You are on page 1of 11

LABORATORY EXAMS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

1. CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY
Name of Examination: Complete Blood Count
Definition:
A complete blood count or CBC is an easy and very common test
that screens for certain disorders that can affect the health. A CBC
measured several components of blood and can help diagnose a broad
range of conditions, from anemia and infection to cancer.
Preparation:
Explain the procedure to patient
Inform that 5- 10 ml of sample of venous blood is to be obtained in
a tube.
Inform that no fluid or food restriction is required.
Purpose:
This is to determine the possibility of blood disorders, infections and
inflammation.

Examinatio
ns

Results
09/06/16
10:02 pm

Units

Normal
Values

Significance

Hemoglobin

99

g/L

120-160

Decreased due to uterine


bleeding

Hematocrit

0.31

L/L

0.37-0.47

Red Blood
Cell

3.59

10^12/L

4.2-5.4

Decreased due to uterine


bleeding

White Blood
Cell

7.17

10^9/L

4.5-11

Within normal range

Segmenters

0.54

0.50-0.70

Within normal range

Lymphocyt
e

0.33

0.20-0.40

Within normal range

Eosinophils

0.07

0.01-0.04

Increased may be due to


inflammation in muscular wall

Decreased due to uterine


bleeding

Monocyte

0.05

0.04-0.08

Within normal range.

Basophil

0.01

0.00-0.01

Within normal range

MCH

27.50

Fmol

27.2733.27

Within normal range

MCV

86.10

fL

83.89100.7

Within normal range

g/L

31.8533.87

Within normal range.

10^9/L

150-450

Within normal range.

MCHC

Platelet

31.90

adequate

Name of Examination: Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)


Definition:
A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen
in the blood that comes from the waste product urea. Urea is made when
protein is broken down in the body. Urea is made in the liver and passed
out of the body in the urine.
A BUN test is done to see how well the kidneys are working. If the
kidneys are not able to remove urea from the blood normally, the BUN
level rises. Heart failure, dehydration, or a diet high in protein can also
make the BUN level higher. Liver disease or damage can lower the BUN
level.
Preparation:
Do not eat a lot of meat or other protein in the 24 hours before
having blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test
Purpose:
See if the kidneys are working normally.
See if kidney disease is getting worse.
See if treatment of kidney disease is working.
Check for severe dehydration. Dehydration generally causes BUN
levels to rise more than creatinine levels. This causes a high BUNto-creatinine ratio. Kidney disease or blockage of the flow of urine
from the kidney causes both BUN and creatinine levels to go up.

BUN

RESULTS
09/06/16
11:27pm

Units

Normal
Values

Significance

4.30

mmol/L

2.5-6.4

Within normal range

Name of Examination: Creatinine


Definition:
Creatinine is a waste product from the normal breakdown of
muscle tissue. As creatinine is produced, it's filtered through the kidneys
and excreted in urine. Doctors measure the blood creatinine level as a
test of kidney function. The kidneys' ability to handle creatinine is called
the creatinine clearance rate, which helps to estimate the glomerular
filtration rate (GFR) -- the rate of blood flow through the kidneys.
The amount of blood the kidneys can make creatinine-free each
minute is called the creatinine clearance. Creatinine clearance in a
healthy young person is about 125 milliliters per minute -- meaning each
minute, that person's kidneys clear 125 mL of blood free of creatinine.
The GFR can vary depending on age, sex, and size. Generally, the
creatinine clearance is a good estimation of the glomerular filtration rate.
Preparation:
Stop taking certain drugs that may affect the test. Such drugs
include:

Aminoglycosides (for example, gentamycin)

Cimetidine

Heavy metal chemotherapy drugs (for example, cisplatin)

Kidney damaging drugs such as cephalosporin (for


example, cephalexin)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Trimethoprim
Purpose:
The test is done to see how well the kidneys work. Creatinine is
removed from the body entirely by the kidneys. If kidney
function is abnormal, creatinine levels will increase in the blood
(because less creatinine is released through your urine).
Creatinine levels also vary according to a person's size and
muscle mass.

Creatinine

Result
09/06/16
11:27pm
84.39

Units

Normal
Values

Significance

Umol/L

49-115

Within normal range

Name of Examination: Serum Sodium


Definition:
This is a laboratory test which measures the level of serum sodium.
Sodium is the major cation in the extracellular fluid; and it is noted for its
water-retaining property.
Preparation:
There is no special patient preparation. However, if the patient has
eaten a meal with very high sodium content in the past 24 hours, this
should be noted because it may affect the test. A serum sodium test is
rarely ordered alone. This test is usually a part of a panel of electrolyte
tests ordered at the same time.

Purpose:
This test evaluates changes in the body sodium levels and
diagnoses electrolyte and acid base imbalances.

Sodium

Result
09/06/1
6
11:27p
m

Unit

Normal
Values

Significance

141.20

mEq/
L

135-148

Within normal range

Name of Examination: Potassium (K) (serum)


Definition:
Potassium is an electrolyte found most abundantly in intracellular
fluids (cells). The serum potassium has a narrow range, and cardiac
arrest could occur if serum level is less than 2.5mEq/l or greater than
7mEq/l.
80% to 90% of the body potassium is excreted by the kidneys.
When there is tissue breakdown, potassium leaves the cells and enters
extracellular fluid (interstitial and intravascular fluids). With adequate
kidney functions, the potassium in the intravascular fluid (plasma/blood
vessels) will be excreted, and with excessive potassium excretion, a
serum potassium deficit (hypokalemia) occurs. However, if the kidneys
are excreting less than 600 ml of urine daily, potassium will accumulate
in the intravascular fluid and some potassium excess (hypokalemia) will
occur.
The body does not conserve potassium, and the kidneys excrete an
average of 40 mEq/l daily (the range is 25 to 120 mEq/l/24h), even with a
low dietvary potassium intake. The daily potassium requirement is 3 to 4
g, or 40 to 60 mEq/l.
Preparation
Food, fluid and drug restrictions are not necessary.
Collect 3 to 5 ml of venous blood in a red-top tube. Avoid
hemolysis.
Avoid leaving the tourniquet on for greater than 2 minutes if
possible.
Purposes:
To check for Potassium level
To detect the presence of hypo- or hyperkalemia
To monitor potassium levels during health problems (i.e. renal
insufficiency, debilitating illness) and with certain drugs (i.e.
thiazide diuretics).

Potassium

Result
09/06/1
6
11:27p
m
3.33

Units
mmol/
L

Normal
Values
3.5-5.3

Significance
Decreased may be due
to tissue breakdown
(leading to myoma),

potassium leaves the


cells and enters
extracellular fluid
(interstitial and
intravascular fluids).
With adequate kidney
functions, the
potassium in the
intravascular fluid
(plasma/blood vessels)
will be excreted, and
with excessive
potassium excretion,
hypokalemia occurs.
Name of Examination: ALT/SGPT
Definition:
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found and produced
mostly in the cells of the liver. Moderate amounts are found in kidney
cells; much smaller amounts of it are also found in the heart, pancreas,
spleen, skeletal muscle and red blood cells. In healthy individuals, ALT
levels in the blood are low. When the liver is damaged, ALT is released
into the blood stream, usually before more obvious symptoms of liver
damage occur, such as jaundice. This makes ALT a useful test for
detecting liver damage.
Preparation:
There is no food or fluid restriction.
Collect 3 to 5 mL of venous in a red top tube. Avoid hemolysis,
because RBCs have a high concentration of ALT.
Drugs administered to the client that can cause false positive
levels should be listed on the laboratory slip along with the date
last given.
Purpose:
Identify liver disease, especially cirrhosis and hepatitis caused by
alcohol, drugs, or viruses.
Help check for liver damage.
Monitor liver damage resulting from hepatotoxic drugs.

ALT/SGPT

Results
09/06/16
11:27pm
28.77 U/L

Normal values

Significance

12-78

Within normal range

Name of Examination: AST/SGOT


Definition:
Aspartate aminotransferase/serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
(AST/SGOT) is an enzyme found mainly in the heart muscle and liver, with
moderate amounts in skeletal muscle, the kidneys, and the pancreas. Its
concentration is low in the blood except when there is cellular injury, and then
large amounts are released into circulation.
High levels of serum AST are found following an acute myocardial infarction (MI)
and liver damage. Six to 10 hours after an acute MI, AST leaks out of the heart
muscle and reaches its peak in 24 to 48 hours after the infarction. The serum
AST level returns normal 4 to 6 days later if there is no additional infarction.
Serum AST is usually compared with other cardiac enzymes (creatinine kinase
[CK]. Lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]).
In liver disease, the serum level increases by 10 times or more and
remains elevated for a longer period of time.
Preparation:
There is no food or fluid restriction.
Collect 3 to 5 mL venous blood in a red top tube. Avoid hemolysis.
Draw blood before drugs are given. The enzyme will remain stable for 4
days, refrigerated.
List on the laboratory slip drugs the client is taking that can cause false
positive levels, with the date and time last given
Purpose:
To detect an elevation of serum AST, an enzyme found mainly in the
heart muscle and liver that increases during an acute MI and liver
damage.
To compare AST results with CK and LDH for diagnosing an acute MI.

Results

AST/SGOT

09/06/16
11:27pm

Normal values

Significance

17.00 U/L

15-37

Within normal
range

Name of Examination: Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)


Definition:
A test to determine how much glucose (sugar) is in a blood sample
after an overnight fast. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells
of the body, including those in the brain. Insulin is a hormone that helps
your bodys cells use the glucose. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and
released into the blood when the amount of glucose in the body rises.
Preparation:
NPO for 8 hours before the test
Purpose:
The doctor may order this test if a person have signs of diabetes.
However, other tests (glucose tolerance test and fasting blood glucose
test) are better for diagnosing diabetes.The blood glucose test is also
used to monitor patients who have the diabetes. It may also be done if
you have:
A change in behavior
Fainting spells
Seizures for the first time
Examination
FBS

Results
09/07/16
10:12 PM
5.89

Units
Mmol/L

Normal
Values
4.1-5.9

Significance
Within normal
range

Name of Examination: Cholesterol


Definition:
Cholesterol is a blood liquid synthesized by the liver and is found in
red blood cells, cell membranes and muscles. About 70% of cholesterol is
esterified (combined with fatty acids), and 30% is the free form.
Cholesterol is used by the body to form bile salts for fat digestion and for
the formation of hormones by the adrenal glands, ovaries and testes.
Thyroid hormones and estrogen decreased the concentration of
cholesterol, and an oophorectomy increases it.
Serum cholesterol is used as an indicator of atherosclerosis and
coronary artery disease. Hypercholesterolemia causes plaque deposits in
the coronary arteries, thus contributing to myocardial infarction. High
serum cholesterol levels can be due to a familial tendecy, biliary
obstruction, and/or dietary intake.

Preparation:
Preparation requirements for all these tests vary from laboratory to
laboratory, so it is generally considered best that the patient be in
fasting state (nothing to eat or drink) after midnight the day before the
test(s).
Purpose:
This test measures serum HDL and LDL levels; investigates
hypercholesterolemia.

Examination
Cholesterol

Result
09/07/16
10:12 PM
4.06

Units
Mmol/L

Normal
Values
1.3-5.2

Significance
Within
normal
range.

Name of Examination: Triglycerides


Definition:
Serum triglyceride analysis provides quantitative analysis of
triglycerides, the main storage form of lipids.
Preparation:
Preparation requirements for all these tests vary from laboratory to
laboratory, so it is generally considered best that the patient be in
fasting state (nothing to eat or drink) after midnight the day before the
test(s).
Purpose:
This test screens for hyperlipidemia or pancreatitis as well as calculates
the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level.
Examination
Triglycerides

Result
09/07/16
10:12 PM
1.66

Units
Mmol/L

Normal
Values
0.17-1.70

Significance
Within
normal range

Name of Examination: High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)


Definition:
High-density lipoprotein and Low-density lipoprotein are the major
transport proteins for cholesterol in the body.
Preparation:
Preparation requirements for all these tests vary from laboratory to
laboratory, so it is generally considered best that the patient be in

fasting state (nothing to eat or drink) after midnight the day before the
test(s).
Purpose:
This test measures serum HDL levels.
Examination
HDL

Results
09/07/16
10:12 PM
0.94

Units

Normal
Values

Mmol/L

0.90-1.55

Significance
Within
normal
range.

Name of Examination: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)


Definition:
High-density lipoprotein and Low-density lipoprotein are the major
transport proteins for cholesterol in the body.
Preparation:
Preparation requirements for all these tests vary from laboratory to
laboratory, so it is generally considered best that the patient be in
fasting state (nothing to eat or drink) after midnight the day before the
test(s).
Purpose:
This test measures LDL levels.
Examination
LDL

Result
09/07/16
10:12 PM
2.37

Units
Mmol/L

Normal
Values
0-3.9

Significance
Within
normal
range.

Name of Examination: Prothrombin Time


Definition:
Prothombin (factor II of the coagulation factors) is synthesized by the
liver and is an inactive precursor in the clotting process. Prothombin is
converted to thrombin by the action of thromboplastin, which is needed to form
a blood clot.
The prothrombin time (PT) measures the clotting ability of factors I
(fibrinogen), II (prothombin), V, VII and X. Alterations of factors V and VII will
prolong the PT for about 2 seconds, or 10% normal. In liver disease the PT is
usually prolonged, because the liver cells cannot synthesize prothombin.
The major use of the PT is to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy (i.e., with
bishydroxycoumarin (dicumarol) and warfarin sodium (Coumadin).

Preparation:
There is no food or fluid restriction.

The INR may be checked with a Coaguchek test performed with a


finger prick.
The collection tube for the PT test should contain an anticoagulant,
either sodiumoxalate or sodium citrate.
Collect 3 to 5 ml of venous blood in a black-top tube (sodium
oxalate).
The blood must be tested within 1 hour after it has been drawn.
The tube should be filled to its capacity. Some black-top tubes
contain sodium citrate, so check the laboratory.

Purpose:
To identify individuals who may be prone to bleeeding during
surgical, obstetrical, dental, or invasive diagnostic procedures; monitor
anticoagulant warfarin therapy.

09/16/16
10:18 pm

Units

Normal
Values

Significance

APTT
APTT

28.4

sec

24-35

Within normal range

Control

33.8

sec

26-38

Within normal range

Patient

12.7

sec

11.5-15.5

% Activity

100.0

INR

1.00

Normal Control

96

Protime

Within normal range

75-101

Name of Examination: Blood Typing


Definition:
Blood typing is a method to tell what specific type of blood you
have. What type you have depends on whether or not there are certain
proteins, called antigens, on your red blood cells.
Preparation:
No special preparation is necessary for this test.
Purpose:
This test is done to determine a person's blood type. Health care
providers need to know your blood type when you get a blood
transfusion or transplant, because not all blood types are compatible
with each other. For example:
If you have type A blood, you can only receive types A and O blood.
If you have type B blood, you can only receive types B and O
blood.
If you have type AB blood, you can receive types A, B, AB, and O
blood.

If you have type O blood, you can only receive type O blood.

Examination
Blood Typing
Patients blood
type
Rh

Result
09/06/16
10:02 PM

Units

POS (+)

Normal Values
-