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COLORADO

GEORGIA

Hollow-core
Building System Design Manual
OREGON

UTAH

WASHINGTON

ProvidingEngineered
EngineeredConcrete
ConcreteSolutions
Solutions
Providing

Copyright 2015
By EnCon Design, LLC
HCM001
3.23.15

Introduction
This EnCon Hollow-core Building System Design Manual
Strawberry Park

has been designed to illustrate the many ways in which


hollow-core precast concrete can function as a multipurpose building system or as an integral component of a
building system. Owners, contractors, architects, and
engineers will discover that hollow-core building systems
can be used in a wide variety of settings and offer a
myriad of benefits. Hollow-core systems are cost effective,
allow construction to remain on budget and on schedule,
require less maintenance, and create less environmental
impact than conventional building materials.
Residential applications include single family and multifamily dwellings, the hospitality industry, and specialized
housing, such as dormitories, assisted-living and nursing

Chateau Lodge at
Beaver Creek

homes. Be it low-, mid-, or high-rise construction, a


hollow-core structure is fire resistant, moisture resistant,
allows less sound transmission, offers flexible floor plans,
and meets unique building needs and challenges. Hollowcore precast concrete helps manage heating and cooling
demands, resulting in reduced energy costs. The safety,
security, and high fire resistance it offers keep insurance
rates low as well. Structurally, a hollow-core building
system provides high load capacity for floors, open clear
spans, high vibration resistance, finished ceilings and
floors, reduced floor-to-floor height, and natural space for
electrical conduit, plumbing, and HVAC ductwork.

Radisson
Hotel

This manual includes sections addressing Frequently


Asked Questions and technical data, as well as product
cross section details and connection concepts. Also
enclosed are sample specifications and a set of typical
general notes.
No matter what the type of design, EnCons hollow-core
precast concrete building systems provide homeowners,
designers, and contractors with benefits that are
unsurpassed. For further information or to discuss a
project, please see the Contact List on the back cover

Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Product System Uses ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Single Family Residential ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Multi-Family Residential ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Hospitality and Residence ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Mixed-Use Structures ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6
Mid-Rise and High-Rise ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Manufacturing and Commercial ............................................................................................................................................................. 6
Office ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Building System Variations .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Bearing Wall Systems ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Frame Systems ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Floor and Roof Systems .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Product System Benefits ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8
Advantages of an EnCon Precast Hollow-core Building System ............................................................................................................. 8
Typical Design and Delivery Process............................................................................................................................................................ 9
Frequently Asked Questions ..................................................................................................................................................................... 10
What is hollow-core? ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10
How is hollow-core produced? ............................................................................................................................................................. 10
What are the opening limitations in a hollow-core system? ................................................................................................................ 11
What sizes of hollow-core slab are available? ...................................................................................................................................... 12
What types of bearing systems are used with a hollow-core system? ................................................................................................. 12
Span-Depth Ratios ................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
Typical Design Loads ............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
Minimum Bearing ................................................................................................................................................................................. 13
Load Tables................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
4HC - 4-0 Untopped Hollow-core Sections ........................................................................................................................................ 15
4HC-Top - 4-0 Topped Hollow-core Sections ..................................................................................................................................... 16
8HC - 8-0 Untopped Hollow-core Sections. ....................................................................................................................................... 17
8HC-Top - 8-0 Topped Hollow-Core Sections. .................................................................................................................................... 18
Detail Design ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Cross Section Details ............................................................................................................................................................................ 19
Section Properties ................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Filled Cores ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Fire Rating or Resistance ...................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Common Details ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Hollow-core to Cast-in-Place Non-Load Bearing with Topping .......................................................................................................... 21
Hollow-core to Masonry Load Bearing with Topping ........................................................................................................................ 22
Hollow-core to Masonry Load Bearing without Topping ................................................................................................................... 23
Hollow-core to Masonry Non-Load Bearing ......................................................................................................................................... 24
Hollow-core to Precast or Cast-in-Place Load Bearing with Shelf Angle (CIP) ................................................................................... 25
Hollow-core to Precast or Cast-in-Place Non-Load bearing ............................................................................................................... 26
Hollow-core to Precast Inverted Tee Beams ........................................................................................................................................ 27
Hollow-core to Precast L Beam............................................................................................................................................................. 28
Hollow-core to Steel Wide Flange with Reduce Structural Depth ........................................................................................................ 29
Hollow-core to Steel Wide Flange ........................................................................................................................................................ 30
Hollow-core to Steel Wide Flange Alternate ........................................................................................................................................ 31
Hollow-core to Continuous Precast Load Bearing Wall ........................................................................................................................ 32
Project Specifications (Sample) ................................................................................................................................................................. 33
General Notes (Sample) ............................................................................................................................................................................ 35

Product System Uses


Single Family Residential
EnCons precast concrete hollow-core offers many benefits at a cost-effective price. Often, the
space beneath a garage can be exploited by extending the basement walls to include the
garage overhead. Setting hollow-core slabs on bearing walls forms the necessary fire
separation and the perfect noise barrier. The slab serves as a ceiling for the lower level and
creates a column-free area that can be used for storage or as functional living space. Hollowcore provides superior moisture control and protection from mold development and waterrelated damage.

Multi-Family Residential
EnCons unique precast products can be used to create a parking garage underneath an apartment building, delivering
protection and security. The floor slabs form fire separations and noise barriers between common areas and living spaces.
These elements can be erected quickly, speeding construction time and reducing building cost. The design saves land costs
while adding benefits for tenants and enhancing
Lakefront
long-term resale value. In addition, the floor
design can accommodate multiple penetrations
for mechanical equipment. Unlike wood and
steel floor systems, hollow-core provides
immediate access for other trades with minimal
preparation for final conditions. Although not
specific to multi-family residential construction,
units with integral balconies can be produced so
that all floor components are from a single
source supplier.

Hospitality and Residence


Specialized housing, including hotels, motels, destination resorts, dormitories, assisted-living and nursing homes, in which
smaller spaces combine with large banquet or meeting rooms, are aided by hollow-core slabs long spans, fast erection and allyear construction. Precast concrete is highly fire-resistant and an excellent material for compartmentalization as it slows the
spread of fire, smoke, and noise between rooms and floors. Additional floor loading for special needs required by assistedliving facilities is easily, economically, and safely handled with a precast hollow-core floor system. The underside can act as a
direct ceiling avoiding the need for drop ceilings or additional materials.

The Broadmoor

Mixed-Use Structures
Buildings commonly need to serve several purposes; one structure can
house retail space, parking facilities, and residential units. A hollowcore precast floor and roof system provides noise and vibration
isolation, fire separation and resistance, penetration flexibility, and
structural support for small spaces above large open areas.

Christina
Landing

Mid-Rise and High-Rise


Vertical construction, such as hotels, motels, dormitories, mixed-use,
and residential, in which shallow floor depths combine with open floor
plans, can take advantage of hollow-core slabs long spans, fast
erection, and all-year construction. Specialized beams of precast
prestressed concrete or steel create shallow floor systems supported
on precast columns. The lightweight nature of the product allows
erection by tower crane, decreasing site congestion. Precast
concretes fire-resistance makes it an excellent material for tower
construction by reducing the spread of fire, smoke, and noise
between rooms and floors. Precast balconies can be integral
components in the load bearing system.

Manufacturing and Commercial


Low-rise buildings, including manufacturing facilities, warehouses, distribution centers, food-processing plants, rapid-lube
stores and car washes, benefit from the advantages offered by total precast concrete systems. Heavy load capacity, vibration
resistance, durability, penetration flexibility, and nearly unlimited floor plan arrangements make this an ideal building system.

Office
Corporate managers enjoy the secure image and
fast construction that precast concrete provides. It
reduces interim financing costs and ensures that
facilities will be ready for occupancy on schedule.
In addition, precast concrete mass keeps heating
and cooling costs down and lowers fire insurance
rates for the end user. Precast hollow-core floor
and roof systems create shallow structural depths
often decreasing the total building height or
allowing for an additional floor as compared to
similar height structures.

Patriot Park

Correctional Facilities
Due to its unique nature and occupancy requirements, a correctional facility
traditionally has an intricate floor plan with heavy loads that are varied and
complex from walls above. Hollow-cores high load capacity makes it an
excellent building material for this kind of structure. Long spans means fewer
support columns to act as obstacles, allowing for flexible floor plans as well as
decreasing security risk and supervision constraints.

El Paso County Jail

Building System Variations


Bearing Wall Systems
Bearing wall systems provide compartmentalization,
outstanding fire safety between units, significant
thermal benefit, and reduced noise transmission. Wellsuited for dwellings with multiple residents, these
systems are traditionally used in the multi-family and
the hospitality construction markets.

Broadmoor Lakeside

Frame Systems
For large open areas with long clear spans, a hollow-core
frame system is ideal. Loft space has become a primary
residential construction market, and a building utilizing a
hollow-core construction system has a distinct advantage.
With a shallow overall structural depth, building height
can be reduced. This building system is traditionally used
for office construction, but residential units are being
developed, illustrating the growing popularity and varied
uses of hollow-core floor systems.

Giddings Lofts

Floor and Roof Systems


Complex geometry and floor plans are easily designed using a precast hollow-core system. Layouts can be
adjusted to accommodate inconsistent or repetitive bearing geometries. Optimal use of the material can be
achieved and minimal in-place forming requirements are primary benefits of a hollow-core system.

Colorado Golf Clubhouse,


Roof and Floor Plans

Product System Benefits


Precast hollow-core provides a cost-effective efficient floor and roof system. The slabs facilitate the completion of a
building in the least amount of time possible, at the most economical cost, without sacrificing quality or the integrity of
the structure.

Advantages of an EnCon Precast Hollow-core Building System

EnCons commitment to partnership, customer care, and product excellence. EnCon maintains a full service
integrated approach to delivery, from design support to product installation. Clients receive the benefits and
convenience of a single source supplier, which limits the project risk and the number of subcontracts needed.
The EnCon Companies have delivered high quality precast concrete structures throughout the United States.

In high seismic regions, a lighter weight floor plate weight decreases the lateral forces and subsequent
foundation requirements. Topped or un-topped, a hollow-core system can be used as a lateral load diaphragm.

Long spans with shallow sections allow for high span-to-depth ratios while reducing floor-to-floor heights. This
results in more interior space with less obstruction from structural depth and columns.

Design flexibility. Spaces without interior support columns can accommodate nearly any floor plan as well as
enable the rendering of unusual or complicated details.

Increased load capacity for floors.

Greater quality control, consistency and finish with in-plant production. Plant production will also reduce onsite labor and lower the job site safety risk.

The rapid construction process enables openings in the floor plate to be closed quickly, creating an immediate
working platform for other trades concurrently working onsite. EnCons precast components and systems can
be erected in adverse weather conditions where other building systems may not.

Long-term durability, requiring far less maintenance than conventional building materials.

Excellent fire resistance and protection as well as vibration resistance. Moisture control, mold and mildew
resistance, and insect proof. Acoustical control; reduced noise transmission between spaces for greater privacy.

Thermal mass delivers superior energy efficiency - acts as a thermal sink to smooth peak heating and cooling
demands; cross sections greatly reduce heat loss through roof. These inherent benefits help meet stricter
energy requirements while providing less environmental impact.

Hollow-core can provide natural channels for wiring conduit, heating, air conditioning, and plumbing.

Offers finished ceilings that may be left exposed or painted. A delivered finished system eliminates need for
suspended ceilings.

Offers finished floors; with minimal leveling and finishing, the final surface may be directly applied.

Enables owners and developers to remain competitive as it is a financially viable solution.

Typical Design and Delivery Process


The flow chart below highlights the general process from project initiation to completion. The tables contain
representative project schedules and demonstrate the primary scheduling benefit of precast concrete construction.
There are a number of interrelated yet overlapping activities that allow faster turnaround and quicker job completion.

Project
Identification

Preliminary
Design
Assistance

Estimate and
Award Project

Final Design

Calculations,
Erection Drawings,
and Details

Submittal
and Approval
Process

Manufacture, Store,
and Transport

Final Erection
and Production
Drawings

Erection and
Field Finish

Project
Completion

Frequently Asked Questions


What is hollow-core?
Hollow-core is a prestressed concrete flat slab containing continuous
hollow voids that run throughout its length. Hollow-core is an ideal
building material as it is lighter in weight and lower in cost than
conventional cast-in-place concrete. Popular applications for hollowcore are floor and roof deck systems.
What is prestressed concrete?
Reinforced concrete members must carry their own weight as well as any applied loads. Conventional
reinforced concrete slabs must have short spans and thick section depths. Prestressing overcomes this
limitation by adding an internal force that counteracts the self-weight and loads that are applied.
What is camber?
Camber is a byproduct of an eccentric prestress force. Since
the most economical placement of strand is at the bottom of
the member, the prestress is below the center of gravity,
(Not to Scale)
causing the center of the members span to bow up. The
amount of camber is affected by a number of factors such as span, prestressing force, concrete strength,
and curing variations. The erector will adjust bearing elevations of adjacent members to minimize camber
between slabs.
What is the finished surface of a hollow-core system?
Since the product is machine produced, both the top and bottom
surfaces are quite smooth. If the final surface is un-topped, a
leveling compound can be used for finishing the joints and any
unevenness between the slabs. If the top will be layered with a
concrete topping, no additional surface preparation is required.
Although smooth, the bond between field-placed topping and
hollow-core provides enough strength for composite behavior if
required. The underside can be used as a finished ceiling as
installed and either left unfinished, painted, or coated with an
acoustical spray.

How is hollow-core produced?


EnCon produces hollow-core through a dry cast extrusion or a slip form process. The manufacturing
surface, or bed, is about 500 long, and with the use of a special machine, the product is extruded as one
continuous slab. Prestress strand, the primary reinforcement, is installed and stretched prior to adding any
concrete. Afterwards, the concrete can be placed with a mechanical slip or through extrusion. Hollowcore cures within 5 to 14 hours regardless of the manufacturing process used. The long single piece is
marked into smaller pieces and saw cut with a large diamond-impregnated wet saw. The individual slabs
are then numbered, inspected for dimensional accuracy, and stored until delivery.
EnCon provides two types of hollow-core products, each having inherent advantages for different building
solutions.
EnCon Colorado produces hollow-core through a dry cast extrusion process. On a 500 long
manufacturing bed, an Elematic machine generates a continuous 4 wide slab. Prestressed

12

strand serves as the primary reinforcing and is installed and pulled prior to extrusion of the
concrete. Zero slump or dry (very stiff) concrete is placed after the reinforcing.
Stresscon produces its Dynaspan product using a wet cast system. On a 485 long bed, the higher
slump concrete is cast as a continuous 8 wide slab. Long tubes attached to the casting machine slip
form the cores within the product. Again, prestressed strand serves as an efficient primary
reinforcing.

Pulling Strand

Extrusion

Saw Cutting

Storage

How is a hollow-core system installed?


Hollow-core should be installed by skilled technicians with experience operating lifting devices and cranes.
The slabs are to be positioned and connected to the structure in accordance with engineering calculations,
drawings, and details. Other factors that should be considered in the erection of the system are: site access,
crane access, sequence and starting position, as well as the results of a site survey to ensure proper
elevations and building geometry.

Delivery

Lifting and Placement

Welding

Final Construction

What are the opening limitations in a hollow-core system?


Openings smaller than 12x12 are generally installed in the field through a core drill process and if required
the corners are squared off with a saw. Hammer drilled holes smaller than 2 in diameter can be installed in
nearly any location within the system. The locations of these openings should be coordinated with the EnCon
Design Department so the primary reinforcement can be avoided. Most often, the design team (Contractor,
Engineer of Record EOR, and Architect of Record AOR) is given a set of rules to follow which makes for
simple trade coordination. Openings larger than 12 are added to the product in the plant and must follow
the engineering and design requirements of the system. Larger openings can be accommodated though the
use of hangers where the adjacent slabs support other shorter slabs. All openings are normally considered
rough openings, but a finished opening can also be provided if needed.

Plant Cut

Penetration Flexibility

Core Drill

Header Steel

11

What sizes of hollow-core slab are available?


Generally, finished products are nominally 4-0 or 8-0 which includes a nominal joint width. Narrower
pieces can be produced with the narrowest being one complete core and two vertical ribs, but the length of
the product will play a role in this dimension. For product lengths and spans, please see the Preliminary
Design section. The available section thicknesses are 8 and 10 with thicker sizes available upon request.
Each hollow-core panel provides certain advantages given the fabricated cross sections. The 4' Elematic
product is lighter to ship and erect. It is beneficial for high-rise, high-density projects, where crane access and
reach are limited. It is an ideal solution for multi-story structures where a tower crane is being used. The
Elematic product also provides exceptional spanning capabilities, given its efficient cross section. The 8'
Dynaspan product, while heavier per piece, supplies more square footage per panel. With fewer pieces to
deliver and erect, the Dynaspan product may offer cost efficiencies for low- or mid-rise structures. EnCon
will work with the design team early in the process to determine the most economical approach.

What types of bearing systems are used with a hollow-core system?


Hollow-core is a very versatile building system. Support can be provided by other precast sections (beams,
walls, etc.,) steel sections, cast-in-place, and masonry. Total precast solutions are beneficial in terms of cost,
scheduling, and construction-site impact. Details for a variety of load bearing materials plus connection
concepts can be found in the Detail Design section.

Masonry

Steel Frame

What are grout keys?


Grout keys are spaces between hollow-core
units. During the erection and installation
processes, the grout key will be filled with a
sand-cement grout. Within the key, straight
and bent rebar is installed for structural
integrity and diaphragm behavior. Multiple
slabs, when grouted together, can act as
one continuous floor or roof section.

14

Cast-in-Place

Precast Frame

Preliminary Design
Span-Depth Ratios
The PCI Design Handbook recommends limits on span-depth ratios for hollow-core systems. For roof
members, a span-depth ratio limit of 50 is suggested. In practice, a span-depth ratio of 45 is common for
floors and roofs where fire endurance, openings, or heavy or sustained live loads do not control a design.
Structural topping plays an important role in the span-depth ratio.
The design recommendations for span lengths vary slightly from cross section to cross section, but the
following are general rules to consider in the preliminary design. Assuming a uniform superimposed load of
100 pounds per square foot and an un-topped system, these guidelines apply:
Depth

Span

8 inches
10 inches
12 inches

30 feet
40 feet
46 feet

Factors such as concentrated loads and large openings can affect the span capabilities of a system. Once the
given loadings, fire endurance ratings, span lengths, and slab thicknesses have been determined, load tables
are consulted.

Typical Design Loads


Design loads are determined by applicable building codes, engineering judgment, and building use. The
following guidelines may be used:

Building Use
Residential floors
Residential garage floors
Office
Office assembly space
Storage
Mezzanine

Dead Load (psf)

Live Load (psf)

10 - 15
10 - 15
20 - 30

40 - 50
80
50 - 80
100
125 - 150
125

Minimum Bearing
Hollow-core units require a minimum of 2 of bearing. They are typically
designed and detailed with a -thick continuous bearing material. Often, as the
slab gets longer, additional bearing length is detailed. This additional bearing
length may be as large as 2, for a combined total of 4. For steel, bearing of 2 is
recommended and for concrete surfaces, 3 is recommended.

13

Load Tables
The following load tables are based on both topped (composite) and un-topped systems. Load spans are
approximate and based on ACI 318-05. The values are assumed to be service level live loads without the
1.6 multiplier.
When the analysis of the section includes topping, the following topping parameters are used. 2
Composite thickness mid-span, an additional 25 psf dead load, and a 28-Day topping strength of 4000 psi.

Product Code Description


Load Table Key

4HC

8-4

Section Depth

8-4

Controlled
Controlled
by shearby shear

8-4

Controlled
by flexure
Controlled
by flexure
Strand fpu = 270.0 ksi
f'ci = 3500 psi
f'c = 7000 psi
Effective Pull Ratio = 0.75fpu

Section product code (HC-Hollow-core)


Section width in feet

14

Controlled by ductility
Controlled by ductility requirements
requirements

Quantity of Diameter Strand

4HC - 4-0 Untopped Hollow-core Sections


4HC - Untopped
Live Load
(psf)
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440

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8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6

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8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
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8-6
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8-6
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8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7

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8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7

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8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6

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8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6

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8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


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22
21
20
19
18
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
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8-6
8-4
8-4
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8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
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8-4
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8-4
8-6
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8-4
8-4
8-7
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8-4
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8-4
10-6
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8-7
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8-6
8-6
12-6
10-6
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8-6
12-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
8-7
8-6
12-6
12-6
10-6
10-6
10-4
8-6
12-6
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8-7
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12-6
12-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

24
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

26
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

25
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

27
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

28
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

29
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

4HC - Untopped
Live Load
(psf)
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

30
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

31
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

32
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

33
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

34
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


35
36
37
38
39
40
41
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-7
8-7
8-7
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

42
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

43
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

44
12-6
12-6
12-6

45
12-6
12-6

46
12-6
12-6

15

4HC-Top - 4-0 Topped Hollow-core Sections


4HC - Topped
Live Load
(psf)
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440

12
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6

13
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6

14
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4

15
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6

16
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
10-4
10-4
10-4

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


17
18
19
20
21
22
23
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
8-4
8-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-4
8-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
8-6
8-6
10-4
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
8-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
8-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
10-4
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
10-4
10-6
12-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
10-6
10-6
10-6

24
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

25
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

26
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

27
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

28
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

4HC - Topped
Live Load
(psf)
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220

16

30
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

31
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

32
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

33
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


34
35
36
37
38
39
40
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
8-7
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

41
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

42
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

43
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

44
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

29
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6
12-6

8HC - 8-0 Untopped Hollow-core Sections.


8HC - Untopped
Live Load
(psf)
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450

12
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12

13
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12

14
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11

15
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-12

16
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


17
18
19
20
21
22
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-12
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-14
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-15
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-13
8-14
10-11
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-15
10-12
8-10
8-12
8-12
8-13
10-11
10-12
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-14
10-11
10-12
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-15
10-12
8-11
8-13
8-13
10-11
10-12
8-12
8-13
8-14
10-11
10-12
8-12
8-13
8-15
8-12
8-14
8-15
8-13
8-14
10-11
8-13
8-14
10-11
8-13
8-15
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
8-15

23
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
10-12
10-12
10-12
10-13
10-13

24
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-15
10-12
10-12
10-13
10-13

25
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-15
10-12
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14

26
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-15
10-12
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14

27
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
10-12
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-15
10-15

8HC - Untopped
Live Load
(psf)
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220

28
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-12
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-15
10-15

29
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-12
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-15
10-15

30
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-15

31
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-15

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


32
33
34
35
36
37
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-13
8-15
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-15
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-12
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-13
8-12
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-14
10-14
8-13
8-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-15
8-14
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-15
8-15
10-14
10-15
10-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-14
10-15
10-14
10-15

38
10-11
10-11
10-12
10-13
10-14
10-15

39
10-12
10-12
10-13
10-14
10-15

40
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-15

41
10-14
10-14
10-14
10-15

17

8HC-Top - 8-0 Topped Hollow-Core Sections.


8HC - Topped
Live Load
(psf)
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470

12
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13

13
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-13

14
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-13
8-14
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-15
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-14
10-12
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-14
10-12
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-15
10-12
8-8
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
10-12
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-12
8-12
8-14
10-12
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
10-12
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-15
10-12
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-13
8-13
8-9
8-11
8-11
8-13
8-13
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-14
8-15

23
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
10-12
10-12
10-13
10-13
10-13

24
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
8-15
10-13
10-13
10-13

25
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
8-15
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-14

8HC - Topped
Live Load
(psf)
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300

18

26
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
8-15
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-14

27
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-14
10-15
10-15

28
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-15
10-15

SIMPLE SPAN IN FEET - CENTER TO CENTER OF END BEARINGS (ft)


29
30
31
32
33
34
35
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-11
8-14
10-9
10-10
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-11
8-14
10-10
10-10
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-14
10-10
10-11
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-14
10-11
10-12
8-10
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-14
10-12
10-13
8-11
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
10-12
10-13
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-14
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-14
8-15
10-14
10-14
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
8-13
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
8-14
8-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
8-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-14
10-15
10-14
10-15
10-15
10-15

36
10-11
10-11
10-12
10-12
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-15

37
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-15

38
10-15
10-15
10-15
10-15
10-15

Detail Design
Cross Section Details
The following detailed hollow-core cross sections are produced by EnCon and related companies.
4HC8

4HC10

4HC12

8HC8

8HC10

19

Section Properties

4HC8
4HC10
4HC12
8HC8
8HC10

2 Composite-Topped

Un-Topped

Section
Area (in2)
204
249
282
470
582

Yb (in)
4.08
5.33
6.11
3.96
5.00

(f`ctopping = 4000 psi)

I (in4)
1629
3068
5205
3525
6648

Wt (psf)
53
65
74
61.2
72

Yb (in)
5.37
6.61
7.52
5.31
6.37

I (in4)
2950
4899
7971
6827
11479

Filled Cores
The majority of core ends are not filled. In multi-story construction it may be necessary to grout the
cores to prevent crushing of the ends or to increase the shear capacity of the section. Filled cores
are also common when longitudinal cuts leave large cantilevers of material.

Welded Connections
Most welded connections are used for steel beam stabilization during erection. Typically, this welded connection creates a
laterally-braced system which increases the design strength of the steel section. Long term movement is not uncommon in
both beam and slab members; therefore it is not recommended that welded connections exist on both ends of the same
member.

Contract Drawings and Information


The following information should be provided:
o
o
o
o
o
o

Span directions
Loading requirements
General loading
Line load
Point loading
Diaphragm forces and lateral loads

o
o
o
o
o
o

Conceptual connection information


Supporting elements
Fire resistance requirements
Edge of slab geometry and grid layout
Topping requirements
Opening size and location

Fire Rating or Resistance


Fire ratings are based on a Rational Fire Design calculation method or an IBC Prescriptive Fire Rating method. A fire rating
is dependent upon: equivalent thickness, heat transmission thickness, cover on the prestressing strand, and end restraint.
A standard 8-inch thick hollow-core system has a 2-hour fire rating, but higher ratings (3- or 4-hour) may be achieved with
topping and gypsum board or the application of a spray-on fire-resistant material to the underside of the slab.

Camber
Camber is inherent to prestressed hollow-core slabs and is a function of the amount of eccentric prestressing force
needed to carry the superimposed design loads. Prediction of camber is determined using empirical formulas and is at
best an estimate. Actual camber is usually higher than calculated values; calculated long-term values should be considered
only as estimates. Non-structural components attached to members which could be affected by camber variations, such as
partitions or folding doors, should be placed with adequate allowance for these variations. Calculation of topping
quantities should also recognize the imprecision of camber calculations.

Common Details
20

The details on the following pages are non-cross section specific and are applicable in standard bearing and non-bearing
conditions. These are not the only design options available. Often they are used as starting points for job-specific section
and detail requirements. Connection details will vary slightly depending on whether the slab was produced using a dry
cast extrusion or a slip form technique. Designers are strongly encouraged to discuss potential details with the fabricator
during design development.

Hollow-core to Cast-in-Place Non-Load Bearing with Topping

Continuation wall is erected or set in place after hollow-core is erected and grouted

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

21

Hollow-core to Masonry Load Bearing with Topping

Continuation wall is erected or set in place after hollow-core is erected and grouted

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

22

Hollow-core to Masonry Load Bearing without Topping

Continuation wall is erected or set in place after hollow-core is erected and grouted

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

23

Hollow-core to Masonry Non-Load Bearing

The ripped end of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

24

Hollow-core to Precast or Cast-in-Place Load Bearing with Shelf Angle (CIP)

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

25

Hollow-core to Precast or Cast-in-Place Non-Load bearing

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

26

Hollow-core to Precast Inverted Tee Beams

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

27

Hollow-core to Precast L Beam

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Topping thickness will vary based on the hollow-core camber

Wall thickness will vary depending on EOR and AOR design requirements

28

Hollow-core to Steel Wide Flange with Reduce Structural Depth

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Steel beam based on design loading and EOR requirements

29

Hollow-core to Steel Wide Flange

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Steel beam based on design loading and EOR requirements

30

Hollow-core to Steel Wide Flange Alternate

The ends of the core may need to be filled for load transfer

Steel beam based on design loading and EOR requirements

31

Hollow-core to Continuous Precast Load Bearing Wall

32

Project Specifications (Sample)


1.01

SECTION INCLUDES
A. Floor and roof slabs, related connection plates, brackets, hangers, and grouting of joint keys.

1.02

RELATED SECTION
A. Section 03410 Structural Precast Concrete.

1.03

REFERENCES
A. ACI 301 Structural Concrete for Buildings.
B. ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.
C. ASTM A36 Structural Steel.
D. ASTM A153 Zinc Coating on Iron and Steel Hardware.
E. ASTM A416 Uncoated Seven-Wire Stress-Relieved Steel Strand for Prestressed Concrete.
F. ASTM A615 Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.
G. ASTM A666 Austenitic Stainless Steel, Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bar for Structural Applications.
H. ASTM C150 Portland Cement.
I.
ASTM C618 -- Fly Ash.
J. ASTM C33 -- Aggregates.
K. ASTM C260 Air Entrainment Admixtures.
L. ASTM C494 Water Reducing Agents.
M. AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code.
N. AWS D1.4 Structural Welding Code Reinforcing Steel.
O. PCI Manual For The Design of Hollow Core Slabs.
P. PCI MNL-116 PCI Structural Quality Control Manual.
Q. PCI MNL-120 PCI Design Handbook.
R. PCI MNL-123 PCI Connections Manual.
S. PCI MNL-124 PCI Design for Fire Resistance of Precast Prestressed Concrete.
T. PCI MNL-127 PCI Erection Tolerances.
U. PCI MNL-135 Tolerances for Precast and Prestressed Concrete.
V. IBC International Building Code.

1.04

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
A. Size components to withstand design loads.
B. Concrete: Minimum compressive strength of 5000 psi at 28 days and 3500 psi at release.
C. Design components to accommodate construction tolerances, deflection of other building structural members and clearances of
intended openings.
D. Grouted Keys; Capable of transmitting horizontal shear force of 80 psi.
E. Calculate structural properties of framing members in accordance with ACI 318.

1.05

SUBMITTALS
A. Shop Drawings: Indicate slab locations, unit identification marks, connection details, edge conditions, bearing requirements,
support conditions, dimensions, openings, openings intended to be field cut, and relationship to adjacent materials.
B. Product Data: Indicate standard component configuration, design loads, deflections, and cambers.
C. Fabricators Installation Instructions: Indicate special procedures and perimeter conditions requiring special attention.

1.06

QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Perform work in accordance with the requirements of PCI MNL-116, PCI MNL-123, and PCI MNL-120.
B. Maintain plant records and quality control program during production of precast slabs. Records available upon request.

1.07

QUALIFICATIONS
A. Fabricator: Company specializing in manufacturing the work of this section and PCI certified.
B. Erector: Company specializing in erecting the work is recommended.
C. Design precast concrete members in accordance with PCI Manual For The Design of Hollow Core Slabs, under direct supervision of
a Professional Structural Engineer experienced in design of this work and licensed in the state of the project.
D. Welder: Qualified in accordance with AWS D1.1.

1.08

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
A. Conform to ACI 318 code for design load and on-site construction requirements.
B. Conform to PCI MNL-124, PCI MNL-116, and PCI MNL-135.
PRE-INSTALLATIONCONFERENCE

1.09

33

A.

Discuss anchor and weld plate locations, sleeve locations, and cautions regarding cutting or core drilling.

1.10

DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING


A. Lifting or Handling Devices: Capable of supporting member in positions anticipated during manufacture, storage, transportation,
and erection.
B. Mark each member with production identification and orientation (if required.)

1.12

COORDINATION
A. Coordinate work under provisions of separate section.

2.01

FABRICATORS PCI Certified Plant

2.02

MATERIALS
A. Materials: To be in conformance with ACI 318.
B. Tensioning Steel Tendons: ASTM A416 Grade 270.
C. Reinforcing Steel: ASTM A615 or A706, deformed steel bars.
D. Sand - Cement Grout: Sufficient for placement and hydration.

2.03

ACCESSORIES
A. Connecting and Supporting Devices: Conform to PCI MNL-120 plates, angles, items cast into concrete, items connected to steel
framing members, and inserts; ASTM A36 carbon steel.
B. bearing material.

2.04

FABRICATION
A. Conform to AWS D1.4 and PCI MNL-116.
B. Embed anchors, inserts, plates, angles, and other items at locations indicated.
C. Provide openings required by other sections at locations indicated. Greater than 12 inches square or in diameter.

2.05

COMPONENTS
A. Nominal Thickness: 8 or 10 inches.
B. Nominal Width: 48 or 96 inches.

2.06

FINISHES
A. Plant Finish: Finish members to PCI MNL-116 Finish B Grade.

2.07

FABRICATION TOLERANCES
A. Conform to PCI MNL-116 and PCI MNL-135.

2.08

SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTS


A. Provide testing and analysis of site-placed concrete and grout under provisions of Section 01400.
B. Maintain shop inspection and testing reports for stressing tendons.
C. Test samples in accordance with specified ASTM and ACI standards.

3.0 ERECTION
A. Erect members without damage to structural capacity, shape, or finish. Replace or repair damaged members.
B. Align and maintain uniform horizontal and end joints as erection progresses.
C. Install bearing material or shims at bearing ends of slabs as indicated or necessary.
D. Adjust differential camber between precast members to tolerance before final attachment and grouting.
E. Adjust differential elevation between precast members to tolerance before final attachment.
F. Secure units in place. Grout slab and joints or perform welding in accordance with AWS D1.1.
3.03

ERECTION TOLERANCES
A. Erect members level and plumb within allowable tolerances.
B. All work to conform to PCI MNL-127 and PCI MNL-135.

3.04

PROTECTION OF FINISHED WORK


A. Protect members from damage from other trades by General Contractor throughout the job.

32

General Notes (Sample)


This section includes generic General Notes that may be found on erection drawings or contract documents.
1.

Precast units to be designed, detailed, manufactured, delivered, and installed by EnCon as per contract.

2.

Contractor to provide free access at job site for delivery, including temporary roadways, crane pad, and
crane path.

3.

Hollow-core units must be lifted with slings or lifting eyes unless noted otherwise.

4.

Do not lift, store, or support slabs in middle unless noted otherwise.

5.

Use bearing strips under ends of slab bearing on precast, masonry, and cast-in-place concrete.

6.

Level the slab and grout joints.

7.

Grouting of longitudinal slab joints by EnCon as per contract.

8.

Grouting of slab butt joints and end cells (if required) by EnCon as per contract.

9.

All openings under contract must be shown on this layout unless noted otherwise.

10. Any topping, mesh, and drilling or cutting of holes 12 or smaller in any direction is by others.
11. No prestressing strand and/or reinforcing shall be cut in field unless approved by EnCon Design.
12. No walls, pipe, conduit, or other objects to extend above and over bearing surface.
13. All trades are to remain off deck areas until field crews have completed erecting, leveling, and grouting.
14. Reinforcing bars for the grout joints are furnished and installed by EnCon unless noted otherwise.
15. Modifications required due to field survey may be the responsibility of the General Contractor.
16. Any and all hardware supplied by EnCon is indicated by a unique and distinct number on the erection
drawings. All other hardware shown is by others even if not explicitly stated.
17. All masonry surfaces for slab bearing must be solid and have the voids filled or have a bond beam in
place.
18. Unless the hollow-core is supported on precast, the building contractor shall be responsible for
providing true and level bearing surfaces for its support.

35

36

Company Overview
The EnCon Companies are specialty contractors providing engineered concrete products and services to the
commercial, multi-family residential, heavy highway, and public works construction communities. As a fullservice precaster, EnCon manufactures a wide range of architectural and structural building components.
Corporate offices and the design group are located in downtown Denver, Colorado. EnCon currently sells its
products in 15 states.
EnCon entered the precast/prestressed concrete market in early 1993 with the acquisition of Stresscon
Corporation, which was founded in 1969. Located on a 68-acre production facility in Colorado Springs,
Stresscon Corporation maintains a second plant 20 miles north of Denver in Dacono, Colorado. Stresscon has
been serving the Colorado and western United States building industries with quality architectural and
structural precast concrete products and innovative building solutions for over 40 years.
In 1997 EnCon acquired Atlanta Structural Concrete Company, founded in 1959, and built a new plant in
Buchanan, Georgia. Atlanta Structural, with over 50 years in the structural precast industry, constructed a
second production facility in Bainbridge, Georgia in 2006.
Five additional plants were acquired or built between 1999 and 2004, providing manufacturing locations in
Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and Denver.
The EnCon family of companies now consists of nine production facilities. The product line includes
architectural and structural building elements, bridge girders and deck panels, CarbonCast, columns, double
tees, hollow-core, insulated and non-insulated wall panels, noise walls, retaining walls, risers, spandrels,
stairs, concrete tubes / shafts for stairs, elevator and other mechanical cores. As a certified producer of the
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute and an AltusGroupTM Producer Member, EnCon is recognized among
the leading precast companies in the United States.
A broad range of products and exceptional service are the cornerstones of EnCons business philosophy.
EnCon continues to expand to meet the rising demand for precast/prestressed concrete products and services
through geographical and product diversification, cutting-edge design techniques, the development of
innovative product lines, and a strategic corporate development program. The EnCon family of companies
looks forward to increasing growth, leadership and service to the construction industry.

COLORADO

GEORGIA

OREGON

UTAH

WASHINGTON

2140 South Ivanhoe, Suite 100


Denver, CO 80222
303.298.1900

2140 South Ivanhoe, Suite 100


Denver, CO 80222
303.298.1900

8600 Welby Road


PO Box 29039
Denver, CO 80229
303.287.4312

1615 SE 6th Avenue


Camas, WA 98607
360.834.3459

101 South Industrial Loop Road


Tooele, UT 84074
435.843.4230

5415 189th Street East


Puyallup, WA 98375
253.846.2774

3210 Astrozon Boulevard


Colorado Springs, CO 80910
719.390.5041
Stresscon Denver Metro Division
5434 Grand View Boulevard
Dacono, CO 80514
303.659.6661

80 DeHunt Drive
Buchanan, GA 30113
770.646.1888