You are on page 1of 30

# Secondary Oil Recovery in

Stratified reservoirs

## Prof. Attia M Attia

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Stiles Method
h1

K1

h2

K2
K3

h3

Kj

hj

x
l
m
n

Before

After

Kx

hx

K
l
Km

hl

Kn

hn

hm

## Stiles has presented a method for

calculating oil recovery in these stratified
reservoir when the layers are isolated from
one another by impermeable layers so
that there is no pressure communication
between the layers .
Stiles method is based on the following
assumptions:
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Assumptions
Linear geometry (linear flow) and unit mobility ratio
The distance of advance of flood front in any zone is
proportional to absolute permeability
There is no vertical or cross flow between zones
All beds have the same porosity ,kro behind flood front
and the same relative permeability of water behind the
front
there is steady state flow (each barrel of water input
displace barrel of oil)

## Given a series of parallel beds or zones of

thickness dh1, dh2,and permeabilities
K1,K2,.
Let them be arranged for convenience in order
of decreasing permeability so that bed1 will be
swept by water first , bed 2 second , and so on..
Figure on the whiteboard

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Cj

volume floodedout
R
total pore volume
wlh1 wlh2 wlhj (wXkhk wxlhl wXnh )

n

## L(h1 h2 h3 hj ) ( xkhk xlhl hnxn)

L(h1 h2 h3 hj hk hn)
xk
xl
Xn
hk
hl
hn )
l
l
L
( h1 h 2 h3 hn )

( h1 h 2 h3 hj ) (

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Xk Kk Xl kl
Xn Kn

,
,

L Kj L Kj
L
K
Xk Kk , Xl Kl , Xj kj and Xj L

Kl
Kn
Kk
h1 h2 h3 hj hk hl hn
Kj
Kj
Kj

R
h1 h2 hn

consider that :
j

Kj hi

i 1

Kihi
ik

Kj hi
i 1

n
Kj hi kihi
i 1
i 1
R
j
Kj hi
j

kihi

i 1

i 1

Ct

kihi

and

Cj

i 1

Kihi
i 1

Kj hi Ct Cj
i 1

Kj hi
i 1

## Ct total formation capacity, md.ft

Prof. Attia M. Attia
Cj floodedBy
formation
capacity

Qw
Qw 1 Qw 2 Qwj
Fw

## Qw Qo (Qw 1 Qw 2 Qwj) (Qok Qol Qon

Kw 1(wh 1) p
Kwj(whj) p

wL w
wLw

Kw 1(wh 1) p
Kwj(wh j) p Kok(wh k) p
Kwn(wh n) p

wLw
wLw oLo
oLo

Kwihi

i 1 ww
j
Kwihi n Kohi

i 1 ww
i k oo
by replacing Kw by KKrw and KKro
j

fw

kiKrwhi

i 1

i 1

kiKrwhi

ww

w w
n

i k

kiKrohi
o o

multiplying

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

by

oo
Kro

Fw

i 1

i 1

Krwoo
Kihi
Kroww

Krwoo
Kihi
Kihi
Kroww
i k
n

mobility Ratio
Krw o o
M
*
*
(1)
Kro w w
f

MCj
w
( 2)
M
Cj

(Ct
Cj)
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Example
A flood is planned for a formation has the following permeabilities

Depth

K, md

Depth

K,md

30003003

96

30103012

67

30033005

169

30123013

430

30053006

370

30133016

690

30063009

232

30163019

512

30093010

42

30193020

310

## Also, given the following data porosity

= 0.23, Swi= 0.21, oil viscosity = 4.4
cp, water viscosity = 0.72 cp,
Bw=1.013 rbl/stb, Bo=1.272, Kro
=0.82 , Krw = 0.27 Sor= 16.2%,

## Using Stiles method perform the

following
1. Plot the fractional recovery Vs.
Surface water cut after water
break through in each bed

## EVALUATING FLOOD PERFORMANCE

Stratified reservoirs

## This method is used to predict waterflood performance

in stratified

reservoirs

Assumptions
No cross flow
All layers have the same thickness
Piston-like displacement
Constant pressure drop is maintained across the layers

## Steady state and linear flow

Immiscible and incompressible fluids
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
Wi

qi
qw
qo
TBth
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Time

Dykstra-Parsons method

## Arrange the permeability data in the decreasing order of magnitude

Calculate the fraction of the samples with permeability
greater than the particular sample
Calculate the cumulative frequency distribution
Plot the data on log-probability graph paper
Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted data with
more weight placed on the central data points

Find the values of k50 & k84.1 then find the value of permeability
variation or Dykstra-Parsons coefficient
k50 - k84.1

Vk=
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

k50

Dykstra-Parsons method
Find the reservoir mobility ratio

K rw o
Mr
K ro w

## Using V & Mr enter the permeability variation versus mobility

ratio curves for WOR = 1, 5, 25 ,100 then find the values of R
at these values of WOR
( S oi Sor )
Np 7758RAh
Find Np for each value of R

Boi

Find Wp

Wp = WOR Np

## Find the cumulative water injection Wi

Wi = Np o + Wp w

t = Wi / qi
Plot qi , Wi , Np , qo , Wp , qw versus time to evaluate
the flood performance

Find time t

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
EXAMPLE:
A, acre

87

Kro

0.87

h,ft

10

5.2

Mo,cp

0.25

0.28

Swi

0.23

Krw

N\,stb/acre ft

140.5

Mw,cp

0.82

Boi ,bbl/STB

1.263

Sor

0.156

Bo ,bbl/STB

1.07

Bw

## K1=58 K2= 121 K3= 513 K4=34 K5=242

K6=26 K7=273 K8=99 K9=49 K10=167
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
1-Arrange the permeability data in the decreasing order of magnitude
2-Calculate the fraction of the samples with permeability greater than the particular sample
3-Calculate the cumulative frequency distribution
K,md

permeabilities

## Portion of total sample having higher

or equal permeability ( frequency %)

513

10

273

20

242

30

167

40

121

50

99

60

58

70

49

80

34

90

26

10

100

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
4- Plot the data on log-probability graph paper (K vs. frequency)
5- Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted data with
more weight placed on the central data points
6- Find the values of k50 & k84.1 then find the value of permeability
variation or Dykstra-Parsons coefficient
k50 - k84.1
V=

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

k50

Dykstra-Parsons method
1000

121 - 37
= 0.694

V=
Permeability ,md

121
K50=121 md

100

K84.1=37 md

## Percent of sample with larger permeability (frequency)

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
7- Find the reservoir mobility ratio

0.28

Mr =

Mr =

Kw

Ko

5.2
= 2.041

0.87

0.82

## 8- Using V & Mr enter the permeability variation versus mobility

ratio curves for WOR = 1, 5, 25 ,100 then find the values of
R at these values of WOR

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-Sw) = 0.075

R = 0.0974

WOR = 1
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.72Sw) = 0.158

R = 0.1894

WOR = 5
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.52Sw) = 0.266

R = 0.3021

WOR = 25
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.4Sw) = 0.336

R = 0.37

WOR = 100
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
Wp = WOR Np

9- Find Wp

WOR =

qw
qo

Wp / t
=

Wp
=

Np / t

Np

Wp = WOR * Np
Wp = WOR d Np

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
10- Find the cumulative water injection Wi

t = Wi / qi

Wp

Wi

ti

94308.88

47154.45

148065.00

148.07

183389.1

1205197.05

1401423.43

1401.42

25

292512.4

5297320.80

5610309.12

5610.31

100

358257.6

10228210.80

10611546.38

10611.55

WOR

Np

Wi = Np o + Wp w

Wp* w
Np* o
qw =
qo =
t
t

## By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

Np

Wp

qo

qw

1401.42

1401.423

89080.26

1158043

68.01

826.33

5610309.12

5610.31

4208.886

109123.31

4092124

27.74

972.26

10611546.38

10611.55

5001.237

65745.10

4930890

14.07

985.93

Wp

Wi

ti

94308.88

47154.45

148065.00

148.07

183389.1

1205197.05

1401423.43

25

292512.4

5297320.80

100

358257.6

10228210.80

WOR

Np

## the flood performance

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
1200
1000
q inj
800
Np
600
Wi
oil flow rate
400
water folw rate
200
0
0

time , days