6 views

Uploaded by Emmanuel

- Level Measurement - Indirect Sensing
- ASTM D792 Densidad de Polimeros
- D2395-14 Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
- Experiment No. 1
- 2 - Estimation of Hydrodynamic Forces During Subsea Lifting
- Ether Ship Mystery
- Ate Quiz
- liquids Difference between Buoyancy
- Reservoir Lab Sheet
- Tutorial 3
- Hydraulics_-_H_W._King_and_C_O._Wisler.pdf
- Determination of API Gravity
- ISAT 2010 Solution Key PAPER 1
- Taller Ingles Recursos
- Lab 1 Drilling
- Buoyancy
- Digital Analitic Balance-2400 Series
- PHYSICSFORM4yearlylessonplan 2015
- Fluids(1)
- F.F. Grinstein and J.P. Boris- Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Buoyant Flows in Buildings

You are on page 1of 3

Preparation

Prepare for this week's quiz by reading the sections of your textbook that cover Archimedes'

Principle, buoyant forces, density, and specific gravity.

Principles

Density

The density (, pronounced "rho") of an object is the ratio of its mass to its volume:

m

=V

Since very few substances have exactly the same density, this property can be used to identify an

element or compound.

Buoyant Force

When you are swimming in a pool or in the ocean you seem to weigh less. This is because the

water exerts a buoyant force on you. The apparent loss of weight that you feel when submerged

in a liquid is exactly equal to the buoyant force the liquid exerts on you. In other words, if you

weigh yourself in air and then weigh yourself while submerged in a liquid, your weight in the

liquid, called your "apparent weight" will be the smaller of the two. This is because the liquid

exerts a larger buoyant force on you than air does. Salt water is denser than fresh water and

exerts more force; your apparent weight is less in salt water than in fresh water. In some

extremely salty bodies of water like the Salton Sea or the Dead Sea it is almost impossible to

sink.

One way to understand buoyant forces is to consider an element of volume V somewhere in a

container of liquid. This element is in equilibrium, that is, it is neither rising nor falling in the

container. This means that the weight of the liquid, which acts downward, is exactly balanced by

an upward force provided by the liquid below it. This upward force is the buoyant force. If the

volume of liquid, V, is replaced by an object of the same volume, the object will feel the same

force. The buoyant force, therefore, is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid.

Fb = mg = Vg

where is the density of the liquid, V is the volume of the submerged part of the object, and g

is the acceleration due to gravity. This is called Archimedes' principle. He is said to have

discovered this principle while he was taking a bath.

If the object's weight is less than the weight of the displaced liquid, it will float. It may also be

able to support additional weight. The amount of weight a floating object can support is the

difference between the object's weight and the weight of the liquid that the object would displace

if it were totally submerged. An object that floats will have negative apparent weight when it is

totally submerged.

Specific Gravity

The density of water is 1 gram/ cm3 which is the same as 1 x 103 kg/m3. The ratio of the density

of any solid or liquid or to that of water is called its specific gravity (S). Since it is the ratio of

two densities, specific gravity has no units and is independent of the system of measurement.

The specific gravity of a liquid can then be measured by finding the ratio of the buoyant force an

object feels in the liquid to the buoyant force it feels in water. This is the same as the ratio of the

apparent loss of weight in the liquid to the apparent loss of weight in water:

w - w1

S=w-w

2

where w, w1, and w2 represent the object's weight in air, in the liquid, and in water, respectively.

Since g is a common factor in the denominator and the numerator it can be factored out and the

specific gravity can be written in terms of the object's apparent mass in air, liquid, and water:

m - m1

S=m-m

2

Equipment

1 pan balance

1 graduated cylinder

1 beaker

4 metal cylinders with the same volume and different materials

1 wooden block

1 Vernier caliper

1 rubber band

string

Procedure

Use the CGS system of units. Measure masses to 0.1 gram. Measure lengths to 0.1 mm.

1.

Measure the mass of each cylinder and of the wood block. Guess what you think each

cylinder is made of.

2.

Use the Vernier caliper to measure the height (h) and the diameter (d = 2r) of one of the

cylinders and calculate its volume (V1). Measure the same for the plastic jar and

measure the length, width, and height of the wood block. Calculate the volume of each.

3.

Fill the graduated cylinder about half full of water. Record the water level at the bottom

of the meniscus, the curved surface of the water. Drop the cylinder whose volume you

calculated into the water and record the new water level. The difference between the two

readings is the volume of the cylinder (V2). Note that one milliliter equals one cubic

centimeter. Compare this value to the value you calculated by finding the percent error.

4.

Calculate the density of the cylinder using your measured value for the volume. Decide

what your cylinder is made of. Find the percent error for the density.

5.

Set a beaker of water on the platform attached to the balance. Tie a piece of string to the

arm of the balance and tie a rubber band to it so that you have a sling with which you can

lower objects into the water.

6.

Use the rubber band and the string to suspend each of the different cylinders in the beaker

of water and find the apparent mass of each one. Calculate the difference between the

mass in air and the apparent mass in water for each.

7.

Calculate the density of the wood block. Estimate how much of the block will be above

the water if you put it into the beaker of water. (Hint: Think about the relative densities

of the two substances.)

8.

Put the block into your beaker of water. Measure the amount of it that is above the water.

Does your measurement agree with your estimate?

9.

Estimate how much mass you can put in the plastic jar before it would just start to sink if

you put it into the beaker of water.

10.

Put your estimated amount of mass in the jar, close the lid and test your estimate. Add or

subtract mass until the jar just starts to sink.

11.

Take the masses out of the jar. Fill it with water, close it up, and find the mass. How

does it compare to the mass the jar would support? Empty the jar and dry it.

.

12.

Your instructor will have a balance and a beaker of 'unknown' liquid on the front table.

Take one of your cylinders, make sure it is dry, and find its apparent mass in the liquid.

13.

Calculate the specific gravity of the liquid. Your instructor will give you the correct

value for the specific gravity of your "unknown" liquid. Find the percent error.

14.

- Level Measurement - Indirect SensingUploaded byrom1000
- ASTM D792 Densidad de PolimerosUploaded byMonica Villaquiran C
- D2395-14 Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based MaterialsUploaded byHussein Beqai
- Experiment No. 1Uploaded byRhea Faye
- 2 - Estimation of Hydrodynamic Forces During Subsea LiftingUploaded byZharthit Phras
- Ether Ship MysteryUploaded bycaligari2000
- Ate QuizUploaded byRicardo Veloz
- liquids Difference between BuoyancyUploaded byab
- Reservoir Lab SheetUploaded bySteve Lian Kuling
- Tutorial 3Uploaded byM Syafiq Samad
- Hydraulics_-_H_W._King_and_C_O._Wisler.pdfUploaded byJerrick Antimano
- Determination of API GravityUploaded bySyiqin Zolhisham
- ISAT 2010 Solution Key PAPER 1Uploaded byprotea1611
- Taller Ingles RecursosUploaded byManuel Torres
- Lab 1 DrillingUploaded bysiti zulaikha
- BuoyancyUploaded byKyle Patrick Flynn
- Digital Analitic Balance-2400 SeriesUploaded byBernard García Durán
- PHYSICSFORM4yearlylessonplan 2015Uploaded byerawan2003
- Fluids(1)Uploaded byElijah
- F.F. Grinstein and J.P. Boris- Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Buoyant Flows in BuildingsUploaded byTremann
- Fluid DynamicsUploaded byUma Venkata Sumanth
- Plumbing Arithmetic SeriesUploaded byAnonymous J1Plmv8
- PAPER-1(2)Uploaded byAbhijeet
- et teUploaded byYuva Kishore
- EXP5.pdfUploaded byjayven minguillan
- Assael2010Uploaded byAbd Al-Rahim Al-Nokta
- Translate gerak kapalUploaded bysuci yanti
- Density Center of MassUploaded byMagdaPinzón
- Fulltext Ace v1 Id1004Uploaded byoktaviga
- measurement-161103173333Uploaded bychrist Masco

- DseUploaded byashucool999
- Laws of Motion1Uploaded byAshok Pradhan
- angry birds labUploaded byapi-237358467
- Chapter 6-Altimetry Ppl January 2015Uploaded byMustapha
- Thesis Optimal Load FlowUploaded bysnehith
- jisA5905Uploaded byIndah Fajarwati
- Part 13 Gas Well TestingUploaded byChai Cws
- 21st Blade Mechanics Seminar 2016Uploaded byTarun Bhatia
- Tutorial 6 QuestionUploaded bySyiqin Zolhisham
- Analysis on Co-Channel interference.pdfUploaded byreyambahaa
- Practical Guidelines Inspect Repair HDG Coatings 2008.pdfUploaded byArul Chinnapillai
- BlackUploaded byPavin Ka
- Section 8.9.2 Both Fluids MixedUploaded bydrdoak123
- Innovative Design Approaches for Large Wind Turbine BladesUploaded byvictoria
- Macaulay's MethodsUploaded byAfia S Hameed
- Tech Drilling CasingDesignUploaded byghassanzein
- Analysis of Frame Type Machine Foundations Thesis-shaguftaUploaded byimamta
- Tuckerman - Statistical Mechanics - NotesUploaded bypepeperez
- KP EZine 80 September 2013Uploaded byanand_kpm
- Experiments in Physical Chemistry 8th Edition PDFUploaded byJoyce
- USRE35387Uploaded byaussiebear22
- Axial StrainUploaded byNayyar Mahmood
- AISC 360-10 Example 001Uploaded byAnitha Hassan Kabeer
- 12 Dimensional AnalysisUploaded byJamba Boorun
- 유도전동기_해석실습1Uploaded byopticalwave
- Eco-friendly Green Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized using Some Common Indian SpicesUploaded bypseudomonasaeruginosa
- Session 1 Virtual WorkUploaded byyubraj
- Topik Ting 4 P2 Trial 2015 Fizik SPMUploaded bySiti Arbaiyah Ahmad
- Design of the WUFR-19 FSAE Suspension.pdfUploaded byKetan Jain
- Cat Transmitter Tr3101 (1)Uploaded byAS_865025438