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Secondary Oil Recovery in

Stratified reservoirs

Prof. Attia M Attia


By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Stiles & Dykstra Parsons

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Oil displacement by water in stratified reservoir

Stiles Method
h1

K1

h2

K2
K3

h3

Kj

hj

x
l
m
n

Before

LBy Prof. Attia M. Atta

After

Kx

hx

K
l
Km

hl

Kn

hn

hm

Stiles has presented a method for


calculating oil recovery in these stratified
reservoir when the layers are isolated from
one another by impermeable layers so
that there is no pressure communication
between the layers .
Stiles method is based on the following
assumptions:
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Assumptions
Linear geometry (linear flow) and unit mobility ratio
The distance of advance of flood front in any zone is
proportional to absolute permeability
There is no vertical or cross flow between zones
All beds have the same porosity ,kro behind flood front
and the same relative permeability of water behind the
front
there is steady state flow (each barrel of water input
displace barrel of oil)

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Given a series of parallel beds or zones of


thickness dh1, dh2,and permeabilities
K1,K2,.
Let them be arranged for convenience in order
of decreasing permeability so that bed1 will be
swept by water first , bed 2 second , and so on..
Figure on the whiteboard

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Cj

volume floodedout
R
total pore volume
wlh1 wlh2 wlhj (wXkhk wxlhl wXnh )

(wlh1 wlh2 wlhj wlhk wlhn)


n

L(h1 h2 h3 hj ) ( xkhk xlhl hnxn)


L(h1 h2 h3 hj hk hn)
xk
xl
Xn
hk
hl
hn )
l
l
L
( h1 h 2 h3 hn )

( h1 h 2 h3 hj ) (

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Xk Kk Xl kl
Xn Kn

,
,

L Kj L Kj
L
K
Xk Kk , Xl Kl , Xj kj and Xj L

Kl
Kn
Kk
h1 h2 h3 hj hk hl hn
Kj
Kj
Kj

R
h1 h2 hn

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

consider that :
j

Kj hi

i 1

Kihi
ik

Kj hi
i 1

n
Kj hi kihi
i 1
i 1
R
j
Kj hi
j

kihi

i 1

i 1

Ct

kihi

and

Cj

i 1

Kihi
i 1

Kj hi Ct Cj
i 1

Kj hi
i 1

Ct total formation capacity, md.ft


Prof. Attia M. Attia
Cj floodedBy
formation
capacity

surface water cut may be expresed as


Qw
Qw 1 Qw 2 Qwj
Fw

Qw Qo (Qw 1 Qw 2 Qwj) (Qok Qol Qon


Kw 1(wh 1) p
Kwj(whj) p

wL w
wLw

Kw 1(wh 1) p
Kwj(wh j) p Kok(wh k) p
Kwn(wh n) p

wLw
wLw oLo
oLo

Kwihi

i 1 ww
j
Kwihi n Kohi

i 1 ww
i k oo
by replacing Kw by KKrw and KKro
j

fw

kiKrwhi

i 1

i 1

kiKrwhi

ww

w w
n

i k

kiKrohi
o o

multiplying

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

by

oo
Kro

Fw

i 1

i 1

Krwoo
Kihi
Kroww

Krwoo
Kihi
Kihi
Kroww
i k
n

mobility Ratio
Krw o o
M
*
*
(1)
Kro w w
f

MCj
w
( 2)
M
Cj

(Ct
Cj)
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Example
A flood is planned for a formation has the following permeabilities

profile as determined from core analysis:


Depth

K, md

Depth

K,md

30003003

96

30103012

67

30033005

169

30123013

430

30053006

370

30133016

690

30063009

232

30163019

512

30093010

42

30193020

310

Also, given the following data porosity


= 0.23, Swi= 0.21, oil viscosity = 4.4
cp, water viscosity = 0.72 cp,
Bw=1.013 rbl/stb, Bo=1.272, Kro
=0.82 , Krw = 0.27 Sor= 16.2%,

Using Stiles method perform the


following
1. Plot the fractional recovery Vs.
Surface water cut after water
break through in each bed

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

EVALUATING FLOOD PERFORMANCE


Stratified reservoirs

Dykstra Parsons Method

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Evaluating flood performance Dykstra-Parsons method

This method is used to predict waterflood performance

in stratified

reservoirs

Assumptions
No cross flow
All layers have the same thickness
Piston-like displacement
Constant pressure drop is maintained across the layers

Steady state and linear flow


Immiscible and incompressible fluids
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
Wi

qi
qw
qo
TBth
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Time

Dykstra-Parsons method

Arrange the permeability data in the decreasing order of magnitude


Calculate the fraction of the samples with permeability
greater than the particular sample
Calculate the cumulative frequency distribution
Plot the data on log-probability graph paper
Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted data with
more weight placed on the central data points

Find the values of k50 & k84.1 then find the value of permeability
variation or Dykstra-Parsons coefficient
k50 - k84.1

Vk=
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

k50

Dykstra-Parsons method
Find the reservoir mobility ratio

K rw o
Mr
K ro w

Using V & Mr enter the permeability variation versus mobility


ratio curves for WOR = 1, 5, 25 ,100 then find the values of R
at these values of WOR
( S oi Sor )
Np 7758RAh
Find Np for each value of R

Boi

Find Wp

Wp = WOR Np

Find the cumulative water injection Wi

Wi = Np o + Wp w

t = Wi / qi
Plot qi , Wi , Np , qo , Wp , qw versus time to evaluate
the flood performance

Find time t

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
EXAMPLE:
A, acre

87

Kro

0.87

h,ft

10

5.2

Mo,cp

0.25

0.28

Swi

0.23

Krw

N\,stb/acre ft

140.5

Mw,cp

0.82

Boi ,bbl/STB

1.263

Sor

0.156

Bo ,bbl/STB

1.07

Bw

K1=58 K2= 121 K3= 513 K4=34 K5=242


K6=26 K7=273 K8=99 K9=49 K10=167
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
1-Arrange the permeability data in the decreasing order of magnitude
2-Calculate the fraction of the samples with permeability greater than the particular sample
3-Calculate the cumulative frequency distribution
K,md

No. of samples having higher or equal


permeabilities

Portion of total sample having higher


or equal permeability ( frequency %)

513

10

273

20

242

30

167

40

121

50

99

60

58

70

49

80

34

90

26

10

100

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
4- Plot the data on log-probability graph paper (K vs. frequency)
5- Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted data with
more weight placed on the central data points
6- Find the values of k50 & k84.1 then find the value of permeability
variation or Dykstra-Parsons coefficient
k50 - k84.1
V=

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

k50

Dykstra-Parsons method
1000

121 - 37
= 0.694

V=
Permeability ,md

121
K50=121 md

100

K84.1=37 md

Percent of sample with larger permeability (frequency)


By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
7- Find the reservoir mobility ratio

0.28

Mr =

Mr =

Kw

Ko

5.2
= 2.041

0.87

0.82

8- Using V & Mr enter the permeability variation versus mobility


ratio curves for WOR = 1, 5, 25 ,100 then find the values of
R at these values of WOR

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-Sw) = 0.075

R = 0.0974

WOR = 1
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.72Sw) = 0.158

R = 0.1894

WOR = 5
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.52Sw) = 0.266

R = 0.3021

WOR = 25
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
V = 0.694
Mr = 2.041

R(1-0.4Sw) = 0.336

R = 0.37

WOR = 100
By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
Wp = WOR Np

9- Find Wp

WOR =

qw
qo

Wp / t
=

Wp
=

Np / t

Np

Wp = WOR * Np
Wp = WOR d Np

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
10- Find the cumulative water injection Wi

t = Wi / qi

11- Find time t


Wp

Wi

ti

94308.88

47154.45

148065.00

148.07

183389.1

1205197.05

1401423.43

1401.42

25

292512.4

5297320.80

5610309.12

5610.31

100

358257.6

10228210.80

10611546.38

10611.55

WOR

Np

Wi = Np o + Wp w

12- Find time t , Np , Wp to find qo & qw


Wp* w
Np* o
qw =
qo =
t
t

By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method

Np

Wp

qo

qw

1401.42

1401.423

89080.26

1158043

68.01

826.33

5610309.12

5610.31

4208.886

109123.31

4092124

27.74

972.26

10611546.38

10611.55

5001.237

65745.10

4930890

14.07

985.93

Wp

Wi

ti

94308.88

47154.45

148065.00

148.07

183389.1

1205197.05

1401423.43

25

292512.4

5297320.80

100

358257.6

10228210.80

WOR

Np

14- Plot qi , Wi , Np , qo , Wp , qw versus time to evaluate

the flood performance


By Prof. Attia M. Attia

Dykstra-Parsons method
1200
1000
q inj
800
Np
600
Wi
oil flow rate
400
water folw rate
200
0
0

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000


time , days

By Prof. Attia M. Attia