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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

Requirements for the award of

Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical



University Roll No. 139109342

Department of Mechanical

MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Jaipur (Rajasthan).


I hereby declare that the Seminar Report entitled Vehicular Pollution Control is an authentic
record of my own work as requirements for the award of degree of B.Tech. (Mechanical
Engineering), MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, Jaipur, Rajasthan.

(Signature of student)
(Name of Student)
(University Roll No.)
Date: ____________________
Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge
and belief.

Seminar Coordinators

Head of Department
(Signature and Seal)



I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr Ram Adhar Dubey
and Dr A.K Sharma for providing me opportunity to prepare my
seminar Report at Manipal University Jaipur.
I also thank the H.O.D of our mechanical department at Manipal
University Jaipur Dr Anand Pandey for providing me the
opportunity to embark this subject.

Table Of Contents
1. Cover Pages 1-2
2. Acknowledgement.. 3
3. Introduction 5
4. Causes of vehicular emissions 6
5. Formation of photochemical Smog.. 8
6. Emissions from gasoline vehicles.. 9
7. Emissions from Diesel vehicles.. 10
8. Indian Government ways to reduce
pollution. 12
9. Economics of Vehicular Pollution
10. Classification of automobile
emissions.. 13
11. Crank Case emissions... 14
12. Evaporative Emissions.. 24
13. Exhaust emissions.. 28
14. Devives to control emissions.. 28
15. Thremal Converters... 28
16. Catalytic Converters... 29
17. Exhaust-Filtering Tube... 38
18. Particulate Reduction Techniques. 39
19. NOx Reduction Techniques 40
20. Evaporative Emission Control40

21. Alternative ways to control vehicular

emissions.. 42
22. Alternative Fuels.. 43
23. Conclusion 45
24. Future Scope 45
25. Reference.. 47

Vehicular Pollution Control

Human activities generate three broad sources of air pollution: stationary or point, mobile, and
indoor. In developing countries especially in the rural area, indoor air pollution from using open
fires for cooking and heating may be a serious problem. Industries, power plants etc. are the
cause of stationary air pollution. But in urban areas both developing and developed countries, it
is predominantly mobile or vehicular pollution that contributes to overall air quality problem. In
Delhi, the data shows that of the total 3,000 metric tonnes of pollutants1 belched out everyday,
close to two-third (66%) is from vehicles. Similarly, the contribution of vehicles to urban air
pollution is 52% in Bombay and close to one-third in Calcutta.2 Katz (1994) has estimated that
in Santiago, Chile, wherever pollution concentration exceeds ambient standards, mobile sources
or vehicles are the cause. Similarly, in case of Budapest, Hungary, transport is the dominant
source of emissions except sulphur dioxide (SO2), contributing 57% of Oxides of Nitrogen
(NOx), 80% of lead (Pb), 81% of carbon monoxide (CO) and 75% of hydrocarbon (HC)
emissions (Lehoczki, 2000). A number of countries have targeted vehicles and associated sectors
(such as, fuel) to curb the menace. Notable successful initiatives are: conversion of public
transport from diesel to CNG in Delhi, switching of Vikrams (tuk-tuks) from diesel to electricity
in Kathmandu valley, shifting from leaded to unleaded gasoline in many countries etc. Still the
pollution problem in urban cities may continue to loom large due to ever-burgeoning vehicular
population, which is outpacing any such measure and road network development. Following data
gives a glimpse of such skewed growth. Against 1.9 million vehicular population in 1990 in

Delhi, it rose to nearly 3.6 million in the year 2001 (i.e., an increase of nearly 87%). During the
same period, Delhis population has increased by only 43% (from 9.5 million to 13.8 million)
and road-length by merely 14% (from 22,000 Km to 25,000 Km) respectively. Situation is
similar across a number of cities in India and the developing world. This indicates the exigency
of controlling vehicular pollution. The worst thing about vehicular pollution is that it cannot be
avoided as the emissions are emitted at the near-ground level where we breathe.

Pollution from vehicles gets reflected in increased mortality and morbidity and is revealed
through symptoms like cough, headache, nausea, irritation of eyes, various bronchial problems
and visibility. The pollution from 1 vehicles are due to discharges like CO, unburned HC, Pb
compounds, NOx, soot, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and aldehydes, among others,
mainly from the tail pipes. A recent study reports that in Delhi one out of every 10 school
children suffers from asthma that is worsening due to vehicular pollution.3 Similarly, two of the
three most important health related problems in Bangkok are caused by air pollution and lead
contamination, both of which are contributed greatly by motor vehicles.4 Situation is same in a
number of other mega-cities across the globe be it Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago in
Latin America or Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Dhaka in Asia or Ibadan and Lagos in Africa or in
cities of Eastern Europe, the erstwhile USSR and the Middle East. According to the World
Health Organisation (WHO), 4 to 8% of deaths that occur annually in the world are related to air
pollution and of its constituents, the WHO has identified SPM as the most sinister in terms of its
effect on health. The SPM is not homogeneous. It has a number of constituents. As a result, it is
measured and characterised in various ways: (i) TSP (Total suspended particulates) with particle
diameters < 50-100 m is the fraction sampled with high-volume samplers. (ii) PM : Inhalable
particles having a diameter






Vehicular pollution sources are not homogenous, as there is a complete range of technological
mix. The mix could be in terms of fuel used gasoline or diesel or natural gas; or engine type
2-stroke or 4-stroke and/or a combination of these.
Cars and trucks produce air pollution throughout their life, including pollution emitted during
vehicle operation, refueling, manufacturing, and disposal. Additional emissions are associated
with the refining and distribution of vehicle fuel.
Air pollution from cars and trucks is split into primary and secondary pollution. Primary
pollution is emitted directly into the atmosphere; secondary pollution results from chemical
reactions between pollutants in the atmosphere. The following are the major pollutants from
motor vehicles:

Particulate matter (PM). These

particles of soot and metals give

smog its murky color. Fine particles less than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair pose
the most serious threat to human health, as they can penetrate deep into lungs. PM is a direct
(primary) pollution and a secondary pollution from hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and sulfer
dioxides. Diesel
exhaust is

Hydrocarbons (HC). These

pollutants react with nitrogen oxides in

the presence of sunlight to form ground level ozone, a primary ingredient in smog. Though
beneficial in the upper atmosphere, at the ground level this gas irritates the respiratory system,
causing coughing, choking, and reduced lung capacity.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx). These

pollutants cause lung irritation and

weaken the body's defenses against respiratory infections such as pneumonia and influenza. In
addition, they assist in the formation of ground level ozone and particulate matter.

Carbon monoxide (CO). This odorless, colorless, and poisonous gas

is formed by the combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline and is emitted primarily from cars
and trucks. When inhaled, CO blocks oxygen from the brain, heart, and other vital organs.
Fetuses, newborn children, and people with chronic illnesses are especially susceptible to the
effects of CO.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2). Power

plants and motor vehicles create this

pollutant by burning sulfur-containing fuels, especially diesel. Sulfur dioxide can react in the
atmosphere to form fine particles and poses the largest health risk to young children and

Hazardous air pollutants (toxics). These chemical compounds

have been linked to birth defects, cancer, and other serious illnesses. The Environmental
Protection Agency estimates that the air toxics emitted from cars and trucks which
include Benzene, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene account for half of all cancers caused by air

Greenhouse gases. Motor vehicles also emit pollutants, such as carbon

dioxide, that contribute to global climate change. In fact, cars and trucks account for over onefifth of the United States' total global warming pollution; transportation, which includes freight,
trains, and airplanes, accounts for around thirty percent of all heat-trapping gas emissions.


What Is Smog?
Picture the City of Angels, Los Angeles, California. At first we might think of famous movie
stars, palm tree-lined boulevards, and surfing. However, another image might also come to mind,
one that isn't as fun, and that'ssmog. Not so pretty, smog is the thick, brown haze that lies around
especially polluted cities like Los Angeles.
Photochemical smog is a type of smog. But what exactly is smog? Smog is formed from
combustion, or burning, of fossil fuels like coal and oil. Fossil fuels power much of our
electricity, allow us to drive cars, and are the means for powering factories that manufacture
everyday goods. Smog is especially common in cities with a lot of cars and traffic, like LA.
Smog isn't just found in the United States, though. Developing nations like China, India, and the
Middle East also have high levels of air pollution.
Smog, itself, is the pollutants given off by burning fossil fuels. Photochemical smog is a type
of secondary pollutant that occurs when the chemicals given off react with sunlight in the
How Is Photochemical Smog Formed?
Photochemical smog is produced when pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels react with
sunlight. The energy in the sunlight converts the pollutants into other toxic chemicals. In order
for photochemical smog to form, there must be other pollutants in the air, specifically nitrous
oxides and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
What Makes up Photochemical Smog?
When nitrous oxides and VOCs interact with sunlight, secondary pollutants are formed, such as
ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate. These secondary pollutants are what we have been calling
photochemical smog. You might think, 'Hey, isn't ozone good for protecting our atmosphere?'

Well, it is, but only at levels high above the surface. When ozone is near humans, it can cause
serious problems with our lungs and vision. Peroxyacetyl nitrate is one of the chemicals that is
responsible for damaging lung tissue, and photochemical smog forms plenty of it.

Emissions from Gasoline Vehicles:

Gasoline-powered engines are of two types: 4-stroke and 2-stroke. Table 1 gives the various
sources of emissions in the two cases. The exhaust emissions from gasoline-run vehicles consist
of CO, HC, NOx, SO2, and partial oxides of aldehydes, besides particulate matters including
lead salts.


Amount of Emissions %
4 stroke

Crankase blowby



2 stroke


mixture & combustion
fuel under pressure
chamber past engine

piston and ring and

enter crankbase to be

Evaporative Emissions


Fuel vapours lost to the

atmosphere from tanks
and carburettor

Exhaust Emissions



Exhaust gases emitted

with pollutants through
the tailpipe

The incomplete combustion of gasoline due to an imbalance in the air-fuel ratio leads to
emissions of CO and HC especially from 2-stroke engines. The Nox, however, are formed due to
high combustion temperature and availability of oxygen and nitrogen in the combustion
chamber, whereas aldehydes result from the partial oxidation of HC. In cities, majority of the 3
pollution is emitted by vehicles consuming gasoline especially 2 and 3-wheelers, having
predominantly 2-stroke engine. The 2-stroke 2- and 3-wheelers require 2 T oil for lubrication of
engine, which is carried out through either premixing mode or oil injection system. In either case
it is a total loss system, as the oil is burnt along with the fuel. Since the burning quality of
mineral based lubricating oil is very poor vis--vis gasoline, major fraction of it that enters the
engine either remains unburned or burns only partially. This unburned and partially burned oil
comes through the exhaust and is responsible for smoke and SPM emission. The studies indicate
that 2-stroke engines exhaust contains almost 15-25% of unburned fuel (Pundir, 2001). In actual
practice, the 2-stroke vehicles require 2% concentration of 2 T oil i.e., 20 ml in a litre of petrol
and even a modest 1% increase of oil, may lead to 15% increase in SPM besides visible smoke
(CPCB, 1999). In most growing cities Delhi, Kathmandu, Chennai, Dhaka, Pune etc.
gasoline or petrol driven vehicles comprise over 80% of the total vehicles registered. This
implies controlling pollution from them can have significant pay-offs.

Emissions from Diesel Vehicles:

As diesel engines breathe only air, blowby gases from the crankcase (consisting primarily of air
and HC) are rather low. Due to its low volatility, evaporative emissions from the fuel tank can
also be ignored. The low concentration of CO and un-burnt HC in the diesel exhaust are
compensated by high concentration of NOx. Diesel engines also emit smoke particles and
oxygenated HC, including aldehydes and odour-producing compounds having high nuisance
value. Smoke from diesel engines comes in three different hues white smoke emitted during
cold start idling and at low loads; blue smoke from the burning of lubricating oil and additives;
and black smoke, a product of incomplete combustion. Black smoke, the most obvious type of

vehicular air pollution, consists of irregular shaped agglomerated fine soot/particulates, the
formation of which depends on injector nozzle parameter and type of combustion chamber
(direct or indirect injection). Black smoke is a particular problem with diesel engines that are not
well tuned, which is often the case in the developing world.

Impact of (Gasoline and Diesel) Fuel Quality on emissions:

Much of the pollution control depends on the quality of the fuel. So the characteristics that
determine fuel quality also become important. A high Reid pressure8 in the case of gasoline
engine causes a high evaporative emission while an increase in the density results in a
simultaneous increase in CO and HC in the exhausts. Likewise in the case of diesel vehicles, a
higher density causes higher smoke, CO and NOx emissions, while enhancing the cetane
number9 of ignition quality lowers the smoke emission. The sulphur content of diesel has been
observed to have a direct bearing on the SPM and SO2 emissions.

Pollutants from Diesel vis--vis CNG Run Engines:

The combustion of fuels release SO2, NOx, CO and ozone. The CO is highly noxious gas that
forms when there is not enough oxygen during the combustion. The CO, however, oxidizes very
fast and forms CO2, which though is not noxious but is one of the major contributors of
greenhouse effect. This implies a reduction of CO, hence CO2 emissions, can only be achieved
by improving the engine efficiency or by using fuels containing lower concentration of carbon
such as natural gas. The compressed natural gas (CNG) is a clean-burning alternative fuel for
vehicles10 with a significant potential for reducing harmful emissions especially fine particles.
Nylund and Lawson (2000) find that diesel combustion emits 84 grams per kilometer (gms/km)
of such components as compared to only 11 gms/km in CNG. The levels of greenhouse gases
emitted from natural gas exhaust are 12% lower than diesel engine exhaust when the entire life
cycle of the fuel is considered (ibid.). It has also been found that one CNG bus achieves emission
reduction equivalent to removing 85-94 cars from the road. Table 2 gives the emission benefits
of replacing conventional diesel with CNG in buses.

Pollution Parameter


2.4 g/km


0.4 g/km

% Reduction




21 g/km

8.9 gm/km



Diesel with sulphur content of 10 ppm (also called as clean diesel) is environmentally viable
only when it is combined with other technology such as the state of the art exhaust 5 treatment

devices like continuously regenerating particulate traps (CRTs). Incidentally the devices are also
highly maintenance intensive. Apart from the fact that CNG does not contain polyaromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs), airborne toxins and SO2, CNG run vehicles have more quiet operation,
less vibrations and odour than equivalent diesel engines. However, high vehicle cost, shorter
driving range, heavy fuel tank, expensive distribution and storage network and potential
performance and operational problems compared to liquid fuels are some of the drawbacks of
using CNG vehicle.

Emissions caused by Congestion:

Congestion engenders a double effect. First the time cost of a vehicle kilometre rises rapidly with
increased congestion. This is because the addition of a vehicle to an already crowded network
increases travel time for many other passengers. Since the average speed has reduced to levels
that are far below the optimal operating vehicles speed, this leads to increase in rate of emissions
per kilometre thus the two effects are inter-related (Johansson, 1997). The congestion has
costed nearly US$ 14 billion in terms of excess time required and gasoline consumed to the
commuters in California, in addition to substantial environmental damage (Sterner, 2002: 233).
Krawack (1993)11 states that a reduction from 40 km/h to 20 km/h doubles the emissions of CO
and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for a car fitted with a catalytic converter. Since VOCs
and CO are 250% higher under congested conditions than during free-flowing traffic, poor air
quality is the consequence.


In general, the vehicular emissions can be controlled at three stages: (i) Stage 1 or precombustion
stage where the quality of fuel can be upgraded; (ii) Stage 2 or combustion stage where engine
modifications are needed; and (iii) Stage 3 or post-combustion stage where exhaust treatment
devices like catalytic converters are required. As a consequence the policy instruments employed
can be oriented at any of these three stages and can be directed towards either producers (fuel or
vehicle producers) or dealers (petrol pump owners or vehicle dealers). Besides these, there are
few non-technical instruments that can be aimed at consumers / individuals, requiring
behavioural adaptations either in the mode of transport or necessitating periodic maintenance
check to minimise the pollution levels. Needless to say any instrument intended for these
behavioural changes would either be before stage.



The choice and selection of policy instruments to curb pollution in mega cities can be dictated by
three main objectives: a) fewer vehicle kilometres to be travelled; b) less fuel used per kilometre
travelled; and c) less emission per unit of fuel used (World Bank, 2001a: 3). The first objective
i.e., aiming to reduce vehicle kilometres can be realised by means such as, giving priority to
public transport through special lanes, parking provisions etc.; discouraging private transport
through high congestion parking, adopting day-of-the-week strategy etc. The second objective,
where the aim is that less fuel is consumed for each kilometre travelled can be actualised by
introducing fuel economy standards, inducing lane driving or by installing timers at different
intersections. The fulfilment of third objective requires improvement in fuel characteristics,
engine specification, shift from polluting fuel to clean fuel etc. For each objective, there exists
three categories of instruments technological (requiring technical solution to the pollution
problem); administrative (primarily regulation based); and economic or MB instruments (using
market mechanism to change the behaviour). Table 5 gives a synoptic view of different
categories of instruments for each objective. Depending on the objective in mind, the policy
makers can choose a policy instrument.

Indias Experience in Combating Vehicular Air Pollution:

The vehicular pollution problem in the urban areas of the country can be characterised by the
following: a) high vehicle density; b) vehicle vintage dominated by older vehicles; c)
heterogeneous traffic mix; d) inadequate I&M facilities; e) predominance of 2-stroke 2wheelers; f) adulteration of fuel; g) improper traffic management; h) poor road conditions; i)
high levels of pollution at traffic intersections; j) absence of effective MRTS; and k) various
encumbrances on road such as encroachments, unauthorised construction particularly of religious
nature. A high level of urban air pollution with vehicles contributing the most has resulted in
implementation of a number of policy instruments in the country. Table 6 gives a synoptic view
of different categories of instruments implemented for Delhi and other cities. Since most of the
policy instruments whether it is banning of registration of 2-stroke engines or switching to
CNG by public transport or timers at intersections or lanes for HOVs etc. have been
implemented in Delhi, it will be interesting to see the impact of these instruments on the
pollution profile. Table 7 gives the average value in the past 5 years for different pollution
parameters at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, one of the busiest intersections in Delhi. The table also
compares the average values with the prescribed standards.

Emissions from gasoline powered vehicles are classified as


Exhaust emissions
Crank case emissions
Evaporative emission


Crank Case Emissions:

The problem of crankcase ventilation is encountered since the beginning of the
automobile because no piston ring, new or old, can have a perfect seal between
the piston and the cylinder wall. During running of the engine, the pressure of
combustion forces the piston downward, and also the chamber gases past the
piston rings and into the crankcase. These outlets are called crankcase vapours, or
Crankcase vapours contains light hydrocarbons, crankcase oil vapours, and
combustion chamber gases. Crankcase oil vapours constitute the light volatile
portions of the motor oil, evaporated at engine operating temperature. Combustion
chamber gases, which have entered into the crankcase primarily come from the
quench area within 0.05 mm to 0.5 mm of the combustion chamber surface. These
gases have the same olefinic content as the gasoline being used. These gases are
unburnt because they are cooled by the relatively low-temperature of combustion
chamber wall surface. Every time a driver opens the throttle, the rate of flow of
blow-by gases to crankcase increases. The blow by gas causes three undesirable
(Hi) It helps to form corrosive acids, which damage engine parts.

Draft Tube Ventilation


Ventilation of the crankcase is necessary to remove these vapours and gases. After
various possibilities of ventilating the engine crankcase, car makers initially
draft tube (Fig. 17.4). This is simply a tube connected to
a vacuum is developed by the airflow past the road draft
(i) To work better it requires a pressure difference between the oil filter cap and
the draft tube. This pressure difference depends on car movement. When the car
speed is less than about 40 kmph, enough vacuum is not available to remove the
vapours from the crankcase.







(ii) It allows the crankcase vapours to directly pass into the atmosphere causing
(Hi) At higher vehicle speeds, not only crankcase ventilation accelerates but also
engine oil consumption increases because oil droplets are drawn out through the
road draft tube.

Open PCV Systems


Positive crankcase ventilation was first introduced on 1961 California cars and were installed in
a large scale nationwide on 1963 models. Open PCV systems only partly control crankcase
emissions, because manifold vacuum decreases considerably under heavy load or acceleration.
This causes the crankcase pressures to build up, so that some of the vapours are forced into the
atmosphere through the vented oil filler cap. If the system becomes clogged, crankcase vapours
also pass through the vented cap into the air. However open PCV systems promote longer engine
life by removing most harmful vapours from the crankcase, and reduce the amount of crankcase
vapours, which pollute the air in comparison to draft tube ventilation. Open crankcase ventilation
systems can be divided into three types.
Type I System. In this system, a hose connects the crankcase to the intake manifold (Fig. 17.5).
When the engine is running, fresh air is drawn into the crankcase through the vented oil filler
cap. This air mixes with the crankcase vapours, travels to the intake manifold, and is drawn into
the engine cylinders. A PCV valve (Fig. 17.6) regulates airflow from the crankcase. The value
has a spring-operated plunger that responds to spring force and manifold vacuum to regulate the
air flow.

Fig. 17.5. Type I open PCV system.


Fig. 17.6. Type I PCV Valve.

Type II System. The type II system is similar to the type I system, except that it uses a
diaphragm-type PCV valve and oil filler cap. The PCV valve regulates the airflow according to
crankcase vacuum. When vacuum exists in the crankcase, the valve is closed (Fig. 17.7) and flow
of vapour takes place through the idle groove. When the crankcase is under pressure (Fig. 17.8)
the valve opens and the flow rate through the valve depends on the amount of blow by created by
the engine. The oil filler cap has an orifice, which allows the correct amount of air to enter but
can not maintain crankcase vacuum. The orifice must remain open at all times for the system to
work correctly.

Fig. 17.7. At engine idle, the Type II PCV valve is closed.

Fig. 17.8. At engine cruising speed, the Type II PCV valve is opened by crank case


Fig. 17.9. Type III open PCV system has no PCV valve.
Type III System. In the Type III system, the crankcase is connected to the air cleaner by a hose
(Fig. 17.9). A slight suction in the air cleaner draws vapours from the crankcase. Fresh
air enters through the oil filler cap, mixes with the crankcase vapours, and is drawn to the air
cleaner. From the air cleaner, the vapours are then drawn through the carburettor into the
cylinders. Control valve is not necessary in this system.
This system tends to richen the air-fuel mixture, because blow by reaches the carburettor before
the mixture is vaporised. Carburettors used with a Type III system must be adjusted to account
for this richer mixture. Some cars also use a sealed Type III system in which the oil filler cap
has no venting hole.

Closed PCV Systems

Closed, or Type rV, PCV systems were first installed in 1964 on all new California passenger
cars. They became standard system for all cars by 1968, and are still in use on cars. In this
system (Fig. 17.10), the oil filler cap is not vented to the atmosphere. Air for the crankcase is
drawn through a hose from the air cleaner to one of the valve covers or to a crankcase inlet
below the intake manifold. The dipstick is also sealed to prevent air leakage into the crankcase.


Fig. 17.10. Type IV PCV System.

Crankcase ventilation air may be supplied from either the clean side (inside) or the dirty side
(outside) of the carburettor air filter. When air is coming from the clean side using the air cleaner
as a PCV filter, a flame arrester (Fig. 17.11) is used. The arrester uses a wire screen installed in
the PCV air intake line, either at the air cleaner or at the valve cover, to prevent a crankcase
explosion caused due to the engine back fire. When air is coming from the dirty side of the
cleaner, a separate PCV air flow is used. This can be located in the air cleaner (Fig.
17.12A), or in the oil filter cap (Fig. 17.12B) or in the inlet air hose where it connects to the
valve cover. A flame arrester is not required in this case, since the air cleaner filter serves the

Fig. 17.11. Use of a flame arrester.


Fig. 17.12. PCV Air filter. A. Located in the air cleaner housing. B. Located in the
oil filter cap.

Fig. 17.13. Closed PCV system operation. A. Under normal conditions. B. Under
heavy load.

Under normal operating conditions, fresh air from the air cleaner passes through the inlet hose to
the crankcase (Fig. 17.13A). The fresh air mixes with the crankcase vapours, and passes through
a PCV valve prior to being drawn into the intake manifold. Vapours that back up under certain
conditions cannot escape from the closed crankcase ventilation system. If manifold vacuum
drops, or if the system becomes clogged, extra crankcase vapours reverse their direction. Instead
of passing into the atmosphere, these excess vapours from the engine flow back to the air cleaner
(Fig. 17.13B) in the closed system. The vapours in the air cleaner mix with incoming air and pass
through the carburettor to the combustion chamber for burning. This allows the closed system to
be almost 100 percent effective in controlling crankcase emissions.
Closed PVC system offers the following three advantages :
(i) It improves engine life by removing harmful vapours from the crankcase.
(ii) It eliminates crankcase vapours that cause air pollution.
iiii) It increases fuel economy by recirculating all unburned blow by back to the intake manifold.

Components of Closed PCV Systems

The design of all types of closed PCV systems is the same and all operate in the same manner
(Fig. 17.14), irrespective of the model. All have a PCV valve, an air inlet filter, and connecting
hoses. The location of these parts, however, may vary from one engine model to another.

Air Inlet Filter.

PCV air inlet filters are normally installed in a retainer inside the air cleaner (Fig. 17.12A), or in
the oil filler cap (Fig. 17.12B). They use wire gauze or polyurethane foam and are normally
replaced along with the air cleaner filter element.

Connecting Hoses.
The closed PCV system uses two connecting hoses (Fig. 17.14). Fresh air flows from the air
cleaner to the engine through the air inlet hose. Crankcase vapours flow from the engine to the
intake manifold through the manifold vacuum hose. PCV hoses are made of special materials
that are not contaminated with oil vapours. Heater hose should not be used as a substitute.


PCV Valve.
This is a one-way valve having a spring-operated plunger (Fig. 17.15), to control flow rate.
Spring force, crankcase pressure, and manifold vacuum together regulate the flow. Flow rate
through the valve is set for a particular engine, and hence should not be used in an another
engine. This setting is obtained by the size of the plunger and the holes inside the valve. PCV
valves are usually installed either in the valve cover (Fig. 17.14) or in the intake manifold (Fig.
When manifold vacuum is high, the PCV valve balances air-fuel mixture ratio by regulating the
airflow (Fig. 17.17A). It also restricts high intake manifold vacuum only to prevent oil pulling
out of the crankcase into the intake manifold. The PCV valve controls the airflow through the
crankcase under all operating conditions and speeds. Under high speed or heavy loads, the valve

Fig. 17.14. Late-model closed PCV system.

opens to allow maximum airflow (Fig. 17.17B). If the engine backfires, the valve closes instantly
(Fig. 17.18) to prevent a crankcase explosion.

Fig. 17.15. PCV valve flow rate regulation.


Fig. 17.16. V-8 PCV system installation.


Evaporative emissions:
It has been estimated that an average Indian passenger car would emit about 20kg
of hydrocarbons through evaporation annually. It might also be dealt with by
changing the properties of gasoline such as reducing the volatility of fuel and
replacing the C4 and C5 olefinic hydrocarbon in the fuel with the less reactive C4
and C5 paraffinic hydrocarbons. Mechanical methods can also be used to control
evaporative emissions. The exhaust gas pollutants comprise of hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and lead compounds.
There are two sources of evaporative emissions viz., the fuel tank and the
carburettor. The principal factors governing tank emissions are:
Fuel volatility Ambient temperature
Design better fuel tanks and fuel channels

The Evaporative Emission Control System (EVAP) is used to prevent gasoline vapors from
escaping into the atmosphere from the fuel tank and fuel system.
The EVAP system usually requires no maintenance, but faults can turn on the Check Engine light
and prevent a vehicle from passing an OBD II plug-in emissions test.
The OBD II EVAP monitor on 1996 and newer vehicles runs diagnostic self-checks to detect fuel
vapor leaks, and if it finds any (including a loose or missing gas cap), it will set a fault code and
turn on the Check Engine light. However, the EVAP monitor only runs under certain operating
conditions. This may create a problem for the vehicle owner if his vehicle must be given an OBD
II plug-in emissions test and the monitor has not completed.


Common problems with the EVAP system include faults with the purge valve that vents fuel
vapors to the engine, leaks in vent and vacuum hoses, and loose, ill-fitting or missing gas caps.
The most common fault code is P0440, which indicates a large leak (often a loose gas cap).
EVAP Purge valve codes (P0443 to P0449) are also common).
The code you dont want to see is a P0442. This indicates the system has detected a SMALL
leak, but small leaks can often be a BIG problem to find. By small, we mean a leak no larger than
a pin prick! Such small leaks are virtually impossible to find visually, so a special tester called a
smoke machine is usually necessary to reveal the leak. The smoke machine feeds a mineral-oil
based vapor into the EVAP system under light pressure (no more than a few pounds per square
inch). The smoke may also contain an ultraviolet dye to make it easier to see under UV light.
Fixing EVAP codes can be a challenge, even for professional technicians. And if you have a
P0442 small leak code, youll probably have to take your car to a repair shop that has a smoke
The EPA requires EVAP systems on cars because gasoline fuel vapors contain a variety of
different hydrocarbons (HC). The lighter elements in gasoline evaporate easily, especially in
warm weather. These include aldehydes, aromatics, olefins, and higher paraffins. These
substances react with air and sunlight (called a photochemical reaction) to form smog. Aldehydes
often called instant smog because they can form smog without undergoing photochemical
The bad thing about fuel vapors is that fuel evaporates any time there is fuel in the tank. That
means if the fuel system is unsealed or open to the atmosphere, it can pollute 24 hours a day even
if the vehicle is not being driven. Uncontrolled evaporative emissions like this can account for as
much as 20 percent of the pollution produced by a motor vehicle.

The EVAP system totally eliminates fuel vapors as a source of air pollution by sealing off the
fuel system from the atmosphere. Vent lines from the fuel tank and carburetor bowl route vapors
to the EVAP storage canister, where they are trapped and stored until the engine is started. When
the engine is warm and the vehicle is going down the road, the PCM then opens a purge valve
allowing the vapors to be siphoned from the storage canister into the intake manifold. The fuel
vapors are hen burned in the engine.
Evaporative emission controls were first required on cars sold in California in 1970. EVAP has
been used on all cars and light trucks since the early 1970s.
Sealing the fuel tank is not as simple as it sounds. For one thing, a fuel tank must have some type
of venting so air can enter to replace fuel as the fuel is sucked up the fuel pump and sent to the
engine. If the tank were sealed tight, the fuel pump would soon create enough negative suction
pressure inside the tank to collapse the tank. On older EVAP systems, the tank is vented by a
spring-loaded valve inside the gas cap. On newer vehicles, it is vented through the EVAP
The major components of the evaporative emission control system include:
Fuel tank, which has some expansion space at the top so fuel can expand on a hot day
without overflowing or forcing the EVAP system to leak.
Gas cap, which usually contains some type of pressure/vacuum relief valve for venting on
older vehicles (pre-OBD II), but is sealed completely (no vents) on newer vehicles (1996 &
newer). NOTE: If you are replacing a gas cap, it MUST be the same type as the original (vented
or nonvented).
Liquid-Vapor Separator, located on top of the fuel tank or part of the expansion oerflow
tank. This device prevents liquid gasoline from entering the vent line to the EVAP canister. You
do not want liquid gasoline going directly to the EVAP canister because it would quickly
overload the canister's ability to store fuel vapors. The liquid-vapor separator is relatively
trouble-free. The only problems that can develop are if the liquid return becomes plugged with
debris such as rust or scale from inside the fuel tank; if the main vent line becomes blocked or
crimped; or if a vent line develops an external leak due to rust, corrosion, or metal fatigue from
Some liquid-vapor separators use a slightly different approach to keeping liquid fuel out of the
canister vent line. A float and needle assembly is mounted inside the separator. If liquid enters
the unit, the float rises and seats the needle valve to close the tank vent.
Another approach sometimes used is a foam-filled dome in the top of the fuel tank. Vapor will
pass through the foam but liquid will cling to the foam and drip.

If a blockage occurs in the liquid-vapor separator or in the vent line between it and the EVAP
canister, the fuel tank will not be able to breathe properly. Symptoms include fuel starvation or a
collapsed fuel tank on vehicles with solid-type gas caps. If you notice a whoosh of pressure in or
out of the tank when the gas gap is removed, suspect poor venting. You can check tank venting
by removing the gas cap and then disconnecting the gas tank vent line from the EVAP canister. If
the system is free and clear, you should be able to blow through the vent line into the fuel tank.
Blowing with compressed air can sometimes free a blockage. If not, you will have to inspect the
vent line and possibly remove the fuel tank to diagnose the problem.
EVAP Canister. This is a small round or rectangular plastic or steel container mounted
somewhere in the vehicle. It is usually hidden from view and may be located in a corner of the
engine compartment or inside a rear quarter panel. The canister is filled with about a pound or
two of activated charcoal. The charcoal acts like a sponge and absorbs and stores fuel vapors.
The vapors are stored in the canister until the engine is started, is warm and is being driven. The
PCM then opens the canister purge valve, which allows intake vacuum to siphon the fuel vapors
into the engine. The charcoal canister is connected to the fuel tank via the tank vent line. Under
normal circumstances, the EVAP canister causes few problems. Since the charcoal does not wear
out, it should last the life of the vehicle.
The most common problem with the EVAP canister is a faulty purge control or vent solenoid.
Vacuum-type purge valves can be tested by applying vacuum directly to the purge valve with a
hand-held vacuum pump. The valve should open and not leak vacuum if it is good. With
solenoid-type purge valves, voltage can applied directly to the solenoid to see if the valve opens.
The resistance of the solenoid can also be checked with an ohmmeter to see if it is open or
The purge control strategy on many late model EVAP systems can get rather complicated, so the
best advice here is to look up the EVAP diagnostic procedures in the OEM service literature.


The OBD II EVAP monitor tests the fuel system for vapor leaks.


On 1996 and newer vehicles, the OBD2 system monitors the fuel system for fuel vapor leaks to
make sure no hydrocarbons are escaping into the atmosphere. The EVAP monitor does two
things: it verifies there is airflow from the EVAP canister to the engine, and that there are no
leaks in the fuel tank, EVAP canister or fuel system vapor lines.
The OBD2 EVAP monitor runs once per drive cycle and only when the fuel tank is 15 to 85%
full. The EVAP monitor uses a "purge flow sensor" to detect leaks as small as .040 inches in
diameter on 1996-99 models, and as small as .020 inches on most 2000 and newer vehicles.

Exhaust Emissions:
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural
gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends,[1] diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal . According to the type of
engine, it is discharged into the atmosphere through an exhaust pipe, flue gas stack, or propelling
nozzle. It often disperses downwind in a pattern called an exhaust plume.

Devices to control emissions:


Thermal converters are high temperature chambers through which the exhaust gases
flow.They promote oxidation of the CO and HC which remain in the exhaust.The high
temperature is mandatory for the oxidation reaction to take place at such time
intervals.The oxidation temperatures required for CO and HC is 700 and 600 degrees.
Further it should be large enough to provide adequate residence time of the exhaust gases
to promote the oxidation reactions
Make sure it is placed as close to the exhaust manifold as possible this is necessary to
minimize the heat loses and keep the exhaust gases from cooling to non reacting

Devices consisting of a conductor heated by an electric current, with one or more hot junctions o
f a thermocouple attachedto it, so that the output emf responds to the temperature rise, and hence
the current. Thermal converters are used withexternal resistors for alternating-current (ac) and vo
ltage measurements over wide ranges and generally form the basis forcalibration of ac voltmeters
and the ac ranges of instruments providing known voltages and currents.
In the most common form, the conductor is a thin straight wire less than 0.4 in. (1 cm) long, in a
n evacuated glass bulb,with a single thermocouple junction fastened to the midpoint by a tiny ele
ctrically insulating bead. Thermal inertia keeps thetemperature of the heater wire constant at freq
uencies above a few hertz, so that the constant-output emf is a true measureof the root-meansquare (rms) heating value of the current. The reactance of the short wire is so small that the emf
can beindependent of frequency up to 10 MHz or more. An emf of 10 mV can be obtained at a ra
ted current less than 5 mA, sothat resistors of reasonable power dissipation, in series or in shunt
with the heater, can provide voltage ranges up to 1000 Vand current ranges up to 20 A. However,
the flow of heat energy cannot be controlled precisely, so the temperature, andhence the emf, gen
erally changes with time and other factors. Thus an ordinary thermocouple instrument, consisting
of athermal converter and a millivoltmeter to measure the emf, is accurate only to about 13%. S
ee Thermocouple, Voltmeter
To overcome this, a thermal converter is normally used as an ac-dc transfer instrument (ac-dc co
mparator) to measure anunknown alternating current or voltage by comparison with a known nea
rly equal dc quantity (see illustration). By replacingthe millivoltmeter with an adjustable, stable,
opposing voltage Vb in series with a microvoltmeter D, very small changes inemf can be detected
. The switch S is connected to the unknown ac voltage Vac, and Vb is adjusted for a null (zero) rea
dingof D. Then S is immediately connected to the dc voltage Vdc, which is adjusted to give a null
again, without changing Vb.Thus Vac = Vdc (1 + d), where d is the ac-dc difference of the transfer i
nstrument, which can be as small as a few parts permillion (ppm).


Basic circuit for ac-dc transfer measurements ofac voltages

In many commercial instruments, all of the components are conveniently packaged in the shield,
shown with a broken line,and several ranges are available by taps on R. Accuracies of 0.001% ar
e attainable at audio frequencies.

2. Catalytic converter:

Use of catalytic convertors Catalytic converters depend on the action of a catalyst

containing certain exotic chemicals to convert HC and CO emissions to their oxidised
Poisoning of catalyst by lead compounds lead to fuel Deterioration
Pressure loss
noise problems


A catalytic converter is an emissions control device that converts toxic gases

and pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation
and a reduction reaction). Catalytic converters are used with internal combustion engines fueled
by either petrol (gasoline) or dieselincluding lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters and
The first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United
States automobile market. To comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's stricter
regulation of exhaust emissions, most gasoline-powered vehicles starting with the 1975 model
year must be equipped with catalytic converters. These "two-way" converters combined oxygen
with carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2)
and water (H2O). In 1981, two-way catalytic converters were rendered obsolete by "three-way"
converters that also reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx); however, two-way converters are still used
for lean-burn engines.
Although catalytic converters are most commonly applied to exhaust systems in automobiles,
they are also used on electrical generators, forklifts, mining
equipment, trucks, buses, locomotives and motorcycles. They are also used on some wood stoves
to control emissions. This is usually in response to government regulation, either through direct
environmental regulation or through health and safety regulations.
The catalytic converter was invented by Eugene Houdry, a French mechanical engineer and
expert in catalytic oil refining, who moved to the United States in 1930. When the results of early
studies of smog in Los Angeles were published, Houdry became concerned about the role of
smoke stack exhaust and automobile exhaust in air pollution and founded a company called OxyCatalyst. Houdry first developed catalytic converters for smoke stacks called "cats" for short, and
later developed catalytic converters for warehouse forklifts that used low grade, unleaded
gasoline.[7] In the mid-1950s, he began research to develop catalytic converters for gasoline
engines used on cars. He was awarded United States Patent 2,742,437 for his work.]
Widespread adoption of catalytic converters did not occur until more stringent emission control
regulations forced the removal of the anti-knock agent tetraethyl lead from most types of
gasoline. Lead is a "catalyst poison" and would effectively disable a catalytic converter by
forming a coating on the catalyst's surface.
Catalytic converters were further developed by a series of engineers including John J.
Mooney and Carl D. Keith at the Engelhard Corporation creating the first production catalytic
converter in 1973.


William C. Pfefferle developed a catalytic combustor for gas turbines in the early 1970s,
allowing combustion without significant formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide.

The catalytic converter's construction is as follows:

1. The catalyst support or substrate. For automotive catalytic converters, the core is usually
a ceramic monolith with a honeycomb structure. Metallic foil monoliths made
of Kanthal (FeCrAl) are used in applications where particularly high heat resistance is
required. Either material is designed to provide a large surface area.
The cordierite ceramic substrate used in most catalytic converters was invented
by Rodney Bagley, Irwin Lachman and Ronald Lewis atCorning Glass, for which they
were inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2002.
2. The washcoat. A washcoat is a carrier for the catalytic materials and is used to disperse
the materials over a large surface area. Aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon
dioxide, or a mixture of silica and alumina can be used. The catalytic materials are
suspended in the washcoat prior to applying to the core. Washcoat materials are selected
to form a rough, irregular surface, which greatly increases the surface area compared to
the smooth surface of the bare substrate. This in turn maximizes the catalytically active
surface available to react with the engine exhaust. The coat must retain its surface area
and prevent sintering of the catalytic metal particles even at high temperatures (1000 C).
3. Ceria or ceria-zirconia. These oxides are mainly added as oxygen storage promoters.
4. The catalyst itself is most often a mix of precious metals. Platinum is the most active
catalyst and is widely used, but is not suitable for all applications because of unwanted
additional reactions and high cost. Palladium and rhodium are two other precious metals
used. Rhodium is used as a reduction catalyst, palladium is used as an oxidation catalyst,
and platinum is used both for reduction and
oxidation. Cerium, iron, manganese and nickel are also used, although each has
limitations. Nickel is not legal for use in the European Union because of its reaction with
carbon monoxide into toxic nickel tetracarbonyl. Copper can be used everywhere
except Japan
Upon failure, a catalytic converter can be recycled into scrap. The precious metals inside the
converter, including platinum, palladium and rhodium are extracted.
Placement Of Catalytic Converters

Catalytic converters require temperature of 800 degrees Fahrenheit to efficiently convert harmful
exhaust gases into inert ones, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor. So, first catalytic
converters were placed close to the engine to ensure fast heating. However, such placing caused
several problems, such as "vapor lock".
As an alternative, catalytic converters were moved to a third of the way back from the engine,
and were then placed underneath the vehicle.
In 1990s, integrated catalytic converters[17] were developed, which, as the name suggests, were
integrated into exhaust manifold assemblies. Their high efficiency, safety and space-saving
capability quickly earned them a popularity. Today, almost every new vehicle sold in the United
States is equipped with integrated catalytic converters.
A 2-way (or "oxidation", sometimes called an "oxi-cat") catalytic converter has two simultaneous
1. Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 2CO2
2. Oxidation of hydrocarbons (unburned and partially burned fuel) to carbon dioxide
and water: CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2] O2 xCO2 + (x+1) H2O (a combustion reaction)
This type of catalytic converter is widely used on diesel engines to reduce hydrocarbon and
carbon monoxide emissions. They were also used on gasoline engines in American- and
Canadian-market automobiles until 1981. Because of their inability to control oxides of nitrogen,
they were superseded by three-way converters.
Three-way catalytic converters (TWC) have the additional advantage of controlling the emission
of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (both together abbreviated with NOx and not to be confused
with nitrous oxide), which are precursors to acid rain and smog.
Since 1981, "three-way" (oxidation-reduction) catalytic converters have been used in vehicle
emission control systems in the United States and Canada; many other countries have also
adopted stringent vehicle emission regulations that in effect require three-way converters on
gasoline-powered vehicles. The reduction and oxidation catalysts are typically contained in a

common housing; however, in some instances, they may be housed separately. A three-way
catalytic converter has three simultaneous tasks:
1. Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx xO2 + N2
2. Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 2CO2
3. Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2 +
[(3x+1)/2]O2 xCO2 + (x+1)H2O.
These three reactions occur most efficiently when the catalytic converter receives exhaust from
an engine running slightly above the stoichiometric point. For gasoline combustion, this ratio is
between 14.6 and 14.8 parts air to one part fuel, by weight. The ratio for Autogas (or liquefied
petroleum gas LPG), natural gas and ethanol fuels is slightly different for each, requiring
modified fuel system settings when using those fuels. In general, engines fitted with 3-way
catalytic converters are equipped with a computerized closed-loo feedback fuel injection system
using one or more oxygen sensors, though early in the deployment of three-way
converters, carburetors equipped with feedback mixture control were used.
Three-way converters are effective when the engine is operated within a narrow band of air-fuel
ratios near the stoichiometric point, such that the exhaust gas composition oscillates between rich
(excess fuel) and lean (excess oxygen). Conversion efficiency falls very rapidly when the engine
is operated outside of this band. Under lean engine operation, the exhaust contains excess
oxygen, and the reduction of NOx is not favored. Under rich conditions, the excess fuel
consumes all of the available oxygen prior to the catalyst, leaving only oxygen stored in the
catalyst available for the oxidation function.
Closed-loop engine control systems are necessary for effective operation of three-way catalytic
converters because of the continuous balancing required for effective NOx reduction and HC
oxidation. The control system must prevent the NOx reduction catalyst from becoming fully
oxidized, yet replenish the oxygen storage material so that its function as an oxidation catalyst is
Three-way catalytic converters can store oxygen from the exhaust gas stream, usually when
the airfuel ratio goes lean. When sufficient oxygen is not available from the exhaust stream, the
stored oxygen is released and consumed . A lack of sufficient oxygen occurs either when oxygen
derived from NOx reduction is unavailable or when certain maneuvers such as hard acceleration
enrich the mixture beyond the ability of the converter to supply oxygen.


Unwanted reactions
Unwanted reactions can occur in the three-way catalyst, such as the formation of
odoriferous hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Formation of each can be limited by modifications
to the washcoat and precious metals used. It is difficult to eliminate these byproducts entirely.
Sulfur-free or low-sulfur fuels eliminate or reduce hydrogen sulfide.
For example, when control of hydrogen-sulfide emissions is desired, nickel or manganese is
added to the washcoat. Both substances act to block the absorption of sulfur by the washcoat.
Hydrogen sulfide is formed when the washcoat has absorbed sulfur during a low-temperature
part of the operating cycle, which is then released during the high-temperature part of the cycle
and the sulfur combines with HC.
Diesel engines
For compression-ignition (i.e., diesel engines), the most commonly used catalytic converter is
the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). DOCs contain palladium,platinum and aluminium oxide,
all of which serve as catalysts to oxidize the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with oxygen to
form carbon dioxide and water.
2CO + O2 2CO2
CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2] O2 x CO2 + (x+1) H2O
These converters often operate at 90 percent efficiency, virtually eliminating diesel odor and
helping reduce visible particulates (soot). These catalysts are not active for NOx reduction
because any reductant present would react first with the high concentration of O2 in diesel
exhaust gas.
Reduction in NOx emissions from compression-ignition engines has previously been addressed
by the addition of exhaust gas to incoming air charge, known as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
In 2010, most light-duty diesel manufacturers in the U.S. added catalytic systems to their
vehicles to meet new federal emissions requirements. There are two techniques that have been
developed for the catalytic reduction of NOx emissions under lean exhaust conditions: selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) and the lean NOx trap or NOx adsorber. Instead of precious metalcontaining NOx absorbers, most manufacturers selected base-metal SCR systems that use
a reagent such as ammonia to reduce the NOx into nitrogen. Ammonia is supplied to the catalyst
system by the injection of urea into the exhaust, which then undergoes thermal decomposition
and hydrolysis into ammonia. One trademark product of urea solution, also referred to as Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF), is AdBlue.

Diesel exhaust contains relatively high levels of particulate matter (soot), consisting largely of
elemental carbon. Catalytic converters cannot clean up elemental carbon, though they do remove
up to 90 percent of the soluble organic fraction, so particulates are cleaned up by a soot trap
or diesel particulate filter(DPF). Historically, a DPF consists of a cordierite or silicon
carbide substrate with a geometry that forces the exhaust flow through the substrate walls,
leaving behind trapped soot particles. Contemporary DPFs can be manufactured from a variety
of rare metals that provide superior performance (at a greater expense).As the amount of soot
trapped on the DPF increases, so does the back pressure in the exhaust system. Periodic
regenerations (high temperature excursions) are required to initiate combustion of the trapped
soot and thereby reducing the exhaust back pressure. The amount of soot loaded on the DPF
prior to regeneration may also be limited to prevent extreme exotherms from damaging the trap
during regeneration. In the U.S., all on-road light, medium and heavy-duty vehicles powered by
diesel and built after January 1, 2007, must meet diesel particulate emission limits, meaning that
they effectively have to be equipped with a 2-way catalytic converter and a diesel particulate
filter. Note that this applies only to the diesel engine used in the vehicle. As long as the engine
was manufactured before January 1, 2007, the vehicle is not required to have the DPF system.
This led to an inventory runup by engine manufacturers in late 2006 so they could continue
selling pre-DPF vehicles well into 2007. During the re-generation cycle, most systems require
the engine to consume more fuel in a relatively short amount of time in order to generate the high
temperatures necessary for the cycle to complete. This adversely affects the overall fuel economy
of vehicles equipped with DPF systems, especially in vehicles that are driven mostly in city
conditions where frequent acceleration requires a larger amount of fuel to be burned and
therefore more soot to collect in the exhaust system.
Lean-burn spark-ignition engines
For lean-burn spark-ignition engines, an oxidation catalyst is used in the same manner as in a
diesel engine. Emissions from lean burn spark ignition engines are very similar to emissions
from a diesel compression ignition engine.

Many vehicles have a close-coupled catalytic converter located near the engine's exhaust
manifold The converter heats up quickly, due to its exposure to the very hot exhaust gases,
enabling it to reduce undesirable emissions during the engine warm-up period. This is achieved
by burning off the excess hydrocarbons which result from the extra-rich mixture required for a
cold start.


When catalytic converters were first introduced, most vehicles used carburetors that provided a
relatively rich air-fuel ratio. Oxygen (O2) levels in the exhaust stream were therefore generally
insufficient for the catalytic reaction to occur efficiently. Most designs of the time therefore
included secondary air injection, which injected air into the exhaust stream. This increased the
available oxygen, allowing the catalyst to function as intended.
Some three-way catalytic converter systems have air injection systems with the air injected
between the first (NOx reduction) and second (HC and CO oxidation) stages of the converter. As
in two-way converters, this injected air provides oxygen for the oxidation reactions. An upstream
air injection point, ahead of the catalytic converter, is also sometimes present to provide
additional oxygen only during the engine warm up period. This causes unburned fuel to ignite in
the exhaust tract, thereby preventing it reaching the catalytic converter at all. This technique
reduces the engine runtime needed for the catalytic converter to reach its "light-off" oroperating
Most newer vehicles have electronic fuel injection systems, and do not require air injection
systems in their exhausts. Instead, they provide a precisely controlled air-fuel mixture that
quickly and continually cycles between lean and rich combustion. Oxygen sensors are used to
monitor the exhaust oxygen content before and after the catalytic converter, and this information
is used by the Electronic Control Unit to adjust the fuel injection so as to prevent the first
(NOx reduction) catalyst from becoming oxygen-loaded, while simultaneously ensuring the
second (HC and CO oxidation) catalyst is sufficiently oxygen-saturated.

Catalyst poisoning occurs when the catalytic converter is exposed to exhaust containing
substances that coat the working surfaces, so that they cannot contact and react with the exhaust.
The most notable contaminant is lead, so vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can run
only on unleaded fuel. Other common catalyst poisons include sulfur, manganese (originating
primarily from the gasoline additive MMT and silicon, which can enter the exhaust stream if the
engine has a leak that allows coolant into the combustion chamber. Phosphorus is another
catalyst contaminant. Although phosphorus is no longer used in gasoline, it (and zinc, another
low-level catalyst contaminant) was until recently widely used in engine oil antiwear
additives such as zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP). Beginning in 2004, a limit of phosphorus
concentration in engine oils was adopted in the API SM and ILSAC GF-4 specifications.
Depending on the contaminant, catalyst poisoning can sometimes be reversed by running the
engine under a very heavy load for an extended period of time. The increased exhaust
temperature can sometimes vaporise or sublimate the contaminant, removing it from the catalytic

surface. However, removal of lead deposits in this manner is usually not possible because of
lead's high boiling point.
Any condition that causes abnormally high levels of unburned hydrocarbonsraw or partially
burnt fuelto reach the converter will tend to significantly elevate its temperature, bringing the
risk of a meltdown of the substrate and resultant catalytic deactivation and severe exhaust
restriction. Vehicles equipped with OBD-II diagnostic systems are designed to alert the driver to
a misfire condition by means of flashing the "check engine" light on the dashboard.

Emissions regulations vary considerably from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Most automobile

spark-ignition engines in North America have been fitted with catalytic converters since
1975, and the technology used in non-automotive applications is generally based on automotive
Regulations for diesel engines are similarly varied, with some jurisdictions focusing on
NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) emissions and others focusing on particulate (soot)
emissions. This regulatory diversity is challenging for manufacturers of engines, as it may not be
economical to design an engine to meet two sets of regulations.
Regulations of fuel quality vary across jurisdictions. In North America, Europe, Japan and Hong
Kong, gasoline and diesel fuel are highly regulated, and compressed natural gas and LPG
(Autogas) are being reviewed for regulation. In most of Asia and Africa, the regulations are often
lax: in some places sulfur content of the fuel can reach 20,000 parts per million (2%). Any sulfur
in the fuel can be oxidized to SO2 (sulfur dioxide) or even SO3 (sulfur trioxide) in the combustion
chamber. If sulfur passes over a catalyst, it may be further oxidized in the catalyst, i.e., SO2 may
be further oxidized to SO3. Sulfur oxides are precursors to sulfuric acid, a major component
of acid rain. While it is possible to add substances such as vanadium to the catalyst washcoat to
combat sulfur-oxide formation, such addition will reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. The
most effective solution is to further refine fuel at the refinery to produce ultra-low sulfur diesel.
Regulations in Japan, Europe and North America tightly restrict the amount of sulfur permitted
in motor fuels. However, the direct financial expense of producing such clean fuel may make it
impractical for use in developing countries. As a result, cities in these countries with high levels
of vehicular traffic suffer from acid rain, which damages stone and woodwork of buildings,
poisons humans and other animals, and damages local ecosystems, at a very high financial cost.
Negative aspects


Catalytic converters restrict the free flow of exhaust, which negatively affects vehicle
performance and fuel economy, especially in older cars. Because early cars' carburetors were
incapable of precise fuel-air mixture control, the cars' catalytic converters could overheat and
ignite flammable materials under the car. A 2006 test on a 1999 Honda Civic showed that
removing the stock catalytic converter netted a 3% increase in horsepower; a new metallic core
converter only cost the car 1% horsepower, compared to no converter. To some performance
enthusiasts, this modest increase in power for very little cost encourages the removal or "gutting"
of the catalytic converter. In such cases, the converter may be replaced by a welded-in section of
ordinary pipe or a flanged "test pipe", ostensibly meant to check if the converter is clogged, by
comparing how the engine runs with and without the converter. This facilitates temporary
reinstallation of the converter in order to pass an emission test. [2 In many jurisdictions, it is
illegal to remove or disable a catalytic converter for any reason other than its direct and
immediate replacement. In the United States, for example, it is a violation of Section 203(a)(3)
(A) of the 1990 Clean Air Act for a vehicle repair shop to remove a converter from a vehicle, or
cause a converter to be removed from a vehicle, except in order to replace it with another
converter,] and Section 203(a)(3)(B) makes it illegal for any person to sell or to install any part
that would bypass, defeat or render inoperative any emission control system, device or design
element. Vehicles without functioning catalytic converters generally fail emission inspections.
The automotive aftermarket supplies high-flow converters for vehicles with upgraded engines, or
whose owners prefer an exhaust system with larger-than-stock capacity.

Exhaust-Filtering Tube Reduces Cars CO2 Emissions

The CO2 tube by research and development startup Ecoviate is a disposable device that is
attached to the end of the exhaust pipe of a car to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions.
According to its Kickstarter page, the device uses algae photosynthesis and basic chemical
processes to reduce the carbon dioxide from the source, which in this case is the exhaust of a
motor vehicle. The creators of CO2ube used a proprietary method to grow a type of algae that
can withstand the environment of an exhaust system. They also included a secondary reactant to
further reduce the carbon emissions. Because of its consumable nature and engineering, the filter
is expected to last for eight to ten weeks.


The creators of the device are currently seeking approval for users of the CO2ube to be allowed
to drive in the high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane even without meeting the minimum
occupancy requirement. They are also seeking approval for CO2ube users to receive additional
tax credit from the EPA
Thats not all. The CO2ube creators are also working on an accompanying app that will provide
users with analytics of their carbon dioxide emissions.
Ecoviates founders Param Jaggi and Johnny Cohen were both in Forbes 30 Under 30: Energy
for 2012 and 2013. The two have studied green technologies since they were twelve. The
CO2ube is Ecoviates first product.

Particulate Reduction Technologies:

Particulate filters or Wall-flow Particulate filters remove particulate matter from the exhaust by
filtration. They have a honeycomb structure like a catalyst substrate but with the channels
blocked at alternate ends, which forces the exhaust gas to flow through the walls between the

channels, filtering over 90% of the particulate matter out. The filters are self-cleaning, by one of
a number of alternative methods which periodically modify the exhaust gas concentration in
order to burn off the trapped particles oxidising them to form CO2 and water.
Particulate filters become clogged by Sulphur, which is present as an impurity in Diesel fuel. It is
therefore essential that sulphur-free (<10 ppm) Diesel fuel is made widely available to enable
this key technology to be fully successful.

NOx Reduction Technologies:

Exhaust Gas Recirculation technology is able to reduce diesel nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions
by taking a carefully controlled portion of the inert exhaust gases, cooling it and re-introducing it
to the combustion chamber when conditions are right to do so. This reduces the high
concentration of Oxygen and the high temperatures in the combustion chamber, both of which
are causes of NOx formation.
NOx traps, NOx Adsorbers, or traps typically incorporate basic oxides such as barium oxide
which reacts with NOx and stores it in the form of Nitrate when an engine is running lean. A
periodic switch to rich operation for one or two seconds (or for Diesels the injection of a small
amount of fuel into the exhaust) is enough to reverse the reaction and release the stored NOx so
that a conventional three-way catalyst mounted downstream can convert it back to Nitrogen and
Reduction of NOx is possible by using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology. A SCR
system uses an aqueous urea solution known as which, when injected in a specific way into a
SCR catalytic converter, is converted into Ammonia. In the subsequent catalytic reduction phase,
the Ammonia reacts with the NOX, producing nitrogen and water. This technology is becoming
widely used on larger vehicles, which can take the additional tank, but work is continuing to
develop systems suitable for smaller diesel vehicles.


Evaporative Emission Control:

Evaporation of gasoline from the fuel system is potentially a much greater source of airborne
hydrocarbons than tailpipe emissions, so modern gasoline vehicles are equipped with fuel
systems which are fully closed and designed to maintain a stable fuel tank pressure without
allowing vapour to escape to the atmosphere. A canister of activated charcoal absorbs excess fuel
vapour which builds up in the system, especially in hot conditions, and holds it until engine
operating conditions are suitable to accept a fuel-rich mixture. Then the vapours are purged into
the engine intake manifold where they mix with incoming air and are burned in the engine. The
canister is then cleared of fuel and ready for further use.

Catalytic Converters (Catalysts):

Three-Way Catalysts a 3-way catalytic converter (catalyst) is now standard on every
gasoline-engined vehicle. The catalyst uses a ceramic or metallic core (known as a substrate)
with a coating containing the precious metals, platinum, palladium and rhodium. These metals
are the actual Catalysts that give the converter its name. They promote the required chemical
reactions, but they themselves are not affected by it.
Catalysts need high temperatures to work properly and this initially meant that relatively high
emissions were allowed through during the warm-up period. Recent developments have reduced

the necessary operating temperature and also made catalysts more robust so that they can be
mounted closer to the engine and warm-up more quickly. These fast light off catalysts have
vastly reduced emissions by cutting warm-up times so that the catalyst can start working within
seconds. At the same time catalyst durability has increased, so low emissions are maintained for
longer, without replacement.
Three-way catalysts operate in a closed-loop system with sensors to monitor the exhaust gas
composition, linked to a computerised engine management system which continuously regulates
the air to fuel ratio to maintain the necessary conditions for the catalyst to oxidise CO and HC to
CO2 and water (H2O) while reducing NOx to nitrogen (N). For this process to work properly,
the mixture of exhaust gases has to be perfectly balanced because the pollutants actually react
with each other and with oxygen in the air, to achieve the required result. This perfect balance or
stoichiometric proportions require a relatively rich fuel to air mixture, Diesel engines which
use a much lower fuel to air ratio, and modern gasoline engines using lean burn technology to
improve fuel economy and reduce CO2, need another way to deal with the problem.

Alternative ways to control vehicular emissions:

Consider alternatives to travelling, such as video-conferencing and telecommuting.

Consider using public transportation, walking, or biking rather than private automobile.
Most forms of public transportation have lower pollutant emissions per passenger than
private vehicles.
If you must drive, consider carpooling.
Keep your vehicle well-maintained as that will minimize emissions.
Drive at steady speed and avoid rapid acceleration, which increases fuel consumption and
pollutant emissions.
Avoid idling for long periods.
If purchasing a new car choose a fuel-efficient model.


Alternative fuels that can be used to reduce automobile

An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum
fuels (petrol or Diesel fuel) and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not
involve solely petroleum (e.g. electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered). Because of a
combination of factors, such as environmental concerns, high oil prices and the potential for peak
oil, development of cleaner alternative fuels and advanced power systems for vehicles has
become a high priority for many governments and vehicle manufacturers around the world.
Hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius are not actually alternative fuel vehicles, but
through advanced technologies in the electric battery and motor/generator, they make a more
efficient use of petroleum fuel. Other research and development efforts in alternative forms of
power focus on developing all-electric and fuel cell vehicles, and even the stored energy of
compressed air.
An environmental analysis extends beyond just the operating efficiency and emissions. A lifecycle assessment of a vehicle involves production and post-use considerations. A cradle-to-cradle
design is more important than a focus on a single factor such as the type of fuel.



1.3Dimethyl ether fuel

1.4Ammonia fuelled vehicles

1.5.1Bioalcohol and ethanol


1.7Compressed natural gas (CNG)

1.8Formic acid


1.10Liquid nitrogen car

1.11Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

1.12Autogas (LPG)


1.14Wood gas

2Multiple fuel source


2.1Flexible fuel


2.2.1Hybrid electric vehicle

2.2.2Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle


2.2.3Pedal-assisted electric hybrid vehicle


The move to ultra low emission vehicles is inevitable. There are hugely significant benefits for
the UK from this transition in terms of energy security, air quality and carbon reduction. Most
significantly the transition also represents a once in a lifetime industrial opportunity for the UK
automotive sector if it successfully positions itself in the vanguard of this new technology
delivering jobs and growth for decades to come. The Government is wholly committed to this
agenda, and recognises that it will take time. This strategy sets out why this policy is so
important and the comprehensive and compelling set of commitments that the Government is
already making to make its vision a reality as fast as possible

Future Scope
At the beginning of the 20th century a dizzying array of different
technologies was available for the discerning purchaser of a motorcar. These
included steam power, petrol/gasoline power, electric drive, gas power and
even gas/electric hybrids. Some vehicles had two or even four engines. This
was a period when innovation was rampant as companies looked to find
better ways of giving people the greater mobility they craved. Over time a
dominant technology the internal combustion engine emerged as the preeminent way of powering vehicles. 1.2 That pre-eminence has remained in
place to the present day. The incredible energy density of petrol and diesel
liquid fuels, their relative abundance and low price, allied to a constant
stream of innovation from vehicle manufacturers has led to the vehicles we
know today: capable of travelling long distances conveniently, quickly and
safely. Faster, cleaner, quieter, more powerful but more frugal than its early
ancestors, the internal combustion engine of today is a world away from its
first incarnation. But todays engines are nevertheless still largely based on
the same principles of the four stroke engine invented by Nikolaus Otto back
in 1876. 1.3 Internal combustion engines will continue to dominate in the
global market for vehicles for years to come. But it is already clear that we
have begun another era of significant change, much like the early 20th
century. Rapid innovation is delivering a variety of different ways of powering
our vehicles. Manufacturers are investing billions of pounds into the
research, development and production of alternative powertrains, which are
now being introduced to the market. By 2020 it is extremely unlikely that
vehicles powered solely by internal combustion engine will remain the only
realistic choice for consumers in all vehicle segments. 16 Driving the Future
Today What is an ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV)? An ULEV emits
extremely low levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) compared to conventional
vehicles fuelled by petrol/diesel. They typically also have much lower or
virtually nil emissions of air pollutants and lower noise levels. Since 2009, the
Office for Low Emission Vehicles has considered ULEVs as new cars or vans

that emit less than 75 grams of CO2 from the tailpipe per kilometre driven,
based on the current European type approval test. Other definitions exist
that suggest 50g CO2 /km is a more appropriate threshold.

REFRENCES NCBI Literature Bookshelf