2.1
A steam power plant continuously converts the energy stored in fossil fuels
(coal, oil, natural gas) or fissile fuels (uranium, thorium) into shaft work and
ultimately into electricity. The working fluid is water which is sometimes in the
liquid phase and sometimes in the vapour phase during its cycle of operations.
Figure 2. I illustrates a fossil fuelled power plant as a bulk energy converter
from fuel to electricity using water as the working medium. Energy released by
the burning of fuel is transferred to water in the boiler (8) to generate steam at a
high pressure and temperature, which then expands in the turbine (1) to a low
pressure to produce shaft work. The steam leaving the turbine is condensed into
water in the condenser (C) where cooling water from a river or sea circulates
carrying away the heat. released during condensation. The water (condensate) is
then fed back to the boiler by the pump if), and the cycle goes on repeating
itself. The working substance, water, thus follows along the BTCP path of
the cycle interacting externally as shown. Since the fluid is undergoing a cyclic
process, there will be no net change in its internal energy over the cycle
($ dE = 0), and consequently, the net energy transferred to the unit mass of the
f1'uidas heat during the cycle must equal the net energy transfer as work from
the fluid.
cycle
Qnc< =
r Wn"
yc:le
I...
Q,  Q2 = W'T fVp
or,
where
(2.1)
Copyrighted material
11
Motor
Wp
QI
furnace
"'f
(2.2)
x C.V.
H20~
8
H20~T
P,&C
Q2
~H20
River
or
sea
Air
Generator
~
Electricity(MW)
!2.21 RANKINE
energy converter
CYCLE
(2.3)
QI="I".
"I
= WT+ 11.2
fVT= hl
112
Copyright
2.4)
material
1431
"
(2.5)
and the SFEE for the pump gives
h3 + IVp
.
It,
It)
Il/p ~ ", 
(2.6)
Q,
Q,
(2.7)
hih.
The pump handles liquid water which is incompressible, i.c. its density or
specific volume undergoes little change with an increase in pressure. For
reversible adiabatic compression, by the use of the property relation
Td~=dhvdp
Since ds
= 0,
4
Jdh=JlIdp
3
(2.8)
The pump work is usually small compared to the turbine work, and is often
neglected.
The capacity of a steam plant is often expressed in terms of steam rate or
specific steam consumption (s.s.c). It is defined as the rate of steam flow (kg/s)
required to produce unit shaft output (I kW).
Steam rate (S.R.)
kg
W.Cl kWs
= 
(2.9)
2.2.1
Q,
!VT Wp
IkJ
I) kWs
=
(2.10)
Heat transfer to water in the steam generator takes place in the three different
regimes (Figs 2.2 and 2.3). Water is first heated sensibly in tbe economiser in
the liquid phase at a certain pressure from state 4 to state 5 till it becomes
saturated liquid.
In the evaporator or the boiler proper, there is phase change or boiling with
the slate changing from 510 6 by absorbing the latent heal of vaporization at that
pressure, The saturated vapour al state 6 is further healed at constant pressure in
the superheater to Slate 1 in the vapour or gaseous phase. For unit mass of fluid,
heat transfer in these three types of heat exchangers is given by
Copyrighted material
"rg
(2.11)
"6
Stearn
Electric
generator
Q,
Fuel Air
Condenser
C.IV.
River
or
C.W.
sea
Wp
I,
4s
PI \6
WT
Q,
\
/)2
P2
3
2s ' '".;)",
.,._
Ql
,
s
(b)
(a)
I,
II
s
(c)
(a, b and c)
h s coordinates
Copyrighted m ateria'
1451
It is demonstrated in Fig. 2.4 by the areas under the respective processes at the
particular isobar. The fractions of the total heat transfer absorbed in the
economiser, evaporator and superheater are given by
Q,
h,  h,
area under 4  I
QEvn
h6  II;
It,  ".
area under 5  6
=area under 4  I
=
Q,
(2.12)
I~  h.
I
area under 4  I
Yap.
L+ V
4$
3
Fig. 2.5
2.2.2
'IT =
It,
1'2s
/11 /11
{2.13}
" ".
'lp = ":""'
,2.>
II, ",
The actual pump work would thus be
(2.14)
...'
W. c II"~ h, = v,(p,  P3)
.. (2.15)
'1.
'I"
One thus pays a penalty for irreversibility: the turbine produces less work and
the pump absorbs more work.
The liquid leaving the pump must be at a higher pressure than at the turbine
inlet because of the pressure drops due to friction etc. in boiler heat exchangers,
fccdwater heaters. pipes, bends, valves etc. Thus, fl, represents the exit pump
pressure.ji, the turbine irdet pressure, andps the steam generator exit pressure
(Fig. 2.6). Steam leaves the boiler at state 5 and enters the turbine at state I. The
pressure of steam drops from /)5 to p' 5 (or p,) due to friction in the pipeline and
entropy decreases from 5' to I due to heat loss.
p,
Ps
1',
\
\
2s 2
Fig. 2.6
s
Internally irreversible Rankine cycle
Copyrighted material
2.2.3
External
I in;~ersibilityI
a
e
Fig. 2.7
Copyrighted material
19'
~.31CARNOT CYCLE
The Carner cycle is an ideal but nonpractical cycle giving the maximum
possible thermal efficiency for a cycle operating on selected maximum and
minimum temperature ranges. For tbe Carnot cycle 1234 in Fig. 2.8,
compressing a very wet steam at state
3 would require a compressor of size
and cost comparable with the turbine;
it would absorb work comparable to T
that developed by the turbine and its
life would be short because of blade
erosion and cavitation problems due to
5
3
2
excessive moisture. For the cycle 12s
561, the pump work (h6  "5) is
again very high and it is impossible to
Fig. 2.8 Camot cycle
supply heat at infinite pressures and at constant temperature frOID state 6 to state
4. So, the Camot cycle cannot be realised in practice, but it sets the upper limit
to which the cycle efficiency of any thermal plant can be raised. For both the
cycles 123~ and 1256,the cycle efficiency is given by
7Jmn,'C
= I
To
= 'lCO'Imot
(2.16)
Fig. 2.9
>.)
(2.17)
$1  $4
Copyrighted material
Since Q2 = heatrejected =
"2 "3
= T2(s, 
s.),
...
(2.18)
where T2 is the temperature of heat rejection. The lower is the T2 for a given
Tm" i.e. lower is the condenser pressure, the higher will be the efficiency of
the Rankine cycle. But, the lowest practicable temperature of heat rejection
is the temperature of the surroundings, T". The saturation pressure
corresponding to this temperature To is the minimum pressure to which
steam can be expanded in the turbine. This being fixed by the ambient
conditions,
11R""k'"" =f(7;n')
only
(2.19)
The higher the mean temperature of heat addition, the higher will be the cycle
efficiency.
2.4.1
Effect of Superheat
( iJT)
as
(~~)p
0
~.
(iJs)
iJT
,we
p
(~~)ga<
>
Copyrighted material
!so!
..Ji:
r
I
s
Fig. 2.10 Effect of superheat on the mean temperature of heat
addition
T
(I
GO>
H2O
fII
II
['
T,
2'
s
h?11
of the nozzles with high velocity strike the blades and erode their edges, as a
result of which the life of the blades decreases. From the consideration of the
erosion of blades in the later stages of a turbine, the maximum moisture content
at the turbine exhaust is not allowed to exceed 12%, or the quality of steam to
fall below 88%. It is desirable that most of the turbine expansion should take
place in the single phase or vapour region.
Therefore, with the maximum steam temperature at the turbine inlet, the
minimum temperature of heat rejection, and the minimum quality of steam at
the turbine exhaust being fixed by the materials used, the ambient conditions.
and turbine blade erosion, respectively, the maximum steam pressure at the
turbine inlet also gets fixed (Fig. 2.13). The vertical line drawn from state 2
fixed by Tz and xz. intersects the T;..s: line at state I. which gives the maximum
steam pressure at the turhine inlet. The irreversibility in the expansion process
has, however. not been considered.
..
T
4
2 "
1'2
s
Fig 2.12 Effect of increase of
pressure on Rankine cycle
$
L......:.."o
s
..po'
Fig.2.13 Fixing of maximum steam
pressure at turbine inlet
I '"
7.S'"
42
~
/ L
~ 38
g.
36
34
~ci
. ~I '" __
: ~,,~'O
" ~I<I",'l
..:.::ls",,,, \'\f,
./
40
~\l(,t., '"
,/
,/
,/"'"
//
1/
[, =470C
020.
LOOL20140 IW
p, bar
Fig.2.14 Effect of inlet steam pressure (P,) and condenser pressure on Rankine efficiency with constant inlei steam
iemperature of 470 c
Copyrighted material
1"1
P1 = 25 mm Hg abs
Pl = 50 mm Hg nbs
Pl = 7S mm IIg abs
2.61 REHEATIKG
 60 bar
(Pi)
(Pi)
80 bar
(PI) mu = 95 bar
(PI)",.. = 90 bar
(PI)... = 115 bar
(PI).,.. = 135 bar
OF STEAM
If a steam pressure higher than (PI).,.. is used (Fig. 2.13), in order to limit the
quality to 0.88 at turbine exhaust, reheating of steam has to be adopted. In that
ease, all the steam after partial expansion in the turbine is brought back to the
boiler, reheated by combustion gases and then fed back to tbe turbine for further
expansion. The flow, Ts and hs diagrams for the ideal Rankine cycle with
reheat are shown in Fig. 2.1 S. In the reheat cycle the expansion of steam from
the initial state I to the condenser pressure is carried out in two or more steps
depending upon the number of reheats used. In the first step, steam expands in
the high pressure (H.P.) turbine from the initial state to some intermediate
pressure (process 11$). The steam is rcsuperheated (or. reheated) at constant
pressure in the boiler (process 2s3) and the remaining expansion (process
34$) of steam is carried out in the low pressure (L.P.) turbine. For I kg of
steam,
<">
!~I
Power Plant Engineering
a
PrA
\
\
P2
,I
I\
\ I
,,
4', 4.
5
s
(b)
T, = T,
s
(c)
Fig. 2.15
Reheat Cycle
Q, = ",  ,,(,.,
+ h3I'?,
Q2 = 1'45hS
Wp = "'" I.S
'1
Wy  IVp = (h. 
Q,
"2, + hl
3600 kglk\Vb
Stearn rate= 
(2.20)
(2.21)
JV!l~
3600
Heat rate = 
1)
kJlk \Vh
(2.22)
.'~
Had the high pressure P, been' used without reheat (Fig. 2.15), the cycle
would have been 14' s56s with lot of moisture at turbine exhaust having
quality x",. With the use of reheat, the area 2s34s4' s has been added to the
basic cycle. It is seen that the net work output of the plant increases with reheat
because (1r3  Ii.,) is greater than ("z, "4',), and hence the steam rate decreases.
Reheating also improves the quality at turbine exhaust from
10X4,. Whether
x.',
Copyrighted material
15~1
the cycle efficiency improves with reheat depends upon whether the mean
temperature of heat addition in process 2s3 is higher than that in process 6sl.
By increasing the number of reheats, still higher steam pressures could be
used, but the mechanical stresses increase in mucb higher proportion than the
pressure because of the prevailing high temperature. TIle cost and fabrication
difficulties will also increase. In thai way the maximum steam pressure gets
fixed, and more than two reheats have nOIyet been used. The use of more than
two reheats results in cycle complication and increases capital costs that are not
justified by improvement in the cycle efficiency.
The cycle efficiency in a single reheat plant is influenced by the pressure
(Prh) at which steam is reheated. The change in cycle efficiency Jlll per cent as
a function of the ratio of reheat pressure to initial pressure Prt!p, is plotted in
Fig. 2.16, for the cycle with initial steam at 172 bar and 538C and steam
reheat at 538 C. For Prtlp,
I, Jlll 0 since no reheat is used. A reheat
pressure too close to the initial pressure results in little improvement in cycle
efficiency because only a small portion of additional heat is added at high
temperature. The efficiency increases as the reheat pressure (P'h) is lowered
and reaches a peak at a pressure ratio Prl/p, between 0.20 and 0.25. Lowering
the reheat pressure further causes the temperature differences between the
primary fluid (flue gases) and the working fluid to increase, and brings down
the efficiency again since the mean temperature of heat addition during reheat
is less than that of the basic cycle. Too Iowa reheat pressure (for Prt/p, < 0.025)
results in a negative 6.11. The optimum reheat pressure for most of the modern
power plants is 0.2 10 0.25 of the initial steam pressure. It may also be noted in
Fig. 2.16 thar as I.oereheat pressure decreases, the quality of steam at turbine
exhaust (x.) increases. For too low a reheat pressure the exhaust steam
may even be in the superheated state, which is not good for the condenser.
Q
~Jr1REGENERATION
In order to increase the mean temperature of heat addition .Tm, and reduce the
Copyrighted material
!~IPowerPlantEngineering
+4
\,. V
;;>:
~+3
<,
.~ +2
~IJ%
.._
..
<,
T2<
r,
X.. 
" +I
r,
"
<;
~ 0
1.0
538
0.9
427
0.8
316
0.7
205
.(;t I
ao:
3
pressure
ratio on cycle
efficiency, h..p.turbine exit temperature and l.p. turbine
exhaust quality with initial steam at 172 bar, 538 'C
and steam reheat to 538 'C
2.7.1
Stirling Cycle
A well known gas cycle that uses regeneration is the Stirling cycle comprising
two reversible isotherms and two reversible isochores. Heat addition at constant
temperature TI from an external source and beat rejection at constant
temperature T2 to an external sink take place in the processes 41 and 23
respectively. Regeneration Or heat exchange occurs reversibly between the
constant volume processes 12 and 34 (Fig. 2.17). The areas under 12 and
34 denoting heat lost by the expanded fluid and gained by the compressed
fluid are equal. Therefore, all the beat is added reversibly at TI and all the heat
is rejected reversibly at T2. SO,the ideal Stirling cycle has the same efficiency
as the Carnot cycle.
4
r,I
TI
s
Fig. 2.17 Regenerative Stirling cycle with reversible heat transfer
Following the Stirling cycle, in the ideal regenerative cycle (Fig. 2.18) the
condensate after leaving the pump circulates around the turbine casing so that
Copyrighted m alerial
I!
heat is transferred from the vapour expanding in the turbine to the condensate
circulating around it. It is assumed that this heat transfer process is reversible,
i.e. at each point the temperature of the vapour is only infinitesimally higher
than the temperature of the liquid. The process 12 thus represents reversible
expansion of steam in the turbine witb reversible heat rejection to the
surroundingliquid heated rcversibly in the process 4s5. For any small step,
c
(a)
d
(b)
Fig. 2.18
.1.T(water) ~  .1.T(steam)
and
The slopes of the lines 12 and 545 (Fig. 2.)8) are thus
Areas 4s5b04s and 1dc21 are not only equal
Therefore, all the heat added from an external source
temperature T" aod all the heat rejected (Qz) is at constant
being reversible. Then
identical in contour.
but also congruous.
(Qt) is at constant
temperature T2, both
Q, c h,  hse Tt(s,$s)
Q2 = "2  h3 = T2($2  '3)
Since for reversible heat transfer,
.1Supj = A s.,...atcr + A s$!c;un
=0
or
'1~1_l?1=I_!i
Q,
T,
The efficiency of the ideal regenerative cycle like the Stirling cycle is thus
equal to that of the Carnot cycle. Writing the steady flow energy equation for
the turbine,
h, WT h2+ h.. hs = 0
WT= (h,hz)(hsh
..)
(2.23)
The pump work remains the same as in the Rankine cycle, i.e.,
Wp=h.,h3
Copyrighted material
lIS."
The net work output of the ideal regenerative cycle is tbus less and bence, its
steam rate will be more, although it is more efficient, compared. to the Rankine
cycle. However, the cycle is not practicable because:
(a) reversible heat transfer cannot be realized in finite time,
(h) heat exchanger in the turbine is mechanically impracticable, and '
(c) the moisture content of the steam in the turbine is high, which leads to
excessive erosion of turbine blades.
!2.al REGENERATIVE
FEEDWATER HEATING
Q, = 1(11, "11');
(2.24)
Boiler
Heater
I
JI
I
Copyrighted material
Irs~1
I kg
1111
1ln,11I2
s
(b)
s
(c)
.." ...
heaters
In the Rankine cycle operating at the given boiler and condenser pressures;
P, and P4, the heat addition would have been from state 6 to state I. By using
two stages of regenerative heating, fcedwater enters at state 10 instead of state
6, and heat addition from an external heat source is now from state 10 to state I.
Therefore,
(Tm,) withregeneration
h 
J,
I
0
$, SIO
(2.25)
and
(Tn.') withoutregeueranon
hi h6
''!.
$,  $6
1"9
tn, = I",  hg
li2  hg
. (2.26)
= (1 
m.2 =
m,)"7
I.,. Ii.
(I  nil)~:"
h.
"3 
(2.27)
Copyrighted material
,I~I.
, The path 1234 hi Fig, 2.19.(b) represents the states of a decreasing mass
of fluid. For I kg of steam, the path would be represented by 122'3'3"4'
as shown in Fig. 2.20, from Eq, (2.24), .
JPTe h,  h2 + (I  m,) (h1 h3) + (I  rn  m2) (il3 h.)
... . ..
(2,28)
'
where (I m,)(h2/I)=
l(h2,h3,) and (lm,m2)("3".)=
I(")"h.,)
The heat released by steam' condensing from 2 to 2', is utilized in heating up
, the water from 8 to 9.
I (h2 h2') = 1("9 h8)
(2.29)
,,
,= (h,
(2.30)
The similarity of Eq. (2,23) and (2,30) can be noticed, It is seen that the
stepped' 'cycle 122'3'3"4'5678910
approximates tbe ideal
regenerative cycle in Fig, 2. I 8, and a greater number of stages would give a
. closer approximation, :
.
The heat rejected Q2 in the cycle decreases from (114 lis) to ("4' "5)' There
is also a loss in' work output by the amount (Area under 22' + area under
3' 3"  area under 4  4'), as shown by the hatched area in Fig. 2.20, So, the
steam rate increases by regeneration, i.e, more steam has to circulate per bour to
produce unit shaft output It increases the boiler size and hence the capital cost.
It reduces the operating cost due to bigher cycle efficiency.
Loss. in
work output
Fig. 2.20
From Eqs (2,26) and (2,27). 1, and ~ can be evaluated, Eqs (2.26) and'
(2.27) can also be written alternatively as
'
Energy given off by extracted steam in condensation = energy gain. of
feedwater
or
m,(h2  "?) = (I  m,Xh? h8)
11I,(h) "7) = (I 111,111,) (h7 h6)
Heaters bave been assumed to be adequately insulated so that there is no
heat loss to the surroundings.
'
Copyrighted material
16I!
The effects of regenerative feedwater heating for the same turbine output
may be summarized as follows:
1. It significantly increases the cycle efficiency and reduces the heat rate
(reducing operating cost).
2. It increases the steam flow rate (requiring bigger boiler).
3. It reduces the steam flow to the condenser (needing smaller condenser).
4. If there is no change of boiler output, the turbine output drops.
2.9
FEEDWATER HEATERS
Feedwater heaters are of two types, viz., open heaters and closed heaters. In an
open or contact type heater, the extracted steam is allowed to mix with feedwater
and both leave the heater at a common temperature (Fig. 2.19a). In a closed
heater, the fluids are kept separate and are not allowed to mix together
(Fig. 2.21). Closed heaters are shellandtube heat exchangers where the
feedwater flows through tbe tubes and the extracted steam condenses outside
the tubes in the shell. The heat released by condensation is transferred through
the walls of the tubes. The condensate (saturated water at the steam extraction
pressure), sometimes called the heater drip, then passes througb a trap into the
next lower pressure heater. This, to some extent, reduces the steam required by
that heater. The trap passes only liquid and no vapour. The drip from the lowest
pressure heater could similarly be trapped to the condenser, but this would be
throwing away energy to the condenser cooling water. To avoid this waste, a
drip pump feeds the drip directly into the feed water stream.
If the Fig. 2.19 and 2.21 are compared, it may be noted that the feedwater
inlet temperature, Q" Q2' WT and so on would be marginally affected with the
heaters being either open or closed. For the heaters, the energy balance gives
Ikg
p"/,
Boiler
H.P.
closed
heater
(a)
Copyrighted material
1621
ir'::_''<:'f2
\
Fig. 2.21
Im}
P2 _n12
P3
m,(h2hll)~
(2.32)
The value of TID varies with heater pressure. For 1 p heaters receiving wet
steam, the TID is positive and often of the order of 3 C. Too small a value,
although good for plant efficiency, would require a larger heater. Too large a
value would reduce the cycle efficiency.
If the extracted steam upon condensation gets subcooled, a drain cooler may
be used. The heater would then have two sections, a condensing section and a
draincooler section (Fig. 2.22(b).
Steam
Steam
FIV
Bled steam
FIV
Condensate
1.
Sled steam
j_
___JT
____""'7T
T
~
61 __
C'oj
Lor n
LorH
(a)
I
(b)
Copyrighted material
16~.!
!Stearn
FW1'I=o~c~~c~=t~o~sJ~W
f
Condensate
T
 TTD =Terminal
temperature
II
difference
C = Condenser
9
! DC fI

c
(c)
OS
DC" Draincooler
OS = Desuperheater
LorH
For the h.p. heater receiving superheated steam [Fig. 2.22(c)] bled from the
turbine at state 2, the steam is first dcsuperhcaied, then condensed and finally
subcooled to state II, whereas the feedwater gets heated from 9 to 12. It may be
noted that the exit water temperature (t12) is higher than the saturation
temperature at P2' and the TID is here negative. The heater is then composed of
a desuperheating section, a condensing section and a drain cooler section.
The advantages of the open heater are simplicity, lower cost, and high heat
transfer capacity. The disadvantage is the necessity of a pump at each heater to
handle the large feedwater stream.
A closed heater requires only a single pump for the main feedwater stream
regardless of the number of heaters. The drip pump, if used, is relatively small.
Closed heaters are costly and may not give as high a feedwater temperature as
do open heaters. In most steam power plants, closed heaters are favoured but at
least one open heater is used, primarily for the purpose offecdwater deaeration.
The open heater in such a system is called the deaerator, Closed heaters are
mostly horizontal. Sometimes, they are made vertical to reduce the floor areas
needed for their installations.
Copyrighted material
!:I
l3oiJe,r
, Condenser
CW
[lCO
I
cw
I
I
I
,
I
I
I
I
'G)
>  '
(a)
G B
s
(b)
Fig. 2.23
extraction the ideal cycle is AFCDA. After the throttle steam bas expanded
from A to I, some steam is extracted so that the total entropy is reduced from 1
to 2. The heat given up by this steam is added to the feedwater, heating it from
II to 12. This process is continued in four steps to the last extraction which
heats the feedwater from D to 9. With an infinite number of extraction stages,
AD would be parallel and equal in length to DE. The irreversible process DEthe heating from condenser to boiler saturation temperaturecould thus be made
reversible. The area of the parallelogram CEAG, which represents the cycle
output, would be equal to the area of the rectangle AFGE which represents the
output of'thd Carnot cycle. Regenerative feedwater beating by turbine extraction
is, therefore, also termed the carnotization oj the Rankine cycle. A regenerative
feed heating cycle with an infinite number of feedwater heaters has thus an
efficiency equal to that of Carnot cycle.
Copyrighted material
l~.;lllOPTIMUM
11551
DEGREE OF REGENERATION
I kg
8
Im
(Im)kg
Fig. 2.24
(2.33)
"f
"2 "6
Now,
II, h. = h, +
= f3 + y
If the total enthalpy rise of fecdwater is equal to ex = hs 
h, 
"6
h"
then
Copyrighted material
1661
/32
7)=1
(2.34)
(/3+y)(a+/3y)
Here, a and /3 are fixed and y is variable. So, there is an optimum value of y
for which 7) is a maximum. On differentiation,
a
d'1
,
 =tJ'[(a+{3y)({3+y)]=O
)'
=
2 (2.35)
dy
The cycle efficiency is maximum when the total enthalpy rise of fecdwatcr
(hs  h.) from the condenser temperature to the boiler saturation temperature is
divided equaUy between die feedwater beater and the economiser (i.e. "s = h6  "4) in a single bleed cycle. So, the temperature rise of fcedwater in the
beater is
"6
/)J;::;
2: (tboi1ct saturation 
tcondenser)
{32
a=l
({3+2)(a+tJ"2)
tJ'
({3+ ~)'
a2 + 4a{3
,=
(2.36)
(a+2tJr
Now,
h)  h,
h4
I~ 
tJ _
a+{3
= {3+
(2.37)
a+{3
a2 + 4a{3
(a + 2{3)2
a
a'{3
=
a + {3 (a + {3Xa + 2{3)2
(2.38)
This is positive. This shows that the cycle efficiency has improved due to
regeneration.
In the heater train, the feedwater enters the economiser section of the boiler
at state F (Fig. 2.25), where feedwater is heated to the saturation temperature
(G) at the boiler pressure. Assuming the econorniser also as a fecdwater heater
(where feedwater is heated by the outgoing flue gases, instead of by the bled
turbine steam, the Iotal enthalpy rise (110 h3) or temperature rise from the
condenser to the boiler saturation is divided equally among the feedwater
heaters for maximum gain in the efficiency. The enthalpy rise per heater
(including the economiser) is thus,
Copyrighted material
161
I kg
Turbine
Boiler
I  Inli
i
Eeonomiser
(0)
'rw
I In'i
;
s
(b)
1'0  h~
n+ I
(r = ~)
(2.39)
where n is the number of heaters and I stands for the economiser, Therefore,
the total enthalpy rise of feedwater for II heaters by regenerative feedheating is
(2.40)
Thus, the total temperature rise of feedwater, t. Ir... due to regeneration for
the maximum cycle efficiency is given by
t.I",=
II
II +
t.I(JA
(2.41)
Copyr grted mater al
1681
AttwO =
If n = I,
Afrwl
Ifll=2,
tlIr..~
=
If" = 3,
&1\'",
I
=  AloA
2
2
3 Alo A
3
I
Atrwl  Alrwo =  AloA
2
By the usc of the second heater, the gain over the first heater would be
AI(w2  AI(wl
610A 
I
2
610A =
610A
By the use of the third heater, the gain over the second hearer would be
.11fwJ  ~t(w2;:; 
12
fl.tof\
Employing the fourth heater, the gain over the third healer becomes
61",.,  6/',d = ~ 610A 
610A ~
2~
610A
and so on.
Copyrighted material
16,91
0,05
0:45
OAO
E 0.35
"
"
c
'5
"
.l!
o
Q
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.10
A
0.25
J;:
I
with the
s
(a)
(b)
(c]
Copyrighted material
1101
o 1L__
o
Fig. 2.28
L __ ...L__ .L__
50
150
100
200
Total rise in FW temperature
(6Jf\v) , C (above 33 C)
250
Small departures from the optimum values have no serious effect on the heat rate.
12:121 SUPERCRITICAL
PRESSURE CYCLE
Figure 2.29 shows the plant arrangement and Ts diagram for a supercritical
steam cycle. Steam is generated in a "oncethrough" boiler at a pressure above
the critical pointof22 1.2 bar. If the plant incorporates reheat and several stages
of feedheating, there is about a 2% gain in thermal efficiency compared with
the corresponding subcritical cycle. However, such an increment is gained only
at the expense of increased cost and complexity of the plant Double reheat
needs to be incorporated to prevent the l.p. turbine exhaust wetness from being
excessive.
lMW
2MW
beam
loaomotive marine
engine steam
steam
engine
Thermal efficiency (%)
2
2
100
7
15
300
30 WV(eJ660 MlV(e)
power
steam
power.
engine
plant.
plant
20
15
250
35
40
450
SI'8am
44
160
540
40
540
0.045
0.9, dry
7
0.045
0.9, dry
4
0.1
wet
IP
turbine
cw
Condenser
pump
s
(b)
Fig. 2.29
1721
Units above 150 MW output are now most frequently built for h.p. steam
conditions of 142 bar, 538C or 170 bar, 538C with reheating up to 538 C.
AI supercritical pressures for more than 600 MW size, h.p. steam is often at 270
bar, 538C with double reheating to 538 C. H.P. steam and reheat
temperatures up to 565C have also been used. A landmark station, built in
1959, is the 325 MW Eddystone, Unit Iof Philadelphia Electric Company, a
double reheat plant with supercrirical steam (325 bar, 610 C/565 C/565 C)
which had the highest steam conditions and lowest heat rate for any plant in the
world.
Common unit size of a steam power plant is now 500 MW(e). Plant sizes,
however, will continue to increase and 1300 MW(e) turbo generators arc likely
to be the standard unit sizes in the power station in ncar future. Large
improvements through raising the metallurgical limit are unlikely in the near
future because it would then have to use prohibitively expensive austenitic
steels or complicated turbine blade cooling. The thermodynamic design of the
steam cycle for a 1300 MW(e) turbo generator would have steam conditions
similar to those of the present generation of660 MW(e) sets, but the plant sizes
would be correspondingly larger. Even larger unit sizes of 2000 and 3000
MW(e) have been proposed but the physical construction and operation of such
plants would pose serious problems like the tlexibility of the longer rotor shafts,
construction of the huge generator stator, effect on ihe electricity grid system
due to shutdown of one of these very large sets, and high loss of revenue due to
a shutdown.
~I DEAERATOR
One of the feedwater heaters is a contacttype open heater, known as deaerator,
others being closed heaters. It is used for the purpose of deaerating the
fcedwater.
The presence of dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide in water
makes the water corrosive, as they react with the metal to form iron oxide. The
solubility of these gases in water decreases with increase in temperature and
becomes zero at the boiling or saturation temperature. These gases are removed
in the deacraror, where fccdwater is heated 10 the saturation temperature by the
steam extracted from the turbine. Feedwater, after passing through a beat
exchanger, called vent condenser, is sprayed from the top so as to expose large
surface area, and the bled steam from the turbine is fed from the bottom
(Fig. 2.30). By contact the steam condenses and the feedwater is heated to the
saturation temperature. Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide gases get released
from the water and leave along with some vapour, which is condensed
back in the vent condenser, and the gases are vented OUI.
To neutralize the effect of residual dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide
gases in water, sodiwn sulphite (Na2S03) or hydrazine (N2H.) is injected in
suitable calculated doses into tbe feedwater at the suction of the boiler teed
pump (BPP).
Copyrighted material
11~1
02 and C~ gases
vented out
FW from
J.p. healer
t++++
Venl
condenser
....:: '..
.. '... ,. .
:',:;
Deaerator storage
rank
Water level
Indicator
To the
N.1SOJ or
BFP N2H. injected
h.p. heater......!'../
Pressure = Pse, + Pr gH
Fig. 2.30
During suction of the BFP, some of the saturated feedwater may flash into
vapour due to reduction in pressure causing vapour lock and cavitation
problems in the pump. To prevent this from occurring and to provide a net
positive suction head (NPSH) for the pump, the deaerator is located at a
sufficient height (H) from the basement where the pump is installed so that the
pressure before suction is (P,., + PrgH). When this water is sucked by the pump,
the pressure docs not fall below Psa' and there is no flashing of any water into
vapour, which protects the BFP from any damage due to vapour lock and
cavitation.
The deaerator is usually placed near the middle of the feedwater system so
that the total pressure difference between the condenser and the boiler is shared
equitably between the condensate pump and boiler feed pump. The feedwater
heaters before the deaerator are often termed as high pressure (h.p.) heaters and
those after the deaerator are termed as low pressure (l.p.) heaters.
The deaerator is not used in watercooledandmoderated nuclear power
plants because of the concern regarding radioactivity release with deaeration.
Copyrighted material
1741
2.15
Figure 2.3 I(a) shows the typical layout ofa steam power plant demonstrating all
the relevant components in it. The heat balance diagram of a 215 M \V reheat
power plant is shown in Fig. 2.31 (b).
.~
I.:J
 r\
L_
++__+__~
I /
l<J
..
1t
c
e
c
0
"
7 e;! ~
.
"
0
"0
.\
."
I~
1<
<:S
..
s
<>.
sE
<:S
s.,
d
'0>
~
"
.s'"
.~
~
...
I
..'".
~
'"
~
Copyrighted material
..
...NX~c01I
!l
'"
.!o( 
e ...
r
or.
~ 5i:
E:;; ....
oS
..,. VI
'"
:<l
!;
~
~
E_
.!
...B
ee
Il!l
~
'" ...,<
iii
e,
'"
e,
e
.,;
<_
..
!:!
:t:
I
;;
...
.U'
'"
....
~
]
eco
""
'"
"'.
..,
."
",'
" "
"
u
,"
,X
..:
.,.,
"l:?
'"
c
I')~
LL I
.."
.SLI
!l
:t:
~
.(Ill
!;;
S'ttf"t
" 13
00
1')'Ioot
........
0
It
.1
"'I
'2
ii
:I:
i!, ,...
I
;:!i
'"
e '"
'"
I"'~ttL
.~oor~
I !:!
~
q
"~
"
I
~Ul
I
II
:t:
,.......
"
"&
s
e
._g>
't!
!!
:t:
..:
'"
e
.,"
::!
'"l~
c,
1!
1!
...
.><
'"
'" ~
.:
I! 00
<5
=IU
g.
....
I
"0
e,
CO
.i
".
....
..,
....
Q ~
u
" '"'"+
'" ~ ~
~ '"
~
....
I
en_
u
11~1
_ E" g
~~
~.:: .;.:
1] U
0
'""
<:!
...
.Q
<:!
..." " B
..." " .,
cOo..
J:j
...
""
I~Ot:
1761
@!!I
EFFICIENCIES
A steam power plant is a bulk energy coverter from fuel 10electricity (Fig. 2.32).
The overall efficiency of a power plant is defined as
Exhaust
gas
(4)
'BY
P~
furnace
(source) IQIJ c&T'fu
Fuel
f=.j
Q2
Sink
Air
Power consumed
to drive the
auxiliaries
1)."era11=
(2.42)
xC.Y.
where wf is tbe fuel burning rate and C.Y. is the calorific value of fuel.
The boiler (or the steam generator) efficiency is defined by
_ rate of energy absorption by'water to form steam
1100""  rate of energy release by the combustion offuel
(hlh4)
wr x C.V.
= ",
(2.43)
",  h2
I I
'l  '4:
(2.44)
Copyrighted material
brake output
10,(", /'2)
I!i
(2.45)
_ ::.:._:_c_:__:_:_:_:,..:.,,.,,
(2.46)
71 boiler
1V,(hlh.)
Wr X C. v.
w,("'1 h,)

"',(",  h.)
brake output
MWexl<Y
X ~:'__:'
lV,(I"  "2)
brake output
MWex 103
w,
C ,V .
:::I
11overall
Therefore,
110,'era11= "boil X "cy<k X """Oint(m"b) X 'IS"""IO<
(2.47)
There are certain auxiliary equipment in Ibe power plant like F.O. and 1.0.
fans, pulverizers. crushers, conveyors and so on which are driven by electricity
taken from the generated power of the plant. The net power transmitted from
the generator will be tbe gross power produced minus the power consumed by
the internal auxiliaries of the plant. The efficiency of the auxiliaries, 7laux> is
given by
1),,,,, = nel power transmitted by Ibe generator
gross power produced by tbe plant
(2.48)
7lgm:mt<>c x 7l.ux
(2.49)
7l.wt
0.44
0.95
Only 34% of the energy in fuel is converted to electricity and 660/0 of the
energy is lost. The maximum loss of energy takes place in the condenser where
heat is rejected to cooling water. This is the loss due to heat to work energy
conversion in the cycle or the loss due to the second law.
The parameter which readily reflects the fuel economy is tbe beat rate, which
is inversely proportional to the efficiency and hence, the lower its value the
better. It broadly indicates the beat added per unit of work produced. There are
various beat rates corresponding to tbe work used in the denominator. Thus,
Copyrighted material
11s1
heat
(HR) rate of heatadditionto cycle
Net eye Ie eat rate . =
net cycleworkoutput
G rosscyceI HR =
:I
Q.
H'.",
net stationoutput
Q,.
Q,
""'
net stationoutput
(2.50)
2.17.1
Copyrighted material
17.91
Q,
Boiler
IVp
Fig. 2.33
power is produced incidentally as a byproduct, the cycle is often called a byproduct power cycle. Figure 2.34 shows the Ts plot tor such a cycle. If rVT is
the turbine output in kW, QH is the process heat required in kJ/h, and lV, is the
steam now rate in kglh.
II'T
QH
S
Fig. 2.34
or,
(2.51)
Of the total energy input Q, (as heat) to the cogeneration plant, WT part of it
only is converted into shaft work or electricity. The remaining energy
(Q, 1fT), which would otherwise have been a waste, as in the Rankine cycle,
by second law, is utilized as process heat.
The cogeneration P.J.Ft efficiency Tic. is given by
'700 =
Wr +Q"
Q,
(2.52)
Copyrighted material
III
For separate generation of electricity and steam, the heat added per unit total
energy output is
I
1e
''1.
11h
+
If;'
fVT + QH
= ,",
11.
'1.= e
Je
'1.
11h
(2.53)
+
2.17.2
PassOut Turbine
In many cases, the power available from the back pressure turbine through
which the whole of the heating steam flows is appreciably less than that
required in a factory. This may he due to relatively high back pressure, or small
heating requirement or both. Passout turbines are employed in these cases,
where a certain quantity of steam is continuously extracted from the turbine at
an. intermediate stage for heating purposes at the desired temperature and
pressure (Fig. 2.35).
Copyrighted m ateria'
!.1!
Passout
turbine
(a)
s
(b)
Ftc. 2.35
Qt = w, <ht  "g);
JI'T = 1V,(hI 
w(", "6);
"0 + (IV, 
}
IV)("2 : h'l)
(2.54)
where \Y, is the boiler capacityand IV is the steam flow rate required at the
desired temperature for process beating.
. .
2.17_3
Power
In some plants, sucb as a high temperature cement kiln; the primary beat is used
directly for process requirements. The low grade waste heat from tbe process
heater is then used to generate electricity, obviously at low efficiency.'Such a
cycle bas a combined efficiency tying 'below tbat given by Eq, (2.S3) and
tDerefore,isof less acwltotlynamic or economic interest.
Copyrighted material
1821
5.5600
5.5970
= 0.9934
796.96 + 1891.52
c.
(a>
Copyrighted material
IS31
2 bar
3
0.1 bar
6
s
(b)
Fig. E2.1
2183.78
h. = 504.7 + x. X 2201.9 = 2688.48; x. = 2201.9 = 0.9917
S4
2392.8
= 2243.44
kJlkg
= 191.83 kJ/kg
(Ans.)
or
4970.63
35.3.v.
r
kW
(Ails.)
4970.63 kW
955.18
19.22%
(Ans.)
Example 2.2 A steam power plant with inlet steam to the h.p. turbine at 90 bar
and 500 C, and condensation at 40 C produces 500 M\V, It bas one stage
of reheat optimally placed which raises the steam temperature back to 500 C. One
closed feedwater heater with drains cascaded back to the condenser
receives bled steam at the reheat pressure, and tbe remaining steam is rebeated and
tben expanded in tbe I.p. turbine. The b.p. and I.p. turbines have isentropic
efficiences of 92% and 90%, respectively. The isentropic efficiency of the
pump is 75%. Calculate (a) the mass flow rate of steam at turbine inlet in kg/s,
(b) the cycle efficiency, and (c) the cycle work ratio. Use TID 0  1.6 C.
Copyrighted material
Ii
So/ut;01l The now.and Ts diagrams are shown in Fig. E2.2. The optimum reheat
'pressure is taken to be 20"/0 of the boiler pressure. which becomes 0.2 x
.90 = 18 bar. Now, h, = 3386.1 kJ/kg, $, = 6.6576 kl/kgK = 52", Jrlo = 2915 kJlkg.
h3'= 3469.8 kJlkg.
X4,
7.4825  0.5725
7.6845
= 0.8992
h$ = 167.57 kJlkg.
W",= J v dp = 0.001008
x 90 x
10 = 9.072 kJ/kg
h,  h2
or
h2 = 3386.1  433.3
= 2952.8 kJlkg
h,  h. = 0.9(3469.8.  2331.7) = 1024.29. kJlkg
h. = 3469.8  1024 = 2445.5 kJ/kg
= 179.67 kJ/kg
:. '9=207.15 + 1.6=208.75 C
. 875 179.67
m = 2952.8 _ 883.4 = 0.336 ~g
WT = (h, hl) + (I ~ m)(I1,Jr.)
= 1113.435 kJlkg
500 x 10
1101.335
..
:: 454 k"g/'
S
....
(.)
Copyrighted material
1851
I kg
90 bar, 500 C
...lr~
(a)
3
i
i
I
i
i
I
I
i
I
I kg
90 bar
m
18 bar
\
\
\
\
2s
I
i
I
\
\
\
\
40C
500C
i
i
4$ 4
8
s
(b)
Fig. E2.2
Copyrighted material
1861
1113.435
AlIs.(b)
AilS. (e)
_L
30.7 C
5
6
Tc
s
Fig. E2.3
140.3 = 30.7 0C
= 224.5 C;
P2 = 2.5318 MPa
P3 = 1.367 MPa
1'4 = 0.6714 MPa
Ps = 0.2906 MPa
p(o=0.108MPa
p, = 32.65 kPn
Copyrighted material
1871
Solution
033
'IAu,ill",i.,; 0.97 x 0.95 x 0.92 x 0.42 = 0.9268
I  0.9268 ; 0.0732
or 7.32% of total electricity generated is consumed by the auxiliaries.
..xanIJ' If..'
and an
L'
1... :"1
140 C and leaves as saturated liquid. Air is preheated from a temperature of25 C
to 250C. Steam leaves the boiler drum at 60 bar, 0.98 dry and leaves the
superheater at 450C. When using coal with a calorific value of 25.2 MJlkg,
the rate of evaporntion is 8.5 kg steam per kg coal and the air fuel ratio is 15 : 1
by mass. Neglecting heat losses and pressure drops, estimate the heat transfer
per kg fuel in each component and the efficiency of the steam generator. v,'bat
are the percentages of the total beat absorption taking place in the economiser,
boiler and the superheater, respectively'! Assume cp of air and water as 1.005
and 4.2 kJlkg K, respectively.
With reference to Fig. E2.5,
Solution
T
4
450'
,,
,
60 bar \
3 \
,,
,
,,
Eco
Boiler
SH
,,
,
__
"___
,,
,,
.!;
L
'_'
'
"0
.j)J>
Fig. E2.5
h(= 1213.35 kJlkg,
h. = 3301.8 kJlkg,
Copyrighted material
Iss!
I1s"",=
W,(l14~~)=~;27:=0.9154
wr x
. xI
..
or
91.54%
(h  h)
,"2
Wr
Heal transfer in the boiler
=
Wr
Heal transfer in the superheater
(h.  ~) = 8.5 x 548.87 x Ioi = 4.665 MJlkg
wr
Heat transfer in the air preheater
=
'=
lV,
IV.
c (t2  I, )
a p.
Wf
hz
h
h,  hi
625.35
xlOO=
2713.8
x 100=23.04%
h h
ee
2 X
I00 ~
1539.58
x 100 = 56.73%
h. ",
2713.8
Percentage of total heat absorbed in the superheater
Q
20.23%
Solution
s 1 = S2 = sJ ~ 6.5199 kJJkg K
h. a 3467.6 kJlkg,
ee

~~
dd
~~
.c.c
~c.:
:e"j
.!.J
\
;!;:o
,.to
00
~''
o .
0'
~o:
,,'"
.+:;;=
o
'"~.
'"
.to
'"
00
"C"""~
~
"'"
Co.
o
""'_
(.)0
~,.L_J
ct~
.,.,
~
d
.to
18',
iii"
Copyrighted material
Iggi
13
= 245 "C,
"C,
(6 = 300 "C,
15 = 400
o = 225 oe,
IS = 160 "C,
= 0.5764 + x9 x 7.6751
7.4317
X9
3050 kJ/kg
= 0.8932
1 kg
ISO bar
."
50 bar
P,'h
10bar
17
5 bar
3 bar
In
20 bar
1113
'''4
nls
0.075 bar
10
"" =
h"
t,.
Healer 1
1911
Healer 2
IIIz(lIjIIw)+
tn,
l08,2
0,012 kg
Healer 3
IIIl!'6  II,s) + (m, + 1112)
(1120 h '8) = (I  Ill,  1112
 1113)(11'8 "17)
IIIl3050  640,2) + 0,212(762,8  640,2) = (0,788  111) (640,2  561.5)
Tn)
1113
= 36,0212488.5 = 0.0145
kg
Heater 4
mij., "'6)
= (I  111,11121113)(hl7  II,s)
Heater 5
Ins(lIg "12) + 1II.(h'6  "12) = (I  Ill, IIIZ "'3 Ill.  IllS) (h,.  "11)
1115(2790 467) + 0.031(561.5  467) = (0,7425  m5) (467  169,3)
ms x 2323 +2.93
218.11
1115= 2620,7
= 0.0832
kg
11'= l(h,"!l+(IIII,)(1I2hJ)+(Im,)(h.hs)
+ (I m,III,)
(115"6)+
(I 111,
+(Im,III,1II31II.)(h7118)
+(Im,mZm31114mS)(hsII?)
= (3448,6  31(2) + 0,8(3112  2890) + 0,8(3467,6  3250)
+ 0.788(3250  3050) + 0,7735(3050  2930)
1338,85
nC)<,. = 2756.48 = 0.4857,
or
48.570/0
Ans, (a)
Copyrighted material
1921
Steam rate
Heat rate
264 DC
3600
Wn..
Ans.(b)
3600
i?Lx3600~
0.4857
1338.85 x 300 x
3600
= x9 = 0.8932
IIY
(c)
Ails. (d)
3600 =7412kJIkWh
IV...
Ans.
Ans. (e)
k\V = 111.57 MW
Ans. (I)
Fumplc 2.7 A textile factory requires J 0 tlb of steam for process heating
at 3 bar saturated and 1000 kW of power, for which a back pressure turbine of 70"10
Fig. E2.7
Solution
:.
Now,
= 2725.3
514.286 kl/kg
x"
= 0.9287
Copyrighted material
= 6.6125
1931
kJ/kg K
P, = 37.3 bar,
I,
ElImplc 2.8 In a cogeneration plant, the power load is 5.6 M\V and the heating
load is 1.163 MW. Steam is generated at 40 bar and 500C and is expanded
isentropically through a turbine to a condenser at 0.06 bar. The
beating load is supplied by extracting steam from the turbine at 2 bar, which
condensed in the process beater to saturated liquid at 2 bar and then pumped
back to the boiler. Compute (a) the steam generation capacity of the boiler in
tilt, (b) the heat input to the boiler in k\V, (c) the fuel burning rate of the boiler
in tilt if a coal of calorific value 25 MJ/kg is burned and the boiler efficiency is
88%, (d) the heat rejected to the condenser, (e) the rate of flow of cooling water
in the condenser if the temperature rise of water is 6C. Neglect pump work.
Solution
'I
= 7.0901 = $2 = S3
5.5970
or
X2 ~
5.56
5.597 = 1.0
IV
2 bar
tVs
lVS 
tV
",1
0.06 bar
.'
Fig. E2.S
1.163 x 103
1l63xlol
2201.9
= 0.528 kg/s
1901.4 kg/h
Copyrighted material
x, = 0.84
II,
I()"' C40
Ans.(a)
Ans.(b)
Q,
= 15.111 = 0:88
C.V. II'r x 25
Wrx
Ans.(c)
If
lVc:=
Q2 = we cp(t.z
...
IV, =
Ans. (d)
tIl
8367
= 333.05 kgls QO.333 mlls
4.187 x 6
AlIS.
(e)
Copyrighted m ateria'
Analysis
Solutio"
oJ Steam Cycles
1951
The flow and Trsdiagrams of the plant arc shown in Fig. E2.9.
ltls = 21,000 kglb
17 bar, 230 C
H.P.
Turbine
Boiler
QII = 132.56kW
0.3 bar,
0.912 dry
ltls
(a>
230C
T
17 bar "
I
I
I
t~_ 3
I
~
3.5 bar
0.3 bar
6., 6
s
(b)
Fig. E2.9
h, 2869.7 kJlkg,
"2 ~ 870.44
$,
+ 0.957
6.5408 kJlkg K
h2= h3
IV,(hsh6)=
"S"6=
1337.5 kW
1337.5 x 3600 =229.29kJlkg
21000
Copyrighted material
\961
...
x.s = 0.923
= 584.33 + 0.923 x 2148.1
I,.,
= 2567.03 k1/kg
132.56
IV = 2867.7 _ 2712.38
21000
w, = 3600
wit]
+ (w. w) It,
= 0.843
= 5.833 kg/so
kg/s
w,
= 4.990 kg/s
= wi's
0.843 x 2712.38 + 4.99
AilS.
(a)
h,  h4'
= 0.7644
2869.7  2567.03
or,
76.44%
231.37
302.67
AilS.
(c)
!97!
2.11 Explain the effect of regeneration on steam cycle output and efficiency,
2.12 The use of regnerative feedwater heating increases the capital cost but
reduces the operating cost of a steam power plant. Explain.
2.1~ Give a comparative estimate of open and closed feedwater heaters.
2.14: Whai is heater drip?
2.15 What is the function of a steam trap?
2.16 What do you understand by terminal temperature difference? Can it be
negative? Explain.
2.17 What is the effect of ITO on heater size and cycle efficiency?
2.18 Wbat is a drain cooler?
2.19 Why is one of'the feedwater heaters always an open heater? What is it called?
2.20 Explain the function of the deaerator, Why is deaerator installed at a large
height from the basement?
2.21 Why is hydrazine injected at the suction of the boiler feed pump?
2.22 Explain the optimum degree of regeneration. How is it arrived at?
2.23 Show that regenerative feedwater heating improves the cycle efficiency.
2.24 What is a supercritical steam cycle?
2.25 What is the common unit size of a steam power plant? What will be its
projected size in the next decade?
2.26 What is boiler efficiency?
2.27 Show that the overall plant efficiency is a product of five component
efficiencies.
2.28 What do you understand by the efficiency of the auxiliaries, n.",,?
2.29 What is heat rate? What is the difference between net cycle heat rate and
gross cycle heat rate?
2.30 What do you understand by cogeneration of power and process heat? Explain
its thermodynamic advantage.
2.31 What is a baek pressure turbine? What are its applications?
2.32 Explain cogeneration plant efficiency.
2.33 What is a passout turbine and when is it used?
Copyrighted material
tal
2.3 In a singleheater regenerative cycle the steam enters tbe turbine at 30 bar,
40() "C and the exhaust pressure is 0.10 bar. The feedwater heater is a direct
contact type which operates at 5 bar. Find (a) the efficiency and the steam rate
of the cycle, and (b) the increase in mean temperature of beat addition,
efficiency and steam rate, as compared to the Rankine cycle (without
regeneration). Neglect pumpwork.
[AilS. (a) 35.36%,3.93
2.4 A simple steam power cycle uses solar energy for the beat input. Water in the
cycle enters the pump as a saturated liquid at 40 C, and is pumped to 2 bar.
It tben evaporates in the boiler at this pressure, and enters the turbine as
saturated vapour. At the turbine exhaust tbe conditions are 40 C and 10%
moisture. The How rate is 150 kglb. Determine <a) the turbine isentropic
efficiency, (b) the net work output, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (d) the area of
the solar collector needed if the collectors pick up 0.58 kW/m2.
[An,. (a) 76.7%, (b) 15.5 kW, (c) 12.78%, (d) 182 m21
2.5 In a nuclear power plant heat is transferred in the reactor to liquid sodium.
The liquid sodium is then pumped to a beat exchanger where heat is
transferred to steam. The steam leaves this heat exchanger as saturated vapour
at 50 bar, and is then superheated in an external gas fired superheater to
600C. The steam enters the turbine, which bas One extraction point at4 bar,
where steam flows to an open feedwater heater. The turbine efficiency is 75%
and the condenser temperature is 4() C. Determine the beat transfer in the
reactor and in the superheater to produce a power output of 80 MW, and the
thermal efficiency.
[AilS. (a) 30 bar, (b) J 50 bar, (c) 50.51 %, (d) 1.9412 kglkWbJ
2.8 In a reheat cycle steam at 500 C expands in an h.p, turbine till it is saturated
vapour. It is reheated at constant pressure to 400C and then expands in an
l.p. turbine to 40 C. If the maximum moisture content at the turbine exhaust
is limited to 15%, find (a) the reheat pressure, (b) the boiler pressure, (c) the
net specific work output, (d) the cycle efficiency, and (c) the steam rate.
Assume all processes ideal.
Copyrighted material
1.~91
What would have been the quality at turbine exhaust, the net work output and
tbe cycle efficiency, without tbe reheating of steam?
2.9 A regenerative cycle operates with steam supplied at 30 bar and 300C, and
the condenser pressure is 0.08 bar. The extraction points for two heaters (one
closed and one open) arc 3.5 bar and 0.7 bar, respectively. Calculate the
thermal efficiency of the plant neglecting pump work.
[Ails. 36%J
2.10 The net power output of an ideal reheat regenerative steam cycle is 80 M\V.
Steam enters the h.p. turbine at SO bar, 500 C and expands till it becomes
saturated vapour. Some of the steam then goes to an open feed water heater
and the balance is reheated to 400C, after which it expands in an I.p. turbine
to 0.07 bar. Compute (a) the reheat pressure, (b) the steam flow rate to the
h.p. turbine, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (d) the rate of tlow of cooling water
in the condenser iftbe temperature rise of water is 8 "C, (e) If the velocity of
steam flowing from the turbine to the condenser is limited to 130 mis, find the
diameter of the connecting pipe.
[AilS. (a) 6.5 bar, (b) 5S.4 kg/s. (c) 43.7% (d) 3146.5 kg/s, (e) 2.97 rn]
2.11 Stearn is generated at 70 bar, 500C and expands in a turbine to 30 bar with
an isentropic efficiency of 77%. At this condition, it is mixed with steam
twice its mass at 30 bar, 400C. The mixture then expands with an isentropic
efficiency of80% to 0.06 bar. At a point in the expansion where the pressure
is 5 bar, steam is bled for fcedwatcr healing in a direct contact heater, which
raises the feedwater to the saturation temperature of the bled steam. Calculate
the mass of steam bled per kg of'high pressure steam and the cycle efficiency.
Assume that the L.P, expansion condition line is straight.
[AilS. 0.53 kg, 31.9%)
2.12 A certain chemical plant requires beat from process steam at 120C at the
rate of5.S3 MW and power at the rate of I MW from the generator terminals.
Both tbe heal and power requirements are met by a back pressure.turbine of
80% brake efficiency (brake output/isentropic output) and 85% internal
efficiency. which exhausts steam at 120 e, dry and saturated. All the latent
heat released during condensation is utilized in the process heater. Find the
pressure and temperature of steam at inlet to the turbine. Assume 900/0
efficiency for the electric generator.
!10e!
2.15 A 850 MW steam power plant operates with turbine inlet at 100 bar, 550 C
and condenser pressure at 0.05 bar. There are three feedwater heaters placed
optimally as follows: (i) the b.p. heater is of the closed type witb drains
cascaded backward, (ii) the i.p heater is of the open type, and (iii) the J.p.
heater is of the closed type with drains pumped forward. Each of the turbine
sections has the same isentropic efficiency of 90"10. The pumps have
isentropic efficiencies of 80%. Calculate (a) the mass flow rate of steam at
turbine inlet, (b) the mass flow rate of cooling water in the condenser, if it
undergoes a 10C temperature rise, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (e) the cycle
beat rate.
2.16 A coalfired power plant has a turbine generator rated at 1000 M\V gross.
The plant requires 9% of tbis power for its internal operations. It uses 9800
tonnes of coal of beating value 26 MJ/kg per day. The steam generator
efficiency is 86%. Calculate the gross and net station heat rates and
cfliciencies.
(AIlS. 10.616 MJ/kWh, 11.667 MJIk\Vh, 33.9%, 30.86%)
2.17 Steam is supplied to passout turbine at 40 bar, 400C and dry saturated
process steam is required at 4 bar. The l.p. stage exhausts at 0.1 bar and the
condition line for the turbine expansion may be assumed to be straight, If the "
'.
power load is 1000 k\V and the maximum process load is 1.4 kW, estimate
tbe maximum steam flow through tbe high and low pressure stages. Assume
that the steam just condenses in the process plant.
[Ans. 3837.6 kglh, 3635.3 kglh]
2.18 A steam power plant bas the boiler efficiency of92%, turbine (mechanical)
efficiency of 96%, and electric generator efficiency of 97%. If 7% of the
power generated is consumed in running the auxiliaries of the plant and tbe
overall plant efficiency is 34%, find the percentage of energy lost in the
condenser.
(Ails. 57.4%]
2.19 An ideal steam power plant operates between 150 bar, 550C and 0.075 bar.
It has seven fecdwater heaters. Find the optimum pressures and temperatures
at wbich the heaters operate.
2.20 In a cogeneration plant, 106 kg/h of steam at 80 bar, 480 C expands in tbe
h.p. turbine to lObar. From the exhaust 4 x 105 kg/h of steam is extracted for
process beating. Tbe remairting steam expands in tbe l.p, turbine to 0.08 bar.
Saturated liquid at 0.08 bar leaving tile condenser is pumped to 9.5 bar where
it mixes with the condensate from the process beater leaving at 9.5 bar,
120C. The entire flow is then pumped to 80 bar. The isentropic efficiencies
of the turbines and tbe pumps are 86% and 80%, respectively. Detenuine (a)
Copyrighted
m ateria'
11911
the heating load. in kJIh, (b) the power developed by the turbines, in kW, and
(c) the rate of heat transfer in the steam generator, in kJIb.
[Ans. (3) 9.53 kJIb, (b) 236500 kW, (c) 3.032 X 109 kJlb]
2.21 In a reheatregenerative steam cycle, steam enters the h.p. turbine at 80 bar,
480C and expands to 7 bar. The steam is then reheated to 440C before
entering the l.p. turbine, where it expands to the condenser pressure of 0.08
bar. Steam extracted from the h.p. turbine at 20 bar is red to a closed
feedwater heater, from which the drain at 205C is cascaded to an open
feedwater heater through a trap. Steam extracted from the l.p. turbine at 3 bar
~salso fed into tbe open feedwater heater, fr~ which the total flow is pumped
onto the steam generator. The net power output of the cycle IS 100 M \V.
Assuming ideal processes. determine (3) the cycle efficiency, and (b) the rate
of steam generation in kglh.
[AilS. (a) 43%, (b) 2.8 x lOSkglh]
2.22 A pressurized water reactor power plant operates at pressures and
temperatures as shown in Fig. P2.22. The steam leaving the heat exchanger is
at 50 bar, dry saturated and the condensate is saturated to the saruration
temperature of the bled steam at 5 bar in an open feed heater. Assuming all
processes to be ideal and neglecting pump work estimate (a) the ratio of the
working fluids in the two circuits, (b) the fraction of the steam supply which
is bled from the turbine, and (c) the cycle efficiency.
[AilS. (a) 10 :1, (b) 0.22, (c) 3<)<>I.J
Steam50 bar
\Vater
Steam
turbine
t60 bar,
314.6C
Heat
exchanger
5 bar
Reactor
Feed
healer
i::;_j
Condenser
C.W.
0.05 bar
275.6 C
Fig. P2.22
Copyrighted material
Ittbi!ll
Copyrighted material