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and

analytic
harmonic

functions

Overview
Does the notion of a derivative of a complex function make sense? If so, how
should it be defined and what does it represent? These and similar questions
are the focus of this chapter. As you might guess, complex derivatives have a
meaningful definition, and many of the standard derivative theorems from calculus (such as the product rule and chain rule) carryover. There are also some
interesting applications.
But not everything is symmetric. You will learn in
this chapter that the mean value theorem for derivatives does not extend to
complex functions. In later chapters you will see that differentiable complex
functions are, in some sense. much more "differentiable" than differentiable
real functions.

3.1

DIFFERENTIABLE
FUNCTIONS

AND ANALYTIC

Using our imagination, we take our lead from elementary calculus and define the
derivative of f at zo, written J' (zo), by

f / (zo)

lim

f (z) - f (zo) ,
Z -

Z--->ZQ

Zo

provided the limit exists. If it does, we say that the function f is differentiable
at zoo If we write 6.z = z - zo, then we can express Equation (3-1) in the form

I (

Zo -

l'
1m

f (zo + 6.z) - f (zo)

Ll.z--->o

uZ

If we let w = 1(z) and 6.w =


notation ~~ for the derivative:

dw

1 (zo) = -dz =

I' (zo) =

6.w
lim ~.

Z3 -

then we can use the Leibniz

L>Z--->O DoZ

lim -z--->zo

1(z) - 1(zo),

z5

z - Zo

(z-zo)

= hm --------z--->zo

(z2+zoz+z5)
z - Zo

= lim (z2 + ZOZ + z5)


Z-+ZO

= 3z5

Pay careful attention to the


of the limit must be independent
two curves that end at Zo along
does not have a limit as. 6.z ---+
same observation applies to the
EXAMPLE
differentiable.

3.2

complex value 6.z in Equation (3-3); the value


of the manner in which 6.z ---+ O. If we can find
which
approaches distinct values, then
0 and 1 does not have a derivative at zo0 The
limits in Equations (3-2) and (3-1) .

1~

Show that the function w =

1~

1(z)

= z =

x - iy is nowhere

Solution
We choose two approaches to the point Zo = xo + iyo and compute
limits of the difference quotients. First, we approach Zo = xo + iyo along a line
parallel to the x-axis by forcing z to be of the form z = x + iyo.
lim
Z--->Zo

_1_(z_)_-_I_(_zo_)
Z - Zo

lim
(x+iyo)--->(xo+iyo)

.
11m
(x+iyo)--->(xo+iyo)

lim
(x+iYo)--->(xo+iYoJ

1 (x + iyo) - 1(xo + iyo)


(x + iyo) - (xo + iyo)

----------

(x - iyo) - (xo - iyo)


(x - xo) + i (Yo - Yo)

---------

x - Xo

f(z)-f(zo)
11m "------'

Z - Zo

Z~ZO

l'

1m

(xo+iy)~(xo+iyo)

.
11m
(xo+iy)~(xo+iyo)

lim
(xo+iy)~(xo+iyo)

f(xo+iy)-f(xo+iyo)
(xo + iy) - (xo + iyo)
(xo - iy) - (xo - iyo)
--------(xo - xo) + i (y - Yo)

----------

-i (y - Yo)
i (y - Yo)

= -1.
The limits along the two paths are different, so there is no possible value for
the right side of Equation (3-1). Therefore, f (z) = z is not differentiable at the
point Zo, and since Zo was arbitrary, f (z) is nowhere differentiable.

Remark
3.1
In Section 2.3 we showed that f (z) = z is continuous for all z.
Thus, we have a simple example of a function that is continuous everywhere but
differentiable nowhere. Such functions are hard to construct in real variables. In
some sense, the complex case has made pathological constructions simpler!
_
We seldom are interested in studying functions that aren't differentiable, or
are differentiable at only a single point. Complex functions that have a derivative
at all points in a neighborhood of Zo deserve further study. In Chapter 7 we
demonstrate that if the complex function f can be represented by a Taylor series
at zo, then it must be differentiable in some neighborhood of zoo Functions that
are differentiable in neighborhoods of points are pillars of the complex analysis
edifice; we give them a special name, as indicated in the following definition.

I Definition

3.1: Analytic

We say that the complex function f is analytic at the point zo, provided there
is some E > a such that l' (z) exists for all z E Dc: (zo). In other words, f must
be differentiable not only at zo, but also at all points in some E neighborhood of

zoo
If f is analytic at each point in the region R, then we say that f is analytic
on R. Again, we have a special term if f is analytic on the whole complex plane.

Definition

If

3.2: Entire

is analytic on the whole complex plane, then

is said to be entire.

Points of nonanalyticity for a function are called singular points. They


are important for certain applications in physics and engineering.
Our definition of the derivative for complex functions is formally the same
as for real functions and is the natural extension from real variables to complex
variables. The basic differentiation formulas are identical to those for real functions, and we obtain the same rules for differentiating powers, sums, products,
quotients, and compositions of functions. We can easily establish the proof of
the differentiation formulas by using the limit theorems.
Suppose that 1 and g are differentiable. From Equation (3-1) and the technique exhibited in the solution to Example 3.1, we can establish the following
rules, which are virtually identical to those for real-valued functions.
d
dz C

~zn
dz
:z
dd [j (z)
z

[C

0, where C

nzn-l,

1(z)] = C l'

+ g (z) 1= l'

dd [j (z)
z
d
dz

(z)] =

1(z)
g

(z)

a constant

and

(3-4)

where n is a positive integer.

(z) ,
I

(z) ,

(3- 7)

+ g (z) l'

gl

(z)

l'

(z) - 1(z)
[g (z)f

(z)

(3-5)
(:3-6)

+g

(z)

1(z)

.
IS

gI

(z),
(z)

(3-8)
provided that g (z) =F 0,

and
(3-9)

1(g

:z

dz zn
d

dz [j (z)t

(z))

l'

(g

(z))

gI

(3-10)

(z) .

zn+l'

= n [1(z)t-1

EXAMPLE

l'

(z),

n a positive integer.

3.3 If we use Equation


then we get

(;~-12) with

1(z)

l' (z) = 2z + 2i,


dd (Z2
z

+ i2z + 3)4 =

8 (z2

+ i2z + 3)3 (z + i).

The proofs of the rules given in Equations (3-4) through (3-10) depend on the
validity of extending theorems for real functions to their complex companions.
Equation (3-8), for example, relies on Theorem 3.1.

~ Theorem 3.1 11 1is differentiable


Proof
lim

1is

continuous

at zo,

From Equation (3-1), we obtain

1(z)

- 1(zo)
Z - Zo

z~zo

at zo, then

lim [j (z) -

1(zo)]

I' (zo)

lim _1_(z_)_-_I_(_zo_)(z - zo)


z - Zo

z~zo

Z~ZO

,
11m

1(z)

z~zo

Z -

1(zo)

l'
(
)
1m z - zo

Zo

z---+zo

=j'(zo)'O=O,
This result implies that
that

1 is continuous

lim

z---+zo

1(z)

1(zo),

which is equivalent to showing

at zo,

We can establish Equation (3-8) from Theorem 3,1. Letting h (z)


and using Definition 3,1, we write
h' (zo)

= lim h (z) - h (zo) = lim 1(z)


o

Z-4Z

h' (zo)

Z - Zo

Z-4Z

(z) - 1(zo)
Z - Zo

= 1(z)

(z)

(zo) ,

= lim 1(z) g (z) - 1(zo) g (z) + 1(zo) g (z) - 1(zo) g (zo)


o

Z -

Z-4Z

Zo

= lim 1(z) g (z) - 1(zo) g (z) + lim 1(zo) g (z) - 1(zo) g (zo)
Z - Zo

Z-4Z

,
11m
z---+zo

Z - Zo

Z-4Z

1(z) - 1(zo) I'1m g ( z ) + 1(Zo ) l'1m g (z) Z -

Zo

2---+Z0

Z---+Zo

Z -

(zo) '

Zo

Using the definition of the derivative given by Equation (3-1) and the continuity
of g, we obtain h' (zo) = l' (zo) g (zo) + 1(zo) g' (zo), which is what we wanted
to establish. \Ne leave the proofs of the other rules as exercises.
The rule for differentiating polynomials carries over to the complex case as
well. If we let P (z) be a polynomial of degree n, so

We can use the differentiation rules as aids in determining when functions


are analytic. For example, Equation (3-9) tells us that if P (z) and Q (z) are
polynomials, then their quotient

~i~l
is analytic

This condition implies that the function


.

f (z)

at all points where Q (z)

= ~ is analytic for all

=I O.

z =I O. The

Arg(z)

square root functIOn IS more complIcated. If f (z) = z"2 = Z e


-,
then f IS
analytic at all points except z = 0 (because Arg (0) is undefined) and at points
that lie along the negative x-axis. The argument function, and therefore the
function f itself, are not continuous at points that lie 'along the negative x-axis.
We close this section with an important theorem that are complex extensions
of results from calculus.
1

t Theorem 3.2 (l'Hopital's rule) Assume


If f (zo)
lim
Z--->ZQ

that

2
1

2
-2

and 9 are analytic

f (z)
g(z)

f' (z) .

= lim

g' (z)

Z--->ZQ

Proof
We defer the proof until Chapter
amazing things about analytic functions.

(a) f (z) = 5z3

4z2

+ 7z

7, where you will learn some

- 8.

(b) g(z)=(z2-iz+9)5.

2::21

(c) h(z)

(d) F (z)

= (Z2 +

(a) f (z)

(b)

for z

i- -2.

(1 - 3i) z + 1)

(Z4 + 3z2 + 5i) .

Re (z) .

(z) = 1m (z) .

(a) [j (z)]3 .
(b) f(z)g(z).

(c)

at zoo

= 0, 9 (zo) = 0, and g' (zo) =I 0, then

f(z).
g(z)

(d)f(~).
(e)f(z-l).

(f) f (g (z)).
4. Use Equation

(3-1) to verify rule (:3-'').

5. Let P (z) = ao

+ alZ + ... + anzn

be a polynomial

of degree n

2:

1.

(a) Show that pi (z) = a1

+ 2a2Z + ... + nanZn-1.

p(k) (0)
(k)
( b ) S how that, f01. k -- 0, 1, ... , n, ak -~ -k-!
-,
where P
denotes the
kth derivative of P. (By convention, p(O) (z) = P (z) for all z.)

PI(z)

--=--+-P(z)
Z-Zl
Z-Z2'
Note: The quotient

7. Use L'Hopital's
(a) lim

as the logarithmic

derivative

of P.

rule to find the following limits.

z4_1.

z-i

Z-'L

()
I1m.
C
Z-+-'l.

lim

z-+l+i

(e)

~'(Sz./ is known

z6+1

2+1'

~.

z -2z+2

z6 -64

-::J+8'

1m
z~l+iv'3

8. Use Equation
9. Show that

(:3-1) to show that

1.-z-n

= _nz-n-1,

1.- ~ = ~.

where n is a positive integer.

10. Verify the identity.

~ f

(z) g (z) h (z) =

11. Show that the function

(z) 9 (z) h (z)

f (z)

Izl2

+f

(z) 9 I (z) h (z)

+f

(z) 9 (z) hi (z) .

is differentiable only at the point Zo = O. Hint:


To show that f is not differentiable at Zo i=- 0, choose horizontal and vertical lines
through the point Zo and show that ~~ approaches two distinct values as ~z -+ 0
along those two lines.

12. Verify
(a) Identity

(:3--1).

(b) Identity

(3-7).

(c) Identity

(:3-9).

(d) Identity

0-10).

(e) Identity (:3-12).


13. Consider the differentiable function f (z) = z3 and the two points Zl = 1 and
Z2 = i. Show that there does not exist a point c on the line y = 1 - x between
1 and i such that f(Z2)-f(zil
= f' (c). This result shows that the mean value
Z2-Z1

theorem for derivatives does not extend to complex functions.


14. Let

f (z) = zn denote the multivalued "nth root function," where n is a positive

integer. Use the chain rule to show that if 9 (z) is any branch of the nth root
function, then
g' (z)

.!.g(z)
n z
in some suitably chosen domain (which you should specify).
15. Explain why the composition of two entire functions is an entire function.
16. Let

(z)

f be differentiable at zoo Show that there exists a function

=f

(zo)

+ f ' (zo)

+ T) (z)

(z - zo)

T)

(z) such that

(z - zo) ,

In Section 3.1 we showed that computing the derivative of complex functions


written in a form such as f (z) = z2 is a rather simple task. But life isn't always
so easy. Many times we encounter complex functions written in the form of
f (z) = f (x + iy) = u (x, y) + iv (x, y). For example, suppose we had

f (z) = f (x + iy) = u (x, y) + iv (x, y) = (x3 - 3xy2) + i (3x2y - y3) . (3-13)


Is there some criterion that we can use to determine whether f is differentiable
and, if so, to find the value of f (z)?
I

The answer to this question is yes, thanks to the independent discovery of


two important equations by the French mathematician
Augustin-Louis Cauchy1
and the German mathematician
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann.
First, let's reconsider the derivative of f (z) = Z2. As we have stated, the
limit given in Equation (3-1) must not depend on how z approaches zoo We
investigate two such approaches: a horizontal approach and a vertical approach
to zoo Recall from our graphical analysis of W = z2 that the image of a square
is a "curvilinear quadrilateral."
For convenience, we let the square have vertices
Zo = 2 + i, Z1 = 2.01 + i, Z2 = 2 + l.Oli,
and Z3 = 2.01 + l.Oli. Then the
image points are Wo = 3 + 4i, WI = 3.0401 + 4.02i, W2 = 2.9799 + 4.04i, and
W3 = 3.02 + 4.0602i. as shown in Figure 3.1.

1A.L. Cauchy (1789-1857) played a prominent role in the development of complex analysis,
and you will see his name several times throughout this text. The last name is not pronounced
as "kaushee." The beginning syllable has a long "0" sound, like the word kosher, but with the
second syllable having a long "e" instead of "er" at the end. Thus, we pronounce Cauchy as

"k6she."

1.0 1

4.06
Zo

t.

: - - - - - - _. --

4.02

r
/,

,
O

We know that

3.02

W',"
3.04

is differentiable,

so the limit of the difference quotient


= 2+i. Thus we can approximate
'(2 + i) by using horizontal or vertical increments in z:

!(z1= ~~zo) exists no matter how we approach Zo

f (2 + i) ~ f (2.01 + i) - f (2 + i)
I

(2.01 + i) - (2 + i)

l' (2 + i) ~ f (2 + 1.01i) - f (2 + i)
(2 + 1.01i) - (2 + i)

0.0401 + 0.02i
0.01

4.01 + 2i

-0.0201 + 0.04i = 4 2.01i.


O.01i
+

These computations lead to the idea of taking limits along the horizontal
and vertical directions. When we do so, we get
l' f (2 +
1m
f '(2 + Z.) = h->O

(2 + i) = lim
h->O

h + i) h

f (2 + i +

ih~ Z

f (2 + i)

h->O

f (2 + i)

4h + h + i2h
= 4 + 2i
h

= im ------

= lim - 2h - h
h->O

+ i4h

=4

+ 2i.

ih

We now generalize this idea by taking limits of ah arbitrary


complex function and obtain an important result.

differentiable

is differentiable
at the point Zo = Xo + iyo. Then the partial
and v exist at the point Xo + iyo = (xo, Yo), and
f' (zo)

= Ux

(xo, Yo) + ivx (xo, Yo),

f' (zo)

= vy

(xo, Yo) - iuy (xo, Yo) .

Proof

Because

derivatives

of u

(3-14)

and also.

(3-15)

is differentiable, we know that

lim
Z-*Zo

(f(Z)= f(zo)
z

exists

Zo

regardless of the path we take as z ----+ zoo We will choose horizontal and
vertical lines that pass through the point Zo = (xo, Yo) and compute the
limiting values of f(;=~~)o) along these lines. Equating the two resulting
limits will yield Equations (3-16). For the horizontal approach to zo, we set
z = x + iyo and obtain

f' ()Zo=

f (x + iyo) - f (xo + iyo)


(x,yo)->(XO,YO)
X + iyo - (xo + iyo)
lim u (x, Yo) - u (xo, Yo) + i [v (x, Yo) - v (xo, Yo)]
l'

1m

x - Xo

x->xo

lim _u_(x_,_y_o_)
_-_u_(_x_o_,
y_o_)+ i lim _v_(x_,_y_o_)
_-_v_(x_o_'_YO_)
.

X - Xo

x->xo

X - Xo

x->xo

The last two limits are the partial derivatives of u and v with respect to x,

so

giving us Equation (3-14).


Along the vertical approach to Zo, we have z

f'()

Zo

Xo + iy, so

f(xo+iy)-f(xo+iyo)
Xo + iy - (xo + iyo)
lim u(xO,y)-u(xo,yo)+i[v(xo,Y)-v(xO'yo)]
y->Yo
i (y - Yo)
l'

1m

(XO,Y)->(XO,YO)

lim _v_(x_o_,_y_)
_-_v_(_x_o_,
y_o_)_ i lim _u_(x_o_,_y_)
_-_u_(x_o_,y_o_).
y->Yo

y -

Yo

y->Yo

Y - Yo

The last two limits are the partial derivatives of u and v with respect to y,
so

giving us Equation (3-15).


Since f is differentiable at zo, the limits given by Equations (3-14) and
(3-15) must be equal. If we equate the real and .imaginary parts in those
equations, the result is Equations (3-16), and the proof is complete.
Note some of the important

implications of this theorem.

If f is differentiable at zo, then the Cauchy-Riemann Equations (3-16) will


be satisfied at zo, and we can use either Equation (3-14) or (3-15) to evaluate

l' (zo).
Taking the contrapositive, if Equations (3-16) are not satisfied at zo, then
we know automatically that f is not differentiable at zo.
Even if Equations (3-16) are satisfied at zo, we cannot necessarily
that f is differentiable at zoo

EXAMPLE 3.4
2z. We also have

We know that

f (z)

conclude

z2 is differentiable and that f (z)


I

f (z) = z2 = (x + iy)2 = (x2 - y2) + i (2xy) = u (x, y) + iv (x, y).


It is easy to verify that Equations (3-16) are indeed satisfied:
Ux

(x, y) = 2x = vy (x, y)

and

uy (x, y) = -2y =

-Vx

(x, y) .

Using Equations (3-14) and (3-15), respectively, to compute

l' (z)

gives

l' (z) = Ux (x, y) + ivx (x, y) = 2x + i2y = 2z, and


l' (z) = vy (x, y) - iuy (x, y) = 2x - i( -2y) = 2x + i2y = 2z,

EXAMPLE

3.5

Show that

f (z) = z

is nowhere differentiable.

We have f (z) = f (x + iy) = x - iy = u (x, y) + iv (x, y), where


u (x, y) = x and v (x, y) = -yo Thus, for any point (x, y), Ux (x, y) = 1 and
vy (x, y) = -1. The Cauchy-Riemann equations are not satisfied at any point
z = (x, y), so we conclude that f is nowhere differentiable.

Solution

(Z)2

f()

-- z

=
{

X3 -3x

x 2+ y

+2

. "+2

y3 -3x2y
x- y

whenz=l-O
when z = 0

and

is not differentiable at the point Zo = 0 even though the Cauchy-Riemann


tions are satisfied at (0,0).

(0,0)

= lim u (x, 0) - u (0, 0) = lim


x~o

x - 0

Hence the Cauchy-Riemann

x3-o

+o = l.

x2

x~o

equations hold at the point (0,0).

We now show that f is not differentiable


along the x-axis gives

lim
(x,o)~(O,o)

f (x + Oi) - f
x + Oi - 0

(0)

= lim
x~o

x; X -

0
0

But if we let z approach 0 along the line y


x = t and y = t, then

(t,t)~(O,O)

at Zo = O. Letting z approach 0

= lim x - 0 = l.
x~o

=x

_2t + . (-2t
f(t+it)
f(O)
2t2 22t2
= lim ----t + it - 0
t~O
t + it
3

lim

equa-

X -

given by the parametric

equations

3
)

-t-it
=
t + it

= lim -t~O

-l.

Example 3.6 reiterates that the mere satisfaction of the Cauchy-Riemann


equations is not sufficient to guarantee the differentiability of a function. The
following theorem, however, gives conditions that guarantee the differentiability
of fat Zo, so that we can use Equation (;1-U) or (3-15) to compute l' (zo). They
are referred to as the Cauchy-Riemann conditions for differentiability.

t Theorem 3.4 (Cauchy-Riemann conditions for differentiability) Let


f (z) = u (x, y) + iv (x, y) be a continuous function that is defined in some
neighborhood of the point Zo = Xo + iyo. If all the partial derivatives ux, uYJ
VXJ
and vy are continuous at the point (xo, Yo) and if the Cauchy-Riemann
equations Ux (xo, Yo) = vy (xo, Yo) and uy (xo, Yo) = -Vx (xo, Yo) hold at
(xo, Yo), then f is differentiable at Zo and the derivative l' (zo) can be
computed with either Equation (3-1<{.) or (3-15).
J

Proof
Let 6.z = ~x + i6.y
enough so that z lies in the c
hold. We need to show that
(3-15) as 6.z approaches zero.

6.u

[u (xo

+ [u (xo,

+ 6.x,

and 6.w = 6.u + i6.v, and let 6.z be small


neighborhood of Zo in which the hypotheses
~'.: approaches the limit given in Equation
We write the difference, 6.u, as

Yo + 6.y) - u (xo, Yo + 6.y)]

Yo + 6.y) - u (xo, Yo)]

The partial derivatives Ux and uy exist, so the mean value theorem for
real functions of two variables implies that a value x* exists between Xo and
Xo + 6.x such that we can write the first term in brackets on the right side
of Equation (3-17) as

Furthermore,
such that

as

Ux

and uy are continuous at (xo, Yo), there exists a quantity

C1

where C1 -+ a as x* -+ Xo and 6.y


can use the equation

where

101 -+

a as

6.x

-+

and 6.y

-+

O. Because 6.x

-+

O. Similarly, there exists a quantity

-+

forces x*

-+

such that the second term in brackets on the right side of Equation
satisfies the equation

where 102 -+
(3-19) gives

as 6.x

-+

and 6.y

-+

O. Combining Equations

xo, we

102

(3-17)

(3-18) and

where partial derivatives Ux and uy are evaluated at the point (xo, Yo) and Cl
and C2 tend to zero as ~x and ~y both tend to zero. Similarly, the change
~v is related to the changes ~x and ~y by the equation

where th~ partial derivatives Vx and vy are evaluated at the point (xo, Yo)
and C3 and C4 tend to zero as ~x and ~y both tend to zero. Combining
these last two equations gives
~w

= ux~x + Uy~y + i (vx~x + Vy~Y) + cl~X + c2~y + i (c3~X + c4~Y)


(3-20)

Since ~z = ~x + i~y, we can divide both sides of this equation by ~z and


take the limit as ~z ~ 0:
.

~w

hm ~=ux+wx+
.6.z--+o
D.Z

[Cl~X

c2~y

hm
~+~+~~+~~
.6.z--+o
D.Z
D.Z

.C3~X
D.Z

'C4~Y]
D.Z

Similarly, the limits of the other quantities in Equation (3-21) involving


C3, C4 are zero. Therefore, the limit in Equation (3-21) becomes
lim ~w

.6.z--+o D.Z

l' (zo)

= Ux

(xo, Yo)

+ ivx

C2,

(xo, Yo) ,

EXAMPLE 3.7 At the beginning of this section (Equation (3-13)) we defined


the function f (z) = u (x, y) + iv (x, y) = x3 - 3xy2 + i (3x2y - y3) . Show that
this function is differentiable for all z, and find its derivative.

We compute Ux (x, y) = vy (x, y) = 3x2 - 3y2 and uy (x, y) = -6xy =


(x, y), so the Cauchy-Riemann Equations (3-16) are satisfied. Moreover,

Solution
-Vx

_ 1:, Ux, Uy, vx, and vy are continuous everywhere.


differentiable everywhere, and, from Equation (3-14),

l' (z)

vy (x, y) - iuy (x, y)


= 3x2 - 3y2 - i (-6xy)

By Theorem

3 (x2 - y2

This result isn't surprising because (x + iy)3 = x3 - 3xy2


so the function f is really our old friend f (z) = z3 .

EXAMPLE 3.8 Show that the function


ferentiable for all z and find its derivative.
Solution
We first write u(x,y)
compute the partial derivatives.
Ux

(x, y)

Vx

(x, y) = -uy

vY (x, y)

-e-Y

sinx

= e-Ycosx

3.4,

+ i2xy)

+ i (3x2y

=
-

f is

3z2.

y3), and

f (z) = e-y cosx + icY sinx is dif-

and v(x,y)

= e-Ysinx and then

and

(x, y) = e~Y cos x.

We note that u, v, Ux, Uv, Vx, and vY are continuous functions and that the
Cauchy-Riemann equations hold for all values of (x, y). Hence, using Equation
(3-14), we write

l' (z) = 1'(x + iy) = Ux (x, y) + ivx (x, y) = -e-Y

sin x

The Cauchy-Riemann conditions are particularly


set of points for which a function f is differentiable .

+ ie-Y

cosx.

useful in determining the

EXAMPLE 3.9 Show that the function f (z) = x3 + 3xy2


differentiable on the x- and y-axes but analytic nowhere.

+ i (y3 + 3x2y)

is

Solution
Recall (Definition 3.1) that when we say a function is analytic at
a point Zo we mean that the function is differentiable not only at zo, but also
at every point in some E neighborhood of zoo With this in mind, we proceed
to determine where the Cauchy~Riemann equations are satisfied. We write
U (x, y) = x3 + 3xy2 and v (x, y) = y3 +3x2y
and compute the partial derivatives:
Ux

(x, y) = 3x2

uY (x, y)

6xy,

+ 3y2,
Vx

vY (x, y) = 3x2

(x, y)

6xy.

+ 3y2,

and

Here ux, uy, vx, and vy are continuous, and Ux (x, y) = vy (x, y) holds for all
(x, y). But uy (x, y) = -Vx (x, y) iff 6xy = -6xy, which is equivalent to 12xy = O.
The Cauchy-Riemann equations hold only when x = 0 or y = 0, and according
to Theorem 3.4, f is differentiable only at points that lie on the coordinate axes.
But this means that f is nowhere analytic because any E neighborhood about a
point on either axis contains points that are not on those axes.

When polar coordinates (r, e) are used to locate points in the plane, we use
Expression (2-2) for a complex function for convenience; that is,
= u (x, y) + iv (x, y),
iB
f (re ) = u (reiB) + iv (TeiB) = U(T cos e, T sin e) + iV(T cos e, T sin e)

f (z)

= U(T, e)

+ iV

(T, e) ,

where U and V are real functions of the real variables T and e. The polar form
of the Cauchy-Riemann equations and a formula for finding l' (z) in terms of
the partial derivatives of U (T, e) and V (T, e) are given in Theorem 3.5, which
we ask you to prove in Exercise 10. This theorem makes use of the validity of
the Cauchy-Riemann equations for u and v, so the relation between them and
the functions U and V-namely,
u(x,y)
= U(T,e) and v(x,y)
= V (T,e)-is
important .

Theorem' 3.5 (Polar form) Let f (z) = f (TeiB) = U (T, e)

+ iV (T, e) be a
continuous function that is defined in some neighboThood of the point Zo =
ToeiBo. If all the paTtial deTivatives Ur, UB, Vr, and VB aTe continuous at the
point (ro, eo) and if the polaT form of the Cauchy-Riemann
equations,
1

-1

TO

rO

= - VB (ro, eo) and Vr (ro, eo) = -UB

Ur (ro, eo)

(ro, eo) ,

holds, then f is diffeTentiable at Zo and we can compute the derivative f' (zo)
by using eitheT
f' (zo)

f' (TeiBo)

e-iBo [Ur (TO,eo)

f' (zo)

f' (TeiBo)

~e-ieo

+ iVr

(ro, eo)]

OT

[VB(ro, eo) - iUB (TO,eo)] .

(3-23)
(3-2<1)

TO

EXAMPLE
by

B)

f ( Te'

3.10

Show that if

lIe

=f(z)=z2=T2cos"2+iT2sin"2'

is the principal square root function given

where the domain is restricted


derivative is given by

U(r,e)=r2cos"2

to be {re'ie : l'

> 0 and -

1f

< e < 1f}, then the

Ur(r,e) = -Ve(r,e)

l,e

= -r-2cos2

l'

-1

l,e

and

Vr (1',e) = -Ue (1',e) = -1'-2 sin-.


2

l'

Since U, V, Un Ue, Vr, and Ve are continuous at every point in the domain (note
the strict inequality in -1f < < 1f), we use Theorem 3.5 and Equation (3-23)
to get

Note that f (z) is discontinuous on the negative real axis and is undefined at the
origin. Using the terminology of Section 2.4, the negative real axis is a branch
cut, and the origin is a branch point for this function.

Two important
section.

consequences of the Cauchy-Riemann

t Theorem 3.6 Let f


Suppose for all zED
constant on D.

equations close this

u + iv be an analytic function on the domain D.


that If (z)1 = K, where K is a constant. Then f is

0, then it must be that u (x, y)2 = 0 and v (x, y)2 = 0 for all
f is identically zero on D. If K =I- 0, then we take the partial
derivative of both sides of Equation (3-25) with respect to both x and y,
resulting in
If K

(x, y) ED, so

where for brevity we write u in place of u (x, y), and so on. We can now use
the Cauchy-Riemann equations to rewrite this system as

Treating u and v as coefficients, we have two equations with two unknowns,


and uy. Solving for Ux and uy gives

Ux

Ux

= u2 +v 2 =

and

uy

= u2 +v 2 = o.

Note that it is important here for K =I- 0 in Equation (3-25).


A theorem from the calculus of real functions states that if for all (x, y) E
D we have both Ux (x, y) '= 0 and uy (x, y) = 0, then for all (x, y) E D,
u (x, y) = Cl, where Cl is a constant. Using a similar argument, we find that
v (x, y) = cz, for all (x, y) E D, and therefore f (z) = f (x, y) = Cl + icz, for
all (x, y) ED. In other words, f is constant on D .

Theorem 3.7 Let f be an analytic function


for all z in D, then f is constant in D.

in the domain D. If

l'

(z)

Proof
By the Cauchy-Riemann
equations, f' (z) = Ux (z) + ivx (z) =
vy (z) - iuy (z) for all zED.
By hypothesis f' (z) = 0 for all z in D, so for
all zED
the functions ux, uy, vx, and vy are identically zero. As with the
conclusion to the proof of Theorem 3.6, this situation means both u and v
are constant functions, from whence the result follows.

1. Use the Cauchy~Riemann conditions to determine where the following functions


are differentiable, and evaluate the derivatives at those points where they exist.
(a) f(z)

=iz+4i.

:,++iXy 2.

(b) f(z)=f(x,y)=

(c) f(z)=-2(xy+x)+i(x2-2y-y2).
(d) f (z) = x3 - 3x2

3xy2

+ 3y2 + i (3x2y

- 6xy _ y3) .

(e) I(z)=x3+i(1-y)3.

(f) I(z)~z2+z.
(g) I (z) = x2
(h)

I (z)

= Iz -

+ y2 + i2xy.
(2

+ i)12.

2. Let I be a differentiable

function.

Il' (z)12 = u; +v; = u~ +v~.


I (z) = (2x - y) + i (ax + by) is differentiable

Verify the identity

a and b such that

3. Find the constants


for all z.

4. Let I be differentiable at Zo = roeieo. Let z approach Zo along the ray r


8 = 80 and use Equation (3-1) to show that Equation (3-14) holds.
5. Let I (z) = eX cas y
for all z.

+ iex

>

0,

sin y. Show that both I (z) and I' (z) are differentiable

6. A vector field F (z) = U (x, y) + iV (x, y) is said to be irrotational if Uy (x, y) =


Vx (x, y). It is said to be solenoidal if Ux (x, y) = - Vy (x, y). If I (z) is an analytic
function, show that F (z) = I (z) is both irrotational and solenoidal.
7. Use any method to show that the following functions are nowhere differentiable.

(a) Let I (z) = I (reie) = In r + i8, where r


that I is analytic in the domain indicated
(b) Let
that

(a)

I (z)
I is

I (z) =

= (lnr)2 - 82 + i2elnr,
analytic for r > 0, -'if

where r

>

0 and -'if < 8 < 'if. Show


and that I' (z) = ~.

>

< 8 < 'if, and

0 and
find

-'if

<

e:s:

'if.

cosh x sin y - i sinh x cas y.

(b) 9 (z) = cosh x cas y

+ i sinh x sin y.

I (z)
I (x,y)
I (reie)
U(r,e) +iV(r,8).
Use the transformation

(a) Let

(reie)
x = rcos8
U

iv (reiB)
and y = rsin8

(i.e., (x, y) = reie) and the chain rules

Ur =

Ur

ax
Ux

Show

I' (z).

ar

+ Uy

= Ux cas 8

Vr = Vx cas e

ay

ar

+ uy sin e
+ vy sin 8

Ue

ax
Ux

ay

a8 + Uy a8

(similarly for V)

-uxr sin 8 + uyr cas 8

and

Ue

and

Ve = -vxr sin 8 + vyr cas 8.

and

(b) Use the original Cauchy-Riemann equations for u and v and the results
of part (a) to prove that rUr = Ve and rVr = -Ue, thus verifying
Equation (3~22)
(c) Use part (a) and Equations (3-14) and (3~15) to show that the right
sides of Equations (3~23) and (3~24) simplify to f (zo).
I

11. Determine where the following functions


analytic. Explain!

are differentiable

and where they are

(z) = x3

(a)

(b)

f (z)

(c) f (z)

+ 3xy2 + i (y3 + 3x2y).


= 8x - x3 - xy2 + i (x2 Y + y3 -

x2 - y2

8y) .

+ i2lxyl.

12. Let f and 9 be analytic functions in the domain D. If l' (z) = 9 I (z) for all z in
D, then show that f (z) = 9 (z) + C, where C is a complex constant.
13. Explain how the limit definition for the derivative in complex analysis and the
limit definition for the derivative in calculus are different. How are they similar?
14. Let f be an analytic function in the domain D. Show that if Re
points in D, then f is constant in D.

[f (z)]

= 0 at all

15. Let f be a nonconstant analytic function in the domain D. Show that the function
9 (z) = f (z) is not analytic in D.
16. Recall that, for z

=x

+ iy,

x =

Z!Z

and y

= z;.z.

(a) Temporarily, think of z and z as dummy symbols for real variables.


With this perspective, x and y can be viewed as functions of z and z.
Use the chain rule for a function h of two variables to show that

ah = ah ax
az
ax az

+ ah

ay = ~ (ah
ay az
2 ax

(b) Now define the operator

:z

+ i ah)

ay

= ~

(:x

+ i :y)

that

is suggested

by

the previous equation.


With this construct, show that if f = u +
iv is differentiable at z = (x, y), then, at the point (x, y),
=
~ lux - Vy + i (Yx + uy)] = O. Equating real and imaginary parts thus

~i

gives the complex form of the Cauchy-Riemann

Let (x, y) be a real~valued


on a domain D. (Recall
differential equation

that

function

equations:

of the two real variables

a domain

is a connected

open

~~

O.

x and y defined
set.)

The

partial

is known as Laplace's equation (sometimes referred to as the potential equation). If rP, rPx, rPy, rPxx, rPxy, rPyx, and rPyy are all continuous, and if rP(x, y) satisfies Laplace's equation, then rP (x, y) is harmonic on D. Harmonic functions are
important in applied mathematics, engineering, and mathematical physics. They
are used to solve problems involving steady state temperatures, two-dimensional
electrostatics, and ideal fluid flow. In Chapter 11 we describe how complex analysis techniques can be used to solve some problems involving harmonic functions.
We begin with an important theorem relating analytic and harmonic functions.

+ iv (x, y) be an analytic function on a


domain D. Then both u and v are harmonic functions on D. In other words,
the real and imaginary parts of an analytic function are harmonic.

t Theorem 3.8 Let f (z) = u (x, y)

Proof In Corollary 6.3 we will show that if f (z) is analytic, then all partial
derivatives of u and v are continuous. Using that result here, we see that,
as f is analytic, u and v satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations

Taking the partial derivative with respect to x of each side of these equations
gives

The partial derivatives uxy, uyx, vxy, and vyx are all continuous, so we use a
theorem from the calculus of real functions that states that the mixed partial
derivatives are equal; that is,

Combining all these results finally gives Uxx + Uyy = vyx - vxy = 0, and
+vyy = -uyx +uxy = O. Therefore, both u and v are harmonic functions

Vxx

onD.

If we have a function u (x, y) that is harmonic on the domain D and if we


can find another harmonic function v (x, y) such that the partial derivatives for
u and v satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations throughout D, then we say that
v (x, y) is a harmonic conjugate of u (x, y). It then follows that the function
f (z) = u (x, y) + iv (x, y) is analytic on D.

EXAMPLE 3.11
Ifu(x,y)
= X2_y2,
then Uxx (x,y)+uyy
(x,y) = 2-2 = 0;
hence u is a harmonic function for all z. We find that v (x, y) = 2xy is also a
harmonic function and that

Theorem (3.8) makes the construction


analytic functions an easy task .

of harmonic

EXAMPLE 3.12
The function f (z) = z3
analytic for all values of z; hence it follows that

functions from known

x3 - 3xy2

+ i (3x2y

- y3) is

Figures 3.2 and 3.3 show the graphs of these two functions. The partial
derivatives are ux(x,y)
= 3x2 - 3y2, uy(x,y)
= -6xy,
vx(x,y)
= 6xy, and
vy (x, y) = 3x2 - 3y2. They satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations because they

are the real and imaginary parts of an analytic function. At the point (x, y) =
(2, -1), we have Ux (2, -1) = vy (2, -1) = 9, and these partial derivatives appear
along the edges of the surfaces for u and v where x = 2 and y = -1. Similarly,
uy (2, -1) = 12 and Vx (2, -1) = -12 also appear along the edges of the surfaces
for u and v where x = 2 and y = -1.
We can use complex analysis to show easily that certain combinations of
harmonic functions are harmonic. For example, if v is a harmonic conjugate of
u, then their product (x, y) = u (x, y) v (x, y) is a harmonic function. This condition can be verified directly by computing the partial derivatives and showing
that Equation .'-](, holds, but the details are tedious. If we use complex variable techniques instead. we can start with the fact that f (z) = u (x, y) +iv (x, y)
is an analytic function. Then we observe that the square of f is also an analytic
function, which is

We then know immediately that the imaginary part, 2u (x, y) v (x, y), is a
harmonic function by Theorem 3.8. A constant multiple of a harmonic function
is harmonic, so it follows that is harmonic. We leave as an exercise to show
that if Ul and 'U2 are two harmonic functions that are not related in the preceding
fashion, then their product need not be harmonic .

Theorem 3.9 (Construction of a harmonic con gate) Let u (x, y)


be
harmonic in an E: neighborhood of the point (xo, Yo). Then there exists a
conjugate harmonic function v (x, y) defined in this neighborhood such that
f (z) = u (x, y) + iv (x, y) is an analytic function.
J

Proof A conjugate harmonic function v will satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann


equations Ux = vy and uy = -Vx. Assuming that such a function exists, we
determine what it would have to look like by using a two-step process. First,
we integrate vy (which should equal ux) with respect to y and get
v(x,y)=

jvy(x,Y)dY=

jux(x,Y)dY+C(X),

where C (x) is a function of x alone that is yet to be determined. Second,


we compute C' (x) by differentiating both sides of this equation with respect
to x and replacing Vx with -uy on the left side, which gives
-uy(x,y)=

d~j

ux(x,y)dy+C'(x).

It can be shown (we omit the details) that because u is harmonic, all terms
except those involving x in the last equation will cancel, revealing a formula

for C' (x) involving x alone. Elementary integration of the single-variable


function C' (x) can then be used to discover C (x). We finally observe that
the function v so created indeed has the properties we seek.
Technically we should always specify the domain of function when defining
it. When no such specification is given, it is assumed that the domain is the
entire complex plane, or the largest set for which the expression defining the
function makes sense .
EXAMPLE 3.13 Show that u (x, y) = xy3 - x3y is a harmonic function, and
find a conjugate harmonic function v (x, y).
Solution
We follow the construction process of Theorem 3.9. The first partial
derivatives are

To verify that u is harmonic, we compute the second partial derivatives and note
that Uxx (x, y) + uyy (x, y) = -6xy + 6xy = 0, so u satisfies Laplace's Equation
(3-26). To construct v, we start with Equation (3-27) and the first of Equations
(3-28) to get

Differentiating the left and right sides of this equation with respect to x and
using -uy (x, y) = Vx (x, y) and Equations (3-28) on the left side yield

Harmonic functions arise as solutions to many physical problems. Applications include two-dimensional models of heat flow, electrostatics, and fluid flow.
We now give an example of the latter.
We assume that an incompressible and frictionless fluid flows over the complex plane and that all cross sections in planes parallel to the complex plane are

Figure 3.4
fluid flow.

The vector field V (x, y) = p (x, y)

+ iq

(x, y). which can be considered as a

the same. Situations such as this occur when fluid is flowing in a deep channel.
The velocity vector at the point (x. y) is

which we illustrate in Figure 3.4.


The assumption that the flow is irrotational and has no sources or sinks
implies that both the curl and divergence vanish; that is, qx - Py = 0 and
Px + qy = O. Hence P and q obey the equations

Equations (3-30) are similar to the Cauchy-Riemann


us to define a special complex function:

equations and permit

Here we have Ux = Px, uy = Py, Vx = -qx, and vy = -qy.


We can use
Equations (3-30) to verify that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold for f:
Ux

(x, y)

uy (x, y)

= Px (x, y) = -qy (x, y) = vy (x, y)


= Py (x, y) = qx (x, y) = -Vx (x, y).

and

Assuming that the functions P and q have continuous partials, Theorem 3.4
guarantees that function f defined in Equation (3-31) is analytic and that the
fluid flow of Equation (3-29) is the conjugate of an analytic function; that is,

In Chapter 6 we prove that every analytic function


tiderivative F; assuming this to be the case, we can write

has an analytic an-

Theorem 3.8 implies that rP (x, y) is a harmonic function. Using the vector
interpretation of a complex number, the gradient of rP can be written as

The Cauchy-Riemann equations applied to F (z) give rPy (x, y)


making this substitution in the preceding equation yields

Equation (3-11) says that rPx (x, y) + i'IjJx (x, y)


ceding equation and Equation (:3-3:2) implies that

Finally, from Equation


flow, so

= -'ljJx (x, y);

(z), which by the pre-

(3-29), rP is the scalar potential function for the fluid

The curves given by {(x, y) : rP(x, y) = constant} are called equipotentials.


The curves {(x, y) : 'IjJ(x, y) = constant} are called streamlines and describe the
path of fluid flow. In Chapter 10 we show that the family of equipotentials is
orthogonal to the family of streamlines, as depicted in Figure 3.5 .
EXAMPLE 3.14 Show that the harmonic function rP(x, y) = x2 - y2 is the
scalar potential function for the fluid flow expression V (x, y) = 2x - i2y.

An antiderivative of f (z) = 2z is F (z) =


desired harmonic function:

Z2,

and the real part of F (z) is the

Note that the hyperbolas rP(x, y) = x2 - y2 = C are the equipotential curves


and that the hyperbolas 'IjJ(x, y) = 2xy = C are the streamline curves; these
curves are orthogonal, as shown in Figure 3.6.

Figme
{(x,y)

The

3.;)

: 'l/J (x,y)

"Figure 3.6

families

= constant}

of orthogonal

curves

for the function F (z)

The equipotential

= eX cosy

(b) u (x, y)

In (x2

and v(x,y)

+ y2)

cP(x,y)

eXsiny.

for (x, y) :/; (0,0).

= constant}

and

+i'l/J (x,y).

curves x2 - y2 = C and streamline

the function F (z) = z2

(a) u(x,y)

{(x,y):

= cP(x,y)

curves 2xy = C for

f (z)

2. Does an analytic function


x3 + y3? Why or why not?

+ iv (x, y)

u (x, y)

exist for which v (x, y) =

3. Let a, b, and c be real constants. Determine a relation among the coefficients that
will guarantee that the function (x, y) = ax2 + bxy + cy2 is harmonic.
4. Let v (x, y) = arctan ~ for x =1= O. Compute the partial derivatives of v, and verify
that v satisfies Laplace's equation.
5. Find an analytic function

(z) = u (x, y)

+ iv

(x, y) for the following expressions.

(a) u (x, y) = y3 - 3x2y.


(b) u(x,y)

= sinysinhx.

(c) v(x.y)

= eYsinx.

(d) v(x,y)

= sinxcoshy.

6. Let Ul (x, y) = x2 - y2 and U2


functions but that their product

= x3 Ul

3xy2

(x, y)

U2

Show that Ul and U2 are harmonic


(x, y) is not a harmonic function.

7. Assume that U (x, y) is harmonic on a region D that is symmetric about the line
y = O. Show that U(x, y) = U (x, -y) is harmonic on D. Hint: Cse the chain rule
for differentiation of real functions and note that U (x, -y) is really the function
u(g(x,y)),
where g(x,y)
= (x,-y).
8. Let v be a harmonic conjugate of u. Show that -u is a harmonic conjugate
9. Let v be a harmonic conjugate of u. Show that h

of v.

v is a harmonic function.

10. Suppose that v is a harmonic conjugate of U and that u is a harmonic conjugate


of v. Show that u and v must be constant functions.
11. Let f (z) = f (rei8) = u (r, B) + iv (r, B) be analytic on a domain D that does
not contain the origin. Use the polar form of the Cauchy-Riemann
equations
ue = -rVr and ve = rUr. Differentiate them first with respect to B and then with
respect to r. Use the results to establish the polar form of Laplace's equation:

12. Use the polar form of Laplace's equation


following functions are harmonic.
(a) u(r,e)

= (r+~)

(b) u (r, e)

= rn

cos ne and v (r, B)

(a) Express F(z)

in the form F(z)

= (r -

cose and v(r,e)

(b) Sketch the equipotentials

given in Exercise 11 to show that the

= rn

~)sine.

sin nB.

(x,y)

+i'lj;(x,y).

qJ = 1. ~. ~ and the streamlines

'lj; =

1, ~, ~.

14. Assume that F(z) = (x,y)


+ i'lj;(x,y) is analytic on the domain D and that
F I (z) =1= 0 on D. Consider the families of level curves { (x, y) = constant} and
{'lj;(x,y) = constant}, which are the equipotentials and streamlines for the fluid
flow V(x, y) = F I (z). Prove that the two families of curves are orthogonal. Hint:

Suppose that (xo, YO) is a point common to the two curves (x, y) = C1 and
'l/J (x, y) = C2 Use the gradients of and 'l/J to show that the normals to the curves
are perpendicular.
15. We introduce the logarithmic function in Chapter 5. For now, let F(z) = Logz =
Inlzl +iArgz.
Here we have (x,y)
= Inlzl and 'l/J(x,y)
= Argz.
Sketch the
equipotentials = 0, In 2, In 3, In 4 and the streamlines 'l/J = kS for k = 0, 1, ... , 7.
7C

16. Discuss and compare the statements


"u (x, y) is harmonic"
imaginary part of an analytic function."

and "u (x, y) is the