fig. 4.30.
The value of the source voltage is selected such that the current I` through the added link is
zero. If e` is the voltage of node ` with respect to node q and I` is the current injected into node `
from node q . The performance equation of the partial network with the added link p ` and ideal
series voltage source e` is,

V Z
1 11




Vp Zp1
=



Vm Zm1


e` Z`1

. . . Z1p . . . Z1m
. . . Zpp . . . Zpm
. . . Zmp . . . Zmm
. . . Z`p . . . Z`m
133

Z1` I1




Zp` Ip


Zm` Im

Z`` I`

(4.49)

`i for the addition of a link


Figure 4.30: Calculation of Z
Here, Zli represents the transfer impedance relating the current, Ii , injected into the ith bus
and the voltage of the added source e` , connected between nodes ` and q . They are conceptually
ij of Z
BUS matrix which relate the current injected into the j th bus
different from the elements Z
and the voltage of the ith bus with repect to the reference.
As

e` = V` Vq ,
`i , 1 = 1, 2, m, i `, of the added row and column, can be calculated by
The elements Z
injecting a current Ii into the ith node and determining the voltage of `th node with repect to q th
node.
Hence,

e`
Z`i = , Ik = 0, k = 1, 2, m, k `
Ii
Also,

e` = Vp Vq vp`

(4.50)

The current ip` through the link can be written as,

ip` = yp`,p` vp` + y


p`,p v

(4.51)

Since the current through the link is zero, ip` = ipq = 0


Hence,

vp` =

y
p`, v

yp`,p`

134

(4.52)

Since the voltage source is ideal source, one can write,

y
p`, = y
pq,
and

yp`,p` = ypq,pq
So,

vp` =

V
)
y
pq, (V
y
pq, v

=
ypq,pq
ypq,pq

(4.53)

(4.54)

With Ii = 1 p.u., substituting Vp , Vq , Vp and V from equation (4.35) and vp` from equation
(4.52) in equation (4.50) one gets

pi Z
i )
y
pq, (Z
Z`i = Zpi Zqi +
ypq,pq

(4.55)

i = 1, 2, m, i `
`` , a current is injected at the `th node with respect to node q , as shown in Fig.
To calculate Z
4.31. As all other node currents are zero, the node voltages can be written as,

`` for the addition of a link


Figure 4.31: Calculation of Z

Vk = Zk` I` , k = 1, 2, m
135

e` = Z`` I`

(4.56)

`` can be directly computed by calculating e` . The current in the element p ` is


With I` = 1 p.u., Z
ip` = I` = 1 p.u.

(4.57)

From equation (4.37) one gets

ip` = yp`,p` vp` + y


p`,p v
p = 1
Further as yp`,p` = ypq,pq and y
p`,p = y
pq,p , hence vp` can be expressed as

vp` =

1+y
pq,p v
p
ypq,pq

(4.58)

Substituting vp` from equation (4.50) , one can write

1 + ypq,p (Vp V )
e` = Vp Vq +
ypq,pq
, V
and e` from equation (4.56), Z`` is obtained as
With I` = 1 p.u., substituting Vp , Vq , V
p` Z
` )
1+y
pq, (Z
Z`` = Zpi Zqi +
ypq,pq

(4.59)

i = 1, 2, m, i `
In the case of link addition the additional row and column corresponding to fictitious node ` are to
be eliminated.
For this the fictitious series voltage source e` is short circuited. From equation (4.49) the bus
voltages can be written in compact from as
m

m
Bus
m
] = [Z
[V
Bus ][IBus ] + [Z][I` ]

(4.60)

Where,

= [Z1` Z2` Zm` ]T is an (m 1) vector comprising of the entries of the column added
[Z]
m
to the Z
Bus matrix
m
[Im
Bus ], [VBus ] = (m 1) bus current and voltage vectors respectively, of the partial network before

the addition of element p `.


m

[Z
Bus ] = (m m) [ZBus ] matrix of the partial network before the addition of element p `.
I` = current injected in the link. Also,

T [IBus ] + Z`` I` = 0
[
e` ] = [Z]
136

(4.61)

Bus ] can be written as,


On substituting I` from equation (4.61) into equation (4.60) [V
T

Z.Z
m

][IBus ]
[VBus ] = [ZBus ] [
Z``

(4.62)

Bus ] which is (m m) in size can be written as


Hence, the final [Z
T

Z.Z
m
Final

[Z
]
=
[
Z
]

[
]
Bus
Bus
Z``

Bus ] building procedure will be discussed in the next lecture.


An example illustrating the [Z

137

(4.63)

4.4

Bus] matrix formulation in the presence of


Example of [Z
mutual impedances

Consider the network shown in Fig. 4.32.

Bus ] example
Figure 4.32: The power system for [Z
A tree for the network is shown in Fig. 4.32. The system data is given in Table 4.1.

Figure 4.33: Tree of the network

Table 4.1: System data


Self
Element no. Bus code Impedance
p-q
zpq,pq (p.u.)
1
0 - 1(1)
j0.4
2
0 - 1(2)
j0.5
3
0-2
j0.5
4
2-3
j0.4
5
1-3
j0.6

138

Mutual
Bus code Impedance
r-s
zpq,rs (p.u.)
0 - 1(2)
j0.2
0 - 1(1)

j0.1

Bus ] matrix element by element. To initiate the


Step 1: The algorithm starts building the [Z
process, start with element 1 connected between nodes p = 0 and q = 1, shown in Fig. 4.34. The
Bus ] matrix of the partial network is given as,
[Z

Figure 4.34: Partial network in Step 1

(1)

Bus ] = (1) [ j0.4 ]


[Z
Step 2: Next add element 2 connected between p = 0 and q = 1 which is mutually coupled to the
existing element 1, connected between = 0 and = 1. This new element is a link as it does not
(temp)
create a new node, the partial network for this step is shown in Fig. 4.35. The augmented [Z
]
Bus
matrix after the addition of this element, is given by

Figure 4.35: Partial network in Step 2

(1)
(1)
(temp)
Z
=
Bus
(`)

(`)

j0.4 Z1`
[
]
Z`1 Z``

y01(2),01(1) (Z01 Z11 )


Z`1 = Z01 Z11 +
y01(2),01(2)
1 + y01(2),01(1) (Z0` Z1` )
Z`` = Z0` Z1` +
y01(2),01(2)
01 and Z0` are the elements of [Z
Bus ] matrix associated with the reference node.
where, Z
The primitive impedance matrix [
z] for the partial network is
01(1)

[
z] =

01(1)
01(2)

01(2)

j0.4 j0.2
]
j0.2 j0.5

The primitive admittance matrix [


y] for the partial network in nothing but the inverse of primitive
139

impedance matrix [
z] and is given by
01(1)

[
y] = [
z]1 =

01(1)
01(2)

01(2)

j3.125 j1.25
]
j1.25 j2.5

01 = 0, since 0 is the reference node, Z`1 is evaluated as


With Z
j1.25(j0.4)
= j0.2 = Z1`
Z`1 = j0.4 +
j2.5
0` = 0, since 0 is the reference node, and hence, Z`` is calculated as
Also as Z
1 + j1.25(j0.2)
Z`` = j0.2 +
= j0.50
j2.5
(temp)

The augmented Zbus

matrix is given as
(1)

(`)

(1)
j0.4 j0.2
(temp)
Z
=
[
]
Bus
(`)
j0.2 j0.5

The row and column corresponding to the `th row and column corresponding to a link addition,(shown in red in the above matrix), need to be eliminated as the link addition does not create
Bus ] matrix, after the addition of second element to the partial network, is
a new node. The [Z
calculated using the following expression


Bus ] = [Z
Bus ] Z1` Z`1
[Z
Z``
= j0.4

(j0.2)(j0.2)
j0.5
(1)

Bus = (1) [ j0.32 ]


Z
Bus matrix is still (11) as no new node has been added to the partial network
Note that the size of Z
as yet.
Step 3: Next add element 3, which is connected between the nodes p = 0 and q = 2. This is a
branch addition as a new node, node 2 is created. This element is mutually coupled to the existing
element 1. Hence, the primitive [
z] matrix of the partial network, shown in Fig. 4.36, is

140

Figure 4.36: Partial network in Step 3

01(1)

01(1)

[
z] = 01(2)
02

The primitive [
y] matrix is calculated as [
z]

[
y] = 01(2)
02

02

and is equal to

01(1)

01(1)

01(2)

j0.4 j0.2 j0.1

j0.2 j0.5 0

j0.1
0
j0.5

01(2)

02

j3.333 j1.333
j0.667

j1.333 j2.533 j0.2667

j0.667 j0.2667 j2.133

Bus ] matrix is expressed as


The modified [Z
(1)

Bus ] =
[Z

(1)
(2)

j0.32
Z21

(2)

Z12
]
Z22

For this element p = 0 and q = 2 and the set of elements [

] mutually coupled to this element

is [0 1(1) 0 1(2)]

Z21 = Z01 +

Z02 Z11
[
]
y02,01(1) y02,01(2) ] [
Z01 Z11
y02,02

Z01 and Z02 are the transfer impedances associated with the reference node and are equal to zero.

Z21 =

j0.32
[j0.667 j0.2667] [
]
j0.32
j2.133
141

= j0.06

12 = Z21 = j0.06
Hence, Z

Z22 = Z02 +

Z02 Z12
1 + [
]
y02,01(1) y02,01(2) ] [
Z01 Z12
y02,02

1 + [j0.667 j0.2667] [
Z21 =

j0.32
]
j0.32

j2.133

= j0.48

Bus ] matrix is
The modified [Z
(1)

Bus ] =
[Z

(1)
(2)

(2)

j0.32 j0.06
]
j0.06 j0.48

Step 4: On adding element 4 between p = 2 and q = 3, a new node, node 3 is created. Hence, this
Bus ] matrix can be written as
is a branch addition and is shown in Fig. 4.37. The modified [Z

Figure 4.37: Partial network in Step 4

(1)

(1)

Bus = (2)
Z
(3)

(2)

(3)

j0.32 j0.06 Z

13

j0.06 j0.48 Z23


Z31
Z32 Z33

As this element is not mutually coupled to other elements the elements of vector y
pq, are zero.
Bus ] matrix can be calculated, using the expression given in (4.41),
Hence, the new elements of [Z
as :
Off-diagonal elements

Zqi = Zpi i = 1, 2, 3 i q
142

Z31 = Z21 = j0.06


Z32 = Z22 = j0.48
Z13 = Z31 = j0.06
Z23 = Z32 = j0.48
Diagonal element
Using the expression of (4.48) with no mutual coupling, the diagonal element can be written as:

Zqq = Zpq + zpq,pq


hence,

Z33 = Z23 + z23,23 = j0.48 + j0.4 = j0.88


(1)

(2)

(3)

j0.32 j0.06 j0.06

j0.06 j0.48 j0.48

j0.06 j0.48 j0.88

(1)

Bus = (2)
Z
(3)

Step 5: Finally add element 5 between nodes p = 1 and q = 3. This is an addition of a link hence a
temporary row and column are added. Fig. 4.38 showns the final network after the addition of this
(temp)
element. The modified Z
matrix can be written as
Bus

Figure 4.38: The complete network after the addition of link in step 5

(1)
(2)
(temp)
Z
=
Bus

(3)
(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(`)

j0.32 j0.06 j0.06 Z1`

j0.06 j0.48 j0.48 Z2`

j0.06 j0.48 j0.88 Z3`

Z`1
Z`2
Z`3 Z``
143

(temp)
Since this element is not mutually coupled to other elements, the new elements of [Z
]
Bus
matrix can be calculated, using the expression of (4.55), as :
Off-diagonal elements
Z`i = Zpi Zqi i = 1, 2, 3
Z1` = Z11 Z13 = j0.32 j0.06 = j0.26 = Z`1
Z2` = Z21 Z23 = j0.06 j0.48 = j0.42 = Z`2
Z3` = Z31 Z33 = j0.06 j0.88 = j0.82 = Z`3
Diagonal element
For calculating the diagonal element, the expression given in (4.59) is used. Hence,

Z`` = Zp` Zq` + zpq,pq


Z`` = Z1` Z3` + z13,13 = j0.26 + j0.82 + j0.6 = j1.68

(temp)

Hence, the temporary [ZBus

] matrix can be written as

(1)

(temp)
[Z
]=
Bus

(2)
(3)
(`)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(`)

j0.32 j0.06 j0.06 j0.26

j0.06 j0.48 j0.06 j0.42

j0.06 j0.48 j0.88 j0.82

j0.26 j0.42 j0.82 j1.68

Bus to 3 3. The elimination


The `th row and `th column are to be eleminated to restore the size of Z
is done using the relation
Z
T
Z
(temp)
Bus = Z
Bus

Z
Z``
T = [j0.26 j0.42 j0.82]
Z
j0.23

j0.42 [j0.26 j0.42 j0.82]

j0.32 j0.06 j0.06

j0.82

Bus = j0.06 j0.48 j0.48


Z
j1.68

j0.06 j0.48 j0.88

144

Bus ] is
Hence, the final matrix [Z
(1)

(1)

Bus ] = (2)
[Z
(3)

(2)

(3)

j0.2798 j0.1250 j0.1869

j0.1250 j0.3750 j0.2750

j0.1869 j0.2750 j0.4798

Bus ] matrix, we are now ready to discuss fault analysis,


After this discussion of formulation of [Z
which we will start from the next lecture.

145

4.5

Fault Analysis:

Under normal conditions, a power system operates under balanced conditions with all equipments
carrying normal load currents and the bus voltages within the prescribed limits. This condition can
be disrupted due to a fault in the system. A fault in a circuit is a failure that interferes with the
normal flow of current. A short circuit fault occurs when the insulation of the system fails resulting
in low impedance path either between phases or phase(s) to ground. This causes excessively high
currents to flow in the circuit, requiring the operation of protective equipments to prevent damage
to equipment. The short circuit faults can be classified as:
Symmetrical faults
Unsymmetrical faults

4.6

Symmetrical faults:

f to the
A three phase symmetrical fault is caused by application of three equal fault impedances Z
f = 0 the fault is called a solid or a bolted fault. These faults
three phases, as shown in Fig. 4.39. If Z
can be of two types: (a) line to line to line to ground fault (LLLG fault) or (b) line to line to line
fault (LLL fault). Since the three phases are equally affected, the system remains balanced. That
is why, this fault is called a symmetrical or a balanced fault and the fault analysis is done on per
phase basis. The behaviour of LLLG fault and LLL fault is identical due to the balanced nature
f = 0, this is usually the
of the fault. This is a very severe fault that can occur in a system and if Z
most severe fault that can occur in a system. Fortunately, such faults occur infrequently and only
about 5% of the system faults are three phase faults.

Figure 4.39: Symmetrical Fault

146

4.7

Unsymmetrical faults:

Faults in which the balanced state of the network is disturbed are called unsymmetrical or unbalanced
faults. The most common type of unbalanced fault in a system is a single line to ground fault (LG
fault). Almost 60 to 75% of faults in a system are LG faults. The other types of unbalanced faults
are line to line faults (LL faults) and double line to ground faults (LLG faults). About 15 to 25%
faults are LLG faults and 5 to 15% are LL faults. These faults are shown in Fig. 4.40.

Figure 4.40: Unsymmetrical Fault


Majority of the faults occur on transmission lines as they are exposed to external elements.
Lightening strokes may cause line insulators to flashover, high velocity winds may cause tower failure,
ice loading and wind may result in mechanical failure of line or insulator and tree branches may cause
short circuit. Much less common are the faults on cables, circuit breakers, generators, motors and
transformers.
Fault analysis is necessary for selecting proper circuit breaker rating and for relay settings and coordination.The symmetrical faults are analysed on per phase basis while the unsymmetrical faults
BUS matrix is very usefull for short
are analyzed using symmetrical components. Further, the Z
circuit studies .

4.8

Symmetrical or Balanced three phase fault analysis:

In this type of faults all three phases are simultaneously short circuited. Since the network remains
balanced, it is analyzed on per phase basis. The other two phases carry identical currents but with a
phase shift of 120 . A fault in the network is simulated by connecting impedances in the network at
the fault location. The faulted network is then solved using Thevenins equivalent network as seen
from the fault point. The bus impedance matrix is convenient to use for fault studies as its diagonal
elements are the Thevenins impedance of the network as seen from different buses. Prior to the
occurrence of fault, the system is assumed to be in a balanced steady state and hence per phase
network model is used. The generators are represented by a constant voltage source behind a suitable
reactance which may be sub-transient, transient or normal d-axis reactance. The transmission lines
are represented by their -models with all impedances referred to a common base. A typical bus
147

Figure 4.41: Fault at kth bus of a power system


of an n- bus power system network is shown in Fig. 4.41. Further, a balanced three phase fault,
f is assumed to occur at k th bus as shown in the figure. A pre-fault
through a fault impedance Z
load flow provides the information about the pre-fault bus voltage.
BUS (0)] be the prefault bus voltage vector =[V1 (0) . . . Vk (0) . . . Vn (0)]T p.u. The fault
Let [V
f will cause a change in the voltage of all the buses [V
BUS ]
at k th bus through an impedance Z
due to the flow of heavy currents through the transmission lines. This change can be calculated by
applying a voltage Vk (0) at k th bus and short circuiting all other voltage sources. The sources and
i
loads are replaced by their equivalent impedances. This is shown in Fig. 4.42. In Fig. 4.42, Z

BUS ]
Figure 4.42: Network representation for calculating [V
k are the equivalent load impedances as bus i and k respectively, zik is the impedance of line
and Z
148

between ith and k th buses. x


di is the appropriate generator reactance, Zf is the fault impedance,
Ik (F ) is the fault current and Vk (0) is the prefault voltage at k th bus. From the superposition
theorem, the bus voltages due to a fault can be obtained as the sum of prefault bus voltages and the
change in bus voltages due to fault,i.e.,

BUS (F)] = [V
BUS (0)] + [V
BUS ]
[V

(4.64)

where,
T
BUS (F)] = Vector of bus voltages during fault =[V1 (F ) . . . Vi (F ) . . . Vn (F )]
[V
T
BUS (0)] = Vector of pre-fault bus voltages =[V1 (0) . . . Vi (0) . . . Vn (0)]
[V
T
BUS ] = Vector of change in bus voltages due to fault= [V1 . . . Vk . . . Vn ]
[V

Also the bus injected current [


IBUS ] can be expressed as,

BUS ] [V
BUS ]
[IBUS ] = [Y

(4.65)

BUS ] is the bus voltage vector and [Y


BUS ] is the bus admittance matrix.
where, [V
With all the bus currents, except of the faulted bus k , equal to zero, the node equation for the
network of Fig. 4.42 can be written as

0 Y11 Y1k Y1n V1

Ik (F ) = Yk1 Ykk Ykn Vk

n
0 Yn1 Ynk Ynn V

(4.66)

As the fault current Ik (F ) is leaving the bus it is taken as a negative current entering the bus.
Hence,
BUS ] [V
BUS ]
[IBUS (F)] = [Y
(4.67)

BUS ] can be calculated as:


[V
1

BUS ] = [Y
BUS ] [IBUS (F)] = [Z
BUS ] [IBUS (F)]
[V

(4.68)

BUS ] is the bus impedance matrix = [Y


BUS ]1 .
where, [Z
BUS ] from equation (4.68) in equation (4.64) one can write,
Substituting the expression of [V
BUS (F)] = [V
BUS (0)] + [Z
BUS (F)] [IBus (F)]
[V
Expanding the above equation one can write,
149

(4.69)

V1 (F ) V1 (0) Z11 Z1k Z1n (0)

Vk (F ) = Vk (0) + Zk1 Zkk Zkn Ik (F )

Vn (F ) Vn (0) Zn1 Znk Znn 0

(4.70)

The bus voltage of kth bus can be expressed as:

Vk (F ) = Vk (0) Zkk Ik (F )

(4.71)

Vk (F ) = ZF Ik (F )

(4.72)

Also from Fig. 4.41

f = 0 and hence, Vk (F ) = 0. Thus the fault current Ik (F ) for bolted fault can
For a bolted fault Z
be expressed using equation (4.71) as,
Vk (0)
Ik (F ) =
Zkk

(4.73)

f , the fault current can be calculated as:


For faulty with non-zero fault impedance Z
Vk (0)
Ik (F ) =
Zkk + Zf

(4.74)

kk in equation (4.73) and equation (4.74) is the Thevenins impedance or openThe quantity Z
circuit impedance of the network as seen from the faulted bus k. From equation (4.70), the bus
voltage after fault for the unfaulted or healthy buses can be written as:
Vi (F ) = Vi (0) Zik Ik (F ) i = 1, 2, n, i k

(4.75)

Substituting Ik (F ) from equation (4.73) , Vi (F ) can be expressed as:

Vi (F ) = Vi (0)

Zik
Vk (0)
Zkk + Zf

(4.76)

The fault current Iij (F ) flowing in the line connecting ith and j th bus can be calculated as

Vi (F ) Vj (F )
Iij (F ) =
zij
where zij is the impedance of line connecting buses i and j.
150

(4.77)

4.9

Unsymmetrical or Unbalanced fault analysis:

For the analysis of unsymmetrical or unbalanced faults, symmetrical component method is used.
The use of symmetrical components simplifies the analysis procedure of unbalanced system and also
helps in improving the understanding of the system behavior during fault conditions.
A review of symmetrical components is presented next.

4.9.1

Symmetrical components:

Any unbalanced set of three phase voltage or current phasors can be replaced by three balanced sets
of three phase voltage or current phasors. These three balanced set of voltage or current phasors
are called symmetrical components of voltages or currents. Let Ia , Ib , and Ic be an arbitrary set of
three current phasors representing phase currents. Then using symmetrical components they can be
expressed as:

I I I I
a a0 a1 a2

Ib = Ib0 + Ib1 + Ib2


Ic Ic0 Ic1 Ic2

(4.78)

Or,

[I]abc = [I0 ] + [I1 ] + [I2 ]


where,
T
[I]abc = [Ia Ib Ic ] is the arbitrary set of three current phasors of phase currents.
T
[I0 ] = [Ia0 Ib0 Ic0 ] is the set of zero sequence components.The magnitudes of the three zero
sequence components are equal i.e.Ia0 = Ib0 = Ic0 and they are co-phasors.
T
[I1 ] = [Ia1 Ib1 Ic1 ] is the set of positive sequence components, with Ia1 = Ia1 0 , Ib1 =
Ib1 120 , and Ic1 = Ic1 120 , with Ia1 = Ib1 = Ic1 .
T
[I2 ] = [Ia2 Ib2 Ic2 ] is the set of negative sequence components, with Ia2 = Ia2 0 , Ib2 =
, and I
c2 = Ic2 120 ,with Ia2 = Ib2 = Ic2

Ib2 120

The graphical representation of the sequence components is shown in Fig. 4.43.


Let an operator a be defined such that a = 120 . Any phasor multiplied by a undergoes a
counter clockwise rotation of 120 without any change in the magnitude. Further,

a = 1120
a2 = 1240
a3 = 1360
also 1 + a + a2 = 0

Ia1 = Ia1 1

where, 1 is the angle of phase a positive sequence current.


151

Figure 4.43: Representation of Symmetrical Components

Ib1 = a2 Ia1
Ic1 = aIa1
The phase sequence of the positive component set is abc.
Similarly the negative sequence set can be written as:

Ia2 = Ia2 2
where, 2 is the angle of phase a negative sequence current.

Ib2 = aIa2
Ic2 = a2 Ia2
152

The phase sequence of the negative component set is acb.


The zero-sequence component set can be written as:

Ia0 = Ia0 0 = Ib0 = Ic0


where, 0 is the angle of phase a zero sequence current.
Hence, equation (4.78) can be simplified as:

I 1 1 1 I
a0
a


Ib = 1 a2 a Ia1




Ic 1 a a2 Ia2

(4.79)

It can also expressed in a compact form as:

[I]
[I]abc = [A]
012
where, [
I]

abc

= set of phase quantities = [Ia Ib Ic ]

(4.80)

T
[I]012 = set of sequence quantities = [Ia0 Ia1 Ia2 ]

1 1 1

A = 1 a a is the symmetrical component transformation matrix.

1 a a2

The symmetrical components [


I]012 can be written in terms of phase quantities [I]abc as:
1

1 1 1

1
1
= 1 a a2 thus,
where, A
3

1 a2 a

[I]
[I]012 = [A]
abc

(4.81)

1
Ia0 = [Ia + Ib + Ic ]
3
1
Ia1 = [Ia + aIb + a2 Ic ]
3
1
Ia2 = [Ia + a2 Ib + aIc ]
3

(4.82)

[V]
[V]
= [A]
abc
012

(4.83)

To summarize:

For voltage:

153

[V]

[V]
= [A]
012
abc

(4.84)

abc is the set of phase voltages, and [V]


012 is the set of sequence voltages.
where, [V]
For current:

[I]
[I]abc = [A]
012
1

[I]
[I]012 = [A]
abc

(4.85)
(4.86)

where, [
I]abc is the set of phase voltages, and [I]012 is the set of sequence voltages.
Before starting unbalanced fault analysis, it is necessary to learn about the sequence networks of
different power system components, which we will discuss in the next lecture.

154

4.9.2

Sequence Networks of a loaded Synchronous Generator:

s per phase, with its


A three-pahse synchronous generator, having a synchronous impedance of Z
n is shown in Fig.4.44. The generator is supplying a
neutral grounded through a impedance Z
a , Eb and Ec are balanced and hence treated
balanced three phase load. The generator voltages E

Figure 4.44: Three phase synchronous generator supplying a balanced load

as positive sequence set of voltage phasors and can be expressed as:

[E]abc = a2 [Ea]

a

(4.87)

As the generator is supplying a three-phase balanced load, the following KVL equations can be
written for each phase :

Va = Ea Zs Ia Zn In
Vb = Eb Zs Ib Zn In
Vc = Ec Zs Ic Zn In
155

(4.88)

Substituting the neutral current In = Ia + Ib + Ic in equation (4.88), and writing the resulting equation in matrix form, we get:

V E Z + Z
Zn
Zn Ia
a a s
n


Vb = Eb Zn
Zs + Zn
Zn Ib



Vc Ec Zn
Zn
Zs + Zn Ic

(4.89)

The above matrix equation can be expressed in a compact form as:

[V]
[I]abc
= [E]
[Z]
abc
abc
abc

(4.90)

where,
T
abc = [Va Vb Vc ] is the vector of terminal phase voltages.
[V]
T
[I]abc = [Ia Ib Ic ] is the vector of terminal phase currents.
abc is the impedance matrix which can be easily identified from equation (4.89).
[Z]

Replacing the phase quantities of equation (4.90) by corresponding sequence quantities, using
the transformation equation (4.83) and equation (4.85) one can write:

[I]

[E]

[V]
[A]
[A]
[Z]
= [A]
012
abc
012
012

Premultiplying bothsides of the equation (4.91) by [A]

and after simplifications one gets:

[V]
[I]012
= [E]
[Z]
012
012
012

where,[Z]

012

(4.91)

(4.92)

is Generator Sequence Impedance Matrix and is defined as:

Z + 3Z 0 0
s

[Z]012 = [A] [Z]abc [A] =


0
Zs 0

0
0 Zs

[E]
012

is the generated sequence voltage vector and is defined as


Ea since the generated voltages

0

are always balanced and contain only the positive sequence component.

Substituting [E]

012

and [Z]

012

in equation (4.92) we get:

V 0 Z 0 0 I
a0 0
a0


Va1 = Ea 0 Z1 0 Ia1




Va2 0 0 0 Z2 Ia2

(4.93)

1 = Zs is the positive sequence generator impedance, Z2 = Zs is the negative sequence generwhere, Z


156

0 = Zs + 3Zn is the zero sequence generator impedance. Expanding the above


ator impedance and Z
equation, one can write seperate equation for each of the sequence components as :
Va0 = Z0 Ia0
Va1 = Ea Z1 Ia1

(4.94)

Va2 = Z2 Ia2
From equation (4.94), it is evident that the three sequence components are independent of each
other.The current of a particular sequence produces a voltage drop of that sequence only, hence
the three sequences are decoupled from each other. The three sequence networks of a synchronous
generator are shown in Fig. 4.45.

Figure 4.45: The sequence networks of a synchronous generator

4.9.3

Sequence networks of a transmission line:

For a static device such as a transmission line, the phase sequence of voltages and currents have no
effect on the impedance offered by the line as both positive and negative phase sequences encounter
identical line geometry. Hence, the positive and negative sequence impedances offered by a line are
1 = Z2 .
identical i.e. Z
The zero sequence currents, however, are in phase and flow through the conductors and return
through grounded neutral and/or ground wires. As a result, the ground or ground wire are to be
0 is, therefore,
included in the path of the zero sequence currents. The zero sequence impedance Z
1 and Z2 due to the inclusion of the ground return path. Z0 is usually more than
different from Z
1 or Z2 . The three sequence networks of the transmission lines are shown in Fig.
three times of Z
4.46.

4.9.4

Sequence networks of a tranformer:

For short circuit studies, the shunt magnetizing branch of transformer is neglected as the current
through it is negiligible as compared to short circuit current. The transformer is, therefore, modelled with an equivalent series leakage impedance. Since the transformer is also a static device like a
157

Figure 4.46: The sequence networks of a transmission line


transmission line, the series leakage impedance will not change if the phase sequence of applied voltage is reversed. Therefore, the positive and negative sequence impedances offered by a transformer
are equal. The zero sequece current flows through a transformer if paths for it to flow exist on the
primary as well the secondary sides. For such transformers the zero sequence impedance is equal to
0 = Z1 = Z2 . The positive and negative sequence networks
the leakage impedance, as a consequence Z
of a transformer are identical to the positive and negative sequence networks of a transmission line
as shown in Fig. 4.46 (a) and (b). The sequence networks for zero sequence depends on the winding
connections and whether or not the neutrals are grounded. To derive these circuits for different
transformer connections, one has to keep in mind that an open circuit will exist on the primary
(secondary) side if there is no ground return for primary (secondary) currents or if there is no corresponding path for secondary(primary) zero-sequence currents. The different three-phase transformer
connections and their equivalent zero-sequence networks are discussed next. It is assumed that the
neutrals, if grounded, are solidly grounded.

Figure 4.47: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Star transformer with both neutrals
grounded
(a) Star-Star connections with both neutrals grounded: Since both the neutrals are grounded,the
phasor sum of three unbalanced phase currents is equal to three times the zero sequence current
Ia0 (equation (4.82)). Hence, the zero sequence currents can flow in the primary and secondary
158

windings and the transhomer, therefore, can be represented by the equivalent zero-sequence
leakage impedance. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.47.
(b) Star-Star connections with only one neutral grounded: When the neutral of only one winding is
grounded, the phase currents of the ungrounded winding must add up to zero. This implies that
the zero sequence currents can not exist in the ungrounded winding and hence the zero sequence
currents can not exist even in the transformer side with neutral grounded. The transformer in
this case, is represented as an open circuit between primary and secondary windings and the
equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.48.

Figure 4.48: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Star transformer with only one neutral
grounded

(c) Star-Star connections with only no neutral grounded: In this case also the phasor sum of the
phase curents of both the windings is zero and hence the zero sequence currents can not exist on
any winding in this case also. The zero sequence equivalent network is represented as an open
circuit between the two windings and is shown in Fig. 4.49.

Figure 4.49: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Star transformer with both neutrals
ungrounded

159

(d) Star-delta connections with neutral grounded: A zero sequence current on the grounded starwinding will cause a circulating zero-sequence current in the closed delta-winding. However,
the zero-sequence current on the delta-winding can not exist on line side of the winding and
is confined only to the closed delta-winding. As a result, an open circuit exists between the
star and the delta sides. But, as the zero-sequence currents can exist on the line-side of the
grounded star winding, the zero-sequence leakage impedance of the transformer is connected to
ground on the star side of the transformer and an open circuit exists between the two windings.
The equivalent circuit for this connection is shown in Fig. 4.50.

Figure 4.50: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Delta transformer with Star-side neutral
grounded

(e) Star-delta connections with ungrounded neutral grounded: Since the neutral is isolated, no zerosequence current can exist in the star side of the transformer and as a consequence zero-sequence
currents can not exist in the delta side. The transformer is, therefore, represented as an opencircuit and the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.51.

Figure 4.51: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Delta trnasformer with Star-side neutral
ungrounded

(f) Delta-delta connections with ungrounded neutral grounded: In this case, the zero-sequence currents can only circulate within the closed delta windings and can not exit on line sides of both
160

the windings. Hence, an open circuit exists between the two windings as far as zero-sequence currents are concerned. To permit the circulating zero-sequence current to exist, the zero-sequence
leakage impedance is represented as a closed path with the ground. The equivalent circuit is
shown in Fig. 4.52.

Figure 4.52: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Delta-Delta transformer

Figure 4.53: The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a Star-Delta transformer with neutral grounded
through impedance
Point to remember: If the neutral of a transformer is grounded through a grounding impedance
Zn , as shown in Fig. 4.53, then, the total zero-sequence equivalent impdance to be used in the
equivalent circuit is
Z0total = Z0 + 3Zn
(4.95)
This is due to the fact that the neutral current is 3 times the zero-sequence current per phase.
Next, the concepts of unsymmetrical fault analysis are developed with help of Thevenins equivalent circuit of sequence networks and symmetrical components in the next lecture.

161

4.9.5

Single line to ground (LG) fault analysis :

An unloaded balanced three-phase synchronous generator with neutral grounded through an impedance
Zn is shown in Fig. 4.54. Suppose a single line to ground fault (LG) occurs on phase a though
f .
an impedance Z

Figure 4.54: LG fault on phase a of an unloaded generator

Since the generator is unloaded, the following terminal conditions exist at the fault point:

Va = Zf Ia
Ib = 0

(4.96)

Ic = 0
Substituting Ib = Ic = 0 in equation (4.86), the symmetrical components of currents can be
calculated as:

1 1 1 I
I

a
a0
1

Ia1 = 1 a a2 0
3



Ia2
1 a 2 a 0



162

(4.97)

Solving the above equation, the values of the symmetrical components of fault current Ia are:

1
Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia
3

(4.98)

The voltage of phase a can be expressed in terms of symmetrical components from equation (4.83),
as
Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2
(4.99)
Substituing in the equation the values of Va0 , Va1 and Va2 from equation (4.94) into equation (4.99),
Va can be written as (with Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 from equation (4.98)):

Va = Ea (Z0 + Z1 + Z2 )Ia0

(4.100)

f Ia = 3Zf Ia0 . Hence, equation (4.100) can be expressed as:


From equations (4.96) and (4.98), Va = Z
3Zf Ia0 = Ea (Z0 + Z1 + Z2 )Ia0
or,

Ia0 =

Ea
Z0 + Z1 + Z2 + 3Zf

(4.101)

The fault current, therefore, is:

If = Ia = 3Ia0 =

3Ea
Z0 + Z1 + Z2 + 3Zf

(4.102)

From equations (4.98) and (4.101), it be easily interpreted that the three sequence networks are
connected in series as shown in Fig. 4.55.

Figure 4.55: Connection of sequence networks for LG fault

n = 0 and for bolted fault Zf = 0.


Note that, for solidly grounded generator, Z
Extending the above concept to the analysis of LG fault in a power system, the Thevenins equiv163

alent circuit (as seen from the fault point) is obtained, individually for the three sequence networks.
1th ,
For the positive sequence network Vth , the open circuit pre-fault voltage at the fault point, and Z
the positive sequence Thevenins equivalent impedance as seen from the fault point are determined.
2th and Z0th ,
For negative and zero sequence networks, only the Thevenins equivalent impedances Z
respectively are calculated. The three Thevenins equivalent networks are then connected in series.

4.9.6

Line to Line (LL) fault analysis :

f , on
Fig. 4.56 shows a line to line fault (LL) between phases b and c through an impedance Z
an unloaded three phase generator. The terminal conditions at the fault point are:

Figure 4.56: LL fault between phases b and c of an unloaded generator

Vb Vc = Zf Ib
Ib + Ic = 0
164

(4.103)

Ia = 0
Substituting Ia = 0 and Ib = Ic in equation (4.86), the symmetrical components of cuurents can be
calculated as:

I
1 1 1 0

a0


1
Ia1 = 1 a a2 Ib

3

2
Ia2
1 a a Ib

(4.104)

Solving the above equation, the values of the symmetrical components of the current Ia are:

Ia0 = 0
1
Ia1 = (a a2 )Ib
3
1
Ia2 = (a2 a)Ib = Ia1
3

(4.105)

From equation (4.83), we have

Vb Vc = (a2 a)(Va1 Va2 ) = Zf Ib

(4.106)

Substituting Va1 and Va2 from equation (4.94) and noting that Ia1 = Ia2 , one can write:

(a2 a) [Ea (Z1 + Z2 )Ia1 ] = Zf Ib

(4.107)

Also from equation (4.105),

Ib =

3Ia1
(a a2 )

(4.108)

Substituting this value of Ib in equation (4.107), we get:

[Ea (Z1 + Z2 )Ia1 ] =

3Zf Ia1
(a a2 )(a2 a)

Since, (a a2 )(a2 a) = 3, the above expression can be simplified and written as:

Ia1 =

Ea
(Z1 + Z2 + Zf )

(4.109)

The phase currents during fault can be calculated as:

I 1 1 1 0
a

Ib = 1 a2 a Ia1

Ic 1 a a2 Ia1

Solving for the phase currents, the expressions for Ib and Ic can be written as:

165

(4.110)

Ib = Ic = (a2 a)Ia1

(4.111)

Substituting Ib from equation (4.111) in equation (4.106) one gets:

(Va1 Va2 ) = Zf Ia1


The equivalent circuit of the fault in terms of the sequence networks is shown in Fig. 4.57. The
circuit has been drawn on the basis of equation (4.105) and the above equation. It shows that the
positive sequence and negative sequence networks are connected in phase opposition bridged by the
f . Also, since Ia0 = 0, the zero sequence network is open circuited and hence is
fault impedance Z
not shown in the diagram.

Figure 4.57: Connection of sequence networks for an LL fault between phases b and c of an
unloaded generator
Extending the above concept to LL fault calculations in a power system, it can be concluded that,
the Thevenins equivalent positive and negative sequence networks, as seen from the fault point, can
be connected in phase opposition through the fault impdedance for calculating fault current.

4.9.7

Double Line to ground (LLG) fault analysis :

Fig. 4.58 shows a double line to ground (LLG) fault on phases b and c through an impedance
Zf on an unloaded three phase generator. The terminal conditions at the fault point are:

Vb = Vc = Zf If = Zf (Ib + Ic )
Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 = 0

(4.112)

b and V
c can be written as:
From equation (4.83), V
Vb = Va0 + a2 Va1 + aVa2
Vc = Va0 + aVa1 + a2 Va2
166

(4.113)

Figure 4.58: LLG fault between phases b and c of an unloaded generator

Since Vb = Vc , from equation (4.113), one can write

Va1 = Va2

(4.114)

Substituting Ib and Ic in terms of their sequence components from equation (4.85), voltage of phase
b can be expressed as:

Vb = Zf (Ia0 + a2 Ia1 + aIa2 + Ia0 + aIa1 + a2 Ia2 )


167

Vb = Zf (Ia0 + a2 Ia1 + aIa2 + Ia0 + aIa1 + a2 Ia2 )


= Zf (2Ia0 + (a2 + a)(Ia1 + Ia2 ))
= Zf (2Ia0 (Ia1 + Ia2 ))
Since 1 + a + a2 = 0 and Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 = 0, hence

Vb = 3Zf Ia0

(4.115)

Further substituting Vb from equation (4.115) and the condition of equation (4.114) in equation
(4.113), we get:

3Zf Ia0 = Va0 + (a2 + a)Va1


= Va0 Va1

(4.116)

Substituting Va0 and Va1 from equation (4.94) in equation (4.116), the zero sequence component of

Figure 4.59: Connection of sequence networks for an LLG fault between phases b and c of an
unloaded generator

current Ia0 is given by:

(Ea Z1 Ia1 )
Ia0 =
(Z0 + 3Zf )

(4.117)

For calculating the negative sequence component of current, Ia2 , substitute Va1 and Va2 from equation
(4.94) in equation (4.114). The expression for Ia2 is:

(Ea Z1 Ia1 )
Ia2 =
Z2

(4.118)

Finally, by substituting Ia0 and Ia2 from equations (4.117) and (4.118) in equation (4.112), the value
168

of the positive sequence component of current Ia1 is found out as:

Ia1 =

Ea
Z2 (Z0 + 3Zf )
Z1 +
(Z0 + Z2 + 3Zf )

(4.119)

f If , from equation (4.115) one can conclude that


Since Vb = Z
If = 3Ia0

(4.120)

The equivalent circuit for the fault in terms of the sequence networks is shown in Fig. 4.59. The
circuit shown in Fig. 4.59 is based on equations (4.114) and (4.116). For LLG fault calculations in
a power system, the Thevenins equivalent of the three sequence networks, as seen from the fault
point, are found out. The positive and negative sequence equivalents are connected in parallel and
f . In the next lecture,
the combination is then connected to the zero sequence network through 3Z
BUS matrix.
we will study the procedure of unbalanced fault analysis using Z

169

4.10

BUS matrix:
Unbalanced fault analysis using Z

In the previous section, it is observed that, for fault calculations the Thevenins equivalent networks,
at the fault point, are needed for the three sequence networks. Since the three sequence networks are
BUS matrices of these sequence networks can be found seperately. The diagonal
independent, the Z
BUS matrices infact, are the Thevenins equivalent impedances
elements of the three sequence Z
of the sequence networks as seen from the various buses. Let, the three sequence bus impedance
matrices for zero sequence, positive sequence and negative sequence networks be represented as
th bus, then Z(0) , Z(1) and Z(2)
(0)
(1)
(2)
[Z
BUS ], [ZBUS ] and [ZBUS ] respectively. If the fault is at the k
kk
kk
kk
of the sequence bus impedance matrices are the zero, positive and negative Thevenins equivalent
impedances, respectively, as seen from the faulted bus. Hence, the first step in the fault analysis
BUS matrix is the determination of the three sequence networks and subsequently, finding
using Z
the bus impedance matrix for each sequence network.
To illustrate this step, consider the single line diagram of the power system shown in Fig. 4.60.

Figure 4.60: Single line diagram of Power System


The positive sequence equivalent network for the system is shown in Fig. 4.61. In this figure all
the elements of the system have been represented by their positive sequence equivalents.
Similarly by representing all elements by their negative sequence impedances, the negative sequence equivalent network can be obtained. The negative sequence network is shown in Fig. 4.62.
For the zero sequence equivalent network, the generator neutral connections and transformer connections have to be considered. The zero sequence equivalent network is shown in Fig. 4.63. In
Bus ] matrix for the three sequence networks is found using [Z
Bus ] building
the next step, the [Z
(0)
(1)
(2)
Bus ], [Z
Bus ] and [Z
Bus ] matrices are known, the following procedure is followed
algorithm. Once [Z
for the fault analysis of the given network.
170

Figure 4.61: The positive sequence equivalent network

Figure 4.62: The negative sequence equivalent network

f as shown in Fig.
(a) LG fault: Let the fault be on phase a of bus k with a fault impedance Z
4.64.
From equations (4.98) and (4.101), it can be seen that the three equivalent sequence networks
are in series for calculating the sequence components of the fault currents. Hence, generalizing
equation (4.101) for fault at kth bus, the expression for sequence component of fault current can
be written as:

Ik(0) (F ) = Ik(1) (F ) = Ik(2) (F ) =

Vk (0)
(1)
(2)
(0)
Z(kk)
+ Z(kk)
+ Z(kk)
+ 3Zf

(4.121)

(0) , Z (1) and Z (2) are the kth diagonal elements of [Z


(0)
(1)
(2)
Z
Bus ], [ZBus ] and [ZBus ] matrices
kk
kk
kk
respectively.
Vk (0) is the prefault voltage of kth bus, usually taken as 10 pu.
171

Figure 4.63: The zero sequence equivalent network

Figure 4.64: LG fault on phase a of k th bus


The fault current is given by:

[I(012) (F)]
[I(abc)
(F)] = [A]
k
k

(4.122)

(b) LL fault: Let the fault be between phases phase b and phase c of bus k through an
f as shown in Fig. 4.65. From equation (4.109) and Fig. 4.57 it is observed that the
impedance Z
positive sequence and negative sequence equivalent networks are connected in phase opposition.
Thus, the expression of equation (4.109) for the sequence components of fault current at bus k
can be generalized as:

Ik(0) (F ) = 0
172

Figure 4.65: LL fault between phase b and phase c of k th bus


and

Ik(1) (F ) =

Vk (0)
= Ik(2) (F )
(0)
(1)
(2)
Z + Z + Z
kk

kk

(4.123)

kk

The phase components of fault current is the calculated from equation (4.122)

Ik (F ) = Ik(b) (F ) = Ik(c) (F )

(4.124)

(c) LLG fault: Fig. 4.66 shows an LLG fault involving phases phase b and phase c of bus k
f . Referring to equation (4.119) and Fig.4.66, the generalized expression
through an impedance Z

Figure 4.66: LLG fault involving phase b and phase c of k th bus


for sequence components of fault current at bus k can be written as

Ik(1) (F ) =

Vk (0)

(2)
(0)
Zkk
(Zkk
+ 3Zf )
(1)

Zkk + (2)
Z + Z (0) + 3Zf
kk

173

kk

(1) (1)
Vk (0) Zkk
Ik (F )
(2)

Ik (F ) =
(2)
Zkk

(4.125)

(1) (1)
Vk (0) Zkk
Ik (F )
(0)

Ik (F ) =
(0)
Zkk + 3Zf

The phase currents can be obtained from equation (4.122), the fault current is then calculated
as

Ik (F ) = Ik(b) (F ) + Ik(c) (F )

4.10.1

(4.126)

Calculation of Bus voltages and Line currents during fault:

To calculate the voltages of buses during fault equation (4.94) can be generalized as:

Vi(0) (F ) = Zik(0) Ik(0) (F )


Vi(1) (F ) = Vi(1) (0) Zik(1) Ik(1) (F )

(4.127)

Vi(2) (F ) = Zik(2) Ik(2) (F )


The pre fault voltage Vi1 (0)is usually set as 1.0 00 pu.
The bus phase voltage during fault is calculated from the following relation.

[Vi(012) (F )]
Vi(abc) (F ) = [A]

(4.128)

is the symmetrical component transformation matrix.


where [A]
To calculate the symmetrical components of line currents in the line from bus i to bus j the
following relation is used:
(0)
ij

I (F ) =
Iij(1) (F ) =
(2)
ij

I (F ) =
(0)

(1)

Vi(0) (F ) Vj(0) (F )
zij(0)

Vi(1) (F ) Vj(1) (F )
zij(1)

(4.129)

Vi(2) (F ) Vj(2) (F )
zij(2)

(2)

where zij , zij and zij are the zero, positive and negative sequence impedance respectively of
the line between bus i and bus j. The phase currents for the line can be calculated from the
symmetrical components using the relation:
174

Iij012 (F )]
[Iijabc (F )] = [A][

(4.130)

The process of fault analysis of a power system network is illustrated in the next lecture with
the help of an example.

175

4.11

Example of fault calculation for three phase and LG

faults in power system network


A single line diagram of a power system is shown in Fig. 4.67 and the system data is as follows:-

1 = X
2 = 0.2 pu, X
0 = 0.05 pu
Generators G1 and G2 : X
1 = X
2 = X
0 = X
` = 0.05 pu
Transformers T1 and T2 : X
1 = X
2 = 0.1 pu, X
0 = 0.3 pu
Transmission Lines L1 , L2 and L3 : X

Figure 4.67: Single line diagram of the power System of the example
Prefault voltage for all buses is taken as Vi (0) = 1.000 pu i = 1, 2, 3.
We wish to carry out the complete short-circuit analysis of the system for:
(a) three phase bolted fault at bus 5

f = 0.1 pu at bus 5
(b) LG fault with Z
f = 0.1 pu at bus 5
(c) LL fault with Z
f = 0.0 pu at bus 5
(d) LLG fault with Z
Solution:
(a) Three phase fault at bus 5
For the three phase bolted fault, only positive sequence network and the positive sequence bus
(1)
impedance matrix [Z
Bus ] is required. The positive sequence network for the power system of
Fig. 4.67 is shown in Fig. 4.68. In this diagram all the elements have been replaced by their per
unit positive sequence impedances.

(1)
The [Z
Bus ] matrix for the network of the Fig. 4.68 is given below:
176

Figure 4.68: Positive sequence equivalent network of Fig. 4.67

1
(1)
Bus

[Z

]=3
4
5

j0.1294
j0.0706
j0.1118
j0.0882
j0.10

j0.0706
j0.1294
j0.0882
j0.1118
j0.10

j0.1118
j0.0882
j0.1397
j0.1103
j0.1250

j0.0882 j0.10

j0.1118 j0.10

j0.1103 j0.1250 pu
j0.1397 j0.1250

j0.1250 j0.1750

The sequence component of three phase fault current at bus 5 are given as, from equation (4.73):

0
0

1
(012)

[I5 (F)] = 1 =
= j5.7143 pu

Z55 j0.1750

0 0

The phase components of the fault current are calculated using equation (4.122):

I5(012) (F)]
[I5(abc) (F)] = [A][
1 1 1
5.7143 900
0

(abc)
(abc)
[Ifault ] = [I5 (F)] = 1 a2 a j5.7143 = 5.71431500 pu

1 a a2
5.7143300
0

Bus voltages during fault


Bus 1:
177

(1) (1)
V1(1) (F ) = V1(1) (0) Z15
I5 (F )

= 1.0 j0.10 (j5.7143)


= 0.4285700 pu
(a)
(1)
Since this is a balanced fault, V1 (F ) = V1 (F )

0.4285700

(abc)
0

[V1 (F)] = 0.42857 120 pu

0.428571200

Bus 2:

(1) (1)
V2(1) (F ) = V2(1) (0) Z25
I5 (F )

= 1.0 j0.10 (j5.7143)


= 0.4285700 pu
(a)
(1)
Since this is a balanced fault V2 (F ) = V2 (F )

0.4285700

(abc)
[V2 (F)] = 0.42857 1200 pu

0.428571200

Bus 3:

(1) (1)
V3(1) (F ) = V3(1) (0) Z35
I5 (F )

= 1.0 j0.125 (j5.7143)


= 0.2857100 pu
(a)

(1)

Since this is a balanced fault V3 (F ) = V3 (F )

0.2857100

(abc)
0

[V3 (F)] = 0.28571 120 pu

0.285711200

Bus 4:
178

(1) (1)
V4(1) (F ) = V4(1) (0) Z45
I5 (F )

= 1.0 j0.125 (j5.7143)


= 0.2857100 pu
(a)
(1)
Since this is a balanced fault V4 (F ) = V4 (F )

0.2857100

(abc)
[V4 (F)] = 0.28571 1200 pu

0.285711200

0


(abc)
5 (F) = 0 pu because the fault
The bus voltage of bus 5 under faulted condition is V

0

impedance is zero.

Line Currents during fault


(1)

For line L1 from bus 3 to bus 4 the positive sequence component for line current (I34 (F )) is
calculated as:

V (1) (F ) V4(1) (F ) 0.28571 0.28571


(1)
=
=0
I34
(F ) = 3
(1)
j0.1
Z34
Hence, the phase components of line current are

0


(abc)
I34 (F) = 0 pu

0

(1)
For line L2 from bus 3 to bus 5 the positive sequence component for line current (I35 (F )) is
calculated as:

V3(1) (F ) V5(1) (F ) 0.28571 0.0


(1)

I35 (F ) =
=
= 2.8571 900 pu
(1)
j0.1
Z35
Hence, the phase components of line current are

2.8571 900

(abc)
0

[I35 (F)] = 2.8571150 pu

2.8571300

179

(1)
For line L3 from bus 4 to bus 5 the positive sequence component for line current (I45 (F )) is
calculated as:

V4(1) (F ) V5(1) (F ) 0.28571 0.0


(1)

=
I45 (F ) =
= 2.8571 900 pu
(1)

j0.1
Z45
Hence, the phase components of line current are

2.8571 900

(abc)
0

[I45 (F)] = 2.8571150 pu

2.8571300

Transformer Currents during fault


For transformer T1 between bus 1 and bus 3 the positive sequence component fault current
(1)
(I13
(F )) is calculated as:

V1(1) (F ) V3(1) (F ) 0.42857 0.28571


(1)

I13 (F ) =
=
= 2.8571 900 pu
(1)
j0.05
zT1
The phase components of the transformer T1 current are:

2.8571 900

(abc)
0

[I31 (F)] = 2.8571150 pu

2.8571300

For transformer T2 between bus 2 and bus 4 the positive sequence component fault current
(1)
(I24
(F )) is calculated as:

V (1) (F ) V4(1) (F ) 0.42857 0.28571


(1)
= 2.8571 900 pu
I24
(F ) = 2
=
(1)
j0.05
zT2
The phase components of the transformer T2 current are:

2.8571 900

(abc)
0

[I24 (F)] = 2.8571150 pu

2.8571300

Generator Currents during fault


(1)
For generator G1 connected at bus 1 the positive sequence component fault current (IG1 (F ))
is calculated as:

180

Ea V1(1) (F ) 1.0 0.42857


IG(1)1 (F ) =
=
= 2.8571 900 pu
(1)
j0.2
zG2
The phase components of the generator G1 current are:

2.8571 900

(abc)
0

[IG1 (F)] = 2.8571150 pu

2.8571300

(1)
For Generator G2 connected at bus 2 the positive sequence component fault current (IG2 (F ))
is calculated as:

Figure 4.69: Flow of fault current in the network

Ea V2(1) (F ) 1.0 0.42857


IG(1)2 (F ) =
=
= 2.8571 900 pu
(1)
j0.2
zG2
The phase components of the generator G2 current can be calculated as:

2.8571 900

(abc)
0

[IG2 (F)] = 2.8571150 pu

2.8571300

The flow of fault current in the system is shown in the single line diagram of Fig. 4.69.
(b) Single line to ground fault at bus 5

181

In this case all the sequence networks are required. The positive sequence network is same as
(1)
the one shown in the Fig. 4.68 and [Z
Bus ] is identical to the matrix used in three phase fault
analysis.
The negative sequence equivalent network for this network is as shown in Fig. 4.70. The network

Figure 4.70: Negative sequence equivalent network


(2)

(1)

Bus ] = [Z
Bus ].
is identical to the network of Fig. 4.68 except for the voltage sources. Hence, [Z
The zero sequence equivalent network is drawn next considering the transformer connections
and grounding as well as generator grounding. The equivalent zero sequence networks is shown
in Fig. 4.71.

Figure 4.71: Zero sequence equivalent network


An explanation of the equivalent circuit will be in order. Generators G1 and G2 have their neutrals grounded, so their zero sequence impedances are connected to the reference. Transformer
T1 has both the windings connected in star, with both neutrals solidly grounded. As a result,
the zero sequence impedance of the transformer is directly connected between buses 1 and 2.
182

Transformer T2 has both the winding connected in delta, hence, no connection exists between
the primary and secondary sides for zero sequence currents to flow. To represent circulating
zero sequence currents in the delta connected transformer winding, it is represented as a short
circuited winding.

(0)
[Z
Bus ], the zero sequence bus impedance matrix is then calculated using the step-by-step ZBus
building algorithm. The zero sequence bus impedance matrix is given as:
1
1
(0)
Bus

[Z

]=3
4
5

j0.05 0.0 j0.05 j0.05 j0.05

0.0 j0.05 0.0


0.0
0.0

j0.05 0.0 j0.10 j0.10 j0.10 pu


j0.05 0.0 j0.10 j0.30 j0.20

j0.05 0.0 j0.10 j0.20 j0.30

Fault current:
The sequence component of the fault current at bus 5 are given as, from equation (4.121):

I5(0) (F ) = I5(1) (F ) = I5(2) (F ) =

Vk (0)
1.0
= j1.538 pu
=
(1)
(2)
(0)
j0.175 + j0.175 + j0.30
Z55 + Z55 + Z55

1 1 1 j1.538

(abc)
(abc)
[Ifault ] = [I5 (F)] = 1 a2 a j1.538

1 a a2 j1.538

4.6154 900

(abc)

pu

[Ifault ] =
0

Bus voltages:
The bus voltage in sequence components, during fault, are calculated using equation (4.127)
written in compact form as:

V (0) (F ) 0 Z (0) 0
0 Ik(0) (F )
i
ik

(1)

V (F ) = Vi 0 Z (1) 0 I(1) (F )

i

ik
k

(2)

(2) (2)

Vi (F ) 0 0
0 Zik Ik (F )

(4.131)

(0) , Z (1) and Z (2) are the elements of the


where, k represents the faulted bus number and Z
ik
ik
ik
respective sequence bus impedance matrices.
Ik(0) , Ik(1) and Ik(2) represent the sequence components of fault current at kth bus.
Vi (0) is the pre fault bus voltage of ith bus.
Bus 1: The sequence voltages are:
183

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.05
0
0 j1.538

1


(1)
V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.10
0 j1.538

1


(2)
V1 (F ) 0 0
0
j0.10 j1.538

Or,

0.0769

(012)

[V1 (F)] = 0.8462 pu

0.1538

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.615400

(abc)
1 (F)] = 0.9638 116.040 pu
[V

0.9638 116.040

Bus 2: The sequence voltages are:

V (0) (F ) 0 0.0
0
0 j1.538
2

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0 j0.10
0 j1.538
2

(2)

V2 (F ) 0 0
0
j0.10 j1.538


Or,

0.0

(012)

2 (F)] = 0.8462 pu
[V

0.1538

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.692300

(abc)
2 (F)] = 0.9326 111.790 pu
[V

0.9326 111.790

Bus 3: The sequence voltages are:

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.10
0
0 j1.538
3

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.125
0 j1.538
3

(2)

V3 (F ) 0 0
0
j0.125 j1.538


Or,

0.1538

(012)

3 (F)] = 0.8077 pu
[V

0.1923

184

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.461500

(abc)
3 (F)] = 0.9813 118.050 pu
[V

0.9813 118.050

Bus 4: The sequence voltages are:

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.20
0
0 j1.538

4


(1)
j1.538
V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.125
0


(2)

V4 (F ) 0 0
j1.538
0
j0.125

Or,

0.3076

(012)

[V4 (F)] = 0.8077 pu

0.1923

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128).

0.307700

(abc)
0

4 (F)] = 1.0624 125.40 pu


[V

1.0624 125.400

Bus 5: The sequence voltages are:

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.30
0
0 j1.538
5

(1)

j1.538
V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.175
0
5

(2)

V5 (F ) 0 0
j1.538
0
j0.175

Or,

0.4615

(012)

[V5 (F)] = 0.7308 pu

0.2692

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated using equation (4.128)

0.000

(abc)
0

5 (F)] = 1.087 128.64 pu


[V

1.087 128.640

Observe that the phase voltage of the faulted phase a is zero due to a zero impedance fault.
Line Currents
185

The sequence components of line currents during fault are calculated using equation (4.129),
written here in compact form as

(0) 0
0

V (0) (F ) V (0) (F )
I(0) (F ) zij


i
ij
j
1


(1)
(1)
(1)
I (F ) = 0
0 Vi (F ) Vj (F )
(1)

ij
zij


(2)
(2)
(2)
Iij (F )
1 Vi (F ) Vj (F )

0
0

zij(2)

(4.132)

In equation (4.132), the line is between ith and jth buses.

zij(0) , zij(1) , zij(2) represent the respective sequence impedances of the line i j
Vi(0) (F ), Vi(1) (F ), Vi(2) (F ), Vj(0) (F ), Vj(1) (F ), Vj(2) (F ) are the sequence components of voltages of ith and jth buses respectively during fault.
Line 1: The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.3

34

0.1538 (0.3076)
(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 0.8077 0.8077
34

j0.10
(2)

I34 (F )
1.0 0.1923 (0.1923)

0
0

j0.10
Or,

j0.5128

(012)
pu
[I34 (F)] =
0

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

0.5128 900

(abc)
[I34 (F)] = 0.5128 900 pu

0.5128 900

Line 2: The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.3
35

0.1538 (0.4615)
(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 0.8077 0.7308

35
j0.10
(2)

I35 (F )
1.0 0.1923 (0.2692)

0
0

j0.10
186

Or,

j1.0256

(012)

[I35 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

2.5641 900

(abc)
[I35 (F)] = 0.2564 900 pu

0.2564 900

Line 3: The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.3

45
0.3077 (0.4615)

(1)


1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 0.8077 0.7308
45

j0.10
(2)


I45 (F )
1.0 0.1923 (0.2692)

0
0

j0.10
Or,

j0.5128

(012)
[I45 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

2.0513 900

(abc)
0

[I45 (F)] = 0.2564 90 pu

0.2564 900

Transformer Currents

Transformer T1 The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.05

13

0.0769 (0.1538)
(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0
0.8462 0.8077
0
13

j0.05
(2)

I13 (F )

0.1538

(0.1923)
1.0

j0.05
Or,

j1.538

(012)

[I13 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

187

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

3.0769 900

(abc)
[I13 (F)] = 0.7692 900 pu

0.7692 900

Transformer T2 The sequence components of line current are


1.0

0
0

I(0) (F )

24
0 (0.3076)
1.0


(1)

I (F ) = 0
0 0.8462 0.8077

24
j0.05


(2)

I24 (F )
0.1538 (0.1923)
1.0

j0.05

(012)

[I24 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

1.538 900

(abc)
[I24 (F)] = 0.7692 900 pu

0.7692 900

Generator Currents
The sequence components of generator currents during fault are calculated using the expression

(0) 0
0

I(0) (F ) zgi
E (0) (F ) V (0) (F )
Gi

Gi

ti
1
(1)

(1)

(1)
I (F ) = 0

0
EGi (F ) Vti (F )
(1)
Gi

zgi
(2)

(2)

(2)
IGi (F )
1 EGi (F ) Vti (F )


0
0

(2)

zgi

(4.133)

where,
(0)
(1)
(2)
EGi
(F ), EGi
(F ), EGi
(F ) the zero, positive and negative sequence generated voltages respecth
tively of i generator.
Vti(0) (F ), Vti(1) (F ), Vti(2) (F ) are the zero, positive and negative sequence terminal voltages respectively of ith generator after fault.
(0)
(1)
(2)
zgi
(F ), zgi
(F ) and zgi
(F ) are the sequence impedances of the ith generator.

Generator 1 : The sequence components of generator 1 current are


188

1.0

0
0
0 (0.0769)
I(0) (F ) j0.05


G1


(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 1 0.8462

G1
j0.20


(2)

IG1 (F )
1.0 0 (0.1538)
0

j0.20
j1.538

(012)
[IG1 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

The phase components generator current are calculated as:

3.0769 900

(abc)
0

[IG1 (F)] = 0.7692 90 pu

0.7692 900

Generator 2 : The sequence components of Generator 1 current are

1.0

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.05

00
G2

(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 1 0.8462
G2

j0.20
(2)

IG2 (F )
1.0 0 (0.1538)

0
0

j0.20

(012)
[IG2 (F)] = j0.7692 pu

j0.7692

The phase components generator current are calculated as:

1.538 900

(abc)
0

[IG2 (F)] = 0.7692 90 pu

0.7692 900

The flow of sequence currents in the sequence networks is shown next in the Fig. 4.72. From
Fig. 4.72 the following points are worth observing:
Both generators contribute equal amount of positive and negative sequence currents as the
network is symmetrical as seen from the fault point.
Since the positive and negative sequence fault voltages are equal for buses 3 and 4, the
positive and negative sequence currents through line L1 between buses 3 and 4 are zero.
189

Figure 4.72: Flow of sequence currents for LG fault at bus 5


The zero sequence circuit of generator G2 is open circuited due to transformer T2
as a result, G2 does not contribute any zero sequence current to the fault. Generator G1
has to provide the entire zero sequence current.
190

Moreover, the zero sequence network is not symmetrical, hence, zero sequence voltages of
buses 3 and 4 are not equal and as a result a zero sequence current flows through line L1 .
In the next lecture, we will look into the examples of short circuit fault calculation for LL and
LLG faults.

191

4.12

Example of fault calculation for LL and LLG fault

in power system network


(b) Double line (LL) fault between phases b and c at bus 5
(1)

(2)

Bus ] and [Z
Bus ]
In this case only positive and negative sequence networks are required. Hence [Z
f = j0.1 pu.
as calculated previously will be used. Let the fault impedance be Z
Fault current calculations: The sequence components of fault current are calculated using equation (4.123).

I5(1) (F ) = 0
As zero sequence current can not flow without a ground path.

I5(1) (F ) =

1.0
V5(0)
=
= j2.2222 pu
(1)
(2)
Z55 + Z55 + Zf j0.175 + j0.175 + j0.1
I5(2) (F ) = I5(1) (F ) = j2.222 pu

Hence

(012)

[I5 (F)] = j2.222 pu

j2.222

The phase components of the fault current are

(abc)

[I5 (F)] = 3.849 pu

3.849

Bus voltage calculations:


Bus 1: The sequence components of bus 1 voltage are calculated as
192

Zero Sequence

V1(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu
Positive Sequence
(1) (1)
V1(1) (F ) = V1(1) (0) Z15
I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.10 (j2.222)

V1(1) (F ) = 0.7778 pu
Negative Sequence
(2) (2)
V1(2) (F ) = Z15
I5 (F ) = j0.10 (j2.222)

V1(2) (F ) = 0.2222 pu
Hence, the sequence components of bus 1 voltage are:

012

1 (F)] = 0.7778 pu
[V

0.2222

bus 1 voltage in phase form

1.0

(abc)
0

[V(1) (F)] = 0.6939 136 pu

0.69391360

Bus 2: The sequence components of bus 2 voltage are calculated as


Zero Sequence

V2(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu
Positive Sequence
(1) (1)
V2(1) (F ) = V2(1) (0) Z25
I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.10 (j2.222)

V2(1) (F ) = 0.7778 pu
Negative Sequence

(2) (2)
V2(2) (F ) = Z25
I5 (F ) = j0.10 (j2.222)

193

V2(2) (F ) = 0.2222 pu
Hence, the sequence components of bus 2 voltage are:

012

[V2 (F)] = 0.7778 pu

0.2222

bus 2 voltage in phase form

1.0

(abc)
0

[V
(2) (F)] = 0.6939 136 pu

0.69391360

Bus 3: The sequence components of bus 3 voltage are calculated as


Zero Sequence

V3(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu
Positive Sequence
(1) (1)
V3(1) (F ) = V3(1) (0) Z35
I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.125 (j2.222)

V3(1) (F ) = 0.7222 pu
Negative Sequence
(2) (2)
V3(2) (F ) = Z35
I5 (F ) = j0.125 (j2.222)

V3(2) (F ) = 0.2778 pu
Hence, the sequence components of bus 3 voltage are:

012
3 (F)] = 0.7222 pu
[V

0.2778

bus 3 voltage in phase form


194

1.0

(abc)
0.6310 142.410 pu

[V
=
(F)]

(3)

0
0.6310142.41

Bus 4: The sequence components of bus 4 voltage are calculated as


Zero Sequence

V4(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu
Positive Sequence
(1) (1)
V4(1) (F ) = V4(1) (0) Z45
I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.125 (j2.222)

V4(1) (F ) = 0.7222 pu
Negative Sequence
(2) (2)
V4(2) (F ) = Z45
I5 (F ) = j0.125 (j2.222)

V4(2) (F ) = 0.2778 pu
Hence, the sequence components of bus 4 voltage are:

012

[V4 (F)] = 0.7222 pu

0.2778

bus 4 voltage in phase form

1.0

(abc)
0

[V(4) (F)] = 0.6310 142.41 pu

0.6310142.410

Bus 5: The sequence components of bus 5 voltage are calculated as


Zero Sequence

V5(0) (F ) = 0.0 pu
Positive Sequence
(1) (1)
V5(1) (F ) = V5(1) (0) Z55
I5 (F ) = 1.0 j0.175 (j2.222)

195

V5(1) (F ) = 0.6111 pu
Negative Sequence
(2) (2)
V5(2) (F ) = Z55
I5 (F ) = j0.175 (j2.222)

V5(2) (F ) = 0.3889 pu
Hence, the sequence components of bus 5 voltage are:

012
5 (F)] = 0.6111 pu
[V

0.3889

bus 5 voltage in phase form

1.0

(abc)
0

[V(5) (F)] = 0.5358 158.95 pu

0.5358158.950

Line current calculations:


Line 1: The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.3

0
34

(1)


1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 0.7222 0.7222
34

j0.10
(2)

I34 (F )
1.0 0.2778 0.2778

0
0

j0.10
0


(012)
[I34 (F)] = 0 pu

0

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

0


(abc)
[I34 (F)] = 0 pu

0

Line 2: The sequence components of line current are
196

1.0

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.3
0

35

(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 0.7222 0.6111
35

j0.10

(2)

I35 (F )
1.0 0.2778 0.3889

0
0

j0.10

(012)

[I35 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

(abc)
[I35 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

Line 3: The sequence components of line current are

1.0

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.3

45

(1)


1.0

I (F ) = 0
0 0.7222 0.6111
45

j0.10

(2)


I45 (F )
1.0 0.2778 0.3889

0
0

j0.10

(012)
[I45 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

The line current in phase form is calculated as:

(abc)
[I45 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

Transformer current calculations:


Transformer 1: The sequence components of transformer 1 current are:

1.0

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.05
0
13

(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0

0 (0.7778 0.7222)
13

j0.05
(2)

I13 (F )
1.0 (0.2222 0.2778)

0
0

j0.05
197

(012)
[I13 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

The transformer current in phase form is calculated as:

(abc)

[I13 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

Transformer 2: The sequence components of transformer 2 current are:

1.0

0
0

I (F ) j0.05


1.0
I (F ) = 0
0 (0.7778 0.7222)


j0.05


I (F )
1.0 (0.2222 0.2778)

0
0

j0.05
(0)
24
(1)
24
(2)
24

(012)

[I24 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

The transformer current in phase form is calculated as:

(abc)

[I24 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

Generator current calculations:


Generator 1: The sequence components of generator 1 current are

1.0

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.05

0
G1

(1)

1.0
I (F ) = 0

0 (1 0.7778)
G1

j0.20
(2)

IG1 (F )
(0 0.2222)
1.0

j0.20

(012)

[IG1 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

198

The generator current in phase form is calculated as:

(abc)

[IG1 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

Generator 2: The sequence components of generator 2 current are

1.0

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.05
0

G2

(1)
1.0

I (F ) = 0
0 (1 0.7778)

G2
j0.20

(2)
IG2 (F )
1.0 (0 0.2222)
0

j0.20

(012)

[IG2 (F)] = j1.1111 pu

j1.1111

The generator current in phase form is calculated as:

(abc)

[IG2 (F)] = 1.9245 pu

1.9245

From Fig. 5.54 it can be seen that:

V5(1) (F ) = V5(2) (F ) + Zf I5(1) (F ) = 0.3889 + j0.1 j2.222


V5(1) (F ) = 0.6111pu
This value is same as the one calculated earlier.
The flow of sequence currents in the sequence networks is shown next in the Fig.4.73.
(c) Double line to ground fault (LLG) fault involving phases b and c at bus 5

(2)
(0)
(1)
In this case all the three sequence networks are required. Hence, [Z
Bus ],[ZBus ],and [ZBus ] as
f = 0.
calculated earlier will be used. It is assumed that the fault impedance Z
Fault current calculations:
The sequence components of fault current are calculated using equation (4.125) as follows:
Positive Sequence Current
199

Figure 4.73: Flow of sequence currents for LL fault at bus 5

I5(1) (F ) =

I5(1) (F ) =

(1)
Z55
+

1.0
(2) (0)
Z55
(Z55 + 3Zf )

(2)
(0)
Z55
+ Z55
+ 3Zf

1.0
j0.175(j0.175 + 3 0)
j0.175 +
j0.175 + j0.3 + 3 0
I5(1) (F ) = j3.5023 pu

The negative and zero sequence currents are calculated using current division as:
Negative Sequence Current

(0)
Z55
I5(1) (F )
(0)
(2)

Z55 + Z55
j0.3
=
(j3.5023)
(j0.3 + j0.175)

I5(2) (F ) =

I5(2) (F ) = j2.212 pu
Zero Sequence Current
200

(2)
Z55
I5(1) (F )
(0)
(2)

Z55 + Z55
j0.175
(j3.5023)
=
(j0.3 + j0.175)

I5(0) (F ) =

I5(0) (F ) = j1.2903 pu
Hence, the fault current in sequence components is :

j1.290

(012)
[I5 (F)] = j3.503 pu

j2.212

The phase components of the fault current are :

(abc)
0

[I5 (F)] = 5.3137158.64 pu

5.313721.360

The total fault current

) = I5(b) (F ) + I5(c) (F )
I(F
= 5.3137158.640 + 5.313721.360

) = 3.871900 pu
I(F
Bus Voltage Calculations:
Bus 1:
The sequence components of bus 1 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.05
0
0 j1.290
1

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.10
0 j3.503
1

(2)

V1 (F ) 0 0
0
j0.10 j2.212


201

0.0645

(012)
1 (F)] = 0.6497 pu
[V

0.2212

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated as:

0.935500

(abc)
0

[V1 (F)] = 0.5248 134.99 pu

0.5248134.990

Bus 2:
The sequence components of bus 2 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 0
0
0 j1.290
2

(1)

j3.503
V (F ) = 1.0 0 j0.10
0

(2)

V2 (F ) 0 0
j2.212
0
j0.10

(012)

2 (F)] = 0.6497 pu
[V

0.2212

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated as:

0.871000

(abc)
0

[V2 (F)] = 0.5722 139.56 pu

0.5722139.560

Bus 3:
The sequence components of bus 3 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.10
0
0 j1.290
3

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.125
0 j3.503
3

(2)

V3 (F ) 0 0
0
j0.125 j2.212


0.1290

(012)

[V3 (F)] = 0.5622 pu

0.2765

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated as:


202

0.976600

(abc)
3 (F)] = 0.3815 139.560 pu
[V

0.3815139.560

Bus 4:
The sequence components of bus 5 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.20
0
0 j1.290
4

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.125
0 j3.503
4

(2)

V4 (F ) 0 0
0
j0.125 j2.212


0.2581

(012)

[V4 (F)] = 0.5622 pu

0.2765

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated as:

1.096800

(abc)
4 (F)] = 0.2954 123.100 pu
[V

0.2954123.100

Bus 5:
The sequence components of bus 5 voltage are calculated as

V (0) (F ) 0 j0.30
0
0 j1.290
5

(1)

V (F ) = 1.0 0
j0.175
0 j3.503
5

(2)

V5 (F ) 0 0
0
j0.175 j2.212


0.3871

(012)

5 (F)] = 0.3871 pu
[V

0.3871

The bus voltage in the phase form is calculated as:

1.161300

(abc)

pu

[V5 (F)] =
0

Line Current Calculations:

Line L1
203

The sequence components of Line 1 current are calculated as

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.30
34

(0.1290 0.2581)

(1)

1
I (F ) = 0
(0.5622 0.5622)
0

34

j0.10

(2)

I34 (F )

(0.2765

0.2765)
1

j0.10
Hence,

j0.4301

(012)

[I34 (F)] = 0 pu

The phase components of line 1 fault current are

j0.4301

(abc)

[I34 (F)] = j0.4301 pu

j0.4301

Line L2
The sequence components of Line 2 current are calculated as

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.30
(0.1290 0.3871)
35

(1)

1
I (F ) = 0
0 (0.5622 0.3871)
35

j0.10

(2)


I35 (F )
1 (0.2765 0.3871)

0
0

j0.10
Hence,

j0.8602

(012)
[I35 (F)] = j1.7511 pu

j1.1060

The phase components of line 2 fault current are

0.2151900

(abc)
0

[I35 (F)] = 2.7425154.25 pu

0.295425.550

Line L3
204

The sequence components of Line 3 current are calculated as

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.30
45

(0.2581 0.3871)

(1)

1
I (F ) = 0
(0.5622 0.3871)
0

45

j0.10

(2)

I45 (F )

(0.2765

0.3871)
1

j0.10
Hence,

j0.4301

(012)
[I45 (F)] = j1.7511 pu

j1.1060

The phase components of line 3 fault current are

0.2151 900

(abc)
[I45 (F)] = 2.5863163.080 pu

2.586316.920

Transformer Current Calculations:

Transformer T1
The sequence components of Transformer 1 current are calculated as:

0
0
I(0) (F ) j0.05

(0.0645 0.1290)
13

(1)

1
I (F ) = 0
0 (0.6497 0.5622)
13

j0.05

(2)


I13 (F )
1 (0.2212 0.2765)

0
0

j0.05
Hence,

j1.290

(012)

[I13 (F)] = j1.750 pu

j1.106

The phase components of Transformer 1 fault current are

0.6452900

(abc)
0

[I13 (F)] = 2.9536146.90 pu

2.953633.100

205

Transformer T2
The sequence components of Transformer 2 current are calculated as

0
0
I(0) (F )
(0.0 0.2581)

24

1

(1)

I (F ) = 0
0 (0.6497 0.5622)
24

j0.05

(2)

I24 (F )
1 (0.2212 0.2765)

0
0

j0.05

Hence,

(012)
[I24 (F)] = j1.750 pu

j1.106

The phase components of Transformer 2 fault current are

0.6452 900

(abc)
0

[I24 (F)] = 2.4953172.57 pu

2.49537.430

Figure 4.74: Flow of sequence currents for LLG fault at bus 5


Generator Current Calculations:

Line G1 The sequence components of Generator 1 current are calculated as:

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.05
G1

(0.0 0.0645)
(1)

1
I (F ) = 0
0 (1.0 0.6497)
G1

j0.20

(2)
IG1 (F )
1 (0.0 0.2212)

0
0

j0.20
206

j1.290

(012)
[IG1 (F)] = j1.750 pu

j1.106

0.645200

(abc)
[IG1 (F)] = 2.9536146.900 pu

2.953633.100

Line G2 The sequence components of Generator 2 current are calculated as:


1

0
0

I(0) (F ) j0.05

G2
(0.0 0.0)


(1)

1
I (F ) = 0
0 (1.0 0.6497)

G2
j0.20


(2)

IG2 (F )
1 (0.0 0.2212)
0

j0.20
0.0

(012)

[IG2 (F)] = j1.750 pu

j1.106

0.645200

(abc)
0

[IG2 (F)] = 2.4953172.57 pu

2.49537.430

The flow of sequence currents in the sequence networks is shown in the Fig.4.74.
We will be discussing open-conductor faults in the next lecture.

207

4.13

Open Conductor Faults:

When one or two phases of a balanced three-phase line opens it creates an unbalance in the
system and results in the flow of unbalanced currents. Such conditions occur in the system when
one or two conductors of a trnansmission line are broken due to storm or if fuses, isolators or
circuit breakers operate only on one or two phases leaving others connected. Such open conductor
Bus ] matrices of sequence networks.
faults can also be analysed with the help of [Z

Figure 4.75: Open Conductor faults on a section of three phase system


In Fig. 4.75, a section of a three phase system between buses i and j is shown. Fig. 4.75 (a)
shows one conductor open while Fig. 4.75 (b) shows two conductors open between points k and
k . The positive direction of currents Ia , Ib and Ic are shown in the figure. For the analysis of
such faults, the Thevenins impedance between two buses i and j is required and the relationship
Bus ] and Thevenins impedances at each bus of the network needs
between the elements of [Z
to be established.

0 ] be the vector of open-circuit bus voltages corresponding to the initial (pre-fault) value
Let [V
Bus ]. We can
of bus current vector [
I0 ] injected in a network with bus impedance matrix [Z
then write
208

0 ] = [Z
Bus ][I0 ]
[V

(4.134)

can be
If the bus currents are changed to a new value, [
I0 + I], the new bus voltage [V]
expressed as:

= [Z
Bus ] [I0 + I]
[V]
Bus ][I0 ] + [Z
Bus ][I]
= [Z

(4.135)

0 ] + [V]

= [V
represents the change in the values of the original bus voltage [V
0 ].
where,[V]
Fig. 4.76 represents a power system with buses i and j taken out along with the reference node.
0 ] and [I0 ] are zero. Currents [Ii ] and [Ij ] are
The circuit is not energised so that [V
injected into the ith and jth buses respectively, through current sources connected between the
node and the reference node.

due to current [Ii ] and [Ij ]


Figure 4.76: Change in bus voltage [V]
209

can be calculated from equation (4.135) as


The changes in bus voltage [V]
V 1


Vi i

V = j


VN N

Z11 Z1i

Zi1 Zii
Zj1 Zji

ZN 1 ZN i

Z1j Z1N

Zij ZiN
Zjj ZjN

ZN j ZN N

I
1


Ii

I
j


IN

V Z I + Z I

1j
j
1

1i i


Vi Zii Ii + Zij Ij

V = Z I + Z I

jj
j
j

ji i


VN ZN i Ii + ZN j Ij

(4.136)

The modified voltage at ith bus can be written as :

Vi = Vi0 + Vi = Vi0 + Zii Ii + Zij Ij

(4.137)

ij Ii in equation (4.137), one obtains


adding and subtracting Z
Vi = Vi0 + (Zii Zij )Ii + Zij (Ii + Ij )

(4.138)

Similarly the modified voltage at jth bus can be written as

j = Vj0 + Zji Ii + Zjj Ij


Vj = Vj0 + V

(4.139)

ji Ij in equation (4.139) , one obtains


adding and subtracting Z
Vj = Vj0 + (Zjj Zji )Ij + Zji (Ii + Ij )

(4.140)

Since the network is symmetrical

Zji = Zij

(4.141)

Thus the equations (4.138) and (4.140) can be represented by an equivalent circuit shown in
Fig. 4.77, which is also the Thevenins Equivalent circuit of the network as seen from the ith
and jth buses.
From the figure it can be observed that the Thevenins open circuit voltage between ith and jth
buses is (Vi0 Vj0 ).
210

Figure 4.77: The Thevenins Equivalent of the original network


To calculate the open circuit impedance between ith and jth buses, the initial voltages Vi0 and
Vj0 are set equal to zero and an ideal current source I is connected between the two busses.
Next, the resulting voltages Vi and Vj are calculated. Note that Ii = I and Ij = I.

Vi = (Zii Zij )I

(4.142)

Vj = (Zjj Zji )(I)

(4.143)

Next, calculate the voltage difference Vij between ith and jth buses as:

Vij = Vi Vj = (Zii + Zjj 2Zij )I

(4.144)

Hence,

ZT hevenin,ij =

Vij
= (Zii + Zjj 2Zij )
I

(4.145)

Once the Thevenins equivalent is established, the analysis of open-conductor faults can proceed
further. The opening of all the three phases is equivalent to the removal of the line i j totally
(0)
(1)
(2)
from the network. If zij , zij and zij are the the three sequence impedance of the line i
j, then the removal of this line from the network can be simulated by adding
zij(0) ,
zij(1) and

zij(2) to the corresponding Thevenins equivalent network of the three sequence networks of the
original network as seen from ith and jth buses.
Let x represents the fractional length of the broken line i j from ith bus to the break point
k, where 0 x 1.
211

The positive sequence impedance of the conductor segment between the ith bus and the point of
break k is x
zij(1) , and the positive sequence impedance of the remaining conductor from point k to
j th bus is (1 x)
zij(1) . These two impedances are then added to represent the broken conductor.
This is illustrated in Fig. 4.78

Figure 4.78: Positive sequence equivalent network with line open between buses k and k
(a)

(b)

(c)

If Vkk , Vkk and Vkk represent the phase component of voltage drops between points k and
(0)
(1)
(2)
k, then Vkk , Vkk and Vkk represent the sequence components of the voltage drops between
points k and k. These sequence voltages have different values depending on the type of open
conductor fault.
(1)
To further simplify the circuit, the voltage Vkk and the total series impedance [x
zij(1) + (1

x)
zij(1) ] = zij(1) is replaced by a current source

Vkk(1)
(1)
ij

(1)

and a parallel impedance zij as shown in

Fig. 4.79.
(1)

(1)

Further, the parallel combination of zij and


zij is and hence, is replaced by an open circuit.
The final simplified positive sequence impedance equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.80
Similarly, the negative sequence and zero sequence equivalent networks are shown in Fig.4.81 (a)
and (b) repectively. These equivalent networks are identical to the positive sequence equivalent
network but do not contain any internal voltage sources.
The equivalent currents

Vkk(1) Vkk(2)
,
(1)

zij

zij(2)

and

Vkk(0)
zij(0)

are due to open conductor fault between k and

k. If no conductor is open then the sequence voltages are all zero and the current sources are
not present in the equivalent circuit. Further, the current sources can be regarded as current
injections into the buses i and j of the original sequence networks. All through the calculation
212

Figure 4.79: Thevenins Equivalent with transformed current source

Figure 4.80: Final positive sequence Thevenins Equivalent circuit repesenting the opening of line i
j between buses k and k

(0)

(1)

(2)

Bus ], [Z
Bus ] and [Z
Bus ] of the original network are
process, the bus impedance matrices [Z
used.

The current injections at the buses i and j can be tabulated as:


213

Figure 4.81: Final (a) negative sequence (b) zero sequence Thevenins Equivalent circuit repesenting
the opening of line i j between k and k
Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero sequence
at ith bus
at j th bus

Vkk(1)

Vkk(2)

zij(1)
Vkk(1)
(1)
zij

Vkk(0)

zij(2)
Vkk(2)
(2)
zij
(0)

(1)

zij(0)
Vkk(0)
(0)
zij
(2)

The sequence voltage drops Vn , Vn and Vn at any bus n due to the current injections
at the buses i and j can be calculates from equation (4.136) as:

(0)
n

Vn(1) =
Vn(2) =

(0)
(0) (0)
(Zni
Znj
)Vkk

zij(0)
(1)
(1) (1)
(Zni
Znj
)Vkk

zij(1)
(2)
(2) (2)
(Zni
Znj
)V
(2)
ij

(4.146)

kk

Next, the Thevenins equivalent impedances for each sequence network, as seen from the busesk
and k, are calculated as follows:

(1) is found out as :


From Fig.4.78, the positive sequence equivalent impdeance Z
kk
(1)
Zkk
zij(1) +
= x

(1)
Zth,ij
(
zij(1) )
+ (1 x)
zij(1)
(1)
(1)
Z
+ (
zij )
th,ij

214

(1)
kk

(
zij(1) )2
= (1)
Z
zij(1)

(4.147)

th,ij

Similarly from Fig. 4.81 (a) and (b), the negative sequence and zero sequence Thevenins equivalent impedances can be expressed as:

(2)
Zkk
=

(
zij(2) )2
Z (2) zij(2)
th,ij

(4.148)
(0)
Zkk
=

(
zij(0) )2
Z (0) zij(0)
th,ij

The open-circuit voltage from point k to k can be calculated as:


(1)
th,kk

(
zij(1) )2
(Vi(1) Vj(1) )
= (1)
(1)

Z
zij

(4.149)

th,ij

substituting

(1)
Zkk

zij(1)

(1)
Vth,kk
is obtained as:

zij(1)

(1)
Zth,ij
zij(1)

from equation (4.147) in equation (4.149), the final value of

(1)
Zkk

(1)
Vth,kk
=
(Vi(1) Vj(1) )

(1)
zij

(4.150)

(1)
Also prior to the occurance of open-conductor fault on any conductor, the current Iij flowing
in phase a is the positive sequence component and is given by the relation:

Iij(1) =

(Vi(1) Vj(1) )
zij(1)

(4.151)

Substituting equation (4.151) in equation (4.150), one gets


(1)
(1) (1)
Vth,kk
= Zkk Iij

(4.152)

The Thevenins equivalent network as seen from points k and k for the three sequence networks
are shown in Fig. 4.82
We are now ready to discuss the two possible cases of open-circuit fault i.e. (a) open phase open
(b) two phases open. We will be discussing them in the next lecture.

215

Figure 4.82: Thevenins Equivalent networks as seen from k and k

4.13.1

One Phase open:

Consider that phase a conductor is open as shown in Fig. 4.75(a), hence phase a current Ia = 0.
As a result:

Ia(1) + Ia(2) + Ia(0) = 0


(1)

(2)

(4.153)

(0)

where, Ia , Ia and Ia are the symmetrical components of phase a current. Since phases b and
c are closed , the voltage drops .

Vkk ,b = 0 Vkk ,c = 0
216

(4.154)

The symmetrical components of voltage drops across the fault point can be calculated as :

V (0)
1 1 1 V
V
kk ,a
a

kk ,a

(1) 1

1
Va = 1 a a2 0 = Vkk ,a
3

(2)

2
Va
1 a a 0
Vkk ,a

(4.155)

1
Va(0) = Va(1) = Va(2) = Vkk ,a
3

(4.156)

Hence,

It implies that open conductor in phase a causes equal voltages to appear across points k and
k of each sequence network. Hence, the three equivalent sequence networks can be connected in
parallel across points k and k as shown in Fig. 4.83.

Figure 4.83: Connection of Equivalent sequence networks to represent open phase a between k and
k
(1)
The current Ia is given as :

Ia(1) = Iij

(1)
Zkk
+

(1)
Zkk

(2)
Z Z (0)
kk

kk

(2)
(0)
Zkk
+ Zkk

simplifying

Ia(1) = Iij

(1) (2)
(0)
Zkk
[Zkk + Zkk ]
Z (0) Z (1) + Z (1) Z (2) + Z (2) Z (0)
kk

kk

kk

kk

kk

(4.157)

kk

(1)
(2)
(0)
The sequence voltage drops Vkk , Vkk and Vkk can be calculated with reference to Fig.4.83 as:

(2) (0)
(1)
(1) Zkk Zkk

Vkk = Ia
(2)
(0)
Zkk
+ Zkk
(1)
Substituting Ia and simplifying we get:

217

Vkk(1) = Vkk(2) = Vkk(0) = Iij

(1) (2) (0)


Zkk
Zkk Zkk
(0)
(1)
Z Z + Z (1) Z (2) + Z (2) Z (0)
kk

(1)

(2)

kk

kk

kk

kk

(4.158)

kk

(0)

, Z , and Z are obtained from the impedance parameters of the sequence networks
Z
kk
kk
kk
[equation (4.147) and equation (4.148)].
Iij is the pre-fault current or load current in phase a of the line i j
Next, the equivalent injected currents
(0)

(1)

(2)

Vkk(1) Vkk(2)
,
(1)

zij

zij(2)

and

Vkk(0)
zij(0)

are calculated.

Further, Vi ,Vi and Vi representing the changes in the symmetrical components of


bus voltage are calculated using equation (4.146).
Finally, the bus voltages after fault are calculated using superposition principle as :

Vi(1) (F ) = Vi(1) (0) + Vi(1)


Vi(2) (F ) = Vi(1)
Vi(0) (F ) = Vi(2)

4.13.2

(4.159)

Two Phases open:

When two phases b and c are open then,

Vkk(1) ,a = Va(0) + Va(1) + Va(2) = 0


Ib = 0
Ic = 0

(4.160)

The sequence components of line current are:

I(0)
1 1 1 I

a
a

(1) 1
Ia = 1 a a2 0

3


(2)
2
1 a a 0
Ia



Simplifying one gets the condition:

1
Ia(0) = Ia(1) = Ia(2) = Ia
3

(4.161)

equation (4.161) indicates that the three equivalent sequence networks are in series and to ensure
V + Va(1) + Va(2) = 0 the circuit should be closed.The interconnection of the sequence networks is
shown in Fig.4.84.
From the equivalent circuit of Fig.4.84, the sequence currents can be calculated as :
(0)
a

218

Figure 4.84: Connection of Equivalent sequence networks to represent open phases b and c between
k and k

Ia(1) = Ia(2) = Ia(0) = Iij

(1)
Zkk

(0)
(1)

Z + Z + Z (2)
kk

kk

(4.162)

kk

Iij is the pre-fault current in phase a.


The sequence voltage can be calculated as:
(1) (0)
(2)
Zkk
(Zkk + Zkk )
(1)
(2)
(1) (0)

Vkk = Ia (Zkk + Zkk ) = Iij (0)


(1)
(2)
Zkk + Zkk
+ Zkk
(1) (2)
Zkk
Zkk
(2)

Vkk(2) = Ia(2) Zkk


=

ij (0)
(1)
(2)
Zkk + Zkk
+ Zkk
(1) (0)
Zkk
Zkk
(0)

Vkk(0) = Ia(0) Zkk


=

ij (0)
(1)
(2)
Zkk + Zkk
+ Zkk

(4.163)

Remaining calculations are similar to those performed for single conductor open case. In the
next lecture we will be looking at an example of open conductor fault analysis.
219

4.14

Example of calculations for open conductor fault in


power system:

The power system described in Fig. 4.67 is considered again.


The prefault bus voltages for buses 3, 4 and 5 are :

V (0) 0.9165 8.7580

V4 (0) = 0.9152 10.0980 pu

V5 (0) 0.8858 12.9610

ONE CONDUCTOR OPEN


Let one conductor of line 7 between buses 4 and 5 be open. The pre-fault current in phase a of
(0)
(1)
the faulted line is I45 = (0.3821 j0.3779) pu. The sequence impedance matrices [Z
Bus ], [ZBus ]
(2)
and [Z
Bus ] are same as used in the example for calculation of short circuit faults on the power
system of Fig. 4.67.
The Thevenins impedance of the network as seen from buses 4 and 5 is calculated using equation
(4.145) with i=4 and i=5 as:
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Zth,45
= Z44
+ Z55
2Z45
= j0.1397 + j0.1750 2 0.1250 = j0.0647 pu

(2)
(1)
Zth,45
= Zth,45
= j0.0647 pu

(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Zth,45
= Z44
+ Z55
2Z45
= j0.30 + j0.30 2 0.20 = j0.20 pu
(1)

(2)

(0)

, Z andZ are calculated from equation (4.147) and equation (4.148).


Next,Z
kk
kk
kk
(1) 2
(
z45
)
(j0.1)2
(1)

Zkk = (1)
=
= j0.2833 pu
(1)
j0.0647 j0.10
Zth,45 z45
(2)
(1)
Zkk
= Zkk = j0.2833 pu
(0) 2
(
z45
)
(j0.30)2
(0)

Zkk = (0)
=
= j0.90 pu
(0)
j0.20 j0.30
Zth,45 z45
(1)
The current Ia is calculated using equation (4.157)

Ia(1) = Iij

(1) (2)
(0)
Zkk
[Zkk + Zkk ]
Z (0) Z (1) + Z (1) Z (2) + Z (2) Z (0)
kk

Ia(1) = (0.3821 j0.3779)

kk

kk

kk

kk

kk

j0.2833(j0.2833 + j0.3)
= (0.2170 j0.2146) pu
j0.9 j0.2833 + j0.2833 j0.2833 + j0.2833 j0.9
220

(1)
(2)
(0)
The sequence voltage drops Vkk , Vkk and Vkk are then calculated using the equation:

(2) (0)
(1)
(1) Zkk Zkk

Vkk = Ia
(2)
(0)
Zkk
+ Zkk
j0.2833 j0.9
Vkk(1) = (0.2170 j0.2146)
= (0.0463 + j0.0468) pu
j0.2833 + j0.9
Vkk(2) = Vkk(0) = Vkk(1) = (0.0463 + j0.0468) pu
As a check calculate

Ia(2)

Vkk(2)
Z (2)

0.0463 + j0.0468
= (0.1651 + j0.1633) pu
j0.2833

Ia(0)

V (0)
= kk
Z (0)

0.0463 + j0.0468
= (0.052 + j0.0514) pu
j0.90

kk

kk

Ia = Ia(0) + Ia(1) + Ia(2) = (0.2170 j0.2146) + (0.1651 + j0.1633) + (0.052 + j0.0514)


=0

Q.E.D.

Then we calculate the changes in bus voltages using equation (4.146).


Bus 3
(0)
(0)
(Z34
Z35
)Vkk(0) j0.10 j0.10
(0)

V3 =
=
(0.0463 + j0.0468) = 0 pu
(0)
j0.30
z45

(1)
(1)
(Z34
Z35
)Vkk(1) j0.1103 j0.1250
(1)

(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0068 j0.0069) pu


V3 =
=
(1)
j0.1
z45

V3(2) = V3(1) = (0.0068 j0.0069) pu


Hence,

V3 = V3(0) + V3(1) + V3(2) = (0.0136 j0.0138) pu


Bus 4

(0)
(0)
(Z44
Z45
)Vkk(0) j0.30 j0.20
(0)

V4 =
=
(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0154 + j0.0156) pu
(0)
j0.3
z45

221

(1)
(1)
(Z44
Z45
)Vkk(1) j0.01397 j0.125
(1)

V4 =
=
(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0068 + j0.0069) pu
(1)
j0.10
z45

V4(2) = V4(1) = (0.0068 + j0.0069) pu


V4 = V4(0) + V4(1) + V4(2) = (0.0290 j0.0293) pu
Bus 5

(0)
(0)
(Z54
Z55
)Vkk(0) j0.20 j0.30
(0)

V5 =
=
(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0154 j0.0156) pu
(0)
j0.3
z45

(1)
(1)
(Z54
Z45
)Vkk(1) j0.1250 j0.1750
(1)

=
(0.0463 + j0.0468) = (0.0231 j0.0234) pu
V5 =
(1)
j0.3
z45

V5(2) = V5(1) = (0.0231 j0.0234) pu


V5 = V5(0) + V5(1) + V5(2) = (0.0617 j0.0624) pu
The bus voltages during fault are

V3 (F ) = V30 + V3 = (0.9058 j0.1395) + (0.0136 j0.138) = (0.8922 j0.1533) pu

V3 (F ) = 0.9053 9.750 pu

V4 (F ) = V40 + V4 = (0.9010 j0.1605) + (0.0290 + j0.0293) = (0.9300 j0.1311) pu

V4 (F ) = 0.9392 8.020 pu

V5 (F ) = V50 + V5 = (0.8632 j0.1987) + (0.0617 j0.0624) = (0.8016 j0.2610) pu


222

V5 (F ) = 0.8430 18.040 pu
The phase components of current in line 4-5 are:

I(a) 1 1 1 (0.052 + j0.0514)


0

45

(b)
I = 1 a2 a (0.2170 j0.2146) = 0.4782 147.840 pu

45

(c)
0
2
I45 1 a a (0.1651 + j0.1633) 0.478258.56


TWO CONDUCTORS OPEN
The sequence currents can be calculated with the help of equation (4.162) as:

Ia(1) = Iij

(1)
Zkk
(0.3821 j0.3779) j0.2833

=
(0)
(1)
(2)
j0.9 + j0.2833 + j0.2833
Zkk + Zkk + Zkk

Ia(1) = Ia(2) = Ia(0) = (0.0738 j0.073) pu


The sequence voltages of Thevenins equivalent sequence network is calculated using equation
(4.163)

(0)
(2)
Vkk(1) = Ia(1) (Zkk
+ Zkk ) = (0.0738 j0.073) (j0.9 + j0.2833) = (0.0864 + j0.0873) pu

(2)
Vkk(2) = Ia(2) Zkk
= (0.0738 j0.073)(j0.2833) = (0.0207 + j0.0209) pu

(0)
Vkk(0) = Ia(0) Zkk
= (0.0738 j0.073)(j0.9) = (0.0657 + j0.0664) pu

The changes in bus voltages are calculated using equation (4.146).


Bus 3
(0)
(0)
(Z34
Z35
)Vkk(0) j0.1 j0.10
(0)

V3 =
=
(0.0657 j0.0664) = 0 pu
(0)
j0.3
z45

(1)
(1)
(Z34
Z35
)Vkk(1) j0.1103 j0.1250
(1)

V3 =
=
(0.0864 + j0.0873) = (0.0127 j0.0128) pu
(1)
j0.1
z45

(2)
(2)
(Z34
Z35
)Vkk(2) j0.1103 j0.1250
(2)

V3 =
=
(0.0207 j0.0208) = (0.0030 + j0.0030) pu
(2)
j0.1
z45

V3 = V3(0) + V3(1) + V3(2) = (0.0097 j0.0098) pu


223

Hence, the voltage of bus 3 during fault is:

V3 (F ) = V30 + V3 = (0.9058 j0.1395) + (0.0097 j0.0098) = (0.8962 j0.1493) pu

V3 (F ) = 0.9085 9.460 pu
Bus 4

(0)
(0)
(Z44
Z45
)Vkk(0) j0.30 j0.20
(0)

=
(0.0657 j0.0664) = (0.0219 j0.0221) pu
V4 =
(0)
j0.30
z45

(1)
(1)
(Z44
Z45
)Vkk(1) j0.1397 j0.1250
(1)

=
(0.0864 + j0.0873) = (0.0127 + j0.0128) pu
V4 =
(1)
j0.1
z45

(2)
(2)
(Z44
Z45
)Vkk(1) j0.1397 j0.1250
(2)

V4 =
=
(0.0207 j0.0209) = (0.0030 j0.0031) pu
(2)
j0.1
z45

V4 = V4(0) + V4(1) + V4(2) = (0.0122 + j0.0124) pu


Hence, the voltage of bus 4 during fault is:

V4 (F ) = V40 + V4 = (0.9010 j0.1605) + (0.0122 j0.0124) = (0.8888 j0.1728) pu

V4 (F ) = 0.9054 11.00 pu
Bus 5

(0)
(0)
(Z54
Z55
)Vkk(0) j0.20 j0.30
(0)

=
(0.0657 j0.0664) = (0.0219 + j0.0221) pu
V5 =
(0)
j0.30
z45

(1)
(1)
(Z54
Z55
)Vkk(1) j0.1250 j0.1750
(1)

V5 =
=
(0.0864 + j0.0873) = (0.0432 j0.0437) pu
(1)
j0.10
z45

224

(2)
(2)
(Z54
Z55
)Vkk(2) j0.1250 j0.1750
(2)

V5 =
=
(0.0207 j0.0209) = (0.0103 + j0.0105) pu
(2)
j0.10
z45

V5 = V5(0) + V5(1) + V5(2) = (0.0111 + j0.01111) pu


Hence, the voltage of bus 5 during fault is:

V5 (F ) = V50 + V5 = (0.8632 j0.1987) + (0.0111 j0.01111) = (0.8523 j0.2097) pu


V5 (F ) = 0.8777 13.830 pu
The phase components of current in line 4-5 are:

I(a) 1 1 1 (0.0738 j0.073) 0.3114 44.690


45

(b)

I = 1 a2 a (0.0738 j0.073) =
pu
0
45

(c)

2
I45 1 a a (0.0738 j0.073)

225

Module 5
Contingency Analysis
5.1

Introduction and concept of linear sensitivity factors

In Chapter 2, we have discussed about the methods for analyzing the power system performance at a
particular operating point. However, for practical system operation, apart from ensuring the satisfactory operation of the system at a particular operating condition, it is also equally important to make
sure that the system operates with adequate level of security. Broadly, the term security implies
the ability of the system to operate within system constraints (on bus voltage magnitudes, current
and power flow over the lines) in the event of outage (contingency) of any component (generator or
transmission line). Now, if the system is operating at high loading (light loading) conditions, then
the post-contingency system condition would be highly stressed (lightly stressed). Therefore, the
post contingency values of different quantities (voltages, current/power flow) depend on the present
operating condition. In case the post-outage (post contingency) does not involve any violation of
any operating constraints, the system is said to be operating securely. Otherwise, the system is said
to enter an emergency operating condition. Therefore, for detecting the possibility of appearance
of emergency operating conditions, analysis of the post-contingency scenario (henceforth termed as
contingency analysis) of the system needs to be carried out.
Now, in any practical sized power system, there is a very large number of elements. Hence, for
carrying out contingency analysis, outages of all these elements (preferably) need to be carried out
one-by-one corresponding to any particular operating condition. However, in any power system, the
operating point of the system changes quite frequently with change is loading/generating conditions.
With the change in system operating conditions, the contingency analysis exercise needs to be
carried out again at the new operating point. Thus, for proper monitoring of system security, a
large number of outage cases need to be simulated repeatedly over a short span of time. Ideally,
these outage cases should be studied with the help of full AC load flow solutions. However, analysis
of thousands of outage cases with full AC power flow technique will involve a significant amount of
computation time and as a result, it might not be possible to complete this entire exercise before the
new operating condition emerges. Therefore, instead of using full non-linear AC power flow analysis,
approximate, but much faster techniques based on linear sensitivity factors are used to estimate the
post contingency values of different quantities of interest. The basic concept of sensitivity factors
226

is described below. Essestially, the linear sensitivity factors approximately estimate the changes
in different line flows for any particular outage condition without the need of full AC power flow
solution.
Basically, there are two types of sensitivity factors and these are:
a. Generation outage sensitivity factor (GOSF)
b. Line outage sensitivity factor (LOSF)
GOSF relates the approximate change in power flow in line i-j (i.e. between bus i and j) due
to the outage of generator at bus k, whereas LOSF helps to calculate the approximate change in
power flow in line i-j due to outage of line m-n.
The generation outage sensitivity factor is defined by,

ijk =

fij
Pk

(5.1)

k
where, ij
GOSF of line i-j for generation change at bus k

fij Change in power flow in line i-j


Pk Change in generation at bus k

k
The factor ij
denotes the sensitivity of the line flow on line i-j due to change in generation
at bus k. In equation (5.1), it is assumed that the generation lost at bus k would be exactly
compensated by the reference or slack bus. Now, if the generation at bus k was generating an
amount of power equal to Pk0 , then to represent the outage condition, Pk = Pk0 .

Hence, the new power flow over the line i-j would be given as,

fijn = fij0 + fij = fij0 + ijk Pk = fij0 ijk Pk0

(5.2)

k
The factor ij
would be pre-calculated and stored in the memory. As we will see later, the values
k
of ij depend only on the network parameters and therefore, are constant. However, it should be
k
m
noted that for any particular line i-j, the factors ij
and ij
(for generation outage at bus m) are
different and therefore need to be pre-calculated separately. Once these factors are pre-calculated
and stored, the new values of line flow over any line can easily be estimated very quickly from
equation (5.2). If the new power flow over any line is found to be more than the corresponding limit,
then the operator can be alerted for taking an appropriate pre-emptive action.

In equation (5.2), it is assumed that the lost generation at bus k would be taken up by the
slack bus. However, it is also quite possible that the lost generation would be compensated by
all the remaining on-line generators combinedly, in which, each of the on-line generators would
take up some fraction of the lost generation in some particular ratio. One of the most frequently
used methods assumes that the on-line generators share the lost generation in proportion to their
maximum MW rating. Thus, the proportion of generation picked up by generation g is given by
227

g k,
gk =

Pgmax

(5.3)

Pamax

a=1
k

Where, M Total number of generators in the system

gk Proportionality factor for generation g to pick up generation when unit k fails


Pamax Maximum MW rating for generator a.
Now, as the sensitivity factors shown in equation (5.1) are linear in nature, the effects of simultaneous generation change in several generators on a particular line can be obtained by following
superposition principle. Hence, the new line flow in the line i-j becomes,
m

fij(n) = fij(0) + ijk Pk ija Pa ak

(5.4)

a=1

In equation (5.4) it is assumed that no remaining on-line generation hits the generation limit.
The line outage distribution factors are also defined similarly. The LOSF is defined by,

ij, mn =

fij

(5.5)

(0)
fmn

Where, ij, mn Line outage distribution factor for line i-j under outage of line m-n.
(0)
fmn
Power flow over line m-n in the pre-outage condition.

Therefore, for the outage of line m-n, the new flow over line i-j is given by,
(0)
fij(n) = fij(0) + ij, mn fmn

(5.6)

Again, as we will show later, the factors ij,mn are constant as they are dependent only on the line
parameters. Therefore, they would be pre-calculated and stored in the memory. As a result, for the
outage of any line m-n, the new power flows over all the other lines can be estimated very quickly.

5.2

DC load flow and generation outage distribution factor

We have already discussed the concepts of linear sensitivity factors. These factors are calculated
based on the concept of DC power flow and hence, let us first have a look at DC power flow
technique.

5.2.1

DC power flow

From FDLF method, we know, P = [B ] , where each elements of the matrix [B ] is negative
BUS bus matrix. Now, in DC power
of the imaginary parts of the corresponding elements of the Y

228

flow analysis, apart from using the above decoupled relation between P and , several other
simplifying assumptions are also taken as follows:
a. The system is lossless (i.e. line resistance is neglected) and therefore, each line is represented
by its reactance only.
b. The voltage of each bus is maintained at the rated voltage, i.e. 1.0 p.u.
c. For any line m-n, the angular difference between its terminal buses is quite small, and hence,
cos m cos n (as m n ) and sin(m n ) (m n ) rad (as m n 0) .
With these assumptions, the power flow over a line becomes,

Pij =

Vi Vj
1
sin(i j )
(i j ) (p.u)
xij
xij

(5.7)

In equation (5.7), the quantity xij denotes the reactance of the line i-j. From this equation it
is observed that the line power flow is basically a linear combination of the terminal bus voltage
angles. Moreover, the current flow over the line i-j is given by,

Vi Vj
Iij =
jxij
(Vi cos i Vj cos j ) + j(Vi sin i Vj sin j )
=
jxij
1
1
=
(sin i sin j )
(i j )
xij
xij

(5.8)

Equation (5.8) has been written under an added assumption that both the angles i and j are
individually quite small in magnitude. From equations (5.7) and (5.8) it is observed that in DC
power flow model, the expressions of line power flow and line current are same in per unit. We will
utilize this fact for computing LOSF in future.
In the next lecture, we will discuss a method for calculating GOSF.

229

5.2.2

Calculation of GOSF
1

From FDLF we know that P = [B ] or = [X] P where [X] = [B ] . Or,

2 X22 X23 X2n P2

X
3 32 X33 X3n P3

n Xn2 Xn3 Xnn Pn

(5.9)

In equation (5.9), the matrix [X] is of size (n 1) (n 1) and any element Xij is actually

located in the location (i 1), (j 1). As the matrix [B ] is a constant real matrix dependent only
on the line parameters, matrix [X] is also a constant real matrix dependent on the line parameters.
Furthermore, in equation (5.9), the quantity 1 is not included in the vector as the reference
angle does not change with any outage in the system.
Now, to calculate the GOSF for the outage of generator at bus k, the perturbation at bus k
is set to Pk and the perturbation at the slack bus is set to Pk (assuming that the entire lost
generation is taken up by the slack bus) while keeping the perturbations at the other buses equal to
zero. Therefore, the perturbed values of the bus angles can be given as,

i = Xik Pk for i = 2, n

(5.10)

Now, from equation (5.7), the change in power flow over line i-j is given by,

Pij =
Therefore,

1
1
(i j ) = (Xik Xjk )Pk , where, xl = xij is the reactance of the line i-j.
xl
xl
ijk =

Pij Xik Xjk


=
Pk
xl

(5.11)

k
As can be seen from equation (5.11), the factor ij
is dependent only on the line parameters.

Let us now look at the application and utility of these sensitivity factors. For this purpose, let
as consider the IEEE-14 bus system (the data of which are given in Tables A.3 and A.4). In this
system, apart from the slack bus,there are two other generations at bus 2 and bus 6 (refer Table A.3).
The real power flows in all the lines have been calculated with all the three generatiors operating in
the system and are shown in column 2 of Table 5.1 (under the heading Pline(ori)). The GSOFs for
these two generators have been calculated using equation (5.11) and are shown is columns 3 and 7 of
Table 5.1 respectively (under the heading GSOF(2) and GSOF(6) respectively). From Table A.3 it
can be seen that the specified real power generated by these two generations are 18.3 MW and 11.2
MW respectively. Hence, following the argument given for equation (5.2), the quantities P2 and
P6 are equal to -0.183(p.u) and 0.112 (p.u) respectively (on a 100 MVA base) as shown in columns
4 and 8 of Table 5.1. With these information, the estimated line flows after the outage of generation
2 and 6 are calculated using equation (5.2) and are shown in columns 5 and 9 respectively. Lastly,
full AC power flow studies have been carried out by removing generator 2 and 6 one by one (by
modeling them as PQ bus after reducing their real power generation to zero) and the results of line
230

flows (obtained with full AC power flow) are shown in columns 6 and 10 respectively. From columns
5 and 6 as well as from columns 9 and 10 it is observed that the post-outage line-flows estimated by
the sensitivity analysis technique match quite closely with those obtained by the full AC power flow
method.

Table 5.1: Results of generator outage analysis in IEEE 14 bus system (all powers are given in p.u.)
For outage of generator at bus 2
Line Pline
GSOF
Pline
Pline
P2
no.
(ori)
(2)
(cal)
(ACLF)
1
1.6262 -0.9709 -0.183 1.803875 1.7891
2
0.7464 -0.1935 -0.183 0.781811 0.7776
3
0.8655 0.0089 -0.183 0.863871 0.8606
4
0.5314 0.0556 -0.183 0.521225 0.5207
5
0.3662 0.0821 -0.183 0.351176 0.3511
6
-0.358
0.047 -0.183 -0.3666
-0.3622
7
-0.7068 0.1064 -0.183 -0.72627 -0.7217
8
0.2689 -0.0013 -0.183 0.269138 0.2691
9
0.1063 -0.0004 -0.183 0.106373 0.1064
10
0.2893 -0.0078 -0.183 0.290727 0.2887
11
0.1156 -0.0059 -0.183 0.11668
0.1154
12
0.0852 -0.0007 -0.183 0.085328 0.0851
13
0.2005 -0.0031 -0.183 0.201067 0.2003
14
0.0025 -0.0065 -0.183 0.00369
0.0025
15
0.2664 0.0052 -0.183 0.265448 0.2667
16
0.0123 0.0055 -0.183 0.011294 0.0124
17
0.0655 0.0037 -0.183 0.064823 0.0657
18 -0.0777 0.0057 -0.183 -0.07874 -0.0776
19
0.0233 -0.0012 -0.183 0.02352
0.0232
20
0.0857 -0.0038 -0.183 0.086395 0.0854

For outage of
GSOF
P6
(6)
-0.7628 -0.112
-0.4344 -0.112
-0.1568 -0.112
-0.2928 -0.112
-0.2977 -0.112
-0.1203 -0.112
-0.0033 -0.112
-0.2562 -0.112
-0.1009 -0.112
-0.6729 -0.112
0.2459 -0.112
0.0277 -0.112
0.1312 -0.112
-0.0204 -0.112
-0.2358 -0.112
-0.2287 -0.112
-0.1548 -0.112
-0.2368 -0.112
0.05
-0.112
0.1574 -0.112

generator at bus 6
Pline
Pline
(cal)
(ACLF)
1.711634 1.7203
0.795053 0.7753
0.883062 0.8888
0.564194 0.5678
0.399542
0.395
-0.34453 -0.3357
-0.70643 -0.7189
0.297594 0.3173
0.117601 0.1255
0.364665 0.3309
0.088059 0.0748
0.082098 0.0778
0.185806 0.1782
0.004785 0.0022
0.29281
0.3151
0.037914 0.0512
0.082838 0.0944
-0.05118
-0.039
0.0177
0.016
0.068071 0.0567

To calculate the LOSF, we first need to understand the concept of Thevenin equivalent impedance
of a power system. Let as first have a look at that.

5.2.3

Determination of Thevenins equivalent impedance

V
where I, V
and Y
are the vector of bus injection currents, vector of bus voltages
We know
I=Y
=Z
I where Z
is the bus impedance matrix and
and the admittance matrix respectively. Hence,V
=Y
1 . As the matrix Z
is a constant matrix, the relation V
=Z
I denotes a linear
is given by Z
and I and hence, for incremental charges in V
and I the same relation also
equation connecting V
231

= Z
I. Expanding this relation we get,
holds good, i.e. V


V1 Z11 Z12 Z1n I1

I
V Z

Z
2 21
2
22
2n


Vn Zn1 Zn2 Znn In

(5.12)

Now, suppose that there is an incremental charge is the current of bus k only while the incremental changes at the other buses are zero. Hence, Ik 0 and Ii = 0 for i = 1, n; k . Hence,
ik Ik for i = 1, n. Hence,
from equation (5.12), the changes in bus voltages are given by, Vi = Z
(0)
if the initial bus voltage is Vk , then the final voltage after perturbation is given by,

Vk = Vk(0) + Zkk Ik

(5.13)

Equation (5.13) can be represented as an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 5.1, which shows
the Thevenins equivalent circuit at bus k. From this circuit, the Thevenins equivalent impedance
kk .
of the system (looking from bus k) in equal to Z

Figure 5.1: Thevenin equivalent circuit from bus k


In the next lecture, we will use the Thevenins equivalent impedance for calculating LOSF.

232

5.3

Calculation of LOSF

In the last lecture, we have looked at the Thevenins impedance of the system looking from a
particular bus k. Let us now look at the Thevenins equivalent impedance of any system between
bus m and bus n. To achieve that let us assume that the incremental currents Im and In are
injected at bus m and n respectively (the incremental current at all the other buses are zero).
Consequently, from equation (5.12), the changes in the bus voltages (Vm and Vn ) can be given
as,
Vm = Zmm Im + Zmm In
(5.14)

Vn = Znm Im + Znn In

(5.15)

Therefore, the new bus voltages are

Vm = Vm(0) + Zmm Im + Zmn In


= Vm(0) + (Zmm Zmn )Im + Zmn (Im + In )

(5.16)

Vn = Vn(0) + Znm Im + Znn In


= Vn(0) + Znm (Im + In ) + (Znn Znm )In

(5.17)

From equations (5.16) and (5.17), the equivalent circuit of the power system looking from bus
m and bus n can be drawn as shown in Fig. 5.2.

Figure 5.2: Equivalent circuit between bus m and bus n


(0)

(0)

From Fig. 5.2 it is observed that the open-circuit voltage between bus m and bus n is Vm Vn
233

and the Thevenins equivalent impedance between bus m and bus n is given by,

ZT h, mn = Zmm + Znn 2Zmn

(5.18)

From Fig. 5.2 it is also observed that the Thevenins equivalent impedance between bus m and
mm Znm + Znm ) = Zmm and that between bus n and the reference is (Znn Znm +
reference is (Z
Zmn ) = Znn which is in complete agreement with the results already obtained in equation (5.13).
b is connected between
Also, from Fig. 5.2 it can be readily seen that if a line having an impedance Z
bus m and n, then the current through this line is given by,

Vm(0) Vn(0)

Ib =
ZT h, mn + Zb

(5.19)

b is removed
Now, let as consider the case when a line or transformer having an impedance Z
from the system. Let us assume that this branch is removed between bus m and n. The removal
b between bus m and n. The
of this branch can be represented by addition of an impedance Z
situation is shown in Fig. 5.3.

Figure 5.3: Removal of a branch between bus m and bus n

b and this
Now, in Fig. 5.3, it can be seen that the current Ia flows in the added impedance Z
current is given by,
Vm(0) Vn(0)

Ia =
ZT h, mn Zb

(5.20)

This current Ia flows out of bus m and flows into bus n. Therefore, because of the addition
234

b , the injected current changes at bus m by Im = Ia and that changes at bus


of impedance Z
n by In = Ia . However, at all the other buses (not equal to m or n), the current injections do
not change. Because of these changed current injections at bus m and n, the voltages at all the
bues will get changed. The changes in voltages at any bus p and q can be given as,
Vp = Zpm Im + Zpn In = (Zpn Zpm )Ia

(5.21)

Vq = Zqm Im + Zqn In = (Zqn Zqm )Ia

(5.22)

and

Therefore, change in current flow is line p-q can be given as,

Ipq =

Vp Vq (Zpn Zpm ) (Zqn Zqm )


=
Ia
Zc
Zc

(5.23)

c is the impedance of the line p-q. Combining equations (5.20)


In equation (5.23), the quantity Z
and (5.23) we get,
(Zpn Zpm ) (Zqn Zqm ) Vm(0) Vn(0)

[
]
Ipq =
Zc
ZT h, mn Zb

(5.24)

b , then the pre-outage current in line m-n given by,


If the impedance of the line m-n is Z
Vm(0) Vn(0)

Imn =
Zb

(5.25)

Therefore, from equation (5.24) we get,

Or,

Zb (Zpn Zpm ) (Zqn Zqm ) Vm(0) Vn(0)

Ipq =
[
]
Zc
ZT h, mn Zb
Zb

(5.26)

Ipq Zb (Zpn Zpm ) (Zqn Zqm )


=
[
]
Imn Zc
ZT h, mn Zb

(5.27)

Now, in equations (5.7) and (5.8) we have seen that under the assumptions of DC power flow
method, the expressions of power flow and current flow in a line are same in per unit. Therefore,
if we impose the same assumptions in equation (5.27), then all the impedances would be replaced
by the corresponding reactances and Ipq (Imn ) would be replaced by Ppq (Pmn ). Therefore, the
LOSF (pq, mn ) is given by,

pq, mn =

Ppq xb (Xpn Xpm ) (Xqn Xqm )


= [
]
Pmn xc
XT h, mn Xb

(5.28)

Again, as an example, IEEE 14 bus system is chosen and the estimated and calculated line-power
flows for two line outage cases are shown in Table 5.2. In this table, the pre-outage real power flows
235

in the line are shown in column 2. The values of LOSF are shown in columns 3 and 7. Using these
LOSF, the estimated values of power flow in the lines are tabulated in columns 5 and 9. Finally,
the actual power flow in the lines obtained with full AC power flow (after removing the line under
consideration) are shown in columns 6 and 10 respectively. From this table, it is observed that
the estimated and calculated values are reasonably close to each other, thereby establishing the
usefulness of the line outage sensitivity factors.
Table 5.2: Results of line outage analysis in IEEE 14 bus system (all powers are given in p.u.)
For outage of line no. 18
Line Pline
LSOF
Pline
Pline
P18
no.
(ori)
(2)
(cal)
(ACLF)
1
1.6262 -0.0363 -0.0777 1.6290205 1.6309
2
0.7464 0.0351 -0.0777 0.7436727
0.742
3
0.8655 -0.0294 -0.0777 0.8677844
0.869
4
0.5314 -0.0682 -0.0777 0.5366991 0.5364
5
0.3662 0.0574 -0.0777 0.36174
0.362
6
-0.358 -0.0363 -0.0777 -0.355179 -0.3545
7
-0.7068 0.5224 -0.0777 -0.747390 -0.7442
8
0.2689 -0.4868 -0.0777 0.3067244 0.3014
9
0.1063 -0.1923 -0.0777 0.1212417 0.1192
10
0.2893 0.6604 -0.0777 0.2379869 0.2433
11
0.1156 0.9961 -0.0777 0.038203
0.0351
12
0.0852 -0.0857 -0.0777 0.0918589 0.0925
13
0.2005 -0.325 -0.0777 0.2257525 0.2277
14
0.0025 -0.0125 -0.0777 0.0034713 0.0024
15
0.2664 -0.4743 -0.0777 0.3032531 0.2991
16
0.0123 -1.0039 -0.0777 0.090303
0.0904
17
0.0655 0.4085 -0.0777 0.0337596 0.0329
18 -0.0777

-0.0777

19
0.0233 -0.1021 -0.0777 0.0312332 0.0305
20
0.0857 -0.4102 -0.0777 0.1175725 0.1192

For outage of line no.


LSOF
Pline
P2
(6)
(cal)
1.0113 0.7464 2.381034

0.7464

0.1721 0.7464 0.993955


0.3597 0.7464 0.799880
0.4845 0.7464 0.727830
0.1716 0.7464 -0.22991
0.4944 0.7464 -0.3377
0.0258 0.7464 0.288157
0.0101 0.7464 0.113838
-0.0288 0.7464 0.267803
-0.0166 0.7464 0.103209
-0.0024 0.7464 0.083408
-0.0086 0.7464 0.19408
0.0048 0.7464 0.006082
0.021 0.7464 0.282074
0.0168 0.7464 0.024839
0.011 0.7464 0.073710
0.0167 0.7464 -0.06523
-0.0025 0.7464 0.02143
-0.011 0.7464 0.077489

2
Pline
(ACLF)
2.4451

0.9987
0.7986
0.7256
-0.2352
-0.3481
0.2815
0.1113
0.272
0.1046
0.0842
0.1952
0.0024
0.2791
0.0234
0.0719
-0.0666
0.0224
0.0794

So far, we have discussed the case of single contingency only. In the next lecture, we will start
looking into the procedure of analysis of multiple contingencies.

236

5.4

Analysis of multiple contingencies

Let us now examine the case of outage of more than one elements. We will discuss here the case
of outage of two transmission lines. Although theoretically the outage of any number of lines can
be analyzed, but practically it is not feasible as outage of more than two lines would almost surely
overload the other existing lines and hence trip the whole system. We will also not discuss the case
of outage of two generations as outage of two generators would also most probably create a huge
deficit of power supply in the system, which would necessitate shedding of loads to maintain the
frequency of the grid within acceptable limits. Hence, we will confine ourselves to the case of outage
of two lines only. Towards this goal, let us first analyze the situation where two transmission lines are
simultaneously added to the power system, as the expressions derived would be directly applicable
to the case of our interest, i.e. outage of two lines.

Let us consider an N-bus power system in which I1 , I2 , IN are the bus injection currents and
V1 , V2 , VN are the bus voltages. The bus voltages and the bus injection currents are related by
and the relation is given as,
the bus impedance matrix Z



V1 Z11 Z12 Z1N I1



V Z
2 21 Z22 Z2N I2

=





VN ZN 1 ZN 2 ZN N IN

(5.29)

a in connected between buses e-f while another


Now, let as consider that a line of impedance Z
b in connected between buses g-h. It is to be again noted that the lines Za and
line of impedance Z
Zb are not part of the original system described by equation (5.29) and our objective is to analyze
the effect of these two line additions on the bus voltages and power flowers in the lines of the original
system. To accomplish this, we assume that the bus injections currents I1 , I2 , IN remain constant
i.e. they are un-effected by the addition of these two lines. Now, due to the addition of these two
= [V1 , V2 , VN ] be the vector of the
lines, the bus voltages of the system would charge. Let V
new bus voltages. Also, due to the addition of these two lines, currents Ia and Ib would flow through
a and Zb respectively as shown in Fig. 5.4.
the impedance Z

a 0 Ia
e V
Z
V
a Ia = Ve V and Zb Ib = Vg V . Hence, [
From Fig. 5.4, Z
] [ ] = [ f ].
f
h

0 Zb Ib
Vg Vh

237

Figure 5.4: Addition of two lines in the original system

Or,

Za
[
0

V
1

V2




V
e


e
f
g
h

0 Ia
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Vf
][ ] = [
]
Zb Ib
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

V
g




Vh




VN

= AV
238

(5.30)

In equation (5.30), the matrix A can easily be identified. Now, from Fig. 5.4 it can be seen
a and Zb , extra currents Ia and Ib are being injected into buses f
that due to the addition of lines Z
and h respectively (which were not present before the addition of these two lines). Similarly, extra
currents Ia and Ib are being extracted from the buses e and g respectively (which were also not
present before the addition of these two lines). Therefore, it can be said that, due to the addition
of these two lines, injection currents at these four buses have changed by Ie , If , Ig and Ih
respectively, where Ie = Ia ; If = +Ia ; Ig = Ib and Ih = +Ib and due to these extra injection
to V
. Therefore, the addition of these two lines can
currents, the bus voltages have changed from V
be indirectly represented by these extra four injection currents which will produce the same effect
on the existing system. This situation is shown in Fig. 5.5.
Now, the vector of change in injection currents can be expressed as;
T
I = [00 Ie If Ig Ih 00] . Or,

0 0 0


0 0 0


I 1 0

Ia 1 0 Ia
[ ] = AT [Ia ]
I = =

Ib
Ib


Ib 0 1


Ib 0 1


0 0 0

(5.31)

= Z
I
Due to the above change in current
I, the bus voltages would undergo a change V

is the bus impedance matrix of the origin system. Now, V


=V
V
. Or, V
=V
+ V
.
Where Z
Or,

= V
+ Z
I = V
ZA
T [Ia ]
V
Ib
Ia
Ib

= AV
AZA
T [ ];
Or, AV

Or,

(5.32)

Za 0 Ia
AZA
T [Ia ] (from equation (5.30))
]
[
]
=
A
V
0 Zb Ib
Ib

Or, [

1
Ia
Za 0
T } AV
=Z
1

[ ] = {[
] + AZA
1 AV
Ib
0 Zb

(5.33)

Where,

1 = [Za 0 ] + AZA
T
Z
0 Zb

239

(5.34)

Figure 5.5: Equivalent representation of addition of lines


Performing the matrix operation in equation (5.34) we get,

(Zeg Zeh ) (Zf g Zf h )


1 = [(Zee Zef ) (Zf e Zf f ) + Za
Z
]
(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )
(Zgg Zgh ) (Zhg Zhh ) + Zb

(5.35)

ZT h,ef + Za
(Zeg Zeh ) (Zf g Zf h )
1 = [
Z
]
(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )
ZT h,gh + Zb

(5.36)

Or,

T h,gh and ZT h,gf denote the thevenin equivalent impedance of the system as observed
Where, Z
from terminals e-f and g-h respectively (please see equation (5.18)). Reproducing equation (5.33)
we have,

Ia
1 Ve Vf
1

[] = Z
A
V
=
Z
[
]
1
1
Ib
Vg Vh

(5.37)

From equations (5.36) and (5.37), the vector [Ia Ib ]T is calculated and subsequently, from
can be calculated.
equation (5.32), the new bus voltage vector V
We are now ready to analyze the effect of outages of two lines, which we will do in the next
lecture.

240

5.5

Analysis of multiple contingencies (contd..)

a and Zb are removed from the


Let us now consider a case where two lines, having impedances Z
a
terminals e-f and g-h respectively. Here it is to be noted that in the original system, impedance Z
b are already included and we are now considering the outages of these two lines. As has been
and Z
done previously, here also we assume that the bus injection currents do not change on account of
outages of these two lines. Now, we have already seen that outage of any line having an impedance of
Zb can be simulated by adding an impedance of Zb between the same two terminals. Therefore, the
a and Zb can be simulated by connecting impedances Za and
outages of lines having impedance Z
Zb between the terminals e-f and g-h respectively. Subsequently, following the same procedure
1 can be formed as;
as discussed in the best lecture, the matrix Z
ZT h, ef Za
(Zeg Zeh ) (Zf g Zf h )
1 = [
Z
]
(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )
ZT h, gh Zb

(5.38)

a by Za and Zb by Zb respectively
Note that equation (5.38) has been obtained by replacing Z
in equation (5.36). Hence, from equation (5.37) we have,
ZT h, ef Za
(Zeg Zef ) (Zf g Zf h ) Ia
Ve Vf
]
]
=
[
[
]
[
Vg Vh
Ib
(Zge Zgf ) (Zhe Zhf )
ZT h, gh Zb

(5.39)

Dividing each row of equation (5.39) by its diagonal element, we get,

V V

e
f

(
Z

Z
)

(
Z

Z
)
eg
ef
fg
fh

1
Ia ZT h, ef Za


ZT h, ef Za

(Z Z ) (Z Z )


ge
gf
he
hf
Ib Vg Vh

ZT h, gh Zb

ZT h, gh Zb

(5.40)

Now, from equation (5.27), we have

Ief Zb (Zeh Zeg ) (Zf h Zf g )


=
[
] = Lef, gh (say)
Igh
Za
ZT h, gh Zb

(5.41)

Igh Za (Zgf Zge ) (Zhf Zhe )


=
[
] = Lgh, ef
Ief
Zb
ZT h,ef Za

(5.42)

241

(say)

is symmetrical (Zij = Zji ), from equations (5.40)-(5.42) we have,


Nothing that the matrix Z


Za
Lef, gh

Zb

V V

e
f


Zb

Lgh, ef Ia ZT h, ef Za


Za


I Vg Vh
1

ZT h, gh Zb

Or,

a
1

1L

gh, ef Lef, gh Za
Ib
Lef, gh

Zb

V V

e
f

Zb

Lgh, ef ZT h, ef Za

Za

Vg Vh
1


ZT h, gh Zb

(5.43)

(5.44)

a and Zb are given by,


Now, the pre-outage currents in lines Z
Ve Vf
Ief =
Za

and Igh =

Vg Vh
Zb

(5.45)

Utilizes equation (5.45) in equation (5.44) we get,

Ia =

Ib =

1
1 Lgh, ef Lef, gh
1
1 Lgh, ef Lef, gh

Z 2 Lgh, ef
Za
Ief + b
Igh ]
ZT h, ef Za
Za ZT h, gh Zb

(5.46)

Zb
Za2 Lef, gh
Ief +
Igh ]

Zb ZT h, ef Za
ZT h, gh Zb

(5.47)

c ) is given by,
Now, the change in current in line i-j (having an impedance Z
Iij =

Vi Vj
Zc

(5.48)

Now,

Thus,

Iij =

Vi = Zie Ie + Zif If + Zig Ig + Zih Ih


= (Zif Zie )Ia + (Zih Zig )Ib

(5.49)

Vj = Zje Ie + Zjf If + Zjg Ig + Zjh Ih


= (Zjf Zje )Ia + (Zjh Zjg )Ib

(5.50)

(Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje ) (Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )


Ia +
Ib
Zc
Zc
242

(5.51)

Substituting equations (5.46) and (5.47) into equation (5.51) we have,

Iij =

1
1 Lgh, ef Lef, gh

1 Ief + X
2 Igh ]
[X

(5.52)

Where,


2
Lef, gh
1 = Za (Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje ) + Za
[(Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )]
X

Zc
ZT h, ef Za
Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za

(5.53)

Now, we recognize,

Lij, ef =

Za (Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )


Zc
ZT h, ef Za

(5.54)

Hence,

Lef, gh
Za2

[(Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )]


X1 = Lij, ef +
Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za

(5.55)

Now, expanding the second term of equation (5.55), we have [using equation (5.41)],

Lef, gh
Za2
[(Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )]
Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za
Z 2 Zb (Zeh Zeg ) (Zf h Zf g ) (Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )
= a
Zb Zc Za
ZT h,gh Zb
ZT h,ef Za
=[

Zb (Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )


Za (Zeh Zeg ) (Zf h Zf g )
][
]
Zc
ZT h, gh Zb
Zb
ZT h, ef Za

Or,

Lef, gh
Za2
[(Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )] = Lij, gh Lgh, ef

Zb Zc ZT h, ef Za

(5.56)

Equation (5.56) has been written using equation (5.42) and by noting that,

Lij, gh =

Zb (Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )


Zc
ZT h, gh Zb

(5.57)

Hence,

1 = Lij, ef + Lij, gh Lgh, ef


X

(5.58)

Again, from equations (5.52), (5.46), (5.47) and (5.51) we have,

2
Lgh, ef
Zb (Zih Zig ) (Zjh Zjg )
2 = Zb
[(Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )] +
X
Za Zc ZT h, gh Zb
Zc
ZT h, gh Zb
Again,

Lgh, ef
Zb2
[(Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )]

Za Zc ZT h, gh Zb
243

(5.59)

Zb2 Za (Zgf Zge ) (Zhf Zhe ) (Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )


Za Zc Zb
ZT h, ef Za
ZT h, gh Zb
Za (Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )
Zb (Zgf Zge ) (Zhf Zhe )
=[
][
]
Zc
ZT h, ef Za
Za
ZT h, gh Zb

Or,

Lgh, ef
Zb2
[(Zif Zie ) (Zjf Zje )] = Lij, ef Lef, gh
Za Zc ZT h, gh Zb

(5.60)

Please note that equation (5.60) has been obtained by using equations (5.41) and (5.54). Hence,

2 = Lij, gh + Lij, ef Lef, gh


X

(5.61)

Therefore from equations (5.61), (5.58) and (5.52) we get,

Iij =

1
1 Lef, gh Lgh, ef

[(Lij, ef + Lij, gh Lgh, ef )Ief + (Lij, gh + Lij, ef Lef, gh )Igh ]

(5.62)

Equation (5.62) gives the change in the current of line i-j in terms of the original currents of
the lines which have gone out of service. Now, in equation (5.62) all the factors are in terms of
complex impedances. However, imposition of the conditions of the DC power flow makes all the
factors being represented by the corresponding reactances (i.e. all complex impedances are replaced
by their corresponding reactances). Now, from equation (5.28) we see that when these functions are
represented by reactances only, they actually represent the different line outage sensitivity factors
(LOSF). As already noted earlier, there LOSFs are already pre-calculated and stored. Also, as
discussed earlier, under the assumption of DC power flow, for contingency calculation, the current
flow quantities are replaced by corresponding power flow quantities. Therefore, the change in power
flow in line i-j can very easily be calculated from equation (5.62) using the information of pre-outage
power flow in lines e-f and g-h.
In the next lecture, we will look into an example of contingency analysis for outages of two lines.

244

5.5.1

Example of contingency analysis for two line outages

As an example, let us consider outage of two lines in the IEEE-14 bus system. Towards this goal,
let us assume that line no. 3 (let it be considered as line e-f) and 17 (let it be considered as line
g-h) have been taken out of the system. Subsequently, for any line i-j (in the set of lines which
are still remaining in the system), the factors LOSFM1 and LOSFM2 are calculated as follows.

LOSF M 1 =

Lij,ef + Lij,gh Lgh,ef


1 Lef,gh Lgh,ef

(5.63)

LOSF M 2 =

Lij,gh + Lij,ef Lef,gh


1 Lef,gh Lgh,ef

(5.64)

Now, under the assumption of DC power flow, for contingency calculation, the impedances are
replaced by corresponding reactances. Therefore, for calculating the quantities Lef, gh , Lgh, ef , Lij, ef
and Lij, gh , the expressions given in equations (5.41), (5.42), (5.54) and (5.57) have been used respectively, with the impedances replaced by the corresponding reactances. After obtaining the values of
these four quantities, the factors LOSFM1 and LOSFM2 have been calculated from equations (5.63)
and (5.64). The calculated values of these two factors for all the lines remaining in the system are
shown in columns 5 and 6 of Table 5.3. Please note that for lines 3 and 17, thes two factors have
no relevance and therefore, these values have been indicated as zero in this table for these two lines.
After obtaining these two factors, the change in power flow in line i-j are calculated from equation
(5.62) using the information of pre-outage power flow in line no. 3 and 17. For ready reference, the
pre-outage power flows of line 3 and 17 are given in columns 3 and 4 of Table 5.3 respectively. After
calculating the change in power flow of any line i-j, its post-outage power flow is obtained by adding
its pre-outage power flow to the change in power flow. Again, for ready reference, the pre-outage line
power flows for all the lines are given in column 2 of Table 5.3. The calculated post-outage power
flows in all the lines are given in column 7 of this table. Please note that, as line no. 3 and 17 are now
out of the circuit, the post-outage power flows in these two lines are zero. Finally, for the purpose
of comparison, complete AC power flow solution of the IEEE-14 bus system has been obtained after
removing line no. 3 and 17 from the system. The line power flows obtained through AC power flow
study are shown in the last column of Table 5.3. From the results given in last two columns it is
observed that there is some difference between the power flows calculated by complete AC power
flow analysis and contingency analysis. Moreover, comparison of Tables 5.2 and 5.3 shows that this
difference is more for double line contingencies as compared to that for single line contingency.

5.6

Contingency ranking and selection

From the results of the Tables 5.1 and 5.2 it can be observed that the sensitivity factors give
reasonably close estimates of real power flows in the lines in the event of outage of a generator
or a line. However, the sensitivity factors give the estimate of only the real power flows over the
lines. On the other hand, in several situations, it is also equally important to consider the bus
245

Table 5.3: Contingency calculation for outage of line no. 3 and 17 (all powers are given in p.u.)
Line Pline
P3
P17
LOSFM1
no.
(ori)
1
1.6262 0.8655 0.0655 -0.2053
2
0.7464 0.8655 0.0655
0.2177
3
0.8655 0.8655 0.0655
0
4
0.5314 0.8655 0.0655
0.4758
5
0.3662 0.8655 0.0655
0.3491
6
-0.358 0.8655 0.0655
-1.072
7
-0.7068 0.8655 0.0655 -0.5508
8
0.2689 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0274
9
0.1063 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0107
10
0.2893 0.8655 0.0655
0.0238
11
0.1156 0.8655 0.0655
0.0237
12
0.0852 0.8655 0.0655
0
13
0.2005 0.8655 0.0655
0
14
0.0025 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0097
15
0.2664 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0177
16
0.0123 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0237
17
0.0655 0.8655 0.0655
0
18 -0.0777 0.8655 0.0655 -0.0237
19
0.0233 0.8655 0.0655
0
20
0.0857 0.8655 0.0655
0

LOSFM2
-0.025
0.0237
0
-0.0678
0.0389
-0.004
0.4444
-0.3998
-0.1579
0.5427
-0.5152
0.2174
0.7805
-0.01
-0.3898
0.507
0
0.5111
0.2304
0.9991

Pline
Pline
(cal)
(ACLF)
1.44687535
1.5449
0.9363717
0.9864
0
0
0.938764
0.9803
0.670894
0.7059
-1.286078
-1.1902
-1.1544092 -1.1585
0.2189984
0.218
0.0866967
0.0862
0.34544575
0.3668
0.10236675
0.1236
0.0994397
0.0994
0.25162275
0.2558
-0.00655035 0.0023
0.22554875
0.2157
0.02499615
0.0069
0
0
-0.0647353 -0.0833
0.0383912
0.0373
0.15114105
0.1533

voltage variations as well as the reactive power flows over the lines in the event of any outage. In
these situations, the full AC power flow analysis needs to be carried out as the sensitivity factors are
not able to estimate the changes in bus voltage and the reactive power flows in the lines. However,
the full AC power flow analysis is considerably slower than the sensitivity based methods and these
are not suitable for analyzing thousands of potential outage cases within the time frame required by
on-line contingency analysis.
Thus, we have a contradicting situation here. On one hand, for fast evaluation of contingencies,
sensitivity based methods need to be used whereas, for accurate estimation of the effects of any
outage, slower, full AC power flow analysis needs to be carried out. To break this dilemma, a middle
path is followed. Initially, all the outage studies are carried out using the sensitivity factors. Based on
the results of the sensitivity analysis, all the outage cases are ranked according to a suitably chosen
performance index (PI). Once the outage cases are ranked and sequentially arranged in decreasing
order of the performance index, the top few outage cases are analyzed further in detail using the AC
power flow analysis.
Therefore, for contingency ranking, the choice of the performance index is very important. The
PI should be such that it should satisfy the following criteria.
a. It should adequately reflect the severity of any particular contingency.
b. The final list of contingencies for which full AC power flow analysis is to be carried out, should
246

not be too short or too long.


c. The PI should consider both real and reactive power variation in the system.
To achieve the above objectives, different performance indices are used. Below, some of the most
prominent performance indices used are discussed. The PI can be categorized into two groups; i) MW
ranking method (in which the changes in real power flows only are considered) and ii) reactive power
or voltage security ranking (in which the variations of voltage magnitude or reactive power only are
considered). Of course, for considering both real and reactive power variations, the performance
indices from these two categories need to be suitably combined. Now, let us look at the various
indices from these two categories.

5.6.1

MW ranking methods

i) The simplest form of the PI is;


L

P I = Wj [
j=i

Pj
Pj max

(5.65)

In equation (5.65), L is the number of lines in the system, Pj and Pj max are MW flow and MW
capacity of the line j respectively and n is a suitable index. However, the PI given in equation
(5.65) is prone to masking phenomenon in which a contingency causing many lines to be heavily
loaded with no lines being overloaded is ranked higher than a contingency causing few lines to be
overloaded with the remaining lines being lightly loaded. However, this masking phenomenon can be
removed if the summation in equation (5.65) is taken over only the set of overloaded lines as shown
in equation (5.66).

P I = Wj [
jSL

Pj
Pj max

(5.66)

In equation (5.66), SL denotes the set of overloaded lines.


Even with the PI of equation (5.66), there is a chance of misranking. For example, if a contingency
C1 causes many lines to be slightly overloaded and another contingency C2 causes some lines to be
heavily overloaded, then C2 is more severe than C1 . However, equation (5.66) may identify C1 to
be more severe than C2 . To prevent this, a two term PI can be used as shown in equation (5.67).

P I = Hd1 + Wj [
n1

jSL

n2

Pj
Pj max

(5.67)

In equation (5.67), Hd1 is the change in power flow in the highest overloaded line while n1 and
n2 are suitable indices. In case the highest overload in two cases of contingency are same, then the
effect of second highest overloaded line is also taken into account as shown in equation (5.68).

P I = Hd1 + Hd2 + Wj [
n1

n2

jSL

Pj
Pj max

n3

(5.68)

In equation (5.68), Hd2 denotes the change in power flow in the second highest overloaded
247

line. Similarly, if both the highest and second highest overloading conditions are same for two
contingencies, then the third highest overloaded line is taken into account separately.

P I = Hd1 + Hd2 + Hd3 + Wj [


n1

n2

n3

jSL

Pj
Pj max

n4

(5.69)

As before,Hd3 denotes the change in power flow in third highest overloaded line. Of course, this
same philosophy can be extended further to include more number of lines for the calculation of PI,
if necessary.

5.6.2

Voltage security/reactive power ranking methods

These are several PIs suggested for properly ranking the voltage /reactive power contingencies. Some
of them are:
i)
2
i Vi
]
P Iv = [
lim
i=1 2 Vi
N

Where,

(5.70)

1
Vi = Vi Visp ;
Vilim = (Vimax Vimin ) ;
2
Vi = post-contingency voltage magnitude of bus i;
Visp = Nominal or specified voltage of bus i;
Vimax , Vimin = Maximum and minimum limit of voltage magnitudes of bus i
i = User selected weighting factor
P Iv = Performance index corresponding to voltage security
N = number of buses in the system

ii)

Vi Vilim
P Iv = Wvi
Vilim
iS1

(5.71)

where,

Vilim = Vimax if Vi > Vimax


= Vimin if Vi < Vimin

(5.72)

Wvi in the weighting factor for bus i and S1 in the set of all buses at which the voltage limits
have been violated.
iii)

P Iv = Wvi (Vi )2
iS1

where,

Vi =

Vinom
1;
Vilim

Vinom = Vi Vinom ;
248

(5.73)

1
Vinom = (Vimax + Vimin );
2

1
Vilim = (Vimax Vimin )
2

iv)
2
N
dmax
dmin
i
P Iv = [ max ] + [ imin ]
i=1 ai
i=1 ai
N

(5.74)

Where,

Vi V amax
if Vi > Viamax
Vinom
= 0 otherwise

(5.75)

Vimin Vi
if Vi < Viamin
nom
Vi
= 0 otherwise

(5.76)

dmax
=
i

dmin
=
i

amax
=
i

1
V

nom
i

(Vimax Viamax );

amin
=
i

1
Vinom

(Viamin Vimin )

Viamax and Viamin are the higher and lower volatage alarm limits for bus i.
v)

N o
nom
V
+
V

i
i

P Iv = i max
min

V
i=1
i
i

(5.77)

Vi is the post-contingency change in bus voltage magnitude of bus i.


vi)
m

m
Vi
]
P Iv = [ Wi
Vimax
i=1

(5.78)

The value of m is taken to be very large ( 20) to avoid the masking effect.
One popular way of combining the above discussed real power and reactive power ranking method
is to use the 1P1Q method. In this method, a decoupled power flow is used and after one iteration,
(one P-Q computation and one Q-V computation), the bus voltages are noted and with these bus
voltages, the line power flows are calculated. It generally appears that there is sufficient information
available (in the bus voltages) to arrive at a reasonable values of the performance indices. After
calculating the real power and reactive power performance indices separately, the combined PI is
calculated by adding the appropriate real power and reactive power indices together.
With these descriptions of contingency ranking methods, we conclude our discussion of contingency analysis. From the next lecture, we will start our discussion of stability analysis.

249

Module 6
Power system stability
6.1

Introduction

In general terms, power system stability refers to that property of the power system which enables
the system to maintain an equilibrium operating point under normal conditions and to attain a
state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. As primarily synchronous generators
are used for generating power in grid, power system stability is generally implied by the ability
of the synchronous generators to remain in synchronism or in step. On the other hand, if the
synchronous generators loose synchronism after a disturbance, then the system is called unstable.
The basic concept of synchronism can be explained as follows.
In the normal equilibrium condition, all the synchronous generators run at a constant speed and
the difference between the rotor angles of any two generators is constant. Under any disturbance, the
speed of the machines will deviate from the steady state values due to mismatch between mechanical
and electrical powers (torque) and therefore, the difference of the rotor angles would also change.
If these rotor angle differences (between any pair of generators) attain steady state values (not
necessarily the same as in the pre-disturbance condition) after some finite time, then the synchronous
generators are said to be in synchronism. On the other hand, if the rotor angle differences keep on
increasing indefinitely, then the machines are considered to have lost synchronism. Under this out
of step condition, the output power, voltage etc. of the generator continuously drift away from the
corresponding pre-disturbance values until the protection system trips the machine.
The above phenomenon of instability is essentially related with the instability of the rotor angles
and hence, this form of instability is termed as rotor angle instability. Now, as discussed above,
this instability is triggered by the occurrence of a disturbance. Depending on the severity of the
disturbance, the rotor angle instability can be classified into two categories:
Small signal instability: In this case, the disturbance occurring in the system is small. Such
kind of small disturbances always take place in the system due to random variations of the loads
and the generation. It will be shown later in this chapter that under small perturbation (or
disturbance), the change in the electrical torque of a synchronous generator can be resolved into
two components, namely, a) synchronizing torque (Ts ) - which is proportional to the change in
the rotor angle and b) damping torque (Td ), which is proportional to the change in the speed
250

of the machine. As a result, depending on the amounts of synchronizing and damping torques,
small signal instability can manifest itself in two forms. When there is insufficient amount of
synchronizing torque, the rotor angle increases steadily. On the other hand, for inadequate
amount of damping torque, the rotor angle undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude.
These two phenomena are illustrated in Fig. 6.1. In Fig. 6.1(a), both the synchronizing
and damping torques are positive and sufficient and hence, the rotor angle comes back to a
steady state value after undergoing oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In Fig. 6.1(b), the
synchronizing torque is negative while the damping toque is positive and thus, the rotor angle
envelope is increasing monotonically. Fig. 6.1(c) depicts the classic oscillatory instability in
which Ts is positive while Td is negative.

Figure 6.1: Influence of synchronous and damping torque


In an integrated power system, there can be different types of manifestation of the small signal
instability. These are:
251

a. Local mode: In this type, the units within a generating station oscillate with respect to
the rest of the system. The term local is used because the oscillations are localized in a
particular generating station.
b. Inter-area mode: In this case, the generators in one part of the system oscillate with
respect to the machines in another part of the system.
c. Control mode: This type of instability is excited due to poorly damped control systems
such as exciter, speed governor, static var compensators, HVDC converters etc.
d. Torsional mode: This type is associated with the rotating turbine-governor shaft. This
type is more prominent in a series compensated transmission system in which the mechanical system resonates with the electrical system.
Transient instability: In this case, the disturbance on the system is quite severe and sudden
and the machine is unable to maintain synchronism under the impact of this disturbance. In
this case, there is a large excursion of the rotor angle (even if the generator is transiently stable).
Fig. 6.2 shows various cases of stable and unstable behavior of the generator. In case 1, under
the influence of the fault, the generator rotor angle increases to a maximum, subsequently
decreases and settles to a steady state value following oscillations with decreasing magnitude.
In case 2, the rotor angle decreases after attaining a maximum value. However, subsequently,
it undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. This type of instability is not caused by
the lack of synchronizing torque; rather it occurs due to lack of sufficient damping torque in the
post fault system condition. In case 3, the rotor angle monotonically keeps on increasing due
to insufficient synchronizing torque till the protective relay trips it. This type of instability, in
which the rotor angle never decreases, is termed as first swing instability.

Figure 6.2: Illustration of various stability phenomenon

Apart from rotor angle instability, instability can also occur even when the synchronous generators
are maintaining synchronism. For example, when a synchronous generator is supplying power to an
induction motor load over a transmission line, the voltage at the load terminal can progressively
252

reduce under some conditions of real and reactive power drawn by the load. In this case, loss of
synchronism is not an issue but the challenge is to maintain a stable voltage. This type of instability
is termed as voltage instability or voltage collapse. We will discuss about the voltage instability issue
later in this course.
Now, for analysing rotor angle stability, we have to first understand the basic equation of motion
of a synchronous machine, which is our next topic.

6.2

Equation of motion of a synchronous machine

The equation of motion of a synchronous generator is based on the fact that the accelerating torque
is the product of inertia and its angular acceleration. In the MKS system, this equation can be
written as,

d2 m
= Ta = Tm Te
dt2

(6.1)

In equation (6.1),

J The total moment of inertia of the rotor masses in Kg m2


m The angular displacement of the rotor with respect to a stationary axis, in mechanical
radians

t Time in seconds
Ta The net accelerating torque, in N-m
Tm The mechanical or shaft torque supplied by the prime mover less retarding torque due
to rotational losses, in N-m

Te The net electrical or electromagnetic torque in N-m


Under steady state operation of the generator, Tm and Te are equal and therefore, Ta is zero.
In this case, there is no acceleration or deceleration of the rotor masses and the generator runs
at constant synchronous speed. The electrical torque Te corresponds to the air gap power of the
generator and is equal to the output power plus the real power loss of the armature winding.
Now, the angle m is measured with respect to a stationary reference axis on the stator and
hence, it is an absolute measure of the rotor angle. Thus, it continuously increases with time
even with constant synchronous speed. However, in stability studies, the rotor speed relative to
the synchronous speed is of interest and hence, it is more convenient to measure the rotor angular
position with respect to a reference axis which also rotates at synchronous speed. Hence, let us
define,
m = sm t + m
(6.2)
In equation (6.2), sm is the synchronous speed of the machine in mechanical radian/sec. and
m (in mechanical radian) is the angular displacement of the rotor from the synchronously rotating
reference axis. From equation (6.2),

dm
dm
= sm +
dt
dt

or,
253

dm dm
=
sm
dt
dt

(6.3)

d2 m d2 m
=
(6.4)
dt2
dt2
dm
represents the deviation of the actual rotor speed
Equation (6.3) shows that the quantity
dt

from the synchronous speed in mechanical radian per second. Substituting equation (6.4) into
equation (6.1) one gets,

d2 m
= Ta = Tm Te
dt2

(6.5)

Now. let us define the angular velocity of the rotor to be m =

Jm

dm
. From equation (6.5) we get,
dt

d2 m
= m Ta = m Tm m Te
dt2

Or,

Jm

d2 m
= Pa = Pm Pe
dt2

(6.6)

In equation (6.6), Pa , Pe and Pm denote the accelerating power, electrical output power and the
input mechanical power (less than the rotational power loss) respectively.
The quantity Jm is the angular momentum of the rotor and at synchronous speed, it is known
as the inertia constant and is denoted by M . Strictly, the quantity Jm is not constant at all
operating conditions since m keeps on varying. However, when the machine is stable, m does not
differ significantly from sm and hence, Jm can be taken approximately equal to M . Hence, from
equation (6.6) we obtain,

d2 m
= Pa = Pm Pe
dt2

(6.7)

Now, in machine data, another constant related to inertia, namely H-constant is often encountered. This is defined as;

H=

stored kinetic energy in megajoules at synchronous speed


machine rating in MVA

Or,

1 Jsm 2 1 M sm
H=
=
2 Smc
2 Smc

MJ/MVA =

1 M sm
2 Smc

sec.

(6.8)

In equation (6.8), the quantity Smc is the three phase MVA rating of the synchronous machine.
Now, from equation (6.8),

M=

2HSmc
sm

MJ/mech. rad

(6.9)

Substituting for M in equation (6.7), we get,

2H d2 m Pa Pm Pe
=
=
sm dt2
Smc
Smc

(6.10)

In equation (6.10), both m and sm are in mechanical units. Now, the corresponding quantities
254

in electrical units are given as,

s =

P
sm ;
2

P
m ;
2

(6.11)

In equation (6.11), P is the number of pole in the generator, s is the synchronous speed of the
machine in electrical radian/sec. and (in electrical radian) is the angular displacement of the rotor
from the synchronously rotating reference axis. Substituting equation (6.11) in equation (6.10) we
get,

2H d2
= Pa = Pm Pe per unit
s dt2

(6.12)

Equation (6.12) is known as the swing equation of the synchronous machine. As this is a
second order differential equation, it can be written as a set of two first order differential equations
as below.

2H d
= Pm Pe per unit
s dt

(6.13)

d
= s
dt

(6.14)

In equations (6.13) - (6.14), the quantity is the speed of the synchronous machine and is
expressed in electrical radian per second. Now, in the above two equations, no damping of the
machine is considered. If damping is considered (which opposes the motion of the machine), a term
proportional to the deviation of the speed (from the synchronous speed) is introduced in equation
(6.13). Therefore, the modified equation becomes;

2H d
= Pm Pe d( s ) per unit
s dt

(6.15)

In equation (6.15), d is called the damping co-efficient. However, in the presence of damping, equation
(6.14) does not change. Therefore, in the presence of damping, this pair of equations ((6.14) and
(6.15)) describe the motion of the synchronous machine.
With this introduction of motion of synchronous machine, we are now ready to address the various
stability issues. From the next lecture we will start with transient stability analysis.

255

6.3

Transient stability analysis

Before solving the differential equations to determine the transient stability or instability of the
system, it is necessary to compute the initial conditions.

6.3.1

Computation of initial conditions

Let us consider an n bus power system with m generators (m < n). Without loss of generality, it
is assumed that the m generators are located at first m buses of the system. Towards computation
of initial conditions, initially the load flow solution of the system is computed. From the load flow
solution, following quantities are availbale:
a. Vi i

for i = 1, 2, n

b. PLi , QLi

for i = m + 1, m + 2, n

c. PLi , QLi , PGi , QGi

for i = 1, 2, m

In the above, PLi and QLi denote the real and reactive power load at bus i respectively. Similarly,
PGi and QGi denote the real and reactive power generation at bus i respectively. Further, the
quantities Vi and i denote the voltage magnitude and angle of it h bus respectively. With these
information, following calculations are carried out:
(i) At any bus i, the loads are converted to equivalent admittance as;

yLi =

PLi jQLi
Vi 2

for i = 1, 2, n

(6.16)

(ii) Augment the YBUS matrix of the system as;


old
BUS (i, i) = Y
BUS
Y
(i, i) + yLi

for i = 1, 2, n

(6.17)

old
BUS
BUS matrix of the system used in load flow calculation.
where, Y
is the original Y
(iii) At the generator buses, the generators are represented as equivalent voltage sources behind
the direct axis transient reactances as,

PGi jQGi
Ei = Vi + jxdi Ii = jxdi
= Ei i
Vi

for i = 1, 2, m

(6.18)

In equation (6.18), the quantity xdi denotes the direct axis transient reactance of the ith machine.
While performing the transient stability analysis, the magnitude Ei is held constant. The equivalent
diagram of the n bus power system is shown in Fig. 6.3.
With the initial conditions computed as above, we are now ready to solve the transient stability
problem. Basically, the transient stability problem is solved by two techniques: i) partition explicit
(PE) method and ii) simultaneous implicit (SI) method. In the PE method, the network algebraic
equations and the generator differential equations are solved separately. In the SI method, these
256

Figure 6.3: Equivalent representation of generators for transient stability analysis

algebraic and differential equations are solved together. In this course, however, we are going to
discuss PE method only. Before, discussing the PE method, it is necessary to describe the network
algebraic equations.

6.3.2

Network algebraic equations

The network algebraic equations are represented as;

IBUS = Y
BUS V
BUS

(6.19)

BUS is the bus impedance matrix of the system and


In equation (6.19), Y
IBUS = [I1 I2 Im Im+1 In ]T
BUS = [V1 V2 Vm Vm+1 Vn ]T
V
257

(6.20)

The voltage current relationship of the generator reactance is given by,

vk = jxdiik

ik = yk vk

(6.21)

In equation (6.21), ik and vk are the current through and voltage across the generator reactance

1
= j/xdi . Now, at the generator terminals, Ik = ik = yk vk ; or, Ik =
jxdi
yk (Ek Vk ) as (vk = Ek Vk ). Or,
Ik + yk Vk = yk Ek
(6.22)

respectively and yk =

From equations (6.22) and (6.23) we get,

(Y11 + y1 ) V1
Y21 V1

Ym1 V1
Y(m+1),1 V1

Yn1 V1

+
Y12 V2
+ (Y22 + y2 ) V2
+

+
Ym2 V2
+ Y(m+1),2 V2
+

+
Yn2 V2

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
Y1m Vm
+
Y2m Vm
+

+ (Ymm + ym ) Vm
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
Y1n Vn
+
Y2n Vn
+

+
Ymn Vn
+ Y(m+1),n Vn
+

+
Ynn Vn

= y1 E1
= y2 E2
=

= ym Em
=
0
=

=
0

(6.23)

1 ,
From equation (6.23), the voltages V1 , V2 Vn can be solved, for known values of E
E2 En . With these known terminal voltages, the electrical power output of each generator
can be calculated as;
for i = 1, 2, m
Pei = Re (EI Ii )
(6.24)
Where,

Ii = yi (Ei Vi )

for i = 1, 2, m

(6.25)

With the above equations, we are now in a position to discuss the PE method.

6.3.3

Partition explicit solution scheme

In the PE method, the numerical integration of the generator differential equations are carried
out separately from the solution of the network algebraic equations. For numerical integration of
differential equations, the total simulation time (tT ) is divided into N intervals, each interval being

tT

of duration t seconds. Thus, t =


. Now, the major steps for solving the transient stability
N
problem, with PE method, are as follows.
1. Obtain the load flow solution of the given system. Thereafter, compute the internal
i , for i = 1, 2, m) using equations (6.16) - (6.18). Please note
voltages of all the generators (E
that the magnitudes Ei would be kept constant at these calculated values throughout the simulation.

i obtained above, solve the equation set (6.23) to obtain the terminal
2. With the values of E
voltages at all the buses (Vi , for i = 1, 2, n). Subsequently, the electrical power output of all
the generators (Pei , for i = 1, 2, m) are computed from equations (6.24) - (6.25).
258

3. Under steady state condition, mechanical power input to each generator is equal to its
generator electrical output power (neglecting losses). Therefore, Pmi = Pei , for i = 1, 2, m.
Also, under steady state, all the generators are assumed to operate at synchronous speed (s ).
4. Thus, after the above three steps, at t = 0, the variables pertaining to generators (Ei , i ,
i , Pmi for i = 1, 2, m) and the network bus voltages (Vi , for i = 1, 2, n) are all known.

5. The simulation process advances to t = t. At this instant, first the network equations
given in the equation set (6.23) are solved to compute the bus voltages and subsequently, the output
electrical power of each generator is calculated by using equations (6.24) - (6.25). Now, if the
steady state condition is still maintained, i.e. if there is no change in the network (as compared
to the network condition at t = 0), then the calculated values of Pei would be again equal to the
corresponding value of Pmi .
6. With the solution of the network equations at hand, we should now solve the solve the
generator differential equations for calculating the values of i and i at t = t. Towards that end,
let us first re-write the swing equations of ith machine for convenience in equations (6.26) - (6.27)
below.
2Hi di
= Pmi Pei
(6.26)

s dt

di
= i s
(6.27)
dt
di
Now, from equation (6.26), as Pmi = Pei ,
= 0. In other words, there is no change in the
dt
di
speed of the generator and hence i = s . As a result, from equation (6.27),
= 0 and hence, the
dt
angle i would also be maintained at the value calculated at t = 0. Therefore, under steady state
condition, at t = t, both i and i would be maintained at the values calculated at t = 0.
7. Assume that the steady state condition continues from t = 0 to t = (k 1)t, where, k is
a positive integer. Following the arguments described at steps 5 and 6, it can be easily seen that at
the end of t = (k 1)t sec., both i and i would still be maintained at the values calculated at
t = 0.
8. Now, let us assume that a three phase to ground short circuit fault occurs in the system
at t = to = kt at the `th bus. To accommodate this fault condition in the network equations,
the element Y`` is increased manyfold to reflect very high admittance from bus ` to ground. With
this imposed condition, the network bus voltages are calculated from equation set (6.23). Subsequently, the output electrical power of each generator is calculated by using equations (6.24) - (6.25)
corresponding to time t = to .
9. With the values of Pei calculated in step 8, the swing equations (6.26) - (6.27) are integrated
to obtain the values of i and i at t = to . Now, for integrating the swing equations, initial values of
i and i are required. These initial values are taken to be equal to the values of i and i obtained
at the end of t = (k 1)t. For brevity, the value of i (i = 1, 2, m) calculated at t = to is
denoted as i (to ). With this value of i (to ), the voltage behind the transient reactance is updated
i = Ei i (to ), for i = 1, 2, m, where the magnitude Ei has been taken to be equal to the
as E
constant value calculated at step 1.
259

10. The simulation advances to t = to + t. If the fault still persists, the values of Pei are
i in equation set (6.23)
calculated as described in step 8. However, for this purpose, the values of E
are taken to be equal to the latest values calculated at the end of t = to sec.
11. With the values of Pei calculated at t = to + t, step 9 is repeated to update the variables
i , i and Ei at the end of t = to + t. Again, please note that for integrating the differential
equations, the latest values of i and i (calculated at t = to ) have been taken as the initial values.
12. Steps 10 and 11 are repeated to update the variables at t = to + 2t, to + 3t, to +
4t, till the fault clears.
13. At t = tcl (tcl = pt, p being a positive integer and p > k ), the fault clears. This condition
is imposed in the network equations by restoring Y`` to its original pre-fault value and subsequently,
steps 8 - 12 are repeated to obtain the variations of i and i . By observing the variation of i , the
stability of the system is assessed.
In step 9, the generator differential equations are numerically integrated. In the next lecture, we
will look into two such numerical integration techniques, namely, i) modified Eulers method and ii)
4th order Runga-Kutta technique.

260

6.3.4

Modified Eulers method of integration

Before discussing the application of Eulers method for solving the swing equations, let us first review
the basic Eulers method of numerical integration. Let the general from of a differential equation is
given by;

dy
= f (x, y);
dx

y(xo ) = yo ;

(6.28)

In equation (6.28), x and y are independent and dependent quantities respectively and xo and yo
are initial values of x and y respectively. For the purpose of numerical integration, the independent
axis (x-axis) is divided into intervals of length h such that discrete points on the independent axis
are xo , xo + h, xo + 2h, etc. As indicated in equation (6.28), the value of y at x = xo is yo .
The task is to calculate the values y1 , y2 , corresponding to the x co-ordinates xo + h, xo + 2h,
respectively. Once these values are obtained, the smooth curve representing the solution of the
differential equation given in equation (6.28) can be plotted.
In the modified Eulers method, the values y1 , y2 , are calculated in two steps:
Predictor
(1)

In this step, the approximate value of y1 (denoted as y1 ) as;

y1(1) = yo + h

dy

= yo + hf (xo , yo )
dx x=xo

Corrector
(1)

a) With the calculated value of y1 , calculate the approximate value of

dy

= f (xo + h, y1(1) )
dx x=xo +h
b) With this updated value of

(6.29)

dy
at x = xo + h as;
dx
(6.30)

dy
at x = x1 = xo + h, the final value of y1 is calculated as;
dx
dy
h dy
[
+

]
2 dx x=xo dx x=xo +h
h
= yo + [f (xo , yo ) + f (xo + h, y1(1) )]
2

y1 = yo +
or,

y1

(6.31)

With this final value of y1 obtained at x = xo + h = x1 , the above two steps are repeated to
calculate y2 at x = xo + 2h = x2 and subsequently, this process is repeated to obtain the complete
solution of the differential equation.
Now, for our application, let us note that the independent axis (x-axis) denotes time. Therefore,
as already discussed, for solving the differential equations, the time axis is divided into intervals of duration t sec. (i.e. h = t). Further, let us also assume that the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m)
have already been obtained at t = to and these values are denoted as io and io respectively. More(o)
over, the initial values of Pei (denoted as Pei ) are also assumed to be calculated utilising the values
261

of io . With thse known values, the values of i and i at t = to + t are calculated as follows.
Predictor step
(1)

In this step, the approximate values of i and i are calculated as (denoted as i


respectively);

di
= io + t(io s )
dt t=to

(6.32)

di
s
(Pmi Pei(o) )
= io + t
dt t=to
2Hi

(6.33)

i(1) = io + t
i(1) = io + t

(1)

and i

Corrector step
(1)

With the new values of i (i = 1, 2, m) obtained in the predictor step, the values of Pei
(i = 1, 2, m) are updated using equations (6.23)-(6.25) (after appropriately incorporating the
(1)
network conditions in the equation set (6.23)). Let these updates values of Pei be denoted as Pei .
Thereafter, the derivatives at the end of the present time step are calculated as follows:

di

= i(1) s
dt t=to +t

(6.34)

di
s

=
(Pmi Pei(1) )
dt t=to +t 2Hi

(6.35)

With the above new derivative values obtained, the final values of i and i at t = to +t (denoted
as i1 and i1 respectively) are calculated as;

i1 = io +

t di
di
[ +

]
2 dt t=to dt t=to +t

(6.36)

i1 = io +

t di
di
[
+

]
2 dt t=to dt t=to +t

(6.37)

Proceeding further, for calculating i and i at t = to +2t, the quantities io and io are replaced
by i1 and i1 respectively and equations (6.32)-(6.37) are followed again.

6.3.5

Runga Kutta 4th order method of integration

Let us again consider the same general form of a differential equation as in equation (6.28):

dy
= f (x, y);
dx

y(xo ) = yo ;

(6.38)

Again, the meanings of different notations used in equation (6.38) are same as those in equation
262

(6.28). In RK 4th order method, the value y1 (corresponding to x = xo + h) is calculated as;

h
y1 = yo + (k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4 )
6

(6.39)

k1 = hf (xo , yo )

(6.40)

In equation (6.39),

k1
h
k2 = hf (xo + , yo + )
2
2
h
k2
k3 = hf (xo + , yo + )
2
2
k4 = hf (xo + h, yo + k3 )

(6.41)
(6.42)
(6.43)

Now, for solving the transient stability problem with RK 4th order method, let us again assume
that the value of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are known at t = to (denoted as io and io respectively). Moreover, the values of Pei are also assumed to be known (calculated utilising the values
of io ). From these initial values, the procedure of calculation of i1 and i1 (values of i and i at
t = to + t) is as follows.

Calculation of first estimate of the derivatives


In this step, the first estimates of the derivatives for the ith machine (i = 1, 2, m) are
calculated as:

di (1)
= io s
dt

(6.44)

di (1) s
[Pmi Pei(o) ]
=
dt
2Hi

(6.45)

With these first estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are updated
as:
(1)
i

1 di (1)
= io + t
2
dt

(6.46)

(1)
i

1 di (1)
= io + t

2
dt

(6.47)

(1)

With these values of i (i = 1, 2, m), the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, m) are updated


(1)
from equations (6.23) - (6.25). Let these newly calculated values of Pei be denoted as Pei (i =
1, 2, m). We now proceed to the next step.

Calculation of second estimate of the derivatives


263

The second estimates of the derivatives are calculated as:

di (2)
= i(1) s
dt

(6.48)

di (2) s
[Pmi Pei(1) ]
=
dt
2Hi

(6.49)

With these second estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are
updated as:

1 di (2)
i(2) = io + t
2
dt

(6.50)

1 di (2)
= io + t

2
dt

(6.51)

(2)
i

(2)

With these values of i , the values of Pei are again updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25). Let
(2)
these newly calculated values of Pei be denoted as Pei (i = 1, 2, m). We now proceed to the
next step.

Calculation of third estimate of the derivatives


The third estimates of the derivatives are calculated as;

di (3)
= i(2) s
dt

(6.52)

di (3) s
[Pmi Pei(2) ]
=
dt
2Hi

(6.53)

With these third estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, m) are updated
as;
(3)
i

di (3)
= io + t
dt

(6.54)

(3)
i

di (3)
= io + t

dt

(6.55)

(3)

With these values of i , the values of Pei are again updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25). Let
(3)
these newly calculated values of Pei be denoted as Pei (i = 1, 2, m). We now proceed to the
next step.

Calculation of fourth estimate of the derivatives


264

The fourth estimates of the derivatives are calculated as:

di (4)
= i(3) s
dt

(6.56)

di (4) s
[Pmi Pei(3) ]
=
dt
2Hi

(6.57)

After the fourth estimates are obtained, we are now in a position to calculate i1 and i1
(i = 1, 2, m).
Calculation of final values
The final, updated values are calculated as:

t di (1)
di (2)
di (3) di (4)
i1 = io +
[ +2 +2 +
]
6 dt
dt
dt
dt

(6.58)

di (2)
di (3) di (4)
t di (1)
[
+2
+2
+
]
i1 = io +
6 dt
dt
dt
dt

(6.59)

Proceeding further, for calculating i and i at t = to +2t, the quantities io and io are replaced
by i1 and i1 respectively and equations (6.44)-(6.59) are followed again.
In the next lecture, we will illustrate the applicaion of Modified Eulers method for transient
stability calculation.

265

6.3.6

Example with Modified Eulers method

As an illustration of the Modified Eulers method, let us consider a three machine, 9 bus system.
The schematic diagram of this system is shown in Fig. 6.4. The bus data of this system is given
in Table A.7 while the line data are given in Table A.8. Further, the values of xdi , di (damping
constant) and Hi (inertia constant) for all the three generators are given in Table 6.1.
With the data given in Tables A.7 and Table A.8, the load flow solution of this system has been
carried out and the load flow results are given in Table 6.2. With the help of load flow results and
and ) of the internal voltages of all the generators
values of xdi , the magnitudes and angles (E
have been calculated by utilising equations (6.16)-(6.18) and are also shown in Table 6.2. It is to
i (i = 1, 2, 3) are to
be noted that, throughout the transient stability simulation, the values of E
be kept constant at the values given in Table 6.2. Also, at steady state, the speed of all generators
are assumed to be equal to s (i.e. io = s ; i = 1, 2, 3). Now, following the arguments given in
step 7 of sub-section 6.3.3, under steady state, the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) will remain constant
at those values given in Table 6.2. Similarly, under steady state, the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) will
all be equal to s (= 376.9911184307752 rad./sec for a 60 Hz. system). Moreover, for transient
stability simulation, a time step of 0.001 sec. (t = 0.001) has been taken. Further, to start with,
the damping of the generators have been neglected.

Figure 6.4: 3 machine, 9 bus system


Now, let us assume that a three phase to ground fault takes place at bus 7 at t = 0.5 sec. To
simulate this fault, the element Y77 is increased 1000 times to represent very high admittance to
ground. With this modification in Y77 , the equation set (6.23) are solved to calculate the faulted
266

Table 6.1: Machine data for 9 bus system


Gen.
xdi
di
Hi
no.
(p.u)
1
0.0608 0.0254 23.64
2
0.1198 0.0066 6.40
3
0.1813 0.0026 3.01

Table 6.2: Load flow result for 9 bus system


Gen.
PG
QG
V

no.
(MW)
(MVAR)
(p.u)
(deg.)
(p.u)
(deg.)
1
71.64102147 27.0459235334 1.04
0.0
1.0566418430 2.2716458404
2
163.0
6.6536603184 1.025 9.2800054816 1.0502010147 19.7315857693
3
85.0
-10.8597090709 1.025 4.6647513331 1.0169664112 13.1664110346

values of Vi (i = 1, 2, 3). These values are shown in second column of Table 6.3. With these
(o)
calculated values of the generator terminal voltages, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) have been
calculated using equations (6.24)-(6.25) and are shown in third column of Table 6.3. Now, from Fig.
6.4, bus 7 is the terminal bus of generator 2 (just after the transformer) and therefore, for any short
circuit fault at bus 7, the real power output of generator 2 is expected to fall drastically. Indeed,
(o)
from Table 6.3, after the fault, Pe2 is indeed very low (0.0003691143 p.u.). Also, note that the
values of io and io (i = 1, 2, 3), which are to be used for calculation at this time instant, are all
equal to the corresponding steady state values as there was no fault prior to this time instant.
Table 6.3: Calculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

V (p.u)
0.8515307492 - 0.0053320553i
0.3391142785 + 0.1215867116i
0.6169489129 + 0.0743553183i

(o)

With these values of Pei

Pe(o)
(p.u)
0.6791748939
0.0003691143
0.3821503052

and io , the initial estimates of

di
di
and
(i = 1, 2, 3) are
dt
dt

calculated from equations (6.27) and (6.26) respectively and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table
(1)
(1)
6.4 respectively. Finally, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated by using equations
(6.32) - (6.33) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.4 respectively. From Tables 6.1 - 6.4 it
is observed that the steady state values of i (for i = 1, 2, 3; shown in the last column of Table 6.1)
(1)
are equal to the corresponding values of i (for i = 1, 2, 3; shown in the fourth column of Table

di
(i = 1, 2, 3) are all equal to zero.
dt
(1)
However, due to fall in Pei (i = 1, 2, 3), from equation (6.33), the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) are all
6.4). This is due to the fact that at this predictor stage,

267

greater than s .
Table 6.4: Calculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

d
dt
0
0
0

(1)

d
dt

(1)

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.2968990107 2.2716458404 376.9914153297
47.9965914231 19.7315857693 377.0391150221
29.2982026019 13.1664110346 377.0204166333

Once the calculations pertaining to the predictor stage at t = 0.5 sec. are over, we move on
to the calculations pertaining to the corrector stage. Towards this goal, initially the values of Pei
(1)
(i = 1, 2, 3) are updated using the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) in equations (6.23) - (6.25). As
(1)
(1)
discussed earlier, the updated value of Pei is denoted as Pei . Now, as the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3)
(1)
are equal to the corresponding steady state values, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) are also equal
(1)
(1)
to the values given in Table 6.3. Subsequently, with the values of Pei and i (i = 1, 2, 3), the
values of

di
di
and
(i = 1, 2, 3) at the end of the present time step are calculated from equations
dt
dt

(6.34) - (6.35) and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table 6.5 respectively. Lastly, the final values
of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) at t = 0.5 sec. are calculated by using equations (6.36) - (6.37), which are
shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.5 respectively.
Table 6.5: Calculations with Eulers method for corrector stage at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.

d
d
no.
(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
dt
dt
1
0.0002968990 0.2968990107 2.2716543459 376.9914153297
2
0.0479965914 47.9965914231 19.7329607703 377.0391150221
3
0.0292982026 29.2982026019 13.1672503663 377.0204166333

With these final values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to t = 0.5 sec. at hand, we now
increment the time by t (= 0.001 sec.) and repeat the calculations for predictor and corrector
stages for t = 0.501 sec. The detailed calculations are shown in Tables 6.6 - 6.9. Initially, with the
values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) just obtained, the generator terminal voltages and the generator
output electrical powers are calculated and are shown in Table 6.6. With these newly calculated

di di (1)
(1)
,
, i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to the
dt dt
(1)
(1)
predictor stage are calculated and are shown in Table 6.7. With these updated values of i and i
(i = 1, 2, 3), the values of the generator terminal voltages and Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) are re-calculated
values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3), the values of

corresponding to the corrector stage and are shown in Table 6.8. Lastly, using these updated values

di
di
and
corresponding to the corrector stage are calculated and
dt
dt
are shown in Table 6.9. Finally, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) at t = 0.501 sec. are calculated

of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3), the values of

by using equations (6.36)-(6.37), which are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.9 respectively.
268

Table 6.6: Caculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

V (p.u)
0.8515306823 - 0.0053313633i
0.3391113605 + 0.1215948479i
0.6169476981 + 0.0743625981i

Pe
(p.u)
0.6791650241
0.0003691288
0.3821597463

Table 6.7: Calculations with Eulers method for predictor stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
(1)
(1)
d
d
no.
(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
dt
dt
1
0.0002968990 0.2969777087 2.2716713570 376.9917123074
2
0.0479965914 47.9965909948 19.7357107724 377.0871116131
3
0.0292982026 29.2976113769 13.1689290296 377.0497142447

Table 6.8: Caculations with Eulers method for corrector stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

V (p.u)
0.8515305484 - 0.0053299791i
0.3391055238 + 0.1216111204i
0.6169452683 + 0.0743771578i

Pe
(p.u)
0.6791452844
0.0003691579
0.3821786281

Table 6.9: Calculations with Eulers method for corrector stage at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.

d
d
no.
(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
dt
dt
1
0.0005938767 0.2971351045 2.2716798648 376.9917123861
2
0.0959931824 47.9965901381 19.7370857735 377.0871116127
3
0.0585958139 29.2964289348 13.1697683443 377.0497136535

For subsequent time instants, the calculations proceed exactly in the same way as described
above. The fault is assumed to be cleared at t = 0.6 sec. To simulate this event (clearing of fault),
the value of Y77 is restored to its pre-fault value and subsequently, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3)
are calculated from equations (6.23)-(6.25). Please note that, while doing so, the latest values of i
(i = 1, 2, 3) obatained at t = 0.599 sec. are used in equation set (6.23). For subsequent instances
(beyond t = 0.6 sec.), the calculations proceed in the identical manner and finally, the simulation
study is stopped at t = 5.0 sec. The variations of i (i = 1, 2, 3) with respect to the center of inertia
(COI) are shown in Fig. 6.5. For calculating the value of i with respect to the COI (denoted as
269

iCOI ) at each time step, the following expression has been used:
iCOI = i COI ;

for i = 1, 2, 3;

(6.60)

where,
m

COI =

Hi i
i=1
m

(6.61)

Hj
j=1

In equation (6.61), m denotes the number of generators in the system (in our present case, m
= 3). At each time step, with the final calculated values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) calculated at the end
of corrector step, the value of COI is computed and thereafter, each value of iCOI (i = 1, 2, 3)
is computed with the help of equation (6.60). With the values of iCOI thus obtained for all time
steps, the plots shown in Fig. 6.5 are obtained. These plots show that the generators experience
sustained oscillations. This is due to the fact that in this study, the damping of the generators have
been neglected.

Figure 6.5: Variation of 1COI (with no damping) obtained with Eulers method
Let us now consider the damping of the generators. As discussed earlier (in the context of
equations (6.14) and (6.15)), when damping is considered, an extra term (representing damping)
is introduced in the differential equation corresponding to rate of change of speed. However, there
would be no change in the differential equation representing the rate of change of generator angle.
Therefore, the set of differential equations for ith generator is given by;

di
= i s
dt

(6.62)

2Hi di
= Pmi Pei di (i s )
s dt

(6.63)

In equation (6.63), the extra term di (i s ) represnts the damping of the generator. There
would be, of course, no change in the algebraic equations and the set of algebraic equations would
270

still be represented by equation set (6.23). With these sets of differential and algebraic equations,
the calculations proceed in identically the same way as described above and the variations of iCOI
(i = 1, 2, 3) for the same fault considered above are shown in Fig. 6.6. Comparison of these
three plots with those shown in Fig. 6.5 shows that when damping of the generators are taken into
consideration, the oscillations in all the three generators reduce gradually with time, which, indeed
should be the case. As the generator oscillations are decreasing with time, the generators will remain
in synchronism and therefore, the system is stable.

Figure 6.6: Variation of 1COI (with damping) obtained with Eulers method
We will now discuss the application of Runga Kutta (RK) 4th order method of integration for
solving the transient stability problem in the next lecture.

271

6.3.7

Example with Runga Kutta 4th order method

Again, as an example, 3 machine, 9 bus system shown in Fig. 6.4 is again considered. Initially, the
damping of the generators are neglected (i.e. di = 0 for i = 1, 2, 3). The load flow results and the
initial values of the magnitudes and angles (E and ) of the internal voltages of all the generators
are same as those already given in Table 6.2. As before, it is again assumed that at t = 0.5 sec.,
a three phase to ground short circuit fault takes place at bus 7. The faulted generator terminal
voltages and generator output powers are same as those shown in Table 6.3. With these values of

(o)
ei

di (1)
di (1)
and io , the estimates
and
(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.44)
dt
dt

and (6.45) respectively and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table 6.10 respectively. With these first
(1)
(1)
estimates of the derivatives, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations
(6.46) - (6.47) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.10 respectively.
Table 6.10: Calculations with RK method for first estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.

di (1)

dt

1
2
3

0
0
0

di (1)

dt

(1)

(1)

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.2968990107 2.2716458404 376.99126688
47.9965914231 19.7315857693 377.01511672
29.2982026019 13.1664110346 377.00576753

(1)

With the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained above, the generator terminal voltages and output
powers are updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25) and are shown in Table 6.11. Please note that
(1)
following the notations used earlier, the output powers calculated at this stage are denoted as Pei
(i = 1, 2, 3).
Table 6.11: Caculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

(1)

With the values of i

V (p.u)
0.8515307492 - 0.0053320553i
0.3391142785 + 0.1215867116i
0.6169489129 + 0.0743553183i

(1)

Pe(1)
(p.u)
0.6791748939
0.0003691143
0.3821503052

and Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) calculated above, the quantities

di (2)
di (2)
and

dt
dt

(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.48) - (6.49) and are shown in columns 2 and 3 of Table
(2)
(2)
6.12 respectively. Subsequently, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations
(6.50) - (6.51) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.12 respectively.
(2)

Again, with the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained above, the generator terminal voltages and
output powers are updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25) and are shown in Table 6.13. Please note
272

Table 6.12: Calculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.
1
2
3

di (2)

dt

di (2)

dt

(2)

(2)

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.0001484495 0.2968990107 2.2716500931 376.9912668802
0.0239982957 47.9965914231 19.7322732698 377.0151167264
0.0146491013 29.2982026019 13.1668307004 377.0057675320

that following the notations used earlier, the output powers calculated at this stage are denoted as
Pei(2) (i = 1, 2, 3).
Table 6.13: Caculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

Pe(2)

V (p.u)
0.8515307158 - 0.0053317093i
0.3391128195 + 0.1215907798i
0.6169483055 + 0.0743589582i
(2)

Proceeding further, with the values of i

(p.u)
0.6791699590
0.0003691216
0.3821550258

(2)

and Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) calculated above, the quantities

di (3)
di (3)
and
(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.52) - (6.53) and are shown in
dt
dt
(3)
(3)
columns 2 and 3 of Table 6.14 respectively. Subsequently, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) are
calculated from equations (6.54) - (6.55) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.14 respectively.

Table 6.14: Calculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.
1
2
3

di (3)

dt

di (3)

dt

(3)

(3)

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.0001484495 0.2969383597 2.2716543459 376.9914153691
0.0239982957 47.9965912089 19.7329607703 377.0391150219
0.0146491013 29.2979069891 13.1672503663 377.0204163377
(3)

Again, with the values of i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained above, the generator terminal voltages and
output powers are updated from equations (6.23) - (6.25) and are shown in Table 6.15. Please note
that following the notations used earlier, the output powers calculated at this stage are denoted as
Pei(3) (i = 1, 2, 3).
Lastly, with the values of
and

(3)
i

and P

(3)
ei

di (4)
(i = 1, 2, 3) calculated above, the quantities

dt

di (4)
(i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated from equations (6.56) - (6.57) and are shown in columns 2
dt
273

Table 6.15: Calculations with RK method for final estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

V (p.u)
0.8515306823 - 0.0053313633i
0.3391113605 + 0.1215948479i
0.6169476981 + 0.0743625981i

Pe(3)
(p.u)
0.6791650241
0.0003691288
0.3821597463

and 3 of Table 6.16 respectively. Finally, the values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) at the end of t = 0.5
sec. are calculated from equations (6.58) - (6.59) and are shown in columns 4 and 5 of Table 6.16
respectively.
Table 6.16: Calculations with RK method for final estimate at t = 0.5 sec. (damping = 0)

di (4)

dt

Gen. no.
1
2
3

di (4)

dt

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.0002969383 0.2969777087 2.2716543463 376.9914153560
0.0479965912 47.9965909948 19.7329607703 377.0391150220
0.0292979069 29.2976113769 13.1672503634 377.0204164363

After the final values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to t = 0.5 sec. are obtained, we
increment the time by t (= 0.001 sec.) and repeat the calculations for t = 0.501 sec. Towards
this goal, the quantities i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) shown in Table 6.16 are substituted for io and io
(i = 1, 2, 3) in equations (6.44) - (6.59). With these values of io (i = 1, 2, 3), equations (6.23) (6.25) are solved to calculate the initial values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) at t = 0.501 sec. The results are
shown in Table 6.17.
Table 6.17: Calculations with RK method for initial estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

V (p.u)
0.8515306823 - 0.0053313633i
0.3391113605 + 0.1215948479i
0.6169476981 + 0.0743625981i

Pe(o)
(p.u)
0.6791650241
0.0003691288
0.3821597462

(o)

With the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) thus obtained, calculations pertaining to the first estimate
are carried out by using equations (6.44) - (6.47) and the results are shown in Table 6.18. Sub(1)
sequently, the values of Pei (i = 1, 2, 3) are calculated and the results are shown in Table 6.19.
(1)

(1)

(1)

With the values of Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) obtained as above, the calculations pertaining
(2)
(2)
(2)
to second estimate are performed to obtain Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3). The results are shown
274

Table 6.18: Calculations with RK method for first estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

di (1)

dt

Gen. no.
1
2
3

di (1)

dt

(1)

(1)

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.0002969252 0.2969777084 2.2716628526 376.9915638448
0.0479965912 47.9965909948 19.7343357714 377.0631133175
0.0292980055 29.2976113792 13.1680896895 377.0350652419

Table 6.19: Calculations with RK method for first estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

Pe(1)

V (p.u)
0.8515306154 - 0.0053306712i
0.3391084422 + 0.1216029842i
0.6169464833 + 0.0743698779i

(p.u)
0.6791551544
0.0003691434
0.3821691871

in Tables 6.20 and 6.21.


Table 6.20: Calculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.
1
2
3

di (2)

dt

di (2)

dt

(2)

(2)

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.0004454140 0.2970564057 2.2716671065 376.9915638842
0.0719948867 47.9965905664 19.7350232719 377.0631133173
0.0439468112 29.2970201614 13.1685093468 377.0350649463

Table 6.21: Calculations with RK method for second estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

Pe(2)

V (p.u)
0.8515305819 - 0.0053303251i
0.3391069830 + 0.1216070523i
0.6169458758 + 0.0743735177i
(2)

(2)

(2)

(p.u)
0.6791502196
0.0003691506
0.3821739075

Proceeding further, using the values of Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3), the calculations pertaining
(3)
(3)
(3)
to third estimate are performed to obtain Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3). The results are shown in
Tables 6.22 and 6.23.
(3)
(3)
(3)
Using the values of Pei , i and i (i = 1, 2, 3), the fourth estimates of the derivatives are
computed and subsequently, the final values of i and i (i = 1, 2, 3) corresponding to t = 0.501
sec. are obtained. The calculations are shown in Table 6.24.
275

Table 6.22: Calculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.
1
2
3

di (3)

dt

di (3)

dt

(3)

(3)

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.0004454534 0.2970957537 2.2716798689 376.9917124517
0.0719948865 47.9965903523 19.7370857735 377.0871116124
0.0439465156 29.2967245580 13.1697683133 377.0497131608

Table 6.23: Calculations with RK method for third estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)
Gen.
no.
1
2
3

V (p.u)
0.8515304815 - 0.0053292869i
0.3391026052 + 0.1216192565i
0.6169440533 + 0.0743844372i

Pe(3)
(p.u)
0.6791354153
0.0003691725
0.3821880684

Table 6.24: Calculations with RK method for final estimate at t = 0.501 sec. (damping = 0)

Gen. no.
1
2
3

di (4)

dt

di (4)

dt

(deg.)
(rad/sec.)
0.0005940209 0.2972137971 2.2716798685 376.9917124386
0.0959931816 47.9965897098 19.7370857735 377.0871116124
0.0585947300 29.2958377565 13.1697683161 377.0497132593

For subsequent time instants, the calculations proceed exactly in the same way as described
above. As in the case with Eulers method, in this case also, the fault is assumed to be cleared at t =
0.6 sec. and finally, the simulation study is stopped at t = 5.0 sec. The variations of i (i = 1, 2, 3)
with respect to the center of inertia (COI) are shown in Fig. 6.7 below. Please note that in this
figure, no damping of the generators has been considered.
The simulation studies have also been carried out by considering the damping of the generators.
The variations of i (i = 1, 2, 3) with respect to the center of inertia (COI) for this case are shown
in Fig. 6.8 below. Comaprison of Figs. 6.7 - 6.8 with Figs. 6.5 - 6.6 reveals that the responses
obtained with these two methods are almost identical to each other.
With this example, we are now at the end of discussion of transient stability analysis. From the
next lecture, we will start the discussion of small signal stability analysis.

276

Figure 6.7: Variation of 1COI (with no damping) obtained with Runga-Kutta method

Figure 6.8: Variation of 1COI (with damping) obtained with Runga-Kutta method

277

6.4

Small signal analysis

For small signal analysis of a multimachine power system, we need to linearise the differential equations of the machines and form the system A matrix. Thereafter, by computing the eigenvalues of
the A matrix, the system stability can be assessed. Now, let us consider an n bus power system
having m generators. Each generator is represented by its classical model. Further, without any
loss of generality, it is assumed that the generators are connected at the first m buses of the system.
Now, for linearising the differential equations, let us recall the swing equations of each generator
here for ready reference.

di
= i s
for i = 1, 2, m
dt
2Hi di
= Pmi Pei
for i = 1, 2, m
s dt

(6.64)
(6.65)

Linearising equation (6.64) for the ith generator, one can get,

di
= i
dt

(6.66)

Now, let us define,

= [1 , 2 , m ]

= [1 , 2 , m ]

(6.67)
(6.68)

In equations (6.67) and (6.68), the vectors and denote the vectors of perturbed values
of rotor angle and machine speed respectively. Please note that the size of each of these two vectors
is (m 1).
Now, collecting equation (6.66) for all the m generators and re-writing them in matrix notation
we can obtain,

d
= F1
dt

(6.69)

In equation (6.69), F1 is a (m m) identity matrix. Now, linearising equation (6.65) for the ith
generator, one can get,

2Hi di
= Pei
s dt

(6.70)

For performing linearisation of Pei , its expression its required. This expression can be derived as
follows. From equation (6.25), one can write,

Ei i Vi i Ei j(i /2) Vi j(i /2)


Ii =
= e
e
jxdi
xdi
xdi
278

Or,

E i Vi
Ei
Ei Ii = Ei eji Ii = ej/2 ej(/2+i i )
xdi
xdi
Therefore,

E i Vi
Pei = Re (EI Ii ) = sin(i i )
xdi

(6.71)

Linearisation of equation (6.71) yields,

Pei = k1i i + k2i i + k3i Vi

(6.72)

Where,

k1i =

Ei Vi
cos(i i );
xdi

k2i =

Ei Vi
cos(i i );
xdi

k3i =

Ei
sin(i i );
xdi

(6.73)

In equation (6.73), the constants k1i , k2i and k3i are evaluated using the values of Ei , Vi , i and
i at the current operating point for i = 1, 2, m.
Now, again let us define,

g = [1 , 2 , m ]

Vg = [V1 , V2 , Vm ]

(6.74)

(6.75)

Pe = [Pe1 , Pe2 , Pem ]

(6.76)

In equations (6.74) and (6.75), the vectors g and Vg denote the vectors of perturbed values
of generator terminal voltage angles and magnitudes respectively. Similarly, the vector Pe denotes
the perturbed values of the generator real powers. Please note that the size of each of these three
vectors is also (m 1).
Now, collecting equation (6.72) for all the m generators and re-writing them in matrix notation
we can obtain,
Pe = K1 + K2 g + K3 Vg
(6.77)
In equation (6.77), the size of each of the matrices K1 , K2 and K3 is (m m). Moreover, all
these three matrices are diagonal matrices and are given by;

K1 = diag (k11 , k12 , k1m )


K2 = diag (k21 , k22 , k2m )
K3 = diag (k31 , k32 , k3m )
279

(6.78)

6.4.1

Linearisation of network equations (at the generator buses)

To illustrate the procedure for linearisation of the network equations, let us first consider the first
equation of the equation set (6.23) below.

(Y11 + y1 ) V1 + Y12 V2 + + Y1m Vm + + Y1n Vn = y1 E1

(6.79)

Now, let,

Yij = Yij exp (jij );

Vi = Vi exp (ji );

for i, j = 1, 2, n;

(6.80)

yk = yk exp (jk );

Ek = Ek exp (jk );

for k = 1, 2, m;

(6.81)

and

Utilising equations (6.80) and (6.81) in equation (6.79), we get,

Y11 V1 exp (j (11 + 1 )) + y1 V1 exp (j (1 + 1 )) + Y12 V2 exp (j (12 + 2 )) + +


Y1m Vm exp (j (1m + m )) + + Y1n Vn exp (j (1n + n )) = y1 E1 exp (j (1 + 1 ))

(6.82)

Taking the real part of both the sides of equation (6.82), we get,

Y11 V1 cos (11 + 1 ) + y1 V1 cos (1 + 1 ) + Y12 V2 cos (12 + 2 ) + +


Y1m Vm cos (1m + m ) + + Y1n Vn cos (1n + n ) = y1 E1 cos (1 + 1 )

(6.83)

Linearising equation (6.83), we get,

Y11 cos (11 + 1 )V1 Y11 V1 sin (11 + 1 )1 + y1 cos (1 + 1 )V1


y1 V1 sin (1 + 1 )1 + Y12 cos (12 + 2 )V2 Y12 V2 sin (12 + 2 )2
+ + Y1m cos (1m + m )Vm Y1m Vm sin (1m + m )m + +
Y1n cos (1n + n )Vn Y1n Vn sin (1n + n )n = y1 E1 sin (1 + 1 )1

(6.84)

Equation (6.84) can be re-written as,

a11 V1 + a12 V2 + + a1m Vm + + a1n Vn +


b11 1 + b12 2 + + b1m m + + b1n n = g1 1

(6.85)

In equation (6.85),

a11 = Y11 cos (11 + 1 ) + y1 cos (1 + 1 ); a12 = Y12 cos (12 + 2 );


a1m = Y1m cos (1m + m ); a1n = Y1n cos (1n + n );
b11 = Y11 V1 sin (11 + 1 ) y1 V1 sin (1 + 1 ); b12 = Y12 V2 sin (12 + 2 );
b1m = Y1m Vm sin (1m + m ); b1n = Y1n Vn sin (1n + n );
g1 = y1 E1 sin (1 + 1 );

(6.86)

Again, taking the real part of both sides of the second equation of the equation set (6.23) (after
280

substituting equations (6.80) and (6.81) into it), we get,

Y21 V1 cos (21 + 1 ) + y2 V2 cos (2 + 2 ) + Y22 V2 cos (22 + 2 ) + +


Y2m Vm cos (2m + m ) + + Y2n Vn cos (2n + n ) = y2 E2 cos (2 + 2 )

(6.87)

Linearising equation (6.87), one can get,

a21 V1 + a22 V2 + + a2m Vm + + a2n Vn +


b21 1 + b22 2 + + b2m m + + b2n n = g2 2

(6.88)

In equation (6.88),

a21 = Y21 cos (21 + 1 ); a22 = Y22 cos (22 + 2 ) + y2 cos (2 + 2 );


a2m = Y2m cos (2m + m ); a2n = Y2n cos (2n + n );
b21 = Y21 V1 sin (21 + 1 ); b22 = Y22 V2 sin (22 + 2 ) y2 V2 sin (2 + 2 );
b2m = Y2m Vm sin (2m + m ); b2n = Y2n Vn sin (2n + n );
g2 = y2 E2 sin (2 + 2 );

(6.89)

Similarly, continuing with linearisation of the real parts of first m equations (corresponding to
the generator buses) of the equation set (6.23), we get,

[A1

Vg

L
= [G] []
B1 ]

(6.90)

In equation (6.90),

a11 a12 a1m a1,(m+1) a1n

a21 a22 a2m a2,(m+1) a2n

is a (m n) matrix
A1 =

am1 am2 amm am,(m+1) amn

(6.91)

b11 b12 b1m b1,(m+1) b1n

b21 b22 b2m b2,(m+1) b2n

B1 =

is a (m n) matrix

bm1 bm2 bmm bm,(m+1) bmn

(6.92)

281

g1 0 0 0

0 g2 0 0

is a (m m) diagonal matrix
G=

0 0 0 gm

(6.93)

The elements of the matrices A1 , B1 and G are given as;

aii = Yii cos (ii + i ) + yi cos (i + i );


aij = Yij cos (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

bii = Yii Vi sin (ii + i ) yi Vi sin (i + i );


bij = Yij Vj sin (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m;

i = 1, 2, m;

(6.94)

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

gi = yi Ei sin (i + i );

i = 1, 2, m;

Further, the vectors L and VL are defined as;

L = [m+1 , m+2 , n ]

VL = [Vm+1 , Vm+2 , Vn ]

(6.95)
(6.96)

Please note that the size of each of the above two vectors is ((n m) 1). So far, we have
considered only the algebraic equations at the generator buses. However, for completing the small
signal model, the algebraic equations at the load buses all need to be linearised. We will discuss this
issue in the next lecture.

282

6.4.2

Linearisation of network equations (at the load buses)

Now, let us consider the algebraic equations at the load buses. For this, please recollect that the
loads have been assumed to be connected at the last (nm) buses. The real part of the pth equation
(p = (m + 1), (m + 2), n) of the equations set (6.23) is given by,

Yp1 V1 cos (p1 + 1 ) + Yp2 V2 cos (p2 + 2 ) + + Ypn Vn cos (pn + n ) = 0

(6.97)

Linearising the above equation we get,

Yp1 cos (p1 + 1 )V1 Yp1 V1 sin (p1 + 1 )1 + Yp2 cos (p2 + 2 )V2
Yp2 V2 sin (p2 + 2 )2 + + Ypn cos (pn + n )Vn Ypn Vn sin (pn + n )n = 0

(6.98)

Or,

ap1 V1 + ap2 V2 + + apn Vn + bp1 1 + bp2 2 + + bpn n = 0

(6.99)

In equation (6.99),

apj = Ypj cos (pj + j ); j = 1, 2, n;


bpj = Ypj Vj sin (pj + j ); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.100)

Please note that equation (6.99) can be written for all the n m load buses (by varying p from
m + 1 to n). In that case, in equation (6.100) also, p will vary from m + 1 to n. Collecting all
these n m equations and putting them in a matrix form, we get,

[R1

Vg

L
= [1 ] []
S1 ]

(6.101)

In equation (6.101), the matrix 1 is a (n m) m null matrix and the matrices R1 and S1
are given by,

r11
r12

r1n

r21
r22

r2n

R1 =

is a ((n m) n) matrix

r(nm),1 r(nm),2 r(nm),n

283

(6.102)

s11
s12

s1n

s21

s
22
2n

is a ((n m) n) matrix
S1 =

s(nm),1 s(nm),2 s(nm),n

(6.103)

The elements of the matrices R1 and S1 are given by,

rij = a(i+m),j ;
sij = b(i+m),j ;

i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;
i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.104)

In equation (6.104), the expressions of the co-efficients a(i+m),j and b(i+m),j are given by equation
(6.100). Now, taking the imaginary part of both the sides of equation (6.82), we get,

Y11 V1 sin (11 + 1 ) + y1 V1 sin (1 + 1 ) + Y12 V2 sin (12 + 2 ) + +


Y1m Vm sin (1m + m ) + + Y1n Vn sin (1n + n ) = y1 E1 sin (1 + 1 )

(6.105)

Linearising equation (6.105), we get,

Y11 sin (11 + 1 )V1 + Y11 V1 cos (11 + 1 )1 + y1 sin (1 + 1 )V1 +


y1 V1 cos (1 + 1 )1 + Y12 sin (12 + 2 )V2 + Y12 V2 cos (12 + 2 )2
+ + Y1m sin (1m + m )Vm + Y1m Vm cos (1m + m )m + +
Y1n sin (1n + n )Vn + Y1n Vn cos (1n + n )n = y1 E1 cos (1 + 1 )1

(6.106)

Equation (6.106) can be re-written as,

c11 V1 + c12 V2 + + c1m Vm + + c1n Vn +


d11 1 + d12 2 + + d1m m + + d1n n = h1 1

(6.107)

In equation (6.107),

c11 = Y11 sin (11 + 1 ) + y1 sin (1 + 1 ); c12 = Y12 sin (12 + 2 );


c1m = Y1m sin (1m + m ); c1n = Y1n sin (1n + n );
d11 = Y11 V1 cos (11 + 1 ) + y1 V1 cos (1 + 1 ); d12 = Y12 V2 cos (12 + 2 );
d1m = Y1m Vm cos (1m + m ); d1n = Y1n Vn cos (1n + n );
h1 = y1 E1 cos (1 + 1 );

(6.108)

Again, taking the imaginary part of both sides of the second equation of the equation set (6.23)
(after substituting equations (6.80) and (6.81) into it), we get,

Y21 V1 sin (21 + 1 ) + y2 V2 sin (2 + 2 ) + Y22 V2 sin (22 + 2 ) + +


Y2m Vm sin (2m + m ) + + Y2n Vn sin (2n + n ) = y2 E2 sin (2 + 2 )
284

(6.109)

Linearising equation (6.109), one can get,

c21 V1 + c22 V2 + + c2m Vm + + c2n Vn +


d21 1 + d22 2 + + d2m m + + d2n n = h2 2

(6.110)

In equation (6.110),

c21 = Y21 sin (21 + 1 ); c22 = Y22 sin (22 + 2 ) + y2 sin (2 + 2 );


c2m = Y2m sin (2m + m ); c2n = Y2n sin (2n + n );
d21 = Y21 V1 cos (21 + 1 ); d22 = Y22 V2 cos (22 + 2 ) + y2 V2 cos (2 + 2 );
d2m = Y2m Vm cos (2m + m ); d2n = Y2n Vn cos (2n + n );
h2 = y2 E2 sin (2 + 2 );

(6.111)

Continuing with linearisation of the imaginary parts of first m equations (corresponding to the
generator buses) of the equation set (6.23), we get,

[C1

Vg

L
= [H] []
D1 ]

(6.112)

In equation (6.112),

c11 c12 c1m c1,(m+1) c1n

c21 c22 c2m c2,(m+1) c2n

C1 =

is a (m n) matrix

cm1 cm2 cmm cm,(m+1) cmn

d11 d12 d1m d1,(m+1) d1n

d21 d22 d2m d2,(m+1) d2n

is a (m n) matrix
D1 =

dm1 dm2 dmm dm,(m+1) dmn

h1 0 0 0

0 h2 0 0

H=

is a (m m) diagonal matrix

0 0 0 hm

285

(6.113)

(6.114)

(6.115)

The elements of the matrices C1 , D1 and H are given as;

cii = Yii sin (ii + i ) + yi sin (i + i );


cij = Yij sin (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

dii = Yii Vi cos (ii + i ) + yi Vi cos (i + i );


dij = Yij Vj cos (ij + j );

i = 1, 2, m;

i = 1, 2, m;

(6.116)

i = 1, 2, m; j = 1, 2, n; i j;

hi = yi Ei cos (i + i );

i = 1, 2, m;

Now, let us consider the imaginary parts of the algebraic equations at the load buses. The real
part of the pth equation (p = (m + 1), (m + 2), n) of the equations set (6.23) is given by,

Yp1 V1 sin (p1 + 1 ) + Yp2 V2 sin (p2 + 2 ) + + Ypn Vn sin (pn + n ) = 0

(6.117)

Linearising the above equation we get,

Yp1 sin (p1 + 1 )V1 + Yp1 V1 cos (p1 + 1 )1 + Yp2 sin (p2 + 2 )V2
+Yp2 V2 cos (p2 + 2 )2 + + Ypn sin (pn + n )Vn + Ypn Vn cos (pn + n )n = 0

(6.118)

Or,

cp1 V1 + cp2 V2 + + cpn Vn + dp1 1 + dp2 2 + + dpn n = 0

(6.119)

In equation (6.119),

cpj = Ypj sin (pj + j ); j = 1, 2, n;


dpj = Ypj Vj cos (pj + j ); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.120)

Again, equation (6.119) can be written for all the n m load buses (by varying p from m + 1
to n). In that case, in equation (6.120) also, p will vary from m + 1 to n. Collecting all these
n m equations and putting them in a matrix form, we get,

[U1

Vg

L
= [2 ] []
V1 ]

(6.121)

In equation (6.121), the matrix 2 is a (n m) m null matrix and the matrices U1 and V1
286

are given by,

u11
u12

u1n

u21
u22

u2n

U1 =

is a ((n m) n) matrix

u(nm),1 u(nm),2 u(nm),n

(6.122)

v11
v12

v1n

v21
v22

v2n

V1 =

is a ((n m) n) matrix

v(nm),1 v(nm),2 v(nm),n

(6.123)

The elements of the matrices U1 and V1 are given by,

uij = c(i+m),j ;
vij = d(i+m),j ;

i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;
i = 1, 2, (n m); j = 1, 2, n;

(6.124)

In equation (6.124), the expressions of the co-efficients c(i+m),j and d(i+m),j are given by equation
(6.120).
Now, combining equations (6.90), (6.101), (6.112) and (6.121), one can write,

A1

R
1

C1

U1

Or,

Where,

B1 Vg G

S1 VL 1
= []

D1 g H

V1 L 2

Vg

L
[J1 ]
= [J2 ] []
g

A1

R
1
[J1 ] =
C1

U1

B1

S1
;
D1

V1


G


1
[J2 ] =
H


2

(6.125)

(6.126)

(6.127)

Now, let us recollect that the dimensions of various sub-matrices are as follows: A1 (m n),
B1 (m n), G (m m), R1 ((n m) n), S1 ((n m) n), 1 ((n m) m),
C1 (m n), D1 (m n), H (m m), U1 ((n m) n), V1 ((n m) n),
287

2 ((n m) m). Therefore, the size of the matrix J1 is (2n 2n) and that of the matrix J2 is
(2n m). Hence, matrix J1 is a square matrix and hence invertible. Thus, from equation (6.126),

A2
Vg

B
V
1
2

L
= [J1 ] [J2 ] [] = []

C2
g

D2
L

(6.128)

Hence, from equation (6.128),

[Vg ] = [A2 ] [] ;

[g ] = [C2 ] [] ;

(6.129)

Please note that the dimension of both the matrices A2 and C2 is (mm). We are now ready to
form the system state matrix which we will discuss in the next lecture. Further, in the next lecture,
we will also look at an example of small signal stability analysis.

288

6.4.3

Formation of system state matrix

From equation (6.70), let us recall the following linearised equation for ith generator,

2Hi di
= Pei
s dt

(6.130)

Collecting equation (6.130) for all the m generators, the following matrix equation can be
written;

d
2
HM = Pe
s
dt

(6.131)

In equation (6.131), the matrix HM is a (m m) diagonal matrix and is given by,

HM = diag (H1 , H2 , Hm )

(6.132)

Substituting equation (6.77) into equation (6.131) we can get,

2
d
HM = (K1 + K2 g + K3 Vg )
s
dt

(6.133)

Further, substituting equation (6.129) into equation (6.133) one can write,

d
2
HM = (K1 + K2 C2 + K3 A2 )
s
dt

(6.134)

d
= K4
dt

(6.135)

Or,

Where,

K4 =

s 1
H (K1 + K2 C2 + K3 A2 )
2 M

(6.136)

Again, recalling equation (6.69), we have,

d
= F1
dt

(6.137)

Combining equations (6.135) and (6.137), we can write,

O F1
d
[
]=[
][
]
dt
K4 O

(6.138)

O F1
]
K4 O

Equation (6.138) is the required state space equation of the system and the matrix A = [

is the corresponding state matrix. The eigenvalues of the matrix A gives the necessary information
about the small signal stability of the system under study.
Now, let us consider the damping of the generators. Towards this goal, let us now linearize
289

equation (6.63) to obtain,

2Hi di
= Pei di i
s dt

(6.139)

Collecting equation (6.139) for all the m generators, the following matrix equation can be
written;

d
2
HM = Pe DM
s
dt

(6.140)

In equation (6.140), the matrix DM is a (m m) diagonal matrix and is given by,

DM = diag (d1 , d2 , dm )

(6.141)

Following the same procedure as in equations (6.133) and (6.134), we can get,

d
2
HM = (K1 + K2 C2 + K3 A2 ) DM
s
dt

(6.142)

d
= K4 + K5
dt

(6.143)

Or,

Where,

K5 =

s 1
H DM
2 M

(6.144)

Combining equations (6.137) and (6.144), we can write,

O F1
d
[
]=[
][
]
dt
K4 K5

(6.145)

Equation (6.145) is the required state space equation of the system when damping of the gener-

O F1
] is the corresponding state matrix.
K4 K5

ators are considered and the matrix A = [

6.5

Example of small signal stability

As an illustration of small signal stability, let us consider the three machine, 9 bus system (m = 3
and n = 9) shown in Fig. Fig. 6.4. The complete data of this system are given in Tables A.7, A.8
and 6.1. Further, the different quantities pertaining to the initial condition are given in Table 6.2.
The load flow solution of the system is shown in Table 6.25.
Initially, the damping of the machines are neglected (di = 0; i = 1, 2, 3). With these initial
values, the different matrices are calculated as follows:

18.0599
0
0

K1 = 0
8.8364
0

0
0
5.6864

290

(6.146)

Table 6.25: Load flow solution of the 3 machine system


Bus No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Voltage (p.u.)
1.0400
1.0116 + 0.1653i
1.0216 + 0.0834i
1.0250 - 0.0397i
0.9932 - 0.0693i
1.0106 - 0.0651i
1.0236 + 0.0665i
1.0158 + 0.0129i
1.0317 + 0.0354i

18.0599
0
0

K2 =
0
8.8364
0

0
0
5.6864

0.6889
0
0

K3 = 0
1.5902
0

0
0
0.8293

(6.147)

(6.148)

0.0000
0
0
0.6715 0 0
0
0
0

A1 = 0
(6.149)
3.9262
0
0
0 0 1.0380 0
0

0
0
1.8364
0
0 0
0
0 0.5856

35.1608

0
0
17.7955 0 0
0
0
0

B1 = 0
(6.150)
24.6293
0
0
0 0 16.3777 0
0

0
0
23.0684
0
0 0
0
0 17.6066

17.3653
0
0

G = 0
(6.151)
8.2516
0

0
0
5.4618

0.0000
0
0
1.7844 0.5547 1.2622
0
0
0

0
0
0
0.9153 2.5634
0
1.5727
0
0

0
0
0
1.5342
0
3.0558
0
0
1.4730

R1 =
2.5802
0
0
0.7691
0
5.0984 1.7909
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
2.5024 4.0411 1.4902

0
0
1.3878
0
0
0.9200
0
1.2792 3.5391

(6.152)

The matrix S1 is given in parts in equations (6.153) and (6.154) below, as the width of the page
is not sufficient enough to accomodate the complete matrix S1 .
291

The matrix S1 (, 1 5) (comprising of the elements in columns 1 to 5 for all rows) is given by;

18.0556
0
0
40.4237 11.6200

0
0
0
11.9486 17.9858

0
0
0
10.8507
0

S1 (, 1 5) =
0
16.1854
0
0
6.0169

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
17.4335
0
0

(6.153)

The matrix S1 (, 6 9) (comprising of the elements in columns 6 to 9 for all rows) is given by;

10.7481
0
0
0

0
6.0372
0
0

16.5710
0
0
5.7202

S1 (, 6 9) =

0
36.0958 13.8936
0

0
13.9138 23.9677 10.0539

5.7307
0
9.9240 33.0882

33.8085
0
0
17.3481 0 0
0
0
0

C1 =
0
24.0286
0
0
0 0 15.9663 0
0

0
0
22.5058
0
0 0
0
0 17.0548

0.0000
0
0
0.6889 0 0
0
0
0

D1 = 0
4.0244
0
0
0 0 1.0648 0
0

0
0
1.8823
0
0 0
0
0 0.6046

0.6889
0
0

H = 0
2.9596
0

0
1.2777

(6.154)

(6.155)

(6.156)

(6.157)

The matrix U1 is given in parts in equations (6.158) and (6.159) below, as the width of the page
is not sufficient enough to accomodate the complete matrix U1 .
The matrix U1 (, 1 5) (comprising of the elements in columns 1 to 5 for all rows) is given by;

17.3611
0
0
39.4074 11.6710

0
0
11.6482
18.0647

0
0
10.5779
0

U1 (, 1 5) =
15.7906
0
0
6.0433
0

0
0
0
0

0
17.0083
0
0

292

(6.158)

The matrix U1 (, 6 9) (comprising of the elements in columns 6 to 9 for all rows) is given by;

10.6138
0
0
0

0
5.8855
0
0

16.3639
0
0
5.5410

U1 (, 6 9) =

0
35.1890 13.6763
0

0
13.5642 23.5930 9.7389

5.6591
0
9.7688 32.0513

(6.159)

0.0000
0
0
1.8304 0.5523 1.2782
0
0
0

0
0
0
0.9389 2.5522
0
1.6133
0
0

0
0
0
1.5737
0
3.0944
0
0
1.5207

V1 =
2.6447
0
0
0.7657
0
5.2297 1.8194
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
2.5669 4.1053 1.5384

0
0
1.4225
0
0
0.9316
0
1.2995 3.6536

(6.160)

The matrix J1 is given in parts in equations (6.161) - (6.163) below, as the width of the page is
not sufficient enough to accomodate the complete matrix J1 .
The matrix J1 (, 1 6) (comprising of the elements in columns 1 to 6 for all rows) is given by;

0.0000

0
0
0.6715
0
0

0
3.9262
0
0
0
0

0
0
1.8364
0
0
0

0.0000

0
0
1.7844
0.5547
1.2622

0
0
0
0.9153
2.5634
0

0
0
0
1.5342
0
3.0558

0
2.5802
0
0
0.7691
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1.3878
0
0
0.9200

J1 (, 1 6) =

0
0
17.3481
0
0

33.8085

0
24.0286
0
0
0
0

0
0
22.5058
0
0
0

0
0
39.4074 11.6710 10.6138
17.3611

0
0
0
11.6482
18.0647
0

0
0
0
10.5779
0
16.3639

0
15.7906
0
0
6.0433
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
17.0083
0
0
5.6591

(6.161)

The matrices J1 (, 7 12) (comprising of the elements in columns 7 to 12 for all rows) and
293

J1 (, 13 18) (comprising of the elements in columns 13 to 18 for all rows) are given by;

0
0
0
35.1608
0
0

1.0380
0
0
0
24.6293
0

0
0
0.5856
0
0
23.0684

0
0
0
18.0556
0
0

1.5727
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1.4730
0
0
0

5.0984
1.7909
0
0
16.1854
0

2.5024
4.0411
1.4902
0
0
0

0
1.2792
3.5391
0
0
17.4335

J1 (, 7 12) =

0
0
0
0.0000
0
0

15.9663
0
0
0
4.0244
0

0
0
17.0548
0
0
1.8823

0
0
0
0.0000
0
0

5.8855
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
5.5410
0
0
0

35.1890 13.6763
0
0
2.6447
0

13.5642 23.5930 9.7389


0
0
0

0
9.7688 32.0513
0
0
1.4225

(6.162)

17.7955

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
16.3777
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
17.6066

40.4237 11.6200 10.7481

0
0
0

11.9486 17.9858

0
6.0372
0
0

10.8507
0
16.5710
0
0
5.7202

0
6.0169
0
36.0958 13.8936
0

0
0
0
13.9138
23.9677
10.0539

0
0
5.7307
0
9.9240
33.0882

J1 (, 13 18) =

0
0
0
0
0
0.6889

0
0
0
1.0648
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0.6046

0.5523 1.2782
0
0
0
1.8304

0.9389

2.5522
0
1.6133
0
0

1.5737
0
3.0944
0
0
1.5207

0
0.7657
0
5.2297
1.8194
0

0
0
0
2.5669
4.1053
1.5384

0
0
0.9316
0
1.2995
3.6536

(6.163)

294

17.3653
0
0

0
8.2516
0

0
0
5.4618

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

J2 =
0
0
0.6889

0
2.9596
0

0
0
1.2777

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0.0200 0.0154 0.0046

A2 = 0.0594 0.0764 0.0169

0.0499 0.0146 0.0353

0.8328 0.0934 0.0738

C2 = 0.1811 0.6881 0.1307

0.2272 0.2054 0.5673

HM

23.6400
0
0

= 0
6.4000
0

0
3.0100

24.1837 13.5322
10.6514

K4 = 44.3537 77.5840 33.2302

78.3229 73.9174 152.2403

1 0 0

F1 = 0 1 0

0 0 1

295

(6.164)

(6.165)

(6.166)

(6.167)

(6.168)

(6.169)

With all the above calculated matrices, the system state matrix is finally computed as;

0
0
0
1.0000
0
0

0
0
0
0
1.0000
0

0
0
0
0
0
1.0000

A=
10.6514
0
0
0
24.1837 13.5322

44.3537 77.5840 33.2302


0
0
0

78.3229 73.9174 152.2403


0
0
0

(6.170)

The eigenvalues of the system state matrix are lastly computed and are shown in Table 6.26.
Table 6.26: Eigenvalues of the 3 machine system with damping neglected
No.
Eigenvalue
1
0.0000 +13.3602i
2
0.0000 -13.3602i
3
0.0000 + 8.6898i
4
0.0000 - 8.6898i
5
-0.0000 + 0.0000i
6
-0.0000 - 0.0000i

From Table 6.26, following points can be noted:


There are total 6 eigenvalues. This indeed should be the case as we have three machines in the
system and each machine has two state variables.
There are two zero eigenvalues. One zero eigenvalue is due to the absence of damping in the
system and the other eigenvalue is corresponding to 1 (which is taken to be zero to provide
the reference for load flow calculation).
All the non-zero eigenvalues appear in pairs.
The real parts of all the non-zero eigenvalues are zero. In other words, upon a disturbance,
the oscillations in the system would be persisting (i.e. the magnitudes of the oscillations would
not reduce with time). Indeed, from the plots shown in Figs. 6.5 and 6.7 it is observed that
upon a fault, the oscillations are indeed sustaining with a constant amplitude.
Now let us consider the damping of the generators. For this case, the matrices given above would
remain the same. However, one extra matrix, K5 would appear (as shown in equation (6.145)) and
this matrix is computed as;

0.2025
0
0

K5 = 0
0.1944
0

0
0
0.1628

296

(6.171)

Subsequently, the system state matrix is finally computed as;

0
0
0
1.0000
0
0

0
0
0
0
1.0000
0

0
0
0
0
0
1.0000

A=
10.6514 0.2025
0
0
24.1837 13.5322

44.3537 77.5840 33.2302


0
0.1944
0

78.3229 73.9174 152.2403


0
0
0.1628

(6.172)

The eigenvalues of this state matrix are shown in Table 6.27.


Table 6.27: Eigenvalues of the 3 machine system with damping neglected
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Eigenvalue
-0.0844 +13.3599i
-0.0844 -13.3599i
-0.0970 + 8.6893i
-0.0970 - 8.6893i
-0.0000
-0.1970

Comparison of Tables 6.26 and 6.27 reveals that:


When damping is considered, there is only one zero eigenvalue corresponding to 1 .
The second zero eigenvalue in Table 6.26 is replaced with a real, negative eigenvalue.
The complex eigenvalues still appear in pairs.
The real parts of the complex eigenvalues are negative implying that upon a disturbance, the
oscillations in the system will be damped (i.e. the amplitudes of the oscillations will decrease
with time). In fact, Figs. 6.6 and 6.8 show that this is indeed the case.
With this example, we are now at the end of discussion of small signal stability analysis. From
the next lecture, we will start the discussion of voltage stability analysis.

297

6.6

Voltage stability

Voltage collapses usually occur on power system which are heavily loaded or faulted or have shortage
of reactive power. Voltage collapse is a system instability involving many power system components.
In fact, a voltage collapse may involve an entire power system.
Voltage collapse is typically associated with reactive power demand of load not being met due to
shortage in reactive power production and transmission.
Voltage collapse is a manifestation of voltage instability in the system. The definition of voltage
stability as proposed by IEEE/CIGRE task force is as follows:
Voltage stability refer to the ability of power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in
the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating point. The system
state enters the voltage instability region when a disturbance or an increase in load demand or
alteration in system state results in an uncontrollable and continuous drop in system voltage.
A system is said to be in voltage stable state if at a given operating condition, for every bus in
the system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is
increased.
A system is voltage unstable if for at least one bus in the system, the bus voltage magnitude
decreases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is increased. It implies that if, V-Q
sensitivity is positive for every bus the system is voltage stable and if V-Q sensitivity is negative
for at least one bus, the system is voltage unstable. The term voltage collapse is also often used for
voltage instability conditions. It is the process, by which, the sequence of events following voltage
instability leads to abnormally low voltages or even a black out in a large part of the system.
The driving force for voltage instability is usually the loads and load characteristics, hence, voltage
stability is sometimes also called load stability. In response to a disturbance, the power consumed
by the loads tends to be restored by load dynamics. This in turn increases the stress on the high
voltage network by increasing the reactive power consumption and further reducing the voltage.
A major factor contributing to voltage instability is the voltage drop in the line impedances when
active and reactive powers flow through it. As a result, the capability of the transmission network
for power transfer and voltage support reduces. Voltage stability of a system is endangered when
a disturbance increases the reactive power demand beyond the sustainable capacity of the available
reactive power resources.
The voltage stability has been further classified into four categories: Large disturbance voltage
stability, small disturbance voltage stability, short term voltage satiability and long term voltage
stability. A summary of these classifications is as follows:
Large disturbance voltage stability: It refers to the systems ability to maintain steady voltage
following large disturbances such as, system faults, loss of generation or circuit contingencies.
This ability is determined by the system load characteristics and interaction of both continuous
and discrete controls and protections. The study period of interest may be from few seconds
to tens of minutes. This requires long term dynamic simulation study of the system to capture
the interactions of under-load tap changer and generator field current limiter.
298

If following a large disturbance and subsequent system control actions, voltages at all the buses
in the system settle down at acceptable levels, the system is said to be large disturbance voltage
stable.
Small-disturbance voltage stability: This stability is concerned with the ability of the system
to maintain acceptable level of steady voltages, when subjected to small perturbations such as
incremental changes in system load. This form of stability is also influenced by the characteristics of loads, continuous controls, and discrete controls at a given instant of time. The basic
processes contributing to small disturbance stability are essentially of a steady state nature.
Therefore, static analysis can be effectively used to estimate stability margins.
Short term voltage satiability: It involves dynamics of fast acting load components such as
induction motors, electronically controlled loads and HVDC converters. The study period of
interest is in the order of several seconds and the analysis requires solution of appropriate
system differential equations.
Long term voltage stability: The study of long term voltage stability involves the dynamics of
slower acting equipment such as tap changing transformers, thermostatically controlled loads
and generator current limiters. The study period of interest may extend to several or many
minutes, and requires long term dynamics system simulation.
Voltage instability may arise due many reasons, but some significant contributors are:

Increase in loading
Generators, synchronous condensers, or SVC reaching reactive power limits
Action of tap changing transformers
Load recovery dynamics
Line tripping or generator outages
Most of these changes have a significant impact on the reactive power production, consumption
and transmission in the system.
Some counter measures to prevent voltage collapse are:

Switching of shunt capacitors


Blocking of tap-changing transformers
Redispatch of generation
Load shedding
Temporary reactive power overloading of generators
299

Figure 6.9: Simple radial power system


Voltage stability may occur in different ways. A simple case of voltage stability can be explained
by considering the two terminal network of Fig. 6.9.
In this system, the network is represented by an equivalent generator that can be modeled in the
behind the equivalent impedance Zg .In general, the
steady state by an equivalent voltage source E
L . The load
generator, transformer and line impedances are combined together and represented as Z
D and V is the receiving end or load voltage. The current I in the circuit is given
impedance is Z
by:

I =
=
=

E
ZL + ZD
E
ZL + ZD

E
(ZL cos + ZD cos ) + j(ZL sin + ZL sin )

(6.173)

The magnitude of current is

E
I=
(ZL cos + ZD cos )2 + (ZL sin + ZL sin )2
which may be written as:

I=

ZL FL
300

(6.174)

where,

ZD
ZD 2
FL = 1 + [ ] + 2 [ ] cos ( )
ZL
ZL
Where
The magnitude of the receiving and voltage is given by:

V = ZD I
E ZD
= [ ]
FL ZL

(6.175)

The power supplied to the load is

PL = V Icos
ZD
E 2
PL = ( ) [ ] cos
FL ZL
The plots of I,V and PL are shown in Fig. 6.10 as a function of

and .

(6.176)

ZL
ratio for a specific value of
ZD

Figure 6.10: Receiving end voltage, Current and Power as a function of Load
An explanation of the chracteristics of Fig. 6.10 is as follows:
As the load demand is increased by reducing ZD , the load power PL increases rapidly at first
and then slowly, before reaching a maximum value and then starts decreasing. There is thus, a
maximum value of active power that can be transmitted through an impedance from a constant
voltage source.
301

The transmitted power reaches a maximum when the voltage drop in the line is equal to the
load voltage V. This occurs, when the load impedance ZD is equal to line impedance ZL . As
ZD is gradually reduced, current in the line I increases and load voltage V decreases. Initially,
for high values of ZD , the enhancement in I is more than the reduction in V, and hence load
power PL increases rapidly with reduction in ZD . As ZD approaches ZL , the effect of the
enhancement in I is only slightly greater than that of the reduction in V, hence increase in PL
is slow. Finally, when ZD is quite less than ZL the reduction in V dominates over increase in
I and hence, PL decreases.
The critical operating condition, corresponding to maximum power, is the limiting point of
satisfactory operation. For higher load demand, control of power by varying load would be
unstable, as a reduction in load impedance will reduce power. The load characteristics decides
whether the system voltage decreases progressively and the system will become unstable. With
a constant impedance static load characteristic, the system stabilizes at power and voltage levels
lower than the desired values. For a constant power load characteristic, the system becomes
unstable through collapse of load bus voltage. If the load is supplied by transformers with
automatic under load-tap- changing (ULTC), the tap changer will try to raise the effective
load impedance ZD as seen from the system. This will lower the load bus voltage still further
and lead to a progressive reduction of voltage. This is the ease of simple voltage instability.
From the study of voltage stability the relationship between PL and V is important and this will
be discussed in the next lecture.

302

6.7

Relation between PL, QL and V

Neglecting the resistance of generator transformer and transmission line, the equivalent circuit of
the system and its phasor diagram are shown in Fig. 6.11 (a) and (b).

Figure 6.11: Equivalent circuit of the system(a) and the phasor diagram (b)

From the phasor diagram of Fig. 6.11 (b), it can be observed that IX cos = E sin and

IX sin = E cos V

IX cos EV
=
sin
X
X

PL (V ) = V I cos = V

(6.177)

QL (V ) = V I sin = V

IX sin EV
V
=
cos
X
X
X

and V phasor can be eliminated using the identity sin2 + cos2 = 1


The angle between E
and thus one can obtain:
303

EV 2
V2 2
2
[
] = [PL (V )] + [QL (V ) +
]
X
X

(6.178)

This static power-voltage equation determines all the possible network solutions when the voltage
characteristics PL (V ) and QL (V ) are taken into account.
For an ideally stiff load, the power demand of the load is independent of voltage and is constant
PL (V ) = PL and QL (V ) = QL , where, PL and QL are the real and reactive power demand of the
load at the rated voltage V.
For stiff load the equation (6.178) can now be written as:

EV 2
V2 2
2
[
] = [PL ] + [QL +
]
X
X

(6.179)

Substituting QL = PL tan in equation (6.179) one can obtain,

EV 2
V2 2
V2
=[
] [ ]
P + P tan + 2 PL tan
X
X
X
2
L

Substituting tan =

2
L

(6.180)

sin
and noting that sin2 + cos2 = 1 equation (6.180) can be further
cos

simplified as

V2
V2 2
P + 2 PL
sin cos = 2 (E V 2 ) cos2
X
X
2
L

(6.181)

2
V2
Adding and subtracting (
sin cos ) to the right hand side of equation (6.181), gives
X
2
V2
V2 2
V2
(PL +
sin cos ) ( ) sin2 cos2 = ( 2 ) (E 2 V 2 ) cos2
X
X
X

After simplifications the equation can be expressed as:

PL +

V
V2
sin cos =
cos E 2 V 2 cos2
X
X

(6.182)

The voltage at the load bus can be expressed in per unit as V/E. Equation (6.182) can be
expressed as:

E2 V 2
E2 V
PL = ( ) ( ) sin cos + ( ) ( ) cos
X
E
X
E
Or

Where p =

V 2
1 ( ) cos2
E

p = v 2 sin cos + v cos 1 v 2 cos2

(6.183)

PL
V
, and v =
2
(E /X)
E

Equation (6.183) describes a family of curves with as a parameter. One such P-V curve is
shown, for a particular value of power factor cos in Fig. 6.12.
The Power-Voltage curve (PV-curve) presents load voltage as a function of load real power. For
304

Figure 6.12: PV curve for lagging power factor load


static load (PL =constant) as shown in the figure, two operating points (A) and (B) are possible.
Point (A) represents low current high voltage solution and is the desirable operating point, while
point (B) represents high current low voltage solution. Operation at point B is possible, although,
perhaps non-viable due to low voltage and high current condition. Further, with system initially
at point A, if the load is increased then from the curve it can be seen that the voltage will drop.
Increase in load will result in an increase in the current flowing in the transmission line, hence the
voltage will reduce and this is a perfectly normal response of the system. Hence, point A and the
upper portion of PV curve represent stable system operation region. At point B, however, as the
load is increased the system voltage increases which is not possible at all. Hence, point B and the
lower portion of PV curve represent unstable operating region. Power systems are operated in the
upper part of the PV-curve. As the load increases point (A) and (B) come closer and coincide at
the tip of P-V curve. This point is called the maximum loading point or critical point. Further
increase in the load demand results in no intersection between the load-characteristic and PV curve
and hence, represents voltage instability this is shown in Fig. 6.13.
The impact of large a disturbance on voltage stability can also be explained with the help of PV
curves. Suppose, a large disturbance causes the loss of a transmission line resulting in increases in
reactance X or loss of generator resulting in reduction in E. The post-disturbance and pre-disturbance
PV characteristics along with load characteristic are shown in Fig. 6.14. The large disturbance causes
the network characteristic to shrink drastically, so that the post disturbance PV curve and the load
characteristic do not intersect at all. This causes voltage instability leading to a voltage collapse.
Assuming a smooth increase in load, the point where the load characteristic becomes tangent to
the network PV characteristic defines the loadability limit of the system. Any increase in load beyond
the loadability limit results in loss of voltage stability, and system can no longer function. In Fig.
6.13, the point where the load characteristic is tangent to network PV curve, coincides with the maximum deliverable power for a constant power load. However, a loadability limit need not necessarily
coincide with the maximum deliverable power, as it is dependent on the load characteristic.
305

Figure 6.13: Changes in the operating point wih increasing load

Figure 6.14: Loss of voltage stability due to a large disturbance

Figure 6.15: Maximum deliverable power and loadabilty limit for polynomial load

V
This is shown in Fig. 6.15 for a polynomial load P = P0 ( ) , where, P0 represents the base
V0
value of load active power at rated voltage V0 = 1 p.u. and represents the voltage exponent. = 0
represents a constant power load.
Equation (6.183) when plotted for different values of gives a family of PV curves. Because of
306

Figure 6.16: PV curve drawn for different values of power factor


their characteristic shape, these curves are referred to as nose curves. The following observations
can be made regarding the curves shown in Fig. 6.16:
For a given load below the maximum, there are two possible solutions- one with higer voltage
and lower current and the other with lower voltage and higher current. The former corresponds
to normal operating conditions, with the load voltage V closer to the generator voltage.
As the load is more and more compensated (corresponding to smaller tan ), the maximum
deliverable power increases, and the voltage at which this maximum occurs also increases.
For over-compensated loads (tan < 0 , leading power factor), there is a part of the upper
PV curve along which the voltage increases, as the load power increases. This can be explained
as follows: when tan is negative then, with more active power consumption more reactive
power is produced by the load. At low values of load, the voltage drop due to increased active
power is offset by the increase in voltage due to increased reactive power. The more negative
tan is, the larger is the portion of PV curve where this voltage rise occurs.
The usefulness of the nose curve is high in practice as the difference between a particular load
and maximum load, determined by the peak of the characteristic, is equal to stability margin for a
given power factor.

From equation (6.183), when QL = 0 ( and hence = 0), p = v 1 v 2 . To find the value of PL

dp
= 0 and the solution of the resulting equation gives the values
dv 2
1
1
E
E2
of v = and p = . Hence, PL =
. Note that
is the short circuit power at the load bus,
2
2
2X
X
at the peak of the nose curve set

as it is the product of no load voltage E and the short circuit current (E/X). The maximum power
limit for a lossless line, with unity power power, thus corresponds to half the short circuit power.
PV-curves (nose curves), illustrate the dependency of the voltage on real power of a composite
load assuming that the power factor is a parameter. The QV curves discussed next are derived
assuming that the voltage is a parameter.
307

For given value of V, equation (6.179) describes a circle in the (PL QL ) plane as shown in Fig.
6.17 (a). The centre of the circle lies on the QL -axis and is shifted vertically down from the origin
by (V 2 /X) , the radius of the curve is (EV /X) . Increasing the voltage V produces a family of
circles of increasing radius and increasing downward shift, bounded by an envelope as shown in Fig.
6.17 (b).

Figure 6.17: QP curves for stiff load (a) one circle for a given V (b) family of curves for different
voltages and their envelope
For each point inside envelope, for example, point A, there are two possible solutions to equation
(6.179), at voltages V1 and V2 , as it lies on both the circles. For any point on the envelope, say point
B, there is only one value of V for which the equation (6.179) is satisfied. By determining the values
of PL and VL for which only one solution to equation (6.179) exists, the equation of the envelope
can be developed. Rearranging equation (6.179), one gets:

V2 2
E2 V 2
( ) + (2QL
) ( ) + (PL2 + Q2L ) = 0
X
X
X

(6.184)

This quadratic equation in (V 2 /X) has only one solution when

E2 2
D = (2QL
) 4 (PL2 + Q2L ) = 0
X

(6.185)

Solving for QL one gets

QL = (

P2
E2
)[ 2L ]
4X
(E /X)

(6.186)

This represents the equation of an inverted parabola that crosses PL axis at E 2 /2X and has its
maximum at
308

PLmax = 0; QLmax =

E2
4X

(6.187)

Thus the maximum reactive power supplied to a load with PL = 0 i.e. a purely reactive load
is equal to one fourth of the short-circuit power. Also a point with coordinates PL = E 2 /2X and
QL = 0 corresponds to the peak of the nose curve for = 0 and QL = 0.
The parabola as described equation (6.186) defines the shape of envelope in Fig. 6.17 (b) that
encloses all the possible solutions to the network equation (6.179). Every point (PL , QL ) inside the
parabola satisfies two possible network solutions corresponding to two distinct values of load voltage
V, and each point on the parabola satisfies only one network solution corresponding to only one
possible value of voltage. Further, there are no network solutions outside the parabola implying that
it is not possible to deliver power for a (PL , QL ) point lying outside the parabola.
Various stability criteria to assess the system voltage stability are discussed in the next lecture.

309

6.8

Criteria for assessing voltage stability

With reference to Fig. 6.17 (b), for each point inside the envelope of network solution, there are
two voltage solutions, one with a higher value of voltage and the other with a lower value. It then
becomes necessary, to find out which of these two solutions represents a stable operating point. This
can be done by employing voltage stability criteria which are discussed next.
(a) The dQ/dV criterion
The classical voltage stability criterion is based on the capability of the system to supply reactive
power for a given amount of load real power demand. For the explanation of this criterion, it is
convenient to notionally separate the real and reactive power demands of the load as represented in
Fig. 6.18.

Figure 6.18: Equivalent circuit for determining the reactive power characteristics of the system
Let PL (V ) and QL (V ) be the load real and reactive power demands respectively.

Also, let PS (V ) and QS (V ) be the real and reactive powers supplied by the source to the load.

As the real power demand is always connected to the transmission link, PL (V ) = PS (V ) also
during normal operation QL (V ) = QS (V ) , but for the purpose of stability analysis, this link
between QL (V ) and QS (V ) is theoretically separated, hence, QS (V ) is treated as the reactive
power supplied to the load and is assumed to be independent of the load reactive power demand
QL (V ) .
The real and reactive load powers are given as

PL (V ) = PS (V ) =

EV
sin
X

(6.188)

and

QS (V ) =

EV
V2
cos
X
X

(6.189)

Squaring and adding the above two equations and using the identity sin2 + cos2 = 1, and
then solving for QS (V ) one can obtain,
310

EV 2
V2
2

QS (V ) = {
} {PL (V )} ( )
X
X

(6.190)

This equation determines the reactive power-voltage characteristic of a system, and shows how
much reactive power will be supplied by the source if the system is loaded only with the real power
PL (V ) and the load voltage is treated as a variable. For a constant power load PL (V ) = PL =
constant equation (6.186) takes the form of an inverted parabola as shown in Fig. 6.18. The first
term of the equation (6.186) depends on the equivalent system reactance X and the load real power
PL and has the effect of shifting the parabola downwards and towards the right.

Figure 6.19: QS V Characteristics for PL = 0 and PL > 0

EV
V2
)
and the parabola crosses the horizontal axis at V = E and
X
X
dQS (V )
V = 0. For finding the maximum value Qmax , set the derivative
= 0. On solving the
dV
E
E2
resulting equation, the value of V at which Qmax occurs is
and Qmax is equal to
.
2
4X

2
E 2
PL (V )X
Similarly, for PL > 0,the maximum values of QS (V ) occurs at voltage V =
( ) +(
)
2
E
E
which is greater than
2
For PL = 0, QS (V ) = (

Next, the QS (V ) and QL (V ) characteristics can be drawn on the same diagram as shown in
Fig. 6.20 (a). At equilibrium the supply must equal the demand i.e., QL (V )=QS (V ) and the two
possible equilibrium points VS and VU are obtained. This situation is similar to the one shown in
Fig. 6.17 (b).
The stability of the two equilibrium points can be evaluated using small perturbation method and
the fact that an excess of reactive power produces an increase in voltage while a deficit of reactive
power decreases the voltage.
Now, consider the equilibrium points of Fig. 6.20(a), and assume a small reduction in voltage
V . At point S, this reduction will result in the supplied reactive power QS (V ) being greater
than the reactive power demand QL (V ). This excess reactive power will try to increase the voltage
311

Figure 6.20: QS (V ) and QL (V ) Characteristics for (a) two equilibrium points S and U (b) the
classical stability representation

and therefore, force the voltage to return to point S. If there is a small increase in V , then at
point S the supplied reactive power QS (V ) becomes smaller than the load reactive power QL (V ).
This deficit in reactive power brings the voltage back to point S and thus, it can be concluded that
the equilibrium point S is a stable operating point.
At point U, the other equilibrium point, a small reduction in voltage results in QL (V ) becoming
greater than QS (V ). This deficit of reactive power, further reduces the voltage, and thus, the system
fails to return to the equilibrium point U. Hence, the system is unstable at point U. Similarly,
an increase in the voltage in the vicinity of U results in QS (V ) becoming greater than QL (V ).
This excess of reactive power increases the voltage further. Again the system fails to come back to
equilibrium point, and hence, the equilibrium point U is unstable.
From Fig. 6.20(b), it can be observed that at the two equilibrium points S and U the derivative

d (QS QL )

is of opposite sign. It is negative at the stable point S


of the surplus reactive power
dV
and positive at the unstable point U. Hence, it can be concluded that for stability:

d
dQ
=
(QS QL ) < 0
dV
dV
or

dQS dQL
<
dV
dV
From Fig. 6.20(b), it can be clear that at point U,

(6.191)

dQS
dQL
>
, and hence, point U is
dV
dV

not stable as per the criterion established in equation (6.191). While at point S the condition of
equation (6.191) is satisfied and hence, it is a stable point.

For the simple system of Fig. 6.18, the supplied real and reactive powers are functions of two
variables V and
312

PS (V ) = PL (V ) = fP (V, )
(6.192)

QS (V ) = fQ (V, )
Hence, the incremental values of PS and QS can be expressed as :

PS
PS
V +

PL = PS =

(6.193)

QS =

QS
QS
V +

can be written in terms of PL from equation (6.193) as


PS 1
PS
= [
] [PL
V ]

(6.194)

Substituting in the expression of QS of equation (6.193) and dividing both sides of the
resulting expression by V one gets

QS QS QS PS 1 PL PS
=
+
[
] [

]
V
V

V
V

(6.195)

For small values of V one can write

dQS QS QS PS 1 dPL PL

+
[
] [

]
dV
V

dV
V

(6.196)

The partial derivatives are calculated from equation (6.188) and equation (6.189)

PS

PS
V
QS

QS
V

EV
cos
X
E
=
sin
X
EV
=
sin
X
E
V
=
cos 2
X
X

Substituting these partial derivatives into equation (6.196) gives

2V EV
X
dPL E
dQS E
cos

sin
[
sin ]
dV
X
X
X
EV cos dV
X
313

(6.197)

Figure 6.21: QS (V ) and QL (V ) Characteristics indicating stable and unstable operating points

E
2V dPL
QS

[
+
tan ]
V
Xcos
X
dV

(6.198)

Hence, the stability criterion can be written as:

dQL
E
2V dPL
>[
{
+
tan }]
dV
Xcos
X
dV

(6.199)

dPL

dQL

The derivative of load active and reactive power w.r.t voltage


and
are calculated from
dV
dV
the load characteristics expressed in terms of V.
For a load reactive power characteristic QL (V ) , different QS (V ) ,the supplied reactive power
can be plotted for different values of source voltage E. The resulting curves are shown in Fig. 6.21.
The points of interaction of these curves correspond to the two possible equilibrium points S and
U. The curve QS4 is tangential to the QL (V ) characteristic and the point S4 represents the critical
operating point. For any QS curve below QS4 , the system operation is not possible. In the figure
Vcr represents the critical voltage and for normal stable operation it is necessary that V > Vcr .
(b) The dE/dV criterion
From equation (6.178) E can be expressed in terms of V as,

E(V ) =

PL (V )X
QL (V )X
(V +
) +(
)
V
V
2

314

(6.200)

QL (V )X

In this equation,
represents the voltage drop component in phase with V and
V
represents the voltage drop component in quadrature with V.

PL (V )X
V

A typical E(V) characteristic is shown in Fig. 6.22 with the normal operating point of the load
as S. V is large at this point and is much greater than both in phase and quadrature components of
the voltage drop. In this case then, a drop in voltage V will result in a drop in the emf E(V). As V
is reduced further, the in phase and quadrature components of the voltage drop become prominent
and below a certain value of V, they will force E(V) to rise. As a result each value of E(V) may
correspond to two possible network solutions of voltage V. The stability of these two solutions can
be examined using small perturbation method.

Figure 6.22: The illustration of stability criterion

dE
dV

Let us examine the system behavior at point S as shown in Fig. 6.22 with the assumption
that source emf is maintained at a constant value. A reduction in the load voltage by V will
cause a reduction in the required value of the emf E(V). As the available E is constant and greater
than the required value of E(V), it will force the voltage to return to its initial value V. Thus, the
system returns to the initial equilibrium point after the disturbance. Similarly, when the voltage is
increased by V , the required emf E(V) to maintain the enhanced voltage (V + V ) is larger than
the available source emf E. Hence, the voltage is again forced to return to its initial value V by the
constant emf E. Thus, it can be safety established that the point S is a stable equilibrium point.
Next, consider the other equilibrium point U. As the voltage is reduced, a higher value of emf
E(V) is required to maintain it. But as E is constant and less than the required value of emf E(V),
this will result in further reduction in voltage. As a result, the voltage further reduces and moves
away from the equilibrium point. Similarly, if the voltage is increased by V , then, the required emf
E(V) is smaller than the available source emf E. This larger available emf E will cause the voltage
to increase further and move further away from the initial equilibrium point U. Hence, it can be
concluded that point U is an unstable equilibrium point.
From the above arguments, it is apparent that the system is stable if the equilibrium point lies
on the right hand side of the characteristics, that is when :

dE
>0
dV
315

Figure 6.23: The

dE
criterion of volatge stability
dV

Vcr is the minimum system voltage at which the system can be operated stably. The usual
system operation voltage is greater than Vcr .
(c) The dQS /dQL criterion
Let QS (V ) be the reactive power generation by the source and QL (V ) be the load demand.
Then, QS (V ) = QL (V ) +line reactive power loss. From Fig. 6.11(b) one can write:

QS (V ) = EI sin ( + ) = EI sin cos + EI cos sin


E
E
=
IX sin cos +
IX cos sin
X
X

(6.201)

Substituting IXsin = E cos V and IX cos = E sin in equation (6.201), one gets:

E
E
(E cos V ) cos + (E sin ) sin
X
X
E 2 EV
QS (V ) =

cos
X
X
QS (V ) =

(6.202)

Substituting the expression for QL (V ) from equation (6.177) in the above equation, we get:

QS (V ) =

E2 V 2

QL (V )
X X

Or

V 2 E2
=
QL (V ) QS (V )
X
X

(6.203)

Substituting this expression into equation (6.178) and rearranging the terms gives,

Q2S (V )
PL2 (V )
QL (V ) = 2
+ QS (V )
(E /X)
(E 2 /X)
316

(6.204)

Figure 6.24: Generation and load characteristics


If the load is a constant real power load with PL (V ) = PL = constant, then equation (6.204)
describes a horizontal parabola in the (QS , QL ) plane and is shown in Fig. 6.24(a). The vertex of
the parabola is at a constant QS value equal to E 2 /2X while the minimum value of QL depends
on PL and for PL = 0, the minimum is at E 2 /4X . An increase in PL shifts the parabola to the left
along the QL axis with no corresponding shift with respect to the QS axis.
Again a small perturbation in QL can be used to analyze the stability of the two equilibrium
points. For a constant QL , less than the minimum value, the two equilibrium points are labeled as
S and U as shown in Fig. 6.24.
At the point S a small increase QL in the load reactive power is accompanied by an increase in
generated reactive power QS and a small reduction in load reactive power causes a reduction in the
generated reactive power. Thus, the balance between the load reactive demand and the generated
reactive power is always maintained. Hence, the equilibrium pointS is always stable.
At the upper equilibrium point U, an increase in QL produce a reduction in QS , while a
reduction in QL causes an increase in QS . Thus, the changes in reactive generation are now in
opposite direction to the changes in demand and hence the equilibrium point U is unstable.
The stability criterion then can be stated as follows:
A system is stable, if a small change in reactive load demand produces a change in the generation
which has the same sign. In other words the derivative dQS /dQL is positive i.e. :

dQS
>0
dQL

(6.205)

Further, at the maximum loading point at the nose of QS QL characteristic of Fig. 6.24, the
derivative dQG /dQL tends to infinity.

It is worth noting that the QG QL characteristic is a parabola only for ideally stiff real power
load PL (V ) = P =constant. For voltage dependant loads an explicit expression for QL (QG ) with
PL (V ) cannot be obtained, and an iteractive procedure is required.
317

Methods of improving Voltage Stability


Voltage stability can be improved by adopting the following means:
Enhancing the load reactive power support using shunt compensators.
Line length compensation using series compensation.
Load shedding during contingencies.
Constructing additional transmission lines.
Using FACTS controllers.

318

Appendix A
The system data

Table A.1: Bus data for 5 bus system


Bus
no.
1
2
3
4
5

Type
1
2
2
3
3

PG

(p.u) (deg) (MW)


1
0
0
1
0
50
1
0
100
1
0
0
1
0
0

QG

PL

QL

(MVAR) (MW) (MVAR)


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
115
60
0
85
40
Base MVA = 100

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)
0
-500
-500
-500
-500

(MVAR)
0
500
500
500
500

Table A.2: Line data for 5 bus system


Branch no.
1
2
3
4
5
6

From bus To bus R (p.u)


1
2
0.042
1
5
0.031
2
3
0.031
3
4
0.031
3
5
0.053
4
5
0.063

319

X (p.u)
0.168
0.126
0.126
0.126
0.210
0.252

B/2 (p.u)
0.041
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.051
0.061

Tx. Tap
0
0
0
0
0
0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u) (p.u)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Table A.3: Bus data for 14 bus system


Bus
no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Type
1
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

PG

QG

PL

QL

(p.u) (deg) (MW) (MVAR) (MW) (MVAR)


1.06
0
0
0
0
0
1.045
0
18.3
5.857
0
0
1
0
0
0
119
8.762
1
0
0
0
47.79
3.9
1
0
0
0
7.599
1.599
1.07
0
11.2
44.2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
12.9
1
0
0
0
29.499
16.599
1
0
0
0
9
5.799
1
0
0
0
3.501
1.8
1
0
0
0
6.099
1.599
1
0
0
0
13.5
5.799
1
0
0
0
14.901
5.001
Base MVA = 100

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)
0
-500
0
0
0
-500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

(MVAR)
0
500
0
500
0
500
0
0
0
0
500
0
0
0

Table A.4: Line data for 14 bus system


Branch no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

From bus To bus R (p.u)


1
2
0.0194
1
5
0.054
2
3
0.047
2
4
0.0581
2
5
0.0569
3
4
0.067
4
5
0.0134
4
7
0
4
9
0
5
6
0
6
11
0.095
6
12
0.1229
6
13
0.0661
7
8
0
7
9
0
9
10
0.0318
9
14
0.127
10
11
0.082
12
13
0.2209
13
14
0.1709

320

X (p.u)
0.0592
0.223
0.1979
0.1763
0.1738
0.171
0.0421
0.209
0.5562
0.2522
0.1989
0.2557
0.1302
0.1762
0.011
0.0845
0.2703
0.192
0.1999
0.3479

B/2 (p.u)
0.0528
0.0492
0.0438
0.0374
0.0339
0.0346
0.0128
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Tx. Tap
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u)
(p.u)
0
0
0
0
0.0002 0.502
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0023 0.1325
0
0.0633
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Table A.5: Bus data for 30 bus system


Bus
no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Type
1
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

PG

QG

PL

QL

(p.u) (deg) (MW) (MVAR) (MW) (MVAR)


1.05
0
0
0
0
0
1.0338
0
57.56
2.47
21.7
12.7
1
0
0
0
2.4
1.2
1
0
0
0
7.6
1.6
1.0058
0
24.56
22.57
94.2
19
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
62.8
10.9
1.023
0
35
34.84
80
30
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
5.8
2
1.0913
0
17.93
30.78
0
0
1
0
0
0
11.2
7.5
1.0883
0
16.91
37.83
0
0
1
0
0
0
6.2
1.6
1
0
0
0
8.2
2.5
1
0
0
0
3.5
1.8
1
0
0
0
9
5.8
1
0
0
0
3.2
0.9
1
0
0
0
9.5
3.4
1
0
0
0
2.2
0.7
1
0
0
0
17.5
11.2
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
3.2
1.6
1
0
0
0
8.7
6.7
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
3.5
2.3
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2.4
0.9
1
0
0
0
10.6
1.9
Base MVA = 100

321

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)
0
-500
0
0
-500
0
0
-500
0
0
-500
0
-500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

(MVAR)
0
500
0
0
500
0
0
500
0
0
500
0
500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u) (p.u)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Table A.6: Line data for 30 bus system


Branch no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

From bus To bus R (p.u)


1
2
0.0192
1
3
0.0452
2
4
0.057
3
4
0.0132
2
5
0.0472
2
6
0.0581
4
6
0.0119
5
7
0.046
6
7
0.0267
6
8
0.012
6
9
0
6
10
0
9
11
0
9
10
0
4
12
0
12
13
0
12
14
0.1231
12
15
0.0662
12
16
0.0945
14
15
0.221
16
17
0.0824
15
18
0.107
18
19
0.0639
19
20
0.034
10
20
0.0936
10
17
0.0324
10
21
0.0348
10
22
0.0727
21
22
0.0116
15
23
0.1
22
24
0.115
23
24
0.132
24
25
0.1885
25
26
0.2544
25
27
0.1093
27
28
0
27
29
0.2198
27
30
0.3202
29
30
0.2399
8
28
0.0636
6
28
0.0169

322

X (p.u)
0.0575
0.1852
0.1737
0.0379
0.1983
0.1763
0.0414
0.116
0.082
0.042
0.208
0.556
0.208
0.11
0.256
0.14
0.2559
0.1304
0.1987
0.1997
0.1932
0.2185
0.1292
0.068
0.209
0.0845
0.0749
0.1499
0.0236
0.202
0.179
0.27
0.3292
0.38
0.2087
0.396
0.4153
0.6027
0.4533
0.2
0.0599

B/2 (p.u)
0.0528
0.0408
0.0368
0.0084
0.0418
0.0374
0.009
0.0204
0.017
0.009
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0418
0.013

Tx. Tap
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

Table A.7: Bus data for 9 bus system


Bus
no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Type
1
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3

PG

QG

PL

QL

(p.u) (deg) (MW) (MVAR) (MW) (MVAR)


1.04
0
0
0
0
0
1.025
0
163
0
0
0
1.025
0
85
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
125
50
1
0
0
0
90
30
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
100
35
1
0
0
0
0
0
Base MVA = 100

QM IN

QM AX

(MVAR)
0
-500
-500
-500
-500
-500
-500
-500
-500

(MVAR)
0
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500

Table A.8: Line data for 9 bus system


Branch no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

From bus To bus R (p.u)


2
7
0.0
1
4
0.0
3
9
0.0
4
6
0.017
4
5
0.01
5
7
0.032
6
9
0.039
9
8
0.0119
8
7
0.0085

323

X (p.u)
0.0625
0.0576
0.0586
0.092
0.085
0.161
0.17
0.1008
0.072

B/2 (p.u)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.079
0.088
0.153
0.179
0.1045
0.0745

Tx. Tap
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

Gsh

Bsh

(p.u) (p.u)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0