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Stratified reservoirs

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Stiles Method

h1

K1

h2

K2

K3

h3

Kj

hj

x

l

m

n

Before

After

Kx

hx

K

l

Km

hl

Kn

hn

hm

calculating oil recovery in these stratified

reservoir when the layers are isolated from

one another by impermeable layers so

that there is no pressure communication

between the layers .

Stiles method is based on the following

assumptions:

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Assumptions

Linear geometry (linear flow) and unit mobility ratio

The distance of advance of flood front in any zone is

proportional to absolute permeability

There is no vertical or cross flow between zones

All beds have the same porosity ,kro behind flood front

and the same relative permeability of water behind the

front

there is steady state flow (each barrel of water input

displace barrel of oil)

thickness dh1, dh2,and permeabilities

K1,K2,.

Let them be arranged for convenience in order

of decreasing permeability so that bed1 will be

swept by water first , bed 2 second , and so on..

Figure on the whiteboard

Cj

volume floodedout

R

total pore volume

wlh1 wlh2 wlhj (wXkhk wxlhl wXnh )

n

L(h1 h2 h3 hj hk hn)

xk

xl

Xn

hk

hl

hn )

l

l

L

( h1 h 2 h3 hn )

( h1 h 2 h3 hj ) (

Xk Kk Xl kl

Xn Kn

,

,

L Kj L Kj

L

K

Xk Kk , Xl Kl , Xj kj and Xj L

Kl

Kn

Kk

h1 h2 h3 hj hk hl hn

Kj

Kj

Kj

R

h1 h2 hn

consider that :

j

Kj hi

i 1

Kihi

ik

Kj hi

i 1

n

Kj hi kihi

i 1

i 1

R

j

Kj hi

j

kihi

i 1

i 1

Ct

kihi

and

Cj

i 1

Kihi

i 1

Kj hi Ct Cj

i 1

Kj hi

i 1

Prof. Attia M. Attia

Cj floodedBy

formation

capacity

Qw

Qw 1 Qw 2 Qwj

Fw

Kw 1(wh 1) p

Kwj(whj) p

wL w

wLw

Kw 1(wh 1) p

Kwj(wh j) p Kok(wh k) p

Kwn(wh n) p

wLw

wLw oLo

oLo

Kwihi

i 1 ww

j

Kwihi n Kohi

i 1 ww

i k oo

by replacing Kw by KKrw and KKro

j

fw

kiKrwhi

i 1

i 1

kiKrwhi

ww

w w

n

i k

kiKrohi

o o

multiplying

by

oo

Kro

Fw

i 1

i 1

Krwoo

Kihi

Kroww

Krwoo

Kihi

Kihi

Kroww

i k

n

mobility Ratio

Krw o o

M

*

*

(1)

Kro w w

f

MCj

w

( 2)

M

Cj

(Ct

Cj)

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Example

A flood is planned for a formation has the following permeabilities

Depth

K, md

Depth

K,md

30003003

96

30103012

67

30033005

169

30123013

430

30053006

370

30133016

690

30063009

232

30163019

512

30093010

42

30193020

310

= 0.23, Swi= 0.21, oil viscosity = 4.4

cp, water viscosity = 0.72 cp,

Bw=1.013 rbl/stb, Bo=1.272, Kro

=0.82 , Krw = 0.27 Sor= 16.2%,

following

1. Plot the fractional recovery Vs.

Surface water cut after water

break through in each bed

Stratified reservoirs

in stratified

reservoirs

Assumptions

No cross flow

All layers have the same thickness

Piston-like displacement

Constant pressure drop is maintained across the layers

Immiscible and incompressible fluids

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

Wi

qi

qw

qo

TBth

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Time

Dykstra-Parsons method

Calculate the fraction of the samples with permeability

greater than the particular sample

Calculate the cumulative frequency distribution

Plot the data on log-probability graph paper

Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted data with

more weight placed on the central data points

Find the values of k50 & k84.1 then find the value of permeability

variation or Dykstra-Parsons coefficient

k50 - k84.1

Vk=

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

k50

Dykstra-Parsons method

Find the reservoir mobility ratio

K rw o

Mr

K ro w

ratio curves for WOR = 1, 5, 25 ,100 then find the values of R

at these values of WOR

( S oi Sor )

Np 7758RAh

Find Np for each value of R

Boi

Find Wp

Wp = WOR Np

Wi = Np o + Wp w

t = Wi / qi

Plot qi , Wi , Np , qo , Wp , qw versus time to evaluate

the flood performance

Find time t

Dykstra-Parsons method

EXAMPLE:

A, acre

87

Kro

0.87

h,ft

10

5.2

Mo,cp

0.25

0.28

Swi

0.23

Krw

N\,stb/acre ft

140.5

Mw,cp

0.82

Boi ,bbl/STB

1.263

Sor

0.156

Bo ,bbl/STB

1.07

Bw

K6=26 K7=273 K8=99 K9=49 K10=167

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

1-Arrange the permeability data in the decreasing order of magnitude

2-Calculate the fraction of the samples with permeability greater than the particular sample

3-Calculate the cumulative frequency distribution

K,md

permeabilities

or equal permeability ( frequency %)

513

10

273

20

242

30

167

40

121

50

99

60

58

70

49

80

34

90

26

10

100

Dykstra-Parsons method

4- Plot the data on log-probability graph paper (K vs. frequency)

5- Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted data with

more weight placed on the central data points

6- Find the values of k50 & k84.1 then find the value of permeability

variation or Dykstra-Parsons coefficient

k50 - k84.1

V=

k50

Dykstra-Parsons method

1000

121 - 37

= 0.694

V=

Permeability ,md

121

K50=121 md

100

K84.1=37 md

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

7- Find the reservoir mobility ratio

0.28

Mr =

Mr =

Kw

Ko

5.2

= 2.041

0.87

0.82

ratio curves for WOR = 1, 5, 25 ,100 then find the values of

R at these values of WOR

Dykstra-Parsons method

V = 0.694

Mr = 2.041

R(1-Sw) = 0.075

R = 0.0974

WOR = 1

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

V = 0.694

Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.72Sw) = 0.158

R = 0.1894

WOR = 5

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

V = 0.694

Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.52Sw) = 0.266

R = 0.3021

WOR = 25

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

V = 0.694

Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.4Sw) = 0.336

R = 0.37

WOR = 100

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

Wp = WOR Np

9- Find Wp

WOR =

qw

qo

Wp / t

=

Wp

=

Np / t

Np

Wp = WOR * Np

Wp = WOR d Np

Dykstra-Parsons method

10- Find the cumulative water injection Wi

t = Wi / qi

Wp

Wi

ti

94308.88

47154.45

148065.00

148.07

183389.1

1205197.05

1401423.43

1401.42

25

292512.4

5297320.80

5610309.12

5610.31

100

358257.6

10228210.80

10611546.38

10611.55

WOR

Np

Wi = Np o + Wp w

Wp* w

Np* o

qw =

qo =

t

t

Dykstra-Parsons method

Np

Wp

qo

qw

1401.42

1401.423

89080.26

1158043

68.01

826.33

5610309.12

5610.31

4208.886

109123.31

4092124

27.74

972.26

10611546.38

10611.55

5001.237

65745.10

4930890

14.07

985.93

Wp

Wi

ti

94308.88

47154.45

148065.00

148.07

183389.1

1205197.05

1401423.43

25

292512.4

5297320.80

100

358257.6

10228210.80

WOR

Np

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

1200

1000

q inj

800

Np

600

Wi

oil flow rate

400

water folw rate

200

0

0

time , days

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