You are on page 1of 8

IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 11 | May 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using


Hydrogen Blend
Patel Chetan N.
M.E Student
Department of Automobile Engineering
LDRP-ITR, Gandhinagar

Maulik A. Modi
Assistant Professor
Department of Automobile Engineering
LDRP-ITR, Gandhinagar

Abstract
In todays generation everyone is dreaming about their own car. Due to this, the number of cars& the demand of fossil fuel are
increasing day by day. But the main problem associated with the use of cars is the fuel economy & the pollution created by its use.
So to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the emission of harmful gases we should find an alternative. HHO is one of the best
alternatives, which helps for the complete combustion of the fuel & by this it also helps in reducing the emission of the harmful
gases. We have worked on the 4-stroke, Single cylinder engine for the experiments, with the use of HHO. We have supplied the
HHO gas, produced by HHO kit, at the inlet manifold of the engine. The hydrogen gas mixes with the air and improves the
combustion efficiency. We got the desirable results of reducing the specific fuel consumption and increase in the brake power as
well as increase in brake thermal efficiency and reduction in CO emission at the cost of slightly increase in NOx emission by
supplying. In the end, we have compared the readings of different parameters of the 4-stroke, Single cylinder engine without
attaching the HHO kit & after attaching the HHO kit.
Keywords: HHO KIT, Petrol Engine, Electronic Devices, Performance, U-Tube Manometer
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

Definition of Problem:
Faced with the ever increasing cost of conventional fossil fuel, researches worldwide are working overtime to cost effectively
internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel economy and emission characteristics. In recent years, many researchers have focused on
the study alternative fuels which benefit enhancing the engine economic and emission characteristics. The main pollutants from
the conventional hydrocarbon fuel are unburned partially burned hydrocarbon (UBHC), CO, oxides of nitrogen (NO X), smoke and
particulate matter. It is very thermal efficiency of diesel engines certainly has advantages for conserving energy and also solving
the greenhouse problem.
Among all fuels, hydrogen is a long term renewable, recyclable and non-polluting fuel. Hydrogen has some peculiar compared
to hydrocarbon fuels, the most significant being the absence of carbon. All regulated pollutant emissions, except nitrogen oxides,
can be simply reduced by using carbon-free fuel. This is true whatever the alternative fuel source if the production of this carbonfree fuel in large plants is more efficient and therefore produces less CO2 than direct conversion of the fuel source into mechanical
power in the internal engine.
II. HHO TECHNOLOGY
Introduction:
The HHO gas is nothing but the electrolyte from of water. It is also called as oxy hydrogen or brown gas. It is produced by
electrolysis process, where an electrical power source is connected to two electrodes and which are placed in a mixture of water
and electrolyte. Oxy hydrogen appears to be a Favorable alternative fuel on account of its high specific energy per unit weight; its
all time availability as a component of water. Good combustion characteristics and eco-friendly, fast burning and higher flame
prorogation rates are the attractive features of HHO gas. HHO gas is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gas, typically in a 2:1
atomic ratio the same prorogation as water. At normal temperature and pressure, oxy hydrogen can burn when it is between about
4% and 94% hydrogen by volume. Hydrogen fuel enhancement is a term used to describe the supplementation of an internal
combustion (ICE) with hydrogen to improve fuel efficiency and power.

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

208

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 036)

HHO KIT Components:


1) Closed Tank: - It is used to carry electrolyte and electrodes for the chemical process. Normally the used tank for the HHO kit
is made up the plastic or fibre.
2) Electrodes: - The electrodes used for the chemical of producing the HHO gas (or brown gas) are of graphite/copper.
3) Electrolyte: - Normally the electrolyte used in the HHO kit to producing the hydrogen is distilled water or NACL+H 2O
or detergent power+ H2O
4) Hoses: - The hoses are used to supply the produced hydrogen gas to the inlet manifold of the engine. The size of the hoses
depends on the capacity of the HHO kit.
5) Cables: - They are used to connect the HHO kit with the car battery for the power supply.
6) Battery: - Normally the battery used for the cars electric circuit is used to supply the power to the HHO kit to produce the
hydrogen.
7) Connectors: - The different types of clip, clamp, bolt etc. are used as connectors in the HHO kit for the connection of the kits
inlet & outlet to the battery & engines air inlet respectively.
III. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Experimental Setup Description
The setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke, multi-fuel, research engine connected to eddy type dynamometer for loading.
The operation mode of the engine can be changed from diesel to petrol or from petrol to diesel with some necessary changes. In
both modes the compression ratio can be varied without stopping the engine and without the combustion chamber geometry by
specially designed tilting cylinder block arrangement.
The setup enables study of VCR engine performance for brake power, indicated power, frictional power, BMEP, IMEP, brake
thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption, A/F ratio, heat balance and combustion analysis. Lab view
based engine performance analysis software package engine soft is provided for online performance evaluation.
Engine Starting (Petrol Mode):
-

Ensure that all foundation bolts, propeller shaft bolts and Allen bolt of tilting block (of VCR arrangement) are properly
tightened.
Ensure that engine stop lever is free and can be pulled towards engine cranking side for stopping the engine.
Ensure that decompression lever (decomp lever) is in horizontal position and CR is set at@ 6 to 10.
Connect petrol pipe to carburettor

Compression Ratio Adjustment


-

Slightly loosen 6 Allen bolts provided for clamping the tilting block.
Loosen the lock nut on the adjuster and rotate the adjuster so that the compression ratio is set to maximum. Refer the
marking on the CR indicator.
Lock the adjuster by the lock nut.

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

209

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 036)

Tighten all the 6 Allen bolts gently.


You may measure and note the centre distance between two pivot pins of the CR indicator. After changing the
compression ration the difference can be used to known new CR.

Compression Ratio Adjustment Arrangement


Performance Measurement Method
The main parameters to, ensure performance desired from the engine is listed below:
1) power production by the engine
2) engine speed (rev/min)
3) fuel consumption

HHO GAS INLET


In the present set up volumetric fuel consumption was measured using a glass burette and time was measured automatically in
program. Temperature was measured using thermocouple mounted on engine. An air box is designed to measure the volumetric
flow rate of intake air to on engine. The air box dampens out the fluctuation of the intake air.

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

210

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 036)

IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


Performance Analysis:
First of all, we have taken the readings of the simple engine and the attach the HHO kit with it to check the effect of the HHO gas
on the petrol engine.
The engine was run on different loads at 1500 rpm with HHO gas rates to investigate the effect of HHO gas on engine
performance and emissions. The performance and emission date was analyzed and presented graphically for all the different
parameters.
Effect of HHO gas on fuel consumption:
LOAD (kg)
1
3
5
7
9

Table - 4.1
observation table of fuel consumption
CR-7
CR-8
PETROL+HHO PETROL PETROL+HHO PETROL
0.689676
0.773725
0.692164
0.737802
0.733570
0.752901
0.762954
0.782973
0.874218
0.948975
0.759502
0.811850
0.93412
0.985903
0.871099
0.8952
0.96465
1.058
1.011
1.033

CR-9
PETROL+HHO
0.662783
0.659852
0.751637
0.837418
0.927027

PETROL
0.677497
0.721353
0.789882
0.860769
0.959142

Fig. 4.1: Load Vs Fuel Consumption

In this table 4.1and figure 4.1 shown for Load is increase with fuel consumption increase. But in CR-7 petrol is compare with
CR-7 petrol+HHO in fuel consumption is decrease. In this table 4.1 and figure 4.1 loads is increase with fuel consumption increase.
But in CR-8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+HHO in fuel consumption is decrease. In this table 4.1 and figure 4.1 load is
increase with fuel consumption increase. But in CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+HHO in fuel consumption is decrease.
Effect of HHO gas on Fuel Consumption is shown in table 4.1 and figure 4.1. Fuel consumption is decreased with increased
HHO gas rate.
Effect of HHO gas on BSFC:

LOAD (kg)
1
3
5
7
9

Table - 4.2
observation table of BSFC
CR-7
CR-8
PETROL+HHO PETROL PETROL+HHO PETROL
2.312579
2.561771
2.389409
2.453634
0.849686
0.852385
0.858229
0.869600
0.599642
0.648806
0.529581
0.562358
0.459160
0.482406
0.418606
0.435757
0.370007
0.404544
0.378995
0.392843

CR-9
PETROL+HHO
2.180734
0.751892
0.510572
0.401139
0.347597

PETROL
2.315996
0.830057
0.521087
0.407138
0.381657

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

211

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 036)

Fig. 4.2: LOAD Vs BSFC

In this table 4.2 and figure 4.2 shown Load is increase with brake specific fuel consumption decrease. But in CR-7 petrol is
compare with CR-7 petrol+HHO in brake fuel consumption is decrease. And CR-8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+HHO in
brake fuel consumption is decrease. In CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+HHO in brake fuel consumption is decrease.
Effect of HHO gas on BSFC is shown in table 4.2 and figure 4.2 BSFC is decreased with increased HHO gas rate, which one of
the desirable effects.
Effect on HHO gas on mechanical efficiency.
Table - 4.3
observation table of mechanical efficiency
LOAD (kg)
1
3
5
7
9

CR-7
PETROL+HHO PETROL
6.215
5.696
16.097
15.014
24.47
22.632
31.134
29.015
36.683
34.346

CR-8
PETROL+HHO PETROL
5.476
4.929
15.096
13.438
22.29
19.93
29.388
26.156
34.785
31.193

CR-9
PETROL+HHO PETROL
5.73
4.801
14.931
13.031
22.746
20.72
29.454
26.714
34.785
30.231

Fig. 4.3: Load Vs Mechanical Efficiency

In this table 4.3 and figure 4.3 Load is increase with mechanical efficiency increase. But in CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7
petrol+HHO in mechanical efficiency will be increase. And other CR-8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+HHO in mechanical
efficiency will be increase. In CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9 petrol+HHO in mechanical efficiency will be increase.

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

212

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 036)

Effect of HHO gas on mechanical efficiency is shown in table 4.3 and figure 4.3 Mechanical Efficiency is increased with increased
HHO gas rate, which one of the desirable effects.
Effect of HHO gas on brake thermal efficiency.
Table - 4.4
Observation table of brake thermal efficiency
CR-7
CR-8

LOAD (kg)

CR-9

PETROL+HHO

PETROL

PETROL+HHO

PETROL

PETROL+HHO

PETROL

1.299

1.173

1.258

1.225

1.378

1.297

3.536

3.525

3.501

3.455

3.996

3.62

5.011

4.631

5.674

5.343

5.885

5.766

6.544

6.229

7.178

6.895

7.491

7.38

8.121

7.428

7.929

7.649

8.644

7.873

Fig. 4.4: Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency

In table 4.4 and figure 4.4 the effect of compression ratio on brake thermal efficiency is shown for all different petrol and
petrol+HHO blend. In CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7 petrol+HHO in brake thermal efficiency will be increase. And CR-8
petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+HHO in brake thermal efficiency will be increase. CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9
petrol+HHO in brake thermal efficiency will be increase.
Effect of HHO gas on Brake thermal Efficiency is shown in table 4.4 and figure 4.4 Brake thermal efficiency is increased with
increased is HHO gas rate.
Effect of HHO gas on indicated thermal efficiency:Table - 4.5
Observation table of indicated thermal efficiency
CR-7
CR-8

LOAD (kg)

CR-9

PETROL+HHO

PETROL

PETROL+HHO

PETROL

PETROL+HHO

PETROL

20.905

20.59

22.963

24.846

24.046

27.021

21.969

23.48

23.193

25.714

26.765

27.78

20.478

20.463

25.455

26.81

25.873

27.83

21.019

21.467

25.425

26.363

25.431

27.627

22.138

21.626

22.792

24.521

24.851

26.043

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

213

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 036)

Fig. 4.5: Load Vs Indicated thermal efficiency

In table 4.5 and figure 4.5 the effect of compression ratio on indicated thermal efficiency is shown for all different petrol and
petrol+HHO blend. In CR-7 petrol is compare with CR-7 petrol+HHO in indicated thermal efficiency will be decrease. And CR8 petrol is compare with CR-8 petrol+HHO in indicated thermal efficiency will be decrease. CR-9 petrol is compare with CR-9
petrol+HHO in indicated thermal efficiency will be decrease.
Effect of HHO gas on Indicated Thermal Efficiency is shown in table 4.5 and figure 4.5. Indicated Efficiency is decreased with
increased HHO gas rate.
Effect of HHO gas on brake power:
LOAD (kg)
1
3
5
7
9

Table - 4.6
observation table of brake power
CR-7
CR-8
PETROL+HHO PETROL PETROL+HHO PETROL
0.29822
0.302027
0.28968
0.30069
0.86334
0.883287
0.88898
0.90038
1.458
1.463
1.434
1.444
2.034
2.044
2.081
2.054
2.607
2.616
2.667
2.629

CR-9
PETROL+HHO PETROL
0.30392
0.292529
0.87758
0.869040
1.472
1.516
2.088
2.114
2.667
2.513

Fig. 5.6: Load Vs Brake Power

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

214

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by using Hydrogen Blend


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 11 / 036)

In table 4.6 and figure 4.6 the effect of compression ratio on brake power is shown for all different petrol and petrol+HHO blend.
In load is increase with brake power is increases. But different compression ratio petrol and petrol+HHO value is approximate
same not major difference.
Effect of HHO gas on Brake Power is shown in table 4.6 and figure 4.6. Brake Power is decreased with increased HHO gas rate.
V. CONCLUSION
In present study the effect of HHO gas on performance was experimentally investigated. HHO gas was supplied with intake air,
and performance and was experimentally investigated.
Great reduction in specific fuel consumption (SFC) is achieved. Great amount of specific fuel consumption (SFC) is reduced
with increased in HHO gas rate. Mechanical Efficiency is increased with increased HHO gas rate. Brake thermal efficiency is
increased with increased is HHO gas rate. Indicated Efficiency is decreased with increased HHO gas rate. Brake Power is decreased
with increased HHO gas rate.
APPENDIX
Cost Estimation of HHO Kit
For our experimental work, we have made the HHO kit to supply the hydrogen gas to the air inlet of the engine. We have used the
following components to prepare the HHO kit. The cost estimation of all the components is as shown in the table below
Table 6
Cost Estimation of HHO kit components
Sr.No Name of Component Quantity Cost(Rs.)
1
Air-tight Container
1
150
2
Electrodes
4
200
3
Electrolyte
1
15
4
Cables
2
50
5
Connectors
4
200
6
Hose Pipes
1
150
7
3-way valve
2
100
8
M-seal
2
60
9
Teflon tube
2
50
Total
975

REFERENCES
[1]
[2]

Santilli, R. M. (2006). A new gaseous and combustible form of water. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 31(9), 1113-1128.
Yilmaz, A. C., Uludamar, E., & Aydin, K. (2010). Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition
engines. international journal of hydrogen energy, 35(20), 11366-11372.
[3] Bari, S., & Esmaeil, M. M. (2010). Effect of H 2/O 2 addition in increasing the thermal efficiency of a diesel engine. Fuel, 89(2), 378-383.
[4] Miyamoto, T., Hasegawa, H., Mikami, M., Kojima, N., Kabashima, H., & Urata, Y. (2011). Effect of hydrogen addition to intake gas on combustion and
exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine. International journal of hydrogen energy, 36(20), 13138-13149.
[5] Birtas, A., Voicu, I., Petcu, C., Chiriac, R., & Apostolescu, N. (2011). The effect of HRG gas addition on diesel engine combustion characteristics and exhaust
emissions. international journal of hydrogen energy, 36(18), 12007-12014.
[6] Wang, H. K., Cheng, C. Y., Chen, K. S., Lin, Y. C., & Chen, C. B. (2012). Effect of regulated harmful matters from a heavy-duty diesel engine by H 2/O 2
addition to the combustion chamber. Fuel, 93, 524-527.
[7] Greenwood, J. B., Erickson, P. A., Hwang, J., & Jordan, E. A. (2014). Experimental results of hydrogen enrichment of ethanol in an ultra-lean internal
combustion engine. international journal of hydrogen energy, 39(24), 12980-12990.
[8] Sandalc, T., & Karagz, Y. (2014). Experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics, emissions and performance of hydrogen port fuel injection
in a diesel engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(32), 18480-18489.
[9] Deb, M., Sastry, G. R. K., Bose, P. K., & Banerjee, R. (2015). An experimental study on combustion, performance and emission analysis of a single cylinder,
4-stroke DI-diesel engine using hydrogen in dual fuel mode of operation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.
[10] Google Images
[11] Wikipedia- The free encyclopedia
[12] http://www.hydrodynamicshho.com/hho-for-cars

All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

215