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TheRelationshipbetweenLeadershipandManagement:InstructionalApproachesandits

ConnectionstoOrganizationalGrowth
Author:Lopez,Raquel
ProQuestdocumentlink
Abstract:
Thecharacteristicsofleadershipandmanagementwereexaminedinthecontextof
instructionalapproach.Mostleadershipauthorsdemonstratedatendencytocharacterize
leadersasindividualswhoarevisionaryandabletoinfluenceandmotivateothers.Authors
writingaboutmanagementdemonstratedatendencytocharacterizethemanagerasa
bureaucratwhosefunctionistoplan,budget,control,andorganize.Mosttheoriesrelatedto
managementdemonstratedtobehighlytiedtoscientificmanagement,proposedby
FrederickTaylorduringtheearly1900s.Together,thesefindingssuggestthatbusiness
studentsarenotreceivingappropriateandupdatedbusinessinstructionfor21stcentury
education.
Fulltext:
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Abstract

Thecharacteristicsofleadershipandmanagementwereexaminedinthecontextof
instructionalapproach.Mostleadershipauthorsdemonstratedatendencytocharacterize
leadersasindividualswhoarevisionaryandabletoinfluenceandmotivateothers.Authors
writingaboutmanagementdemonstratedatendencytocharacterizethemanagerasa
bureaucratwhosefunctionistoplan,budget,control,andorganize.Mosttheoriesrelatedto
managementdemonstratedtobehighlytiedtoscientificmanagement,proposedby
FrederickTaylorduringtheearly1900s.Together,thesefindingssuggestthatbusiness
studentsarenotreceivingappropriateandupdatedbusinessinstructionfor21stcentury
education.

Keywords:Management,leadership,relationship,businesseducation,businessinstruction

Thecomparisonbetweenmanagerialandleadershipskillsisaperpetualactivityamongst
businessauthors(Northouse,2004Kotter,2011Kotterman,2006Shahrill,2014Zaleznik,
2005).Thereisaplethoraofliteraturededicatedtoexplainingtheroleandimportanceof
leaders,asitdemonstratestobeapopularthemeinacademicbusinessliterature
(Ackerman&MaslinOstrowski,2002Hecke,Callahan,Kolar,&Paller,2010Kotter,1996
Kouzes&Posner,2012McKee,Boyatzis,&Johnston,2008).Management,however,isnot
asmuchofapopularthemeasleadershipandalthoughthereisabundantliterature
regardingtheroleofthemanagerthelatterhasdemonstratedtobelesspopular.The
comparisonsbetweenbothcharactersappeartobringanoccupationaladvantagetotherole
oftheleader,asthemanagertakestheroleoftheconservativebureaucrat(Kotterman,
2006Shahrill,2014Zaleznik,2005).

Giventhemannerinwhichtheconceptofleadershipandtheconceptofmanagementhave
movedapart,intermsoffunctionandrelevanceitisimportanttounderstandtheeffectsof
suchnotionamongstbusinessstudents.Furthermore,itisnotillogicaltofathomhowa
businessstudentwouldfindtheideaofbecomingaleadermoreglamorousandsubstantial

thanthatofamanager.Withthatinmind,thestudentcouldquestiontheimportanceof
takinganymanagementcourses,orevenhisorherownimportanceasamanager.There
arenumerousstudiesthatcompareandcontrastthefunctionandroleofmanagersand
leadershowever,thebodyofliteraturelacksquestioningthisparadigm(Bolden2007Bush,
2007Kotterman,2006Shahrill,2014Zaleznik,2005).

Thispaperbuildsuponpreviousstudiesbecauseitquestionstheamplificationofthe
importanceoftheleaderincontrasttothemanager.Moreover,itdiscussestheimplicationof
suchrelationshipinhighereducationsincethegeneralideaisthatthebusinessstudent
shouldfocusonbecomingaleader.Finally,thestudyproposesaparadigmchange,inwhich
managementandleadershiparebuiltintoonecoursewiththesameobjectivestowards
organizationalgrowth.Thisliteraryreviewhypothesizesonthepossibilitythat,ifleadership
ismoresignificantthanmanagementthenthereisnointerestinlearningmanagement
skills.Asecondaryhypothesisreferstoremediatingtheideathatmanagementisregarded
asmediocrewhencomparedtoleadership.Inthiscase,ifmanagementandleadershipare
taughtasonebusinesscoursebusinessstudentswouldhaveastrongerbusiness
foundation.Thelinkstotheorywillbethoroughlydiscussedfurtheralongthispaper.

Inordertovalidatetheprimaryandsecondaryhypotheses,ashorthistoricalbackgroundwill
bepresentedwiththepurposetoestablishaframeworkofthecurrentunderstandingof
managementandleadership.Theconceptsofmanagementandleadershipwillbe
thoroughlydescribed,compared,andcontrasted.Instructionalbiaseswillbepresented,in
ordertospecifytheidiosyncrasiesusedtoperpetuatetheideathatleadersarebetterthan
managers.Theconsequencesofsuchdisassociationbetweentheleaderandthemanager
willbepresentedintheformofanecdotes.Thelatterwilldemonstratehowdisassociation
willaffectorganizationalgrowthwhichcanbe,infact,consideredasathirdhypothesis.The
hypothesesandresearchdesignrelatestrongly,astheliteraryresourcesusedthroughout
thispaperaremostlythesameacademicresourcesusedbybusinessstudents.Finally,a
conclusionanddiscussionwillfollowtoestablishifthereisaneedtochangetheapproachin
whichleadershipandmanagementaretaughtandifthisrelationshipaffectsorganizational
growth.

Theoretically,thesignificanceofthisstudyisbaseduponthechangeinparadigmrelatedto
thecharacterizationoftheroleofthemanagerandtheleader.Althoughorganizational
relations,technology,organizationalhierarchy,andotherfacetsofbusinesschangeditis
clearthatthetheoriesremainstagnantandnotuptoparwiththechangeinparadigm.In
theory,iforganizationalcultureandfunctionhavechanged,itislogicalthatacademic
conceptsandliteratureshouldfollowtoprovideanupdatedbusinesseducation.Practical
implicationsareevenmoreimportant,sinceitdirectlyaffectsorganizationalstakeholders.
Thispaperwillpresentanecdotestoexemplifyhowpracticalimplicationsaffect
organizationalgrowthandstability.

CharacterizingManagementandLeadership

Inordertoofferadetailedargumentationoftheproposedtheses,thefollowingsection
servesthepurposeofbuildingafoundationthatrelatestothehistoricalperspectivesof

managementandleadership.Inthisregard,itisimportanttoestablishthattheconceptof
managementisherebydevelopedfromascholarlyperspectiveorrather,thestudyof
managementinbusinessschools.Therefore,theprinciplesrelatedtomanagementwillbe
initiatedfromscientificmanagement.Althoughtheideaofbeingaleaderandtherebyhaving
thepowertocommandisasancientasthehistoryofhumanity,forthepurposesofthis
paper,thefocuswillstaywiththecontemporarystudiesofleadership.

HistoricalContextofManagement

AccordingtoBlackfordandKerr(1994),thegrowthandexpansionoftherailroadandsteel
businessesinitiatedthemanagerialrevolution.Anaccidentin1841,inwhichtwotrains
collidedinwesternMassachusettsdemonstratedthatinformalbusinesspracticeshave
becomeunsuitable.Further,J.P.Morgan'spurchaseofCarnegieSteeltransformedhis
empireintothefirstbilliondollarsteelconglomeratewhichwouldbecomeacommon
occurrenceinAmericanbusiness(Blackford&Kerr,1994).Theriseofgiantcompanies
wouldreplacepersonal,informalmanagementwithbureaucraticmanagement,whichwas
deemednecessarytocontrolthemanyplantsandfactories(Blackford&Kerr,1994).

Inordertoestablishanunfamiliarbureaucraticsystemwithinabusiness,thenouveau
executiveswereinfluencedbythestructureusedbytheUnitedStatesArmywhichwas
fairlysophisticatedforthosetimes(Blackford&Kerr,1994).TheWesternRailroad,for
instance,hadtheleadinestablishingabureaucraticmanagement,withthemilitary
engineersintechnicalpositionsandciviliansinchargeofbusinessmatters.Clearly,the
expansionoftherailroadbusinessfavoredthesteelindustrygreatly,bothintermsof
transportationandbusinesspractices.AndrewCarnegieorganizedhissteelbusinessinthe
samefashionastherailroads,usingbureaucraticmanagement(Blackford&Kerr,1994).As
Rockefeller,Carnegie,J.P.Morgan,andothers,workedtogrowtheirrespectivecompanies
evenbiggertheinstitutionofmanagerialstrategiesandsystematicdivisionofauthorityhad
becomemoreobvious(Blackford&Kerr,1994).

Therailroadandsteelbusinessesmovedfromtheonemanshowtothecomplexityofthe
multileveledauthoritysystem.Consideringthattheonemanmentionedearlierwasthe
engineerresponsiblefortheentireoperationofformer,smallercompaniesthisindividual
assumedtheleadershipposition,therebybecomingthemanager.Sincethispersonwas
knowledgeableaboutallprocesseswithinthefactory,hewouldteachthenewemployees
muchsmallerportionsofthework.Thissystemstartedtheverysystematicmethodology
knownasscientificmanagement,orTaylorism.FrederickTaylorwasamechanicalengineer
whodemonstratedinterestforefficiencysinceyoungage(Blackford&Kerr,1994).Because
ofhisbackgroundinengineeringandhisdeterminationtoachievehighefficiency,Taylor
developedmanagerialconceptsandpracticeswithstrongpriorityonquantification,control,
predictability,relentlessefficiency,andjobsforunskilledworkers(Stone&Patterson,2005).

Wheatley(2006)suggeststhattheworkofFrederickTaylor,FrankGilbreth,andother
initiatorsoftheeraofscientificmanagement,treatedworkandworkersasanengineering
problem.Therefore,tremendousconcentrationwasdedicatedtoperformtimemotion
studies,tocreatetasksthatcouldbeperformedbytheunskilledworker(Wheatley,2006).


Duringthe1880sand1890s,Americanbusinessesestablishednumerouscentralor
corporateoffices,tooverseethecompany'soperations.Eachdepartmentwasresponsible
forhandlingdifferentfunctionsofthecompany(Blackford&Kerr,1994).Consequently,the
numberofmanagerialpositionsincreasedasthecompanygrewvertically.Inthebeginning
ofthetwentiethcentury,SingerSewingMachinehad1,700branchofficesthroughoutthe
UnitedStates,staffedwithmiddlemanagers(Blackford&Kerr,1994).Inthisperspective,
therelationshipsbetweentheownerofthecompany,theworkers,andthecustomers,
becamemoreandmorerarified.Theownerofthecompanyhadmanymanagersto
representhim.Inthesamefashion,thecustomerwasnolongerabletoestablisha
relationshiporevennegotiatedwiththeownerascommonlyhappenedfiftyyearsearlier
(Blackford&Kerr,1994).

Scientificmanagementreceivedwidespreadpublicityafter1910.Apparently,suchsystem
washighlysoughtafterbycompanyowners,wholookedforincreasedproductivity.The
ideologybehindscientificmanagementwasspreadingthroughotheraspectsofsocietyin
whichcase,thegeneralpopulaceacceptedtheneedforefficiency.Becauseofthat,
governmentofficials,scholars,scientists,businesspeople,andreformers,acceptedthe
ideologyofefficiencyandmanagerialcontrol(Blackford&Kerr,1994).Thewidespreadidea
ofrationalismandtheuseofscience,leadtocorporatismsincebusinessownerslookedfor
cooperationandnotconfrontationwithgovernmentandworkers.

Betweenthe1900sand1930s,Americancompaniesfollowedatrendinbusiness
diversificationand,consequently,decentralizationofmanagement.DuPontandGeneral
MotorsinitiatedthetrendandGeneralElectric,Westinghouse,Chrysler,andFordfollowed
suit(Blackford&Kerr,1994).Becausethecompaniesincreasedinsizeandproduced
differentproducts,itbecameimpossiblefortheadministrationtooverseealloperations.
AlfredP.Sloan,JuniorwasagraduateoftheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyandthe
mastermind,duringtheprocessofdecentralizationofDuPontandGeneralMotors.Hewas
abletoinfusedivisionalautonomywithsupervisionbyastrongoffice,utilizingeffective
communicationsamongthedifferentpartsofthecompany(Backford&Kerr,1994).

Afterthe1930sAmericanworkerswereindistresswiththeideologyremnantfromscientific
managementandthegreatdepression.Unionsformed,strikeswereabundant,andworkers
foughtforcollectivebargainingrights.WithintimeandtremendouseffortsfromtheUnited
States'governmenttobalancetherelationshipbetweenworkersandbusinesses,prosperity
prevailed.Afterthe1940s,companiesofferedbetterworkconditionsandtheideology
movedawayfromscientificmanagementasstudiesdemonstratedthatproduction
increasedwhenpeoplewerenottreatedasmachines(Stone&Patterson,2005).Thetrend
continuesasthecurrentideologymovesfurtherandfurtherawayfromobjectifyingthe
individual.TheOverridingFunctionsofManagement

Thissectionhasthepurposeofdescribingtheoverridingfunctionsofmanagement,
accordingtotheperspectiveofnumerousbusinessauthors.Moreover,thissectionmakesa
paralleltotheaforementionedhistoricalperspectives.Mintzberg(1989),forinstance,has
spentmanyyearsclarifyingfolklorefromfact,intermsofmanagerialfunction.Mintzberg

(2009)suggeststhatthejobofthemanagerisutterlyactionbased,asopposedto
systematicandstationary,assomeauthorssuggest(Northouse,2004Osland,Kolb,Rubin,
&Turner,2007).

AccordingtoNorthouse(2004),managementisdescribedasafunctionthatproducesorder
andconsistency.Moreover,hesubdividesmanagementintoa)planningandbudgeting,b)
organizingandstaffing,andc)controllingandproblemsolving.Planningandbudgeting
entailtheestablishmentofagendas,settingtimetables,andallocatingresources.
Organizingandstaffingdenotemakingjobplacements,providingstructure,andestablishing
rulesandprocedures.Finally,controllingandproblemsolvingrefertodevelopingincentives,
generatingcreativesolutions,andtakingcorrectiveaction(Northouse,2004).Healso
suggeststhatthemanagerialfunctionssuggestedbyFayolin1916arestillrepresentativeof
thefieldtodayFayol'sdefinitionofmanagerialfunctionswereplanning,organizing,staffing,
andcontrolling(Northouse,2004).

Osland,Kolb,Rubin,andTurner(2007)emphasizethatagoodleaderandagoodmanager
arenotsynonymous.LikeNorthouse(2004),theauthorscitethatthefunctionsof
managementareplanning,organizing,leading,andcontrolling.Furthermore,theauthors
characterizemanagementasa)doingthingsright,b)planningandbudgeting,c)processes
andsystems,d)organizingandstaffing,e)controlandproblemsolving,andf)producing
order,predictability,andtheresultsexpectedbystakeholders(Oslandetal.,2007).

Conversely,Mintzberg'sresearchdemonstratesthecharacteristicsofmanagementinaway
thatappearsmoreactionbased.Hedeemsasfolklore,theideathatthemanagerisa
reflectiveandsystematicplanner.Mintzberg(2009)statesthatstudiesprovedthatmanagers
workatunrelentingpacetheiractivitiesarecharacterizedbydiscontinuity,brevity,and
variety.Healsodeemsasfolkloretheideathatmanagersaredependentuponthe
aggregatedinformationprovidedbyaformalsystem.Contrarytothat,hesuggeststhatthe
managerspreferimmediatewaysofcommunication,suchasfacetofacecommunication,
phonecalls,andemail.Furthermore,Mintzbergregardsasfolklorethecommonconcept
thatmanagingismostlyabouthierarchicalrelationshipsinferringthenthatmanagingis
mostlyaboutlateralrelationships(Mintzberg,2009).Finally,heconsidersasfolklorethe
commonnotionthatmanagersmaintaintightcontroloftheirtime,units,andactivities
thereby,themanagerisneitheraconductor,norapuppet.Inlightofthisscenario,the
managermakesasetofinitialdecisionstodefinetheirsubsequentcommitmentstheymay
createsomeoftheirobligationsandtakeadvantageofothers(Mintzberg,2009).For
instance,beingpartofameetingmightbelessimportantthangoingtoceremonialoccasion,
inwhichthemanagercouldusetolobbyforhisorherorganization(Mintzberg,2009).

Livingston(2009)suggeststhatlearningonthejobisratherdistinctfromacademic
managerialeducation.LikeMintzberg(2009),hesuggeststhatformalmanagement
educationhasfailedtoprovidestudentswiththeactionorientedenvironmentofanactual
organization(Livingston,2009).HediscussesastudyfromtheHarvardBusinessSchool
thatrevealedthattheincomeofMBAstudentsfromthatschoolplateauafter15yearsthey
enterbusiness.Theincomedidnotincreaseafterthat.Conversely,thestudentswho
enteredtheHarvard'sAdvancementManagementProgram,buthadnoformaleducationin

management,earnedalmostathirdmorethantheirMBAcounterpart(Livingston,2009).

AlthoughLivingston'sstudyisprevioustoMintzberg's,itispossibletonoticethe
disassociationbetweenthetheoreticalconceptofmanagementthatdragsfromthetheories
proposedbyscientificmanagement,whichcontrastswiththeactionbasedrealityofthe
modernmanager.Itappearslogicalthatabusinessstudentscanbeoverwhelmedbythe
fastpaceofmanagement,asopposedtotheclassroomexperiencewhichpresentsanold
conceptualframe.

HistoricalContextofLeadership

Unlikemanagement,itisratherdifficulttoestablishpreciselywhenthepropagationof
leadershipasaconcepttobestudiedhasinitiated.Nonetheless,Northouse(2004)
stipulatesthatthestudyofleadershipcanbetracedbacktoAristotle.Clawson(2009)
establishesthenotionofleadershipdirectlyconnectedwiththenotionofpower.Hesuggests
thatthehunter/gatherereraculminatedonthefightforresourcesandsometribes'leaders
wouldfulfilltherole,demonstratingtobemorecapableinachievingtheneededresources.
Further,theauthormovesalongthehistoricallineofeventsandpointsthatanagricultural
societyemerged,thearistocraticsociety,inwhichpowerwasdistributedbylineageand
gender(Clawson,2009).Afterthat,abureaucracyemergedandpowerwasdistributedby
genderandoffice.Finally,Clawson(2009)impliesthatthemoderntimesarecharacterized
byinfocracy,whichisthedenominationfortheinformationageaspowerisredistributingto
keyprocesscontributors.

Intheclassroom,however,leadershipaspartofthecourseworktobeaccomplishedfor
businessstudyismuchmorerecentthantheworksofAristotle.Oslandetal.,(2007)
suggestthatover7,000booksandarticlesaboutleadershiphavebeenpublished,butthere
isnouniversalacceptanceofonetheory.Northouse(2004)discussesindepthstudiesof
leadershipfromthemiddleofthetwentiethcentury.Theauthorsuggeststhatleadership
studiesinitiatedin1948anditwasfocusedonthecharacteristicsmostpeopleidentifiedas
leadershiptraits(Northouse,2004Oslandetal.,2007).

Further,theskillsapproachwasdevelopedduringthe1950sanditalsohadaleader
centeredperspective.Thisapproachfocusedonmeasuringtheleader'stechnical,human,
andconceptualskills.Duringthe1960sthestyleapproachwasdevelopedandit
emphasizedonthebehavioroftheleader,thebehaviorstudiedwasdirectlyrelatedtotask
andrelationshipwithsubordinates.Afterwards,duringthelate1960sandbeginningof1970s
thesituationalapproachwasestablishedastheoryanditwasfocusedontheleader's
actionsdependinguponagivensituation,itwastherefore,centeredonacausality
(Northouse,2004).ThecontingencytheorywasdevelopedbyFiedlerduringthe1960sand
1970sanditisbasedupontheideathatleadersmustbematchedtoappropriatesituations.
Thepathgoaltheoryevolvedduringthe1970sanditisbaseduponthecapacityofthe
leadertomotivatesubordinatestoaccomplishacertaingoal(Northouse,2004).The
theoriesslowlymovedfromaleadercenteredperspectivetoasubordinatecentered
perspective.Theleadermemberexchangetheoryestablishedduringthe1970sand1980s
shiftstoaleadersubordinateperspectivethisdyadicproposalbecomesthecenterofthe

leadershipprocess(Northouse,2004).Inessence,theleadermemberexchangesuggests
theimportanceofrecognizingtheingroupsandoutgroupswithinagroupororganization
(Northouse,2004).Transformationalleadershipbecameknownasatheoryduringthe1980s
and1990sanditisstillthenewparadigminleadership.Interestingly,anotherleadership
theorywasdevelopedatthesametime,namelytransactionalleadership.Quickly,
transactionalleadershipbecamecoinedastheleadershipstylepracticedbythemanager
sinceitisbasedupontaskcompletion,predictability,andgiveandtakepractices(Kanungo,
2001Northouse,2004ShiversBlackwell,2004).Forinstance,amanageroffersabonusto
theleadsalesmenofthemonth.Conversely,thetransformationalleaderisthepersonwitha
visionandcapableofmotivatingsubordinatessolelyonthebasisofpersuasionandmoral
influence.Thetransformationalleaderissomewhattheantithesisofthetransactionalleader.

TheOverridingFunctionsofLeadership

Asmentionedontheprevioussection,scholarsdonothaveanabsolutedefinitionfor
leadership.Northouse(2009)however,stipulatesthatscholarsagreeonanumberof
conceptsthatreflectthecharacteristicsofaleader.First,hediscussesthatleadershipisa
trait,aseachindividualbringsabouthisorherownqualities,suchasauthenticity,
confidence,decisiveness,andsoforth.Second,Northouse(2009)characterizesleadership
asanabilitybecausetheleadermustbeabletodocertainthingsothersmightfeel
uncomfortable,suchasspeakinginpublic,orexcelinsports,ordemonstrateenormous
compassionforothers.Third,leadershipisaskillbecausetheleadermustbecompetentto
carryonataskfrombeginningtoendtherefore,theleaderresponsibleforafundraising
processmustuseherknowledgetofulfillherobligationwithcompetency(Northouse,2009).
Fourth,accordingtoNorthouse(2009),leadershipisabehaviormainlybecauseitpredicts
theattitudeoftheleaderwhenfacingagivensituation.Forinstance,theChiefExecutive
OfficerofGeneralMotors,MarryT.Barra,hadtomakeadecisionin2014whentherewere
accusationsaboutthesaleofdefectivecars.Shecouldhavebeenreclusiveandrefuse
speakingaboutthecompany'sissues,butshedecidedtobeopenaboutit.Finally,
Northouse(2009)definesleadershipasarelationship,inwhichcasethefocusbecomesthe
relationshipbetweenleadersandfollowersinaninclusiveprocess.

Hoyle(2007)agreeswithNorthouse(2009)thatleadersmusthavecertaintraitsandskills
whichseparatethemfromtheaverageperson.Further,theauthorpondersaboutthereason
whysomepeoplewithsimilarphysicalandintellectualtraitsbecomeleadersandothersdo
not(Hoyle,2007).HestipulatesthatStephenHawkingisaleaderathisrespectivefield,
eventhoughheisconfinedatawheelchairandneedsacomputersynthesizertospeakand
write.HealsodescribesMotherTheresaandMohandasGandhiasunimposingand
peacefulindividualswhoconqueredthestatusofleaderthroughintelligenceandkindness
(Hoyle,2007).Hoyle(2007)agreeswithNorthouse(2009)thatsomeleadersarebetterthan
othersinscanningtheenvironmentandtakingaction,therebyusingsituationalratherthan
consistentbehavior.

Johnson(2009)however,focusesontransformationalleadership,asitisthemostcurrent
andpopulartheory.Hedescribesitasa)idealizedinfluence,b)inspirationalmotivation,c)
intellectualstimulation,andd)individualizedconsideration(Johnson,2009).Idealized

influencereferstoadmirationandrespectpeoplehavefortheleader,asheorshe
demonstratesbehaviorconsistentwiththevaluesofthegroup.Inspirationalmotivation
referstotheleader'scapacitytobringaboutchallengeandmeaningtotasks,therefore
incitingenthusiasmandavisionofthefuture(Johnson,2009).Intellectualstimulationis
describedasstimulationforcreativity,innovation,andsolutionforproblemswithoutcriticism.
Individualizedconsiderationmeansattentionthatistailoredtoeachpersoninthiscase,the
leadermustworkonfosteringpersonaldevelopment(Johnson,2009).

Goleman,Boyatzis,andMcKee(2002),explaintheoverridingfunctionsofleadership
throughemotionalintelligence.Theauthorsstatethattheessenceoftheleader'sappeal
comesfromemotions.Emotionsarethecollectivedriveofpeopleandtheleaderisableto
guidethegroupinthepositivedirection.Further,theauthorssuggestthatthereareresonant
leaders,whoareattunedtofollowers'needsandwants.Astherearedissonantleaders,who
mightbeabletoremaininpowerforacertainperiodoftimebutnotforlong,astheyarenot
abletocatertotheneedsofpeople(Goleman,Boyatzis,&McKee,2002).Clearexamplesof
dissonantleadersaretheformerRomanianpresidentNicolaeCeausescuandtheformer
rulerofLibya,MuammarGaddafi.Bothleaderswerewidelyknowndictatorswhoendedup
beingexecutedbytheirownpeople.

AccordingtoGolemanetal.(2002),emotionalintelligenceismoreimportantthan
intelligencebyitself.Inthisperspective,theauthorssuggestthatemotionalintelligence
consistsofa)selfawareness,b)selfmanagement,c)socialawareness,andd)relationship
management.Selfawarenessreferstoanindividual'sabilitytoreadhisorherownemotions
withrealisticselfassessment(Golemanetal.,2002).Selfmanagementreferstothe
leader'sabilitytohaveselfcontrol,transparencythroughintegrity,andtrustworthiness.
Also,itreferstotheabilitytoadapt,achieve,initiate,anddemonstrateoptimism(Golemanet
al.,2002).Socialawarenessrelatestotheleader'scapacitytodemonstrateempathy,
organizationalawareness,andservicetocustomers.Relationshipmanagementrefersto
inspirationalleadership,developingothers,influence,conflictmanagement,establishing
teamwork,bonds,andcollaboration(Golemanetal.,2002).Examplesofleaderswhohave
usedtheaforementioneddescriptionsoftheresonantleaderareNelsonMandela,Gandhi,
andAlGore.

TheDisassociationbetweenManagementandLeadership

Thissectionservestoclarifythedisparitybetweentheinherentcharacteristicsof
managementandleadership.Ittakesontheaforementionedinformationtodrawconclusions
astothereasonswhythemanagerisseenasanactioncharacterandtheleaderappearsto
beseenasavisionary.Further,thediscussionfollowswithpotentialbiasinbusiness
instruction,giventhedeliveryofinformationtothestudentsandthesourceofinformation.
Finally,thesectionfollowswithpotentialconsequencestothemannerinwhichleadership
andmanagementaredisseminatedtobusinessstudents.

TheManagerasanActionCharacter

Therootsofassociationofconceptsthatrelatetotheroleofthemanagerarestillingrained

inscientificmanagement.AccordingtoCabrera,Sauer,andThomasHunt(2009),theroleof
themanageristraditionallyperceivedaspossessingstereotypicallymalecharacteristics.
Mintzberg(2009)criticizestheseparationbetweenmanagementandleadership,andhe
statesthatleadershipismanagementpracticedwithsuccess.Further,findingsfromhis
researchpointthatmanagementisstillsustainedbypastbehavior.Hesuggeststhat
machinebureaucracyisstillthedominatingorganizationalstructure.Machinebureaucracyis
themostfunctionalorganizationalstructure,withsimpleandrepetitivetasks,asinthemass
productionofcarsforinstance(Mintzberg,1989).Althoughheagreesthatorganizations
needtobestructured,itneedstobeconfiguratedtospecificfields.Someexamplesofforms
oforganizationsareentrepreneurial,missionary,professional,innovative,andsoon
(Mintzberg,1989).Hedeemstheattractiontomachinebureaucracyasanirrationalformof
rationality,whichismainlybaseduponexcessivecontrolandideallybasedonnumerical
calculation(Mintzberg,1989).

Healsodestigmatizesmanagementbystipulatingitsformalauthorityandstatus.Inhis
concept,themanagerperformsthreeroles,whicharea)interpersonalroles,b)informational
roles,andc)decisionalroles(Mintzberg,2009).Interpersonalrolesrelatetothemanager's
positionasaliaisonandaleader.Informationalrolesrefertothemanager'smonitoringrole,
disseminatinginformation,andactingasaspokesperson.Decisionalrolesrelatetothe
manager'sentrepreneurialskills,handlingofdisturbance,resourceallocation,and
negotiatingskills(Mintzberg,2009).Unlike,thecommonactionskillsthatplagueand
characterizethemanagersincethetimesofscientificmanagement,theaforementioned
descriptorsappeartohavemoredepthandrepresentunisonwithleadership.

Conversely,Kotterman's(2006)researchfindingsdemonstratethatdifferentiatingleaders
andmanagersinlargeorganizationsisrathercomplex,mainlybecausepeoplefavor
managerialskillsasopposedtoleadershipskills.Essentially,individualsassumethat
managingiseasierthanleading.Further,Kotterman(2006)suggeststhatindividualswithin
anygivenorganizationhavelittleunderstandingofthedifferencesbetweentheroleofthe
managerandtheleader.Finally,hestatesthatsuccessfulmanagementisanimportantjob
anditshouldberespected,furtheremphasizingthatitshouldnotbeconfusedwith
leadership(Kotterman,2006).

Potts(2001)goesevenfurtherandstatesthatleadersaremoreimportantthanmanagers,
mainlybecauseofethicalbehavior.AccordingtoPotts,managementhasnodefiningmoral
orethicaldimension,andonlyservestheinterestsofindividualgroups.Theonlyconcernof
managementissurvival.Thus,ifethicsistakenoutofleadership,whatisleftismanagement
(Potts,2001).ThedescriptionofPotts'ideaofmanagementappearstobehighlyingrained
intheconceptofscientificmanagement.

Inessence,muchoftheliteraturefocusesononefacetofmanagerialwork,whichdealswith
action.Themajorityoftheattemptstodefinemanagementfollowthesameoldactionsofa)
doingthingsright,b)planningandbudgeting,c)processesandsystems,d)organizingand
staffing,e)controlandproblemsolving,andf)producingorder,predictability,andtheresults
expectedbystakeholders(Oslandetal.,2007).

TheLeaderasaVisionary

Menkes(2011)definesleadershipasrealizingpotentialinothersandoneself.Moreover,he
suggestsmovingfromtheolddefinitionofleadership,whichemphasizestheleader's
influenceoverothers,andproposesacycleofexchangeandgrowthbetweenleadersand
followers(Menkes,2011).AccordingtoGeorge,Sims,McLean,andMayer(2011),more
than1,000studiesattemptedtoofferthedefiningcharacteristicsofaleader,butnonecreate
aclearprofileoftheidealleader.Itisbecauseofindividualauthenticitythatadefinition
cannotbeachieved.Theauthors'researchfindingscharacterizetheauthenticleaderasa
personwholearnsfromhisorherownlifestory,knowsherauthenticself,andpracticesher
valuesandprinciples(George,Sims,McLean,&Mayer,2011).Furthermore,theauthentic
leaderisabletobalanceextrinsicandintrinsicmotivations,buildsupportteams,and
integratepersonallifewithwork(Georgeetal.,2011).Finally,theauthenticleaderhasthe
abilitytoempowerotherstolead,asopposedtocentralizingpower(Georgeetal.,2011).

Conversely,Ancona,Malone,Orlikowski,andSenge(2011),discussthetendencytoplace
leadersonapedestalasaflawlessbeingwhohasitallfiguredout,onlytosufferagreatfall
whentheoutcomeisnotwhateveryoneexpected.Theauthorsinferthataleaderwho
strivesforsuperhumanstandardscanendangeranorganization(Ancona,Malone,
Orlikowski,&Senge,2011).Theyalsosuggestthatleadershipmustfollowfourcapabilities,
a)sensemaking,b)relating,c)visioning,andd)inventing(Anconaetal.,2011).
Sensemakingreferstotheabilitytointerpretdevelopmentsinthebusinessenvironment.
Relatingreferstothecapacitytobuildtrustingrelationships.Visioningrefersto
communicatingacompellingimageoftheorganization'sfuture.Inventingrelatestochange
andtheabilitytocomeupwithnewwaysofdoingthings(Anconaetal.,2011).Althoughthe
authorscreatearealisticpictureoftheleader,inwhichheorshedoesnotappeartobea
perfectindividualtheydoofferanormativeprescriptiontocharacterizetheleader.

Prime,Carter,andWelbourne(2009),foundthatindividualperceptionsofleadershipcanbe
stereotypicdependingontheleader'sgender.Accordingtotheauthors'research,women
perceivedasgoodleadersarecharacterizedbysupportingandrewardingbehavior.
Mentoring,networking,consulting,teambuilding,andinspiring,arealsoattributesofgood
femaleleaders(Prime,Carter,&Welbourne,2009).Contrastingly,theauthorsfoundthatthe
perceptionofagoodmaleleaderisbasedupontakingchargebehaviors,suchas
problemsolving,influencingupward,anddelegating(Primeetal.,2009).Clearly,thefemale
leadersmustproducemoreintermsofexpectedbehavior.

Inadditiontotheaforementionedcharacteristics,authorsdefineleadersasindividualswho
areselfaware,capabletoembracediversityandinfluenceothers,encouragingchallenge,
capabletoadaptanddemonstrateconsistentbehavior(Knight,2005).Leadersaredeemed
capableofshapinggoals,motivatingtheactionsofothersinitiatingchangeandaligning
people(Bush,2007Gerontic&Stanley,2006).Settingdirections,inspiringpeople,
employingcredibility,adoptingavisionaryposition,anticipatingchange,andcopingwith
change,arealsodescribedasabilitiesofaleader(Gerontic&Stanley,2006).

BusinessInstruction


BusinessinstructorsthroughouttheUnitedStates,haveatendencytoadoptthesame
businessauthorsforstudenttextbooksastheseauthorsbecomepopularandspecializedon
certaintopics.Theauthorshowever,haveatendencytooffernormativeprescriptions,to
showthestudenthowtobecomeagoodleader,orwhatattributesgoodleadersmusthave
(Bolman&Deal,2008Clawson,2009Golemanetal.2002Hoyle,2007Johnson,2009
Kouzes&Posner,2012Northouse,2009Oslandetal.,2007).Someauthorspublishthe
samebookeveryyear,makingsomemodificationstoitsbasicwork.Becauseleadershipis
prescribedinadifferentfashionbyeachauthor,thenichebecomesvast.Management,
however,carriesonwithalegacyofplanning,budgeting,controlling,andsoonexceptfor
someauthors,whoactuallyspecializedonthefield.

Instructionalbias.Researchingleadershipandmanagementprovestobeconfusing,since
authorspublishmanuscriptsfromaperspectivethatimpliesa)thattheleaderandthe
managerarenotthesameindividualb)thattheleaderandthemanagerarethesame
individual,andc)somemanagersareleaders,butothersarenot.Thistypeofconflicting
informationcanbehighlyconfusingandmisleadingforthebusinessstudent.Forinstance,
Hayibor,Agle,Sears,Sonnenfeld,andWard(2011)refertoCEOsasleadersandtop
managersasfollowers.Kerry(2003),inturn,questionsaboutmiddlemanagersandthedual
roleofbeingaleaderandafollower.Someauthorssimplyuseleaderandmanageras
interchangeablewords,andthus,implythetworolesbelongtothesameindividual(Cater,
Lang,&Szabo,2013Huhtala,Kangas,Lamsa,&Feldt,2013Kennedy,2008Sahin,
2012).

Further,somescholarsclearlystatethatmanagementandleadershipareused
interchangeably,thatthereissomedegreeofoverlap,questionthetwoconcepts,andadmit
theongoingscholarlydebate(Bolden,2007Buttigieg&West,2013).ButtigiegandWest
(2013)goastepfurtherandstatethatmanagersarereferredtoasriskaversebureaucrats
andleadersarereferredasinspirationalvisionaries.Scholarsandbusinessauthorsoffera
paradoxicalperspectiveonbothrolesanditcanberatherinconsistenttothebusiness
student.Iftheleaderisportrayedbythetextbookauthor,alongwithbusinessinstruction,as
avisionarywhocansinglehandedlymotivateemployeeswithemotionandcreativeviewsof
thefuture,onecanarguablyquestionthereasontostudymanagementinthefirstplace.The
businessstudentcaneasilybuyintotheideathattheworkoftheleaderismoreinteresting
andappealingbecauseofitsstatus,asopposedtotheboringandunappealingbureaucrat.
Thisperspectiveoforganizationalroleismisleadingandcounterintuitive.

OrganizationalGrowth

Theimplicationsofbusiness,orexecutivelearning,tothegrowthofanorganizationcanbe
daunting.Intheory,leadershipandmanagementaretaughtseparatelyinmostcollegesand
universities.However,thedailylivesofbusinesspeopleholdmanyfacets.Disassociating
aspectsoforganizationaloperationscanbringaboutdisgruntlingconsequencestothe
individualandtostakeholders.Purelytheoreticalbusinessinstruction,withouthandson
practicehasshowntobedetrimentaltothesuccessofstudentsofrenownedacademic
institutions(Livingston,2009).Separatingleadershipfrommanagementcanoffera

personalityconstruct,tothebusinessstudent,whichlackssubstanceandintellectual
challenge.

ConsequencesofDisassociation

Menkes(2006)usestheconceptofleaderandmanagerinterchangeably.Hesuggeststhat
individualswithcharismaticpersonalityusuallymovefurtherinpositionsofleadership.When
personalityisthedifferentiatoroftalent,itbecomesadangerousdistraction(Menkes,2006).
AnexampleofleadershipoverpoweringmanagementisthecurrentissuewithMarket
Basket'sadministration.MarketBasketisapopularchainofgrocerystoreswith71locations
inNewEnglandand25,000employees,andaccordingtoForbesitranksasthe127th
largestprivatecompanyintheUnitedStates(Ross,2014).Theboardofdirectorsvotedto
firethepresidentofthecompanyandtheemployeesdecidedtoprotestbynotworking.
Althoughthisisafamilyfeud,asthemembersoftheboardandthepresidentarerelatedit
isaclearcaseofexcessiveimportanceinleading,andalackofimportanceinmanagingthe
business(Ross,2014).

Anotherexampleofutterfocusonleadershipandlackoffocusinmanagementisthe
presidentofArgentina,CristinaFernandezdeKirchner.Electedafterherhusband'sdeath,
shemaintainedherlatehusband'sredistributivepoliciesand,althoughitappearstohave
helpedthepooritdoesnotgiveanyincentivestoprivateinvestments.Argentina'sinflation
continuetogrowanditsGDPwasestimatedtobeata2%deficitin2013(TheEconomist,
2014).Inessence,shehasusedpublicmoneytoconquerthevoteofthepoorandremain
asaleader,attheexpenseofthecountry'smanagement.

ManagingandLeadingEffectively

Anecdotesaboutleadership,moreoftenthannot,followthenamesofMohandasGandhi,
MotherTeresa,NelsonMandela,andMartinLutherKing,Jr.Leadingfornoblecausessuch
asthefreedomofpeopleandcivilrightsiscommonlyacceptedbymostpeopleandhardly
everquestioned.Comparingsuchcausestotheleadershipneededinorganizationsisnot
exactlyarationalparallel.Theappropriatewaytomanageandleadorganizationsdoesnot,
however,occurwithharmonyandapprovalatalltimes.Someexamplesofindividualswho
wereleadersandalsomanagersareLeeIacocca,AbrahamLincoln,andFranklinD.
Roosevelt.

Managingandleadingorganizationseffectivelytakesmorethanmeaningwelland
supportingonlypopularcauses.TakeLeeIacocca,forinstance,whowasaformerpresident
ofFordMotorsandhiredbyChryslerin1978.HewashiredbecauseChryslerwasindeep
financialtrouble,withathirdquarterlossofapproximately$160millionandtheworstdeficit
initshistory(Iacocca,1984).ThefirstthingIacoccanoticedafterjoiningChryslerwasthat
thecompanywasdividedby35vicepresidentswiththeirownagendas.Everyoneworked
independentlyandtherewasnocommunicationbetweendepartments,suchasengineering
andmanufacturing(Iacocca,1984).Hestatesthathewasdumfoundedbythelackof
interestofpeoplefromeachdepartment,tocommunicate(Iacocca,1984).Althoughhetried
tofindawaytokeeptheexecutivesandfindthemawaytobeproductive,itwasnotfeasible

duetotimeconstraints,andhehadtodismiss33outofthe35vicepresidents.Accordingto
Iacocca(1984),theemployeesweresousedtotheoldChryslerwaysthattheycouldnot
moveatthepacethecompanyneededatthatmoment.BecauseIacoccahadtodismissso
manyemployees,moralewaslowandsecurityleakswereshowinguponbalancesheetsas
thecompanycontinuedtolosecustomerstoFordandGeneralMotors.Henoticedthat
Chrysler'scarswereperceivedbythepublicasboringandforolderpeoplefurther,he
noticedthatChryslerwasnotsellingmuchinCalifornia,whichwasastrongmarket.Hetook
advantageofChrysler'straditionininnovationandhetookcareofthecars'wellknown
issues,suchasrustingbumpersandfailingbreaks(Iacocca,1984).Iacoccahadtoargue
withtheadministratorsofthedealershipsbecausetheybecameaccustomedtouse
Chrysler'scarstorunasalesbankinthiscase,thedealerswaiteduntilthelastminuteto
runabigsaleofthesecarsasthecompanyexecutivesallowedforit(Iacocca,1984).He
statesthathismostdifficulttimeatChryslerwasduringthemassfiringsbetween1979and
1980,therewere7,000whitecollarworkersand8,500bluecollarworkersdismissed
(Iacocca,1984).Chryslerhashaditsmarginalassetssold,reducedfixedcosts,loweredthe
salariesofthetop1,700executives,andmeritpaywassuspended.Iacoccaloweredhisown
payto$1dollaramonthtosetanexample(Iacocca,1984).

BecauseIacoccahadsuchvastexperienceasFord'sformerpresident,hewasabletoput
togetherateamofadministratorstohelphimmoveChryslerintherightdirectioninafaster
pace.Furthermore,hemadesuretoimproveChrysler'scarsbyappealingtoyounger
customers,investinginqualitycontrol,andcontinuedinnovation.Finally,Chryslerwasa
stablecompanybythemiddleof1983(Iacocca,1984).ThereismoretoChrysler'srecovery
thanthestatedinthispaperhowever,itexemplifiestheeffectivenessofleadership
combinedwithmanagementskills.

AbrahamLincolnandFranklinD.Roosevelthadtofacecriticalsituationsduringtheir
administration,aswell.LincolndecidedtoendslaveryintheUnitedStates,eventhough
wealthyplantationownersdisapprovedofit.Lincoln'sdecisionleadthecountrytoacivilwar
andthousandsofmendiedbecauseofthatdecision.FranklinD.Rooseveltalsohadtodeal
withextremelychallengingcountrywideeconomicissuesandnonetheless,earnedthe
respectedofthevoters.Hereactedwithefforttothestockmarketcrashof1929andthe
depressionandwasthus,reelectedbyagreatmarginin1930(Brogan,2001).Hetook
vigorousactiontoassisttheunemployedthroughoneofhismanyagencies,theTemporary
ReliefAdministration(TERA).Roosevelt'sNewDeallegislationwasapursuitofreform
combinedwithrecovery,whichattemptedtoreestablishadecryptedUnitedStatesbanking
system(Brogan,2001).Infact,RooseveltwasunafraidofdemandingCongresstoslashcivil
servicesalariesandveteran'sbenefitswhichCongresssanctioned,eventhoughitwas
highlydamagingtofuturevotinghopes(Brogan,2001).Healsorecommendedasecuritybill
toregulateWallStreetanditbecamelaw(Brogan,2001).Rooseveltservedaspresident
between1933and1945andhewaselectedfourtimes.

DiscussionandConclusion

Whilescholarsdebatewhetherornotleadershipandmanagementarethesame,the
businessstudentcontinuestoreceiveinformationthatcouldbemisleading.After

rationalizingthedichotomouscharacterizationsdiscussedinthismanuscript,oneoughtto
askwhystudymanagementafterall.Thestudentfacesamyopicviewofleadership,one
thatdescribesavisionarywithamission,capabletoconvinceandmotivate.Moreoftenthe
not,theexamplesciteGandhi,MotherTeresa,MartinLutherKing,Jr.,andNelsonMandela.
Theseexamplescannotbeusedinbusinessinstructionwithoutcautionaryconsideration.
AlthoughtheworkofGandhiwashighlycommendable,itiscategorizedashumanitarian
work,anditdoesnotcomparewiththeworkofIacoccaorRoosevelt,forinstance.
Separatingleadershipandmanagementmakesthemanageramediocrebureaucratandthe
leaderanuntouchabledivineindividual.Thefirstdoesnotfindanyroomtogrowandthe
lattercanbringanorganizationdownwithexcessiveuseofpowerandlackofadministrative
skills.

Morethanacenturyaftertheindustrialrevolutionandtheadventofscientificmanagement,
scholarsstilldefinemanagementthroughthesamelens.Itisillogicaltoperpetuateacentury
olddefinitionofmanagement,aftersomanysocietalandtechnologicalchangestookplace.
Mintzberg(2009)proposesthatthemanagerhasinterpersonalrolesandoneofthemisto
betheleader(Mintzberg,2009).Becausethemanagerneedstobealeader,itappearsthat
Mintzberg'sinterpretationseemsmoreappropriateinmoderndays.Lincoln,Iacocca,and
Rooseveltweremanagersandleadersbecausetheiractionswerenotalwaysagreeable
withallbutoneoughttoaskquestionsaboutstrategyandplanning.Whatwouldhave
happenifLincolnallowedslaverytocontinueor,hadacceptedtheSouthtosecede?What
wouldhavehappenedtoChryslerifIacoccahaddecidedthatgoingbeforeCongresstokeep
thecompanyafloatwasmorethanhewantedtofightfor?Rooseveltenduredseverecrisis
duringthedepression.Whywouldhewishtobeseeingaspersonanongrataamongthe
wealthyentrepreneursofhistime?Clearlytheanswerstoallofthesequestionsmight
appeareasytoanswer,buttheyimplyanimportantaspectofleadershipthatisrather
inherenttomanagementmakingdifficultchoicesthatwillnotmakeeveryonehappy.
AnotherexampleisthepresidentofArgentina,CristinaFernandezdeKirchner,insearchfor
popularityandleadership,continuestogivetothepoorwithoutinvestinginthecountry's
entrepreneurialpotential.Needlesstosay,Argentina'sdeficitcontinuestoincrease.Itseems
likesimplebudgetanalysis,butleadershipwithoutmanagerialskillsopensanichetoleaders
whodonotunderstandthatincomehastocomefrombusinesspractices.

Itislikelythatconfusioncouldbecreatedinthemindsofthenovicebusinessstudents,as
managementisperceivedasaboringactivitythatwillwinfewfriendshipsintheworkplace
whereasaleaderispopularandwellliked.Someoftheliteratureprescribesthemanageras
anunethicalindividual,whereastheleaderisatransformationalbeing.Mostofall,creating
theideathatonepersoncansolveallproblemsandsaveacountryoranorganization,isnot
beneficial.Itunderscoresthebeliefthatpeopleneedtobetoldwhattodomostofthetime.It
decreasesthefeelingofimportanceoftheindividualslabeledasfollowers,orsubjects.
Managementandleadershiparecomplementaryactivitiesandshouldbetaughtas
such.Pasteyourarticle'sbodyhere.

AuthorAffiliation
RaquelLopez,LesleyUniversity

Subject:StudiesLeadershipManagerialskillsMotivation
Location:UnitedStatesUS
Classification:2200:Managerialskills9130:Experiment/theoreticaltreatment9190:United
States
Publicationtitle:JournalofBusinessStudiesQuarterly
Volume:6
Issue:1
Pages:98112
Numberofpages:15
Publicationyear:2014
Publicationdate:Sep2014
Publisher:JournalofBusinessStudiesQuarterly(JBSQ)
Placeofpublication:Antioch
Countryofpublication:UnitedStates
Publicationsubject:BusinessAndEconomics
ISSN:21521034
Sourcetype:ScholarlyJournals
Languageofpublication:English
Documenttype:Feature
Documentfeature:References
ProQuestdocumentID:1566312650
DocumentURL:http://search.proquest.com/docview/1566312650?accountid=44841
Copyright:CopyrightJournalofBusinessStudiesQuarterly(JBSQ)Sep2014
Lastupdated:20141004
Database:ProQuestCentral