You are on page 1of 8

Ejercicio

2: Estructuras sedimentarias
GEOL 245 Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks
EL obje4vo de este ejercicio es examinar 20 fotogra:as de formas de lecho (bedforms) y
Sedimentary Structures (Laboratory exercise)
estructuras sedimentarias comunes, y realizar algunas interpretaciones preliminares.
The purpose
of this exercise is for you to examine some photographs of sedimentary structures and fabrics, and to make some

preliminary interpretations of what you see. Ideally, we would examine structures in the field, but time of year and our location makes
this difficult. For some, there will be opportunities to examine sedimentary structures during field courses.

Examine all the photographs (2 ) and answer the questions. Please hand in your written answers.

1. Vista de la base de una capa de


1. In this image you are
arenisca. Nombre esas
looking at the base of a bed
estructuras e indique la direccin
of sandstone. Name these
de la corriente (de A hacia B, o B
structures and state whether
hacia A)
the current flow was likely

from A to B, or B to A.
Cual es el escenario en donde
estas estructuras comnmente se
In what setting do these
forman?
structures most commonly

form?

2. Grietas de desecacin que muestran laminacin


2.horizontal en seccin ver4cal, que resulta de la
These mudcracks reveal horizontal laminae in section,
resulting
from quiet water sedimentation. Why is the clast
sedimentacin en aguas tranquilas. Porque el fragmento
with
the arrow marker white? If a brief flood passed
marcado con la echa es blanco? Que le pasara a los
across
this surface, what would happen to the loose mud
fragmentos sueltos de lodo si una inundacin corta pasa
clasts?
What type of sedimentary rock might be formed if
por esta supercie? Que 4po de roca sedimentaria se
the
mud
clasts were only transported a short distance and
formara si esos fragmentos de lodo fueran depositados
re-deposited?
Base of photo = ~ 50 cm.
nuevamente? (Base de la foto 50cm)
3. Impactos de gotas de lluvia sobre
3.
This image shows raindrop
lodo mojado. Note como algunos
impact
craters in wet mud. Note
crteres 4enen bordes elevados y
how the craters have raised rims
amalgamados con otros impactos, y
that
overlap (due to later impacts)
otros mas pequeos, formados
and smaller splash craters produced
probablemente por salpicaduras de
by
splash from the larger impacts.
agua de los impactos mas grandes.
Why
are these features only
Porque estas estructuras solo son
commonly preserved in semi-arid
preservadas en climas semiridos?
environments?
What process(es)
Que proceso pudo haber formado
could give rise to the linear
las estructuras lineares (echa)?
features
marked by the arrows?

4. Examine this photograph carefully. At least four common sedimentary structures


and/or
bedforms are visible (one is a little difficult to see, but is visible on close
4. Examine esta fotogrca cuidadosamente. Al menos cuatro estructuras
inspection).
Name the structures/bedforms and try to determine the order in which they
sedimentarias/formas de lecho se pueden reconocer (una de ellas es di:cil de ver, pero
were
formed. In what general depositional environment do you think this photograph
es visible si se mira con mas detalle). Nombre las estructuras/formas de lecho y trate
was
taken?
Briefly explain your reasoning. Width, base of photograph: ~ 1.2 m.
de establecer su orden de formacin? (Base de la foto 1.2m)

En que ambiente de deposito cree que se tomo esta fotogra:a?

B
A

6. Que 4po de estra4cacin se


6.
What type of bedding is shown
muestra en la foto? Basado en los
here?
Based on the boulder at the
clastos en la parte derecha de la foto,
right side of the photograph, in which
en que direccin ua la corriente
direction
to you think flow was
durante la acumulacin? El limite
occurring during deposition (left to
entre las unidades A y B es abrupto,
right
or right to left)? The junction
esto que signica en trminos de la
between
units A and B is abrupt: what
velocidad de ujo? Las arenas de la
does
this mean in terms of flow
velocity?
Were the sands in Unit B
unidad B fueron depositadas
deposited
immediately after the
inmediatamente despus de las gravas
gravels
of Unit A or later? Can you
de la unidad A, o mas tarde? Explique
tell?
su respuesta.

5. Cuales son las estructuras de


las unidades A y B? Que signica
el cambio de A a B en trminos de
5.
What structures are shown in
la velocidad de ujo? Que sugiere
units
A and B these modern fluvial
el contacto abrupto entre las
sands?
What does the change from
unidades A y B?
A
to
B
signify
in terms of current

velocity? What does the abrupt
contact between units A and B
suggest to you? Pencil for scale.

7. Nombre los dos 4pos de


estra4cacin visibles en la foto (A y B).
Que procesos puede causar la
estructura B? (Altura del aoramiento
7.
Name the two types of stratification
es de 75 cm.
visible
in the photograph (A, B). What

process might have produced the
structure labelled B?

The outcrop shown is ~75 cm high


(top to bottom).

Top

8. Esta capa de arenisca uvial


con4ene tres unidades
diferentes (A-C). Nombre cada
4po de estra4cacin y
8.explique como se formo esta
This bed of fluvial
capa de arenisca.
(river)sandstone contains

three
different units (A-C).

Name each stratification

type and try to explain how


this bed of sandstone might
have formed.

9. Aoramiento de arenas no
consolidadas de un rio. Nombre los
9.
This outcrop is exposed in modern
diferentes 4pos de estra4cacin o
sandy
river deposits. Name the three
laminacin (A, B y C). Explique
different types of bedding or lamination
brevemente como se pudo formar
(A,
B, and C). Briefly explain how this
esta secuencia de estructuras en
sequence
could be produced, in terms
trminos de la energa de la corriente.
of
current energy.

El ancho del aoramiento es de 80cm.
Width
of outcrop shown (L-R) is
~80 cm.

A
10. Que estructuras puede reconocer
sobre la supercie de la capa de arena?
10. What structures are visible on the
(Lado izquierdo de la foto). Estas arenas
bedding planes of this sandstone (left
se depositaron en condiciones de alta o
side
of photograph)? Were these sands
baja energa? Como se puede dis4nguir?
deposited under high or low energy
conditions? How can you tell?

Width of outcrop shown (L-R) is


~75 cm.

11. Estas pequeas estructuras se


formaron en lodo hmedo. Que
procesos las pudo haber producido?
Esperara que se preservaran en el
registro geolgico? Explique sus
11.
These small structures have
formed
in wet mud. What process(es)
razones.
could
have produced them? Would
La supercie mostrada 4ene 50cm
you
expect them to be preserved in the
de ancho.
geological
record? Explain your

reasons.

Width of surface shown (L-R) is


~50 cm.
12. Nombre las estructuras en la arenisca
sealadas con las echas. Que procesos las
pueden generar? (Esas estructuras no
12.
Name the structures in this sandstone
estn relacionadas con rizaduras).
indicated
by the arrows. What processes
Fotogra:a de seccin ver4cal, lpiz de
are
thought to produce them? (They are not
escala.
related
to ripples.) Note: this is a

photograph of a nearly vertical face not a
bedding plane. Pen (right centre) provides
scale.

TOP

13. Nombre estas estructuras. Se


formaron en corrientes fuertes o
dbiles, o ambas? El sedimento
oscuro es lodolita y el claro es
arenisca. La unidad mostrada 4ene
13. Name these structures. Did they
30cm de espesor.
form
in strong or weak currents, or

both?
The dark sediment is mudstone;

the light sediment is medium


sandstone. The unit illustrated is 30
cm thick.

14. Nombre esas formas de lecho. En


que ambiente de acumulacin se
pueden formar?
14. Name these features. In what
Porque hay arena mas gruesa entre
depositional environment(s) do they
las crestas?
form?

Why is coarse sand present between


the linear ridges?

16. Esta fotogra:a muestra grietas de


desecacin en lodos de la margen de un lago.
El lodo entre las grietas parece ligeramente
16.
The photograph shows mudcracks in
inado o con geometra de domo. Que pudo
lake
marginal muds. The muds between
causar esto?
the
cracks appear slightly swollen and
domed upward. What could have led to
this updoming?

Which is correct: Desiccation crack or


dessication crack?!

15. Nombre la estructura sedimentaria


marcada con la echa.
15. Name the sedimentary structure
marked with the arrow.
Que 4po de estructura sedimentaria se
puede reconocer en la unidad A (Limos de
What is the term for the style of
lago)? La unidad B es ceniza volcnica
stratification in unit A (composed of
arenosa. Explique como se formo la
lake silts)? Unit B is a sandy
estructura marcada con la echa.
volcanic ash. Try to explain how the
arrowed sedimentary structure
probably formed.

17. Que 4po de estra4cacin se muestra en


la foto? Note el contacto neto con las lodolitas
17. What type of bedding structure is present in
de abajo y arriba. Esto que le dice acerca de
the sandstone unit? Note the sharp contacts with
los niveles de energa en donde estos
mudstones
above and below the sandstone. What
sedimentos se acumularon? En que 4po de
does that tell you about energy levels in the
ambiente se acumularon estos sedimentos?
environment
where these sediments were

deposited? In what depositional environment did


these sediments form?

B
A
18. Esta fotogra:a muestra un pequeo canal e:mero (1 m de ancho) sobre las llanuras de lodo
18.
The photograph shows a small (1 m wide) ephemeral stream channel on the mudflats of a saline
de un lago salado. El materia supercial blanco son minerales de sal precipitados por evaporacin.
lake.
The white surficial materials (left) are efflorescent salts. Name the structures marked A and
Nombre las estructuras marcadas A y B en la foto.
bedforms
marked B in the image.
19. Cuales son las estructuras mostradas en la
capa de arenisca y como se producen?

19. What are these structures in sandstone and


how were they produced?

20. Cuales son las


estructuras en la base de
la capa de arenisca y
como se producen?
(Ancho de la foto: 1 m)
20.
What are these
structures in
sandstone and how
were they
produced?

Width of field of
view: ~ 1 m

21. BONUS
QUESTION (3
MARKS EXTRA)
What are these
structures? Just
have a guess!