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Introduction to

Solid State Physics


EIGHTH EDITION

Charles Kittel

Professor Emeritus
University ofCalifornia, Berkeley

Chapter 18, Nanostructures, was written by


Professor Paul McEuen of Cornell University.

John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Contents

CHAPTER 1 : CRYSTAL STRUCTURE


Periodic Array of Atoms

1
3

Lattice Translation Vectors

Basis and the Crystal Structure

Primitive Lattice Cell

Fundamental Types of Lattices

Two-Dimensional Lattice Types

Three-Dimensional Lattice Types

Index Systems for Crystal Planes

11

Simple Crystal Structures

13

Sodium Chloride Structure

13

Cesium Chloride Structure

14

Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure (hcp)

15

Diamond Structure

16

Cubic Zinc Sulfide Structure

17

Direct Imaging of Atomic Structure

18

Nonideal Crystal Structures

18

Random Stacking and Polytypism

19

Crystal Structure Data

19

Summary

22

Problems

22

CHAPTER 2 : WAVE DIFFRACTION AND THE RECIPROCAL


LATTICE

23

Diffraction of Waves by Crystals

25

Bragg Law
Scattered Wave Amplitude

25
26

Fourier Analysis

27

Reciprocal Lattice Vectors

29

Diffraction Conditions

30

Laue Equations

32

Brillouin Zones

33

Reciprocal Lattice to sc Lattice

34

Reciprocal Lattice to bcc Lattice

36

Reciprocal Lattice to fcc Lattice

37

Motion in Magnetic Fields


Hall Effect
Thermal Conductivity of Metals
Ratio ofThermal to Electrical Conductivity
Problems
CHAPTER 7: ENERGY BANDS

Nearly Free Electron Model


Origin ofthe Energy Gap
Magnitude ofthe Energy Gap
Bloch Functions
Kronig-Penney Model
Wave Equation of Electron in a
Periodic Potential
Restatement ofthe Bloch Theorem
Crystal Momentum of an Electron
Solution ofthe Central Equation
Kronig-Penney Model in Reciprocal Space
Empty Lattice Approximation
Approximate Solution Near a Zone Boundary
Number of Orbitals in a Band
Metals and Insulators
Summary
Problems
CHAPTER H: SEMICONDUCTOR CRYSTALS

Band Gap
Equations of Motion
Physical Derivation of ,k = F
Holes
Effective Mass
Physical Interpretation of the Effective Mass
Effective Masses in Semiconductors
Silicon and Germanium
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration
Intrinsic Mobility
Impurity Conductivity
Donor States
Acceptor States
Thermal Ionization of Donors and Acceptors

Contents

Thermoelectric Effects
Semimetals
Superlattices
Bloch Oscillator
Zener Tunneling
Summary

CHAPTER 9:

214
215
216

217
217

217

Problems

218

FERMI SURFACES AND METALS


Reduced Zone Scheme
Periodic Zone Scheme

221

Construction of Fermi Surfaces


Nearly Free Electrons

226

Electron Orbits, Hole Orbits, and Open Orbits

230

Calculation of Energy Bands


Tight Binding Method ofEnergy Bands
Wigner-Seitz Method
Cohesive Energy
Pseudopotential Methods

232

Experimental Methods in Fermi Surface Studies


Quantization of Orbits in a Magnetic Field
De Haas-van Alphen Effect
Extremal Orbits
Fermi Surface of Copper
Magnetic Breakdown

242

Summary

252

Problems

252

CHAPTER 10: SUPERCONDUCTIVITY


Experimental Survey
Occurrence of Superconductivity
Destruction of Superconductivity of Magnetic Fields
Meissner Effect
Heat Capacity
Energy Gap
Microwave and Infrared Properties
Isotope Effect
Theoretical Survey
Thermodynamics ofthe Superconducting Transition
London Equation

223
225
228

232
236
237
239
242
244
248
249
251

257
259

260
262
262
264
266
268
269

270

270
273

Coherence Length
BCS Theory of Superconductivity
BCS Ground State
Flux Quantization in a Superconducting Ring
Duration of Persistent Currents
Type II Superconductors
Vortex State
Estimation of H, l and H.2
Single Particle Tunneling
Josephson Superconductor Tunneling
Dc Josephson Effect
Ac Josephson Effect
Macroscopic Quantum Interference

276
277
278
279
282
283
284
284
287
289
289
290
292

High-Temperature Superconductors

293

Summary

294

Problems

294

Reference

296

CHAPTER 11 : DIAMAGNETISM AND PARAMAGNETISM

297

Langevin Diamagnetism Equation

299

Quantum Theory of Diamagnetism of


Mononuclear Systems

301

Paramagnetism

302

Quantum Theory of Paramagnetism


Rare Earth Ions
Hund Rules
Iron Group Ions
Crystal Field Splitting
Quenching of the Orbital Angular Momentum
Spectroscopic Splitting Factor
Van Vleck Temperature-Independent Paramagnetism

302
305
306
307
307
308
311
311

Cooling by Isentropic Demagnetization


Nuclear Demagnetization

312
314

Paramagnetic Susceptibility of Conduction Electrons

315

Summary

317

Problems

318

CHAPTER 12 : FERROMAGNETISM AND ANTIFERROMAGNETISM

321

Ferromagnetic Order
Curie Point and the Exchange Integral

323
323

Contents

Temperature Dependence of the Saturation


Magnetization
Saturation Magnetization at Absolute Zero

326
328

Magnons
Quantization of Spin Waves
Thermal Excitation of Magnons

330
333
334

Neutron Magnetic Scattering

335

Ferrimagnetic Order
Curie Temperature and Susceptibility
of Ferrimagnets
Iron Garnets

336

Antiferromagnetic Order
Susceptibility Below the N6el Temperature
Antiferromagnetic Magnons

340
343
344

Ferromagnetic Domains
Anisotropy Energy
Transition Region between Domains
Origin of Domains
Coercivity and Hysteresis

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348
349
351
352

Single Domain Particles


Geomagnetism and Biomagnetism
Magnetic Force Microscopy

354
355
355

Summary

356

Problems

357

CHAPTER 13 : MAGNETIC RESONANCE

361

338
339

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance


Equations of Motion

363
366

Line Width
Motional Narrowing

370
371

Hyperfine Splitting
Examples: Paramagnetic Point Defects
F Centers in Alkali Halides
Donor Atoms in Silicon
Knight Shift

373
375
376
376
377

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance

379

Ferromagnetic Resonance
Shape Effects in FMR
Spin Wave Resonance

379
380
382

Antiferromagnetic Resonance

383

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance


Exchange Narrowing
Zero-field Splitting
Principle of Maser Action
Three-Level Maser
Lasers
Summary
Problems
CHAPTER 14 : PLASMONS, POLARITONS, AND POLARONS

Dielectric Function of the Electron Gas


Definitions of the Dielectric Function
Plasma Optics
Dispersion Relation for Electromagnetic Waves
Transverse Optical Modes in a Plasma
Transparency of Metals in the Ultraviolet
Longitudinal Plasma Oscillations
Plasmons
Electrostatic Screening

Screened Coulomb Potential

Pseudopotential Component U(0)


Mott Metal-Insulator Transition
Screening and Phonons in Metals
Polaritons
LST Relation
Electron-Electron Interaction
Fermi Liquid
Electron-Electron Collisions
Electron-Phonon Interaction :
Polarons
Peierls Instability of Linear
Metals
Summary
Problems
CHAPTER 15 : OPTICAL PROCESSES AND EXCITONS

Optical Reflectance
Kramers-Kronig Relations
Mathematical Note

Contents

Example : Conductivity of collisionless


Electron Gas
Electronic Interband Transitions

433
434

Excitons
Frenkel Excitons
Alkali Halides
Molecular Crystals
Weakly Bound (Mott-Wannier) Excitons
Exciton Condensation into Electron-Hole
Drops (EHD)

435
437
440
440
441

Raman Effects in Crystals


Electron Spectroscopy with X-Rays

444
447

Energy Loss of Fast Particles in a Solid

448

Summary

449

Problems

450

CHAPTER 16 : DIELECTRICS AND FERROELECTRICS


Maxwell Equations
Polarization

441

453
455
455

Macroscopic Electric Field


Depolarization Field, Ez

456
458

Local Electric Field at an Atom


Lorentz Field, E2
Field of Dipoles Inside Cavity, E3

460
462
462

Dielectric Constant and Polarizability


Electronic Polarizability
Classical Theory of Electronic Polarizability

463
464
466

Structural Phase Transitions

467

Ferroelectric Crystals
Classification of Ferroelectric Crystals

467
469

Displacive Transitions
Soft Optical Phonons
Landau Theory ofthe Phase Transition
Second-Order Transition
First-Order Transition
Antiferroelectricity
Ferroelectric Domains
Piezoelectricity

471
473
474
475
477
479
479
481

Summary

482

Problems

483

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CHAPTER 17 : SURFACE AND INTERFACE PHYSICS


Reconstruction and Relaxation
Surface Crystallography
Reflection High-Energy Electron
Diffraction
Surface Electronic Structure
Work Function
Thermionic Emission
Surface States
Tangential Surface Transport
Magnetoresistance in a Two-Dimensional
Channel
Integral Quantized Hall Effect (IQHE)
IQHE in Real Systems
Fractional Quantized Hall Effect (FQHE)
p-n junctions
Rectification
Solar Cells and Photovoltaic Detectors
Schottky Barrier
Heterostructures
n-N Heterojunction
Semiconductor Lasers
Light-Emitting Diodes
Problems
CHAPTER 1S : NANOSTRUCTURES
Imaging Techniques for Nanostructures
Electron Microscopy
Optical Microscopy
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Atomic Force Microscopy
Electronic Structure of 1D Systems
One-Dimensional Subbands
Spectroscopy of Van Hove Singularities
1D Metals - Coluomb Interactions and Lattice
Copulings
Electrical Transport in 1D
Conductance Quantization and the Landauer
Formula
Two Barriers in Series-resonant Tunneling
Incoherent Addition and Ohm's Law

Contents

Localization
Voltage Probes and the Buttiker-Landauer
Formalism

539
540

Electronic Structure of OD Systems


Quantized Energy Levels
Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Metallic Dots
Discrete Charge States

545
545
545
547
549

Electrical Transport in OD
Coulomb Oscillations
Spin, Mott Insulators, and the Kondo Effect
Cooper Pairing in Superconducting Dots

551
551
554
556

Vibrational and Thermal Properties of


Nanostructures
Quantized Vibrational Modes
Transverse Vibrations
Heat Capacity and Thermal Transport

557
557
559
561

Summary

562

Problems

562

CHAPTER 1.9: NONCRYSTALLINE SOLIDS

565

Diffraction Pattern
Monatomic Amorphous Materials
Radial Distribution Function
Structure of Vitreous Silica, Si0 2

567
568
569
570

Glasses
Viscosity and the Hopping Rate

573
574

Amorphous Ferromagnets

575

Amorphous Semiconductors

577

Low Energy Excitations in Amorphous Solids


Heat Capacity Calculation
Thermal Conductivity

578
578
579

Fiber Optics
Rayleigh Attenuation

581
582

Problems

582

CHAPTER 20: POINT DEFECTS

583

Lattice Vacancies

585

Diffusion
Metals

588
591

xvii

Color Centers
F Centers
Other Centers in Alkali Halides
Problems
CHAPTER 21 : DISLOCATIONS

592
592
593
595
597

Shear Strength of Single Crystals


Slip

599
600

Dislocations
Burgers Vectors
Stress Fields ofDislocations
Low-angle Grain Boundaries
Dislocation Densities
Dislocation Multiplication and Slip

601
604
605
607
610
611

Strength of Alloys

613

Dislocations and Crystal Growth


Whiskers

615
616

Hardness of Materials

617

Problems

618

CHAPTER 22 : ALLOYS

619

General Considerations

621

Substitutional Solid SolutionsHume-Rothery Rules

624

Order-Disorder Transformation
Elementary Theory of Order

627
629

Phase Diagrams
Eutectics

632
632

Transition Metal Alloys


Electrical Conductivity

634
636

Kondo Effect

637

Problems

640

APPENDIX A :

TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE REFLECTION LINES

641

APPENDIX B :

EWALD CALCULATION OF LATTICE SUMS

644

Ewald-Kornfeld Method for Lattice Sums


for Dipole Arrays

647

Contents
APPENDIX C :

QUANTIZATION OF ELASTIC WAVES : PHONONS


Phonon Coordinates

649

Creation and Annihilation Operators

651

APPENDIX D :

FERMI- DIRAC DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

APPENDIX E :

DERIVATION OF THE

APPENDIX F :

BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION

APPENDIX G :

648

dICdt EQUATION

652
655
656

Particle Diffusion

657

Classical Distribution

658

Fermi-Dirac Distribution

659

Electrical Conductivity

661

VECTOR POTENTIAL, FIELD MOMENTUM,


AND GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS

661

Lagrangian Equations of Motion

662

Derivation of the Hamiltonian

663

Field Momentum

663

Gauge Transformation
Gauge in the London Equation

664
665

APPENDIX H :

COOPER PAIRS

665

APPENDIX 1 :

GINZBURG-LANDAU EQUATION

667

APPENDIX J :

ELECTRON-PHONON COLLISIONS

671

INDEX

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