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2

2.1

I STEAM POWER PLANT

A steam power plant continuously converts the energy stored in fossil fuels
(coal, oil, natural gas) or fissile fuels (uranium, thorium) into shaft work and
ultimately into electricity. The working fluid is water which is sometimes in the
liquid phase and sometimes in the vapour phase during its cycle of operations.
Figure 2. I illustrates a fossil fuelled power plant as a bulk energy converter
from fuel to electricity using water as the working medium. Energy released by
the burning of fuel is transferred to water in the boiler (8) to generate steam at a
high pressure and temperature, which then expands in the turbine (1) to a low
pressure to produce shaft work. The steam leaving the turbine is condensed into
water in the condenser (C) where cooling water from a river or sea circulates
carrying away the heat. released during condensation. The water (condensate) is
then fed back to the boiler by the pump if), and the cycle goes on repeating
itself. The working substance, water, thus follows along the B-T-C-P path of
the cycle interacting externally as shown. Since the fluid is undergoing a cyclic
process, there will be no net change in its internal energy over the cycle
($ dE = 0), and consequently, the net energy transferred to the unit mass of the
f1'uidas heat during the cycle must equal the net energy transfer as work from
the fluid.

cycle

Qnc< =

r Wn"

yc:le

I...

Q, - Q2 = W'T- fVp

or,
where

(2.1)

Q, = heat transferred to the working fluid, kJlkg


Qz = heat rejected from the working fluid, kJlkg
Wr= work transferred from the working fluid, kJikg
Wp= work transferred into the working fluid, kJlkg

The efficiency of the vapour power cycle would thus be

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1= Wn~ =WT -Wp =QI -Q2 =1_Q2
c)'< 'QI
QI
QI.
QI

11

Motor

Exhaust Ilue gas

Wp
QI

furnace
"'f

(2.2)

x C.V.

H20~
8
H20~T

P,&-C

Q2

~H20

River
or

sea

"'T (shaft work)


Fuel

Air
Generator
~

Electricity(MW)

Fig.2.1 Steam power plant-bulk


from fuel to electricity

!2.21 RANKINE

energy converter

CYCLE

For each process in the vapour power cycle, it is possible to assume a


hypothetical or ideal process which represents the basic intended operation and
does not produce any extraneous effect (like heat loss). For the steam boiler, this
would be a reversible constant pressure heating process of water to form steam,
for the turbine the ideal process would be a reversible adiabatic expansion of
steam, for the condenser it would be a reversible constant pressure heat rejection
as the steam condenses till it becomes saturated liquid, and for the pump the
ideal process would be the reversible adiabatic compression of this liquidending
at the initial pressure. When all these four processes are ideal, the cycle is an
ideal cycle, called a Rankine cycle. This is a reversible cycle. Figure 2.2 shows
the flow diagram of the Rankine cycle, and in Fig.2.3, the cycle has been plotted
on p - v, T - sand li-s coordinates. Applying the steady flow energy equation
(SFEE) to each of the processes on the basis of a unit mass of fluid and
neglecting changes in kinetic and potential energy, the work and heat
interactions can be evaluated in terms of the properties of the fluid..
For J kg fluid, the SFEE for the boiler as the control volume gives
h. + QI = "I

(2.3)

QI="I-".

The SFEE tor the turbine as the control volume gives

"I

= WT+ 11.2

fVT= hl-

112

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2.4)

material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

1431

"

Similarly, the SFEE for the condenser is


h2= Q2 + h3

(2.5)
and the SFEE for the pump gives
h3 + IVp
.

It,
It)

Il/p ~ ", -

(2.6)

The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is then given by


I) ~

W.e< = H'T - Wp = ,.('


...
" _-_"-,,2),--_(~h::..4_-~I~,-,-)

Q,

Q,

(2.7)

hi-h.
The pump handles liquid water which is incompressible, i.c. its density or
specific volume undergoes little change with an increase in pressure. For
reversible adiabatic compression, by the use of the property relation
Td~=dh-vdp
Since ds

= 0,
4

Jdh=JlIdp
3

(2.8)
The pump work is usually small compared to the turbine work, and is often
neglected.
The capacity of a steam plant is often expressed in terms of steam rate or
specific steam consumption (s.s.c). It is defined as the rate of steam flow (kg/s)
required to produce unit shaft output (I kW).
Steam rate (S.R.)

kg
W.Cl kWs

= --

(2.9)

The cycle efficiency is sometimes expressed alternatively as beat rate wbicb


is the rate oCheat input (kJ/s) required to produce unir shaft output (I kW).
Heat rate (H.R.) =

2.2.1

Q,

!VT -Wp

IkJ
I) kWs

=--

(2.10)

Economiser, Evaporator and Superheater

Heat transfer to water in the steam generator takes place in the three different
regimes (Figs 2.2 and 2.3). Water is first heated sensibly in tbe economiser in
the liquid phase at a certain pressure from state 4 to state 5 till it becomes
saturated liquid.
In the evaporator or the boiler proper, there is phase change or boiling with
the slate changing from 510 6 by absorbing the latent heal of vaporization at that
pressure, The saturated vapour al state 6 is further healed at constant pressure in
the superheater to Slate 1 in the vapour or gaseous phase. For unit mass of fluid,
heat transfer in these three types of heat exchangers is given by
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QEco= lIs - ".


QE'~ = "6 - hs =
OSII = ",

"rg

(2.11)

"6

Stearn

Electric
generator

Q,

Fuel Air

Condenser

C.IV.

River
or

C.W.

sea

Wp

Fig. 2.2 A simple steam plant representing Rankine cycle


C.P.
PI

I,

4s

PI \6

WT

Q,

\
/)2

P2
3

2s ' '".;)",
.,._

Ql

-,

s
(b)

(a)

I,

II

s
(c)

Fig.2.3 Rankine cycle on p - v, T - sand

(a, b and c)

h- s coordinates
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Analysis of Steam Cycles

1451

It is demonstrated in Fig. 2.4 by the areas under the respective processes at the
particular isobar. The fractions of the total heat transfer absorbed in the
economiser, evaporator and superheater are given by

Q&:o = lIs - ". = .:::ar_;;.eac...;cun.:::d",er.:::4",:--~5

Q,

h, - h,

area under 4 - I

QEvn

h6 - II;
It, - ".

area under 5 - 6
=----area under 4 - I

-=

Q,

(2.12)

Os" = ", - ~ = area under 6 Q,

I~ - h.

I
area under 4 - I

Fig. 2.4 Fraction of total heat transfer absorbed in the

economiser, evaporator and superheater


may be noted that as the pressure increases, the latent heat decreases and so
the heat absorbed in the evaporator decreases and the fraction of the total heat
absorbed in the superheater increases. In high pressure boilers, more than 40%
of the total beat is absorbed in the superheaters. For steam generators operating
above the critical pressure (approx 221 bar) there is no evaporator or boiling
section. However, there is a transition zone where all the liquid on being heated
suddenly flashes into vapour (Fig. 2.5).
[t

Yap.
L+ V

4$
3

Fig. 2.5

Rankine cycle with supercritical boilerpressure


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2.2.2

Internally Irreversible Rankine Cycle

Internal irreversibility of Rankine cycle is caused by tluid friction, throttling


and mixing. As the flow rates in the steam turbine as well as in the pumps are
large. and the expansion and compression processes arc quite rapid, the beat
loss per unit mass may be considered negligible. Though the assumption of
adiabatic flow in them is still valid, due to Iluid friction the expansion and
compression processes are not reversible and entropy of the fluid in both
increases (Fig. 2.6). The internal or isentropic efficiency (T/r) of the turbine is
given by

'IT =

It,
-1'2s

/11 /11

{2.13}

The pumping process, being adiabatic and irreversible, also results in an


increase in entropy, and the isentropic efficiency of the pump is given by

" -".

'lp = ":""-'
--,2.>
II, -",
The actual pump work would thus be

(2.14)

...'
W. c II"~- h, = v,(p, - P3)
.. (2.15)
'1.
'I"
One thus pays a penalty for irreversibility: the turbine produces less work and
the pump absorbs more work.
The liquid leaving the pump must be at a higher pressure than at the turbine
inlet because of the pressure drops due to friction etc. in boiler heat exchangers,
fccdwater heaters. pipes, bends, valves etc. Thus, fl, represents the exit pump
pressure.ji, the turbine irdet pressure, andps the steam generator exit pressure
(Fig. 2.6). Steam leaves the boiler at state 5 and enters the turbine at state I. The
pressure of steam drops from /)5 to p' 5 (or p,) due to friction in the pipeline and
entropy decreases from 5' to I due to heat loss.

p,

Ps

1',
\
\

2s 2

Fig. 2.6

s
Internally irreversible Rankine cycle

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Analysis of Steam Cycles 1141.1

2.2.3

Externally Irreversible Rankine Cycle

External irreversibility of the Rankine cycle is caused due to the temperature


differences between the combustion gases and the working fluid on the source
side, and the temperature differences between the condensing working fluid and
the condenser cooling water on the sink side (Figs 2.2 and 2.7). The products of
combustion or flue gases get cooled from a to d and the working fluid
temperature rises from 4 to I in countertlow heat exchangers. The minimum
temperature differences between the two tluids are c - 5 and a - I, and the
points where these occur are called pinch points. Too small a pinch point
temperature difference causes a lower thennal (external) irreversibility and an
increase in surface area resulting in a large expensive steam generator, whereas
a large pinch-point temperature difference results in a small, inexpensive steam
generator but with a reduced plant efficiency due to a large thermal
irreversibility. The most economical pinch-point temperature difference is
obtained by optimization which takes into account the fixed charges (based on
capital costs) and operating COSIS (based on efficiency, and hence, fuel costs).
Line e-f represents the rise in temperature of the cooling water ill the
condenser, whereas the working fluid temperature' remains constant during
condensation process 2 - 3. When one of the tluids nndergoes phase change, the
direction of flow of the other fluid, whether parallel or counter-flow, is
immaterial so far as the size of the heat exchanger and thermal irreversibility are
concerned.
a-I: Pinch point I
c-S: PiJ1Ch point 2

External

I in;~ersibility-I

a
e

Fig. 2.7

External irreversibility with Rankine cycle

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Power Plant Engineering

~.31CARNOT CYCLE
The Carner cycle is an ideal but non-practical cycle giving the maximum
possible thermal efficiency for a cycle operating on selected maximum and
minimum temperature ranges. For tbe Carnot cycle 1-2-3-4 in Fig. 2.8,
compressing a very wet steam at state
3 would require a compressor of size
and cost comparable with the turbine;
it would absorb work comparable to T
that developed by the turbine and its
life would be short because of blade
erosion and cavitation problems due to
5
3
2
excessive moisture. For the cycle 1-2s
5-6-1, the pump work (h6 - "5) is
again very high and it is impossible to
Fig. 2.8 Camot cycle
supply heat at infinite pressures and at constant temperature frOID state 6 to state
4. So, the Camot cycle cannot be realised in practice, but it sets the upper limit
to which the cycle efficiency of any thermal plant can be raised. For both the
cycles 1-2-3~ and 1-2-5-6,the cycle efficiency is given by
7Jmn,'C

= I-

To

= 'lCO'Imot

(2.16)

. 2.41 MEAN TEMPERATURE OF HEAT ADDITION


In the Rankine cycle, heat is added reversibly at a constant pressure but at
infinite temperatures. If Tml is the mean temperature of heat addition as shown
ill Fig. 2.9, so that the area under 4 and I is equal to the area under 5 and 6, then
heat added is

Fig. 2.9

Mean temperature of heat addition

Q, a hi - ". ~ TOl, ("

>.)

Tml mean temperature of beat addition = h, - h4


Q

(2.17)

$1 - $4

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Analysis of Steam Cycles ~

Since Q2 = heatrejected =

"2- "3

= T2(s, -

s.),

...

(2.18)

where T2 is the temperature of heat rejection. The lower is the T2 for a given
Tm" i.e. lower is the condenser pressure, the higher will be the efficiency of
the Rankine cycle. But, the lowest practicable temperature of heat rejection
is the temperature of the surroundings, T". The saturation pressure
corresponding to this temperature To is the minimum pressure to which
steam can be expanded in the turbine. This being fixed by the ambient
conditions,
11R""k'"" =f(7;n')

only

(2.19)

The higher the mean temperature of heat addition, the higher will be the cycle

efficiency.

2.4.1

Effect of Superheat

The effect of increasing the initial temperature at constant pressure on cycle


efficiency is shown in Fig. 2.10. When the initial state changes from I to 1',
Tm l between ) and I' is higher than Tmt between 4 and I. So an increase in
the superheat at constant pressure increases the mean temperature of heat
addition and hence, the cycle efficiency. Moreover, with increase in
superheat, the expansion line of steam in the turbine shifts to the right, as a
result of which the quality of steam at turbine exhaust increases and
performance of the turbine improves, as explained later. If hOIflue gas is the
primary fluid or heat source for steam generation in the power cycle, the use
of superheat also reduces the thermal irreversibility. Since cp = r
have the slope

( iJT)
as

(~~)p
0

~.

Now (cp)w".r > (cp)g, therefore

(iJs)
iJT

,we
p

(~~)ga<
>

If hot pressurized water is the heat source for steam generation, as


wac.c:r

in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the superheat may not be practical,


since the temperature differences between m-p and 5-1 vary little (Fig.
2.11). If the temperature at state I is fixed, to use superheat the pressure has
to be reduced from p to p', This increases the overall temperature difference
resulting in reducing rather than increasing the cycle efficiency.

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Power Plant Engineering


T

r
I

s
Fig. 2.10 Effect of superheat on the mean temperature of heat

addition
T

(I

GO>
H2O

fII

II

['

T,

2'
s

FIg. 2.11 Superheat may not be practical with hot pressurized

water as heat source as in a PWR


Therefore, fossil fuel steam generators as well as gas-cooled and liquid metal
cooled nuclear power plants employ superheat, while PWR power plants do not
use superheat.

2.4.2, Effect of Inlet Pressure


The maximum temperature of steam that can be used is fixed from metallurgical
considerations, i.e. the materials used for the manufacture of the components
which are subjected to the high-pressure high-temperature steam like the
superheaters, valves, pipelines, inlet stages of the turbine and so on. It is called
the metallurgical limit. When the maximum temperature-is fixed by this limit,
as the operating steam pressure at which beat is added in the boiler increases
from P, to P2 (Fig. 2.12), the mean temperature of heat addition increases since
Tml between states 7 and 5 is higher than that between states 4 and I. But when
the turbine inlet pressure increases from P, to P2' the ideal expansion line of
steam shifts to the left and the moisture content at the turbine exhaust increases
(because X6 < -'2). If the moisture content of steam in the later stages of the
turbine is high, the entrained water particles along with the vapour coming out
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Analysis oj Steam Cycles

h?1-1

of the nozzles with high velocity strike the blades and erode their edges, as a
result of which the life of the blades decreases. From the consideration of the
erosion of blades in the later stages of a turbine, the maximum moisture content
at the turbine exhaust is not allowed to exceed 12%, or the quality of steam to
fall below 88%. It is desirable that most of the turbine expansion should take
place in the single phase or vapour region.
Therefore, with the maximum steam temperature at the turbine inlet, the
minimum temperature of heat rejection, and the minimum quality of steam at
the turbine exhaust being fixed by the materials used, the ambient conditions.
and turbine blade erosion, respectively, the maximum steam pressure at the
turbine inlet also gets fixed (Fig. 2.13). The vertical line drawn from state 2
fixed by Tz and xz. intersects the T;..s: line at state I. which gives the maximum
steam pressure at the turhine inlet. The irreversibility in the expansion process
has, however. not been considered.

..

T
4

2 "

1'2

s
Fig 2.12 Effect of increase of
pressure on Rankine cycle

$
L....---------..:.."o
s
..po'
Fig.2.13 Fixing of maximum steam
pressure at turbine inlet

EFFECT OF VARIATION OF STEAM


CONDITION ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF
STEAM POWER PLANT
The variation of Rankine efficiency with the inlet steam pressure at a constant
steam temperature of 470 C libd''at three condenser pressures is shown in
Fig. 2.14. It is seen that for inleisteam pressures above 100 bar, there is a
continuing but decreasing rate of 'improvement of cycle efficiency. The
increase in steam pressure is liinlted by considerations of mechanical stresses
and the ensuing higher cost of equipment,
Figure 2.14 also demonstratesthatthere is a considerable improvement in
cycle efficiency with the decrease of condenser pressure. Such a decrease
mainly depends on the available cooling water temperature (t.,) and thus on the
climatic condition of the place. A lower cooling water temperature gives lower
condenser pressure (higher vacuum). It follows that with identical steam
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conditions, and cycle and similar equipment, the. thermal efficiency of a
condensing steam power plant will be less in a warm region than in a cold
region.

I '"

7.S'"

42
~

/ L

~ 38

g.

36
34

~ci

. ~I '" __

: ~,,~'O
" ~I<I",'l
..:.:--:ls",,,, \'\f,

./

40

~\l(,t., '"

,/
,/

,/"'"

//

1/

[, =470C

020.

LOOL20140 IW

p, bar

Fig.2.14 Effect of inlet steam pressure (P,) and condenser pressure on Rankine efficiency with constant inlei steam

iemperature of 470 -c

An increase in inlet steam temperature, i.e. an increase in superheat at

constant inlet steam pressure and condenser pressure gives a steady


improvement in cycle efficiency and lowers the heat rate due to the increase in
Tm,. as discussed in the earlier section. Raising the inlet steam temperature also
reduces-the wetness of the steam in the later stages of the turbine and improves
the turbine internal efficiency. However, the increase in steam temperature is
limited by the properties of the construction materials of boilers and turbines.
The ultimate strength of unalloyed steels drops by about 30% as the steam
temperature is raised from 400 to 500 'C. Alloying with chromium and
molybdenum and eventually, the use of austenitic instead of ferritic steels
increases the strength at high temperatures. Steam temperatures up to 620 "C
have been used in some plants. The operating experience with the expensive
high-temperature austenitic steels has, however, not been uniformly
satisfactory. Recent practice in steam power plants generally limits steam
temperatures to 538C and in a few cases to 565 'C.
. The maximum steam pressures (throttle pressures) that can be used at three
different condenser pressures and two inlet steam temperatures are shown in
Table 2.1 with turbine internal efficiency of 85% and quality at turbine exhaust
of 88%. For other values of llr, I, and .\2, the pressure limits can be readily
determined by drawing the corresponding expansion line of the turbine on a
Mollier diagram (Fig. 2. I3).
-:

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Analysis of Steam. Cycles

1"1

. Table 2.1 Maximum inlet steam pressure (without reheating)


with llr - 0.85 and x2 - 0.88
Co,ldenser pressure

'furbinc inlet steam temperature


I, -SOO'C
t,.sso"C

P1 = 25 mm Hg abs
Pl = 50 mm Hg nbs
Pl = 7S mm IIg abs

2.61 REHEATIKG

- 60 bar

(Pi)
(Pi)

80 bar

(PI) mu = 95 bar

(PI)",.. = 90 bar
(PI)... = 115 bar
(PI).,.. = 135 bar

OF STEAM

If a steam pressure higher than (PI).,.. is used (Fig. 2.13), in order to limit the
quality to 0.88 at turbine exhaust, reheating of steam has to be adopted. In that
ease, all the steam after partial expansion in the turbine is brought back to the
boiler, reheated by combustion gases and then fed back to tbe turbine for further
expansion. The flow, T-s and h-s diagrams for the ideal Rankine cycle with
reheat are shown in Fig. 2.1 S. In the reheat cycle the expansion of steam from
the initial state I to the condenser pressure is carried out in two or more steps
depending upon the number of reheats used. In the first step, steam expands in
the high pressure (H.P.) turbine from the initial state to some intermediate
pressure (process 1-1$). The steam is rcsuperheated (or. reheated) at constant
pressure in the boiler (process 2s-3) and the remaining expansion (process
3-4$) of steam is carried out in the low pressure (L.P.) turbine. For I kg of

steam,

<">

Copyr hIed Mater 21

!~I
Power Plant Engineering
a

PrA

\
\

P2

,I

I\
\ I

,,

4', 4.

5
s
(b)

T, = T,

s
(c)

Fig. 2.15

Reheat Cycle

Q, = ", - ,,(,.,
+ h3-I'?,

Q2 = 1'45-hS

IVT: h, - h1$ + h, - ".,

Wp = "'" -I.S

'1

Wy - IVp = (h. -

Q,

"2, + hl

- " ) - (h., - "S)


hI - h., + ", - h2'

3600 kglk\Vb

Stearn rate= -

(2.20)
(2.21)

JV!l~

3600

Heat rate = --

1)

kJlk \Vh

(2.22)

.'~

Had the high pressure P, been' used without reheat (Fig. 2.15), the cycle
would have been 1-4' s-5-6s with lot of moisture at turbine exhaust having
quality x",. With the use of reheat, the area 2s-3-4s-4' s has been added to the
basic cycle. It is seen that the net work output of the plant increases with reheat
because (1r3 - Ii.,) is greater than ("z,- "4',), and hence the steam rate decreases.
Reheating also improves the quality at turbine exhaust from
10X4,. Whether

x.',

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Analysis of Steam Cycles

15~1

the cycle efficiency improves with reheat depends upon whether the mean
temperature of heat addition in process 2s-3 is higher than that in process 6s-l.
By increasing the number of reheats, still higher steam pressures could be
used, but the mechanical stresses increase in mucb higher proportion than the
pressure because of the prevailing high temperature. TIle cost and fabrication
difficulties will also increase. In thai way the maximum steam pressure gets
fixed, and more than two reheats have nOIyet been used. The use of more than
two reheats results in cycle complication and increases capital costs that are not
justified by improvement in the cycle efficiency.
The cycle efficiency in a single reheat plant is influenced by the pressure
(Prh) at which steam is reheated. The change in cycle efficiency Jlll per cent as
a function of the ratio of reheat pressure to initial pressure Prt!p, is plotted in
Fig. 2.16, for the cycle with initial steam at 172 bar and 538C and steam
reheat at 538 C. For Prtlp,
I, Jlll 0 since no reheat is used. A reheat
pressure too close to the initial pressure results in little improvement in cycle
efficiency because only a small portion of additional heat is added at high
temperature. The efficiency increases as the reheat pressure (P'h) is lowered
and reaches a peak at a pressure ratio Prl/p, between 0.20 and 0.25. Lowering
the reheat pressure further causes the temperature differences between the
primary fluid (flue gases) and the working fluid to increase, and brings down
the efficiency again since the mean temperature of heat addition during reheat
is less than that of the basic cycle. Too Iowa reheat pressure (for Prt/p, < 0.025)
results in a negative 6.11. The optimum reheat pressure for most of the modern
power plants is 0.2 10 0.25 of the initial steam pressure. It may also be noted in
Fig. 2.16 thar as I.oereheat pressure decreases, the quality of steam at turbine
exhaust (x.) increases. For too low a reheat pressure the exhaust steam
may even be in the superheated state, which is not good for the condenser.
Q

~Jr1REGENERATION
In order to increase the mean temperature of heat addition .Tm, and reduce the

external thermal irreversibility, attention was so far confined to increasing the


amount of heat supplied at high temperatures, such as increasing superheat,
using higher pressure and temperature of steam, and using reheat. The mean
temperature of beat addition can also be increased by reducing the amount of
heat added at low temperatures (in the liquid phase) in the cconomiser section of
the steam generator with the attention focused in the process of heat transfer
between the flue gas and feedwater, c-d and 4-5 in Fig. 2.7, and e-b and 6$-7
in Fig. 2. I5(b). This irreversibility could be entirely eliminated if the feedwater
could be entered into the steam generator at saturated liquid state 5 (fig. 2.7)
rather than at 4. This is possible by the process of regeneration in which.energy
is exchanged internally between tbc expanding fluid in the turbine and tbe
compressed fluid before heat addition.

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+4

\,. V

;;>:

~+3

<,

.~ +2

~IJ%

.._

..-

<,

T2<

r-,

X.. -

" +I

r-,

"

<;

~ 0

1.0

538

0.9

427

0.8

316

0.7

205

.(;t- I

ao:

-3

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


Reheat pressure/initial
(P,h1pl)

pressure

Fig.2.16 Effect of reheat-to-initial pressure

ratio on cycle
efficiency, h..p.turbine exit temperature and l.p. turbine
exhaust quality with initial steam at 172 bar, 538 'C
and steam reheat to 538 'C

2.7.1

Stirling Cycle

A well known gas cycle that uses regeneration is the Stirling cycle comprising
two reversible isotherms and two reversible isochores. Heat addition at constant
temperature TI from an external source and beat rejection at constant
temperature T2 to an external sink take place in the processes 4-1 and 2-3
respectively. Regeneration Or heat exchange occurs reversibly between the
constant volume processes 1-2 and 3-4 (Fig. 2.17). The areas under 1-2 and
3-4 denoting heat lost by the expanded fluid and gained by the compressed
fluid are equal. Therefore, all the beat is added reversibly at TI and all the heat
is rejected reversibly at T2. SO,the ideal Stirling cycle has the same efficiency
as the Carnot cycle.
4

r--------,I-

TI

s
Fig. 2.17 Regenerative Stirling cycle with reversible heat transfer

between processes 1-2 and 3-4

Following the Stirling cycle, in the ideal regenerative cycle (Fig. 2.18) the
condensate after leaving the pump circulates around the turbine casing so that
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Analysis of Steam Cycles

I!

heat is transferred from the vapour expanding in the turbine to the condensate
circulating around it. It is assumed that this heat transfer process is reversible,
i.e. at each point the temperature of the vapour is only infinitesimally higher
than the temperature of the liquid. The process 1-2 thus represents reversible
expansion of steam in the turbine witb reversible heat rejection to the
surroundingliquid heated rcversibly in the process 4s-5. For any small step,

c
(a)

d
(b)

Fig. 2.18

Ideal regenerative cycle

.1.T(water) ~ - .1.T(steam)

and

.1.s (water) = -.1. s (steam)

The slopes of the lines 1-2 and 5-45 (Fig. 2.)8) are thus
Areas 4s-5-b--0-4s and 1-d-c-2-1 are not only equal
Therefore, all the heat added from an external source
temperature T" aod all the heat rejected (Qz) is at constant
being reversible. Then

identical in contour.
but also congruous.
(Qt) is at constant
temperature T2, both

Q, c h, - hse Tt(s,-$s)
Q2 = "2 - h3 = T2($2 - -'3)
Since for reversible heat transfer,
.1Supj = A s.,...atcr + A s$!c;un

=0

or

'1~1_l?1=I_!i

Q,

T,

The efficiency of the ideal regenerative cycle like the Stirling cycle is thus
equal to that of the Carnot cycle. Writing the steady flow energy equation for
the turbine,
h,- WT- h2+ h.. -hs = 0
WT= (h,-hz)-(hs-h

..)

(2.23)

The pump work remains the same as in the Rankine cycle, i.e.,
Wp=h.,-h3
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lIS."

Power Plant Engineering

The net work output of the ideal regenerative cycle is tbus less and bence, its
steam rate will be more, although it is more efficient, compared. to the Rankine
cycle. However, the cycle is not practicable because:
(a) reversible heat transfer cannot be realized in finite time,
(h) heat exchanger in the turbine is mechanically impracticable, and '
(c) the moisture content of the steam in the turbine is high, which leads to
excessive erosion of turbine blades.

!2.al REGENERATIVE

FEEDWATER HEATING

In the practical regenerative cycle, the feedwater enters tbe boiler at a


temperature between states 5 and 4 s (Fig. 2.18), and it is heated by steam'
extracted or bled from intermediate stages of the turbine. The flow, T-s and
II-s diagrams with saturated steam at turbine inlet and two regenerative directcontact fcedwater heaters are shown in Fig. 2.19. For I kg of steam at turbine
inlet, m, kg of steam is extracted at pressure P2 to mix adiabatically in the
. heater I with the (I - m ,) kg of feedwater as shown. The remaining (1 - m,) kg
steam expands reversibly to pressure Pl when m2 kg steam is extracted to mix
with (l-m,-m0
kg feedwater in the heater 2. The remaining steam,
(I - ml- m2) kg, expands reversibly to the condenser pressurep . The beat and
work transfer quantities of the cycle are
IVT= 1(11,- II,) + (I - m,)(h,-h1)+

(1- tnl-m,) (11,- h.)

Wp = (I - m, - m2)(h6- 115)+ (I - ml) (h,- 117)+ 1(1110-"9)

Q, = 1(11,- "11');

(2.24)

Boiler

Heater

I
JI
I

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Irs~1

Analysis of Steam Cycles

I kg
1111

1-ln,-11I2

s
(b)

s
(c)

.." ...

Fig. 2.19 Regenerative cycle with two directcontact feeduiater

heaters
In the Rankine cycle operating at the given boiler and condenser pressures;
P, and P4, the heat addition would have been from state 6 to state I. By using
two stages of regenerative heating, fcedwater enters at state 10 instead of state
6, and heat addition from an external heat source is now from state 10 to state I.
Therefore,
(Tm,) withregeneration

h -

J,

I
0
$, -SIO

(2.25)

and

(Tn.') withoutregeueranon

hi -h6

-'--'!.
$, - $6

Since (Tml) with regeneration> (Tml) without regeneration, the efficiency of


the regenerative cycle is higher than that of the Rankine cycle.
The energy balance for heater I gives
ni, li2 + (1 - m,)lig

1"9

tn, = I", - hg
li2 - hg

. (2.26)

The energy balance for heater 2 gives


m21i) + (1 -"'I - ni1)"6

= (1 -

m.2 =

m,)"7

I.,.- Ii.
(I - nil)~-:-"
h.

"3 -

(2.27)

Copyrighted material

,I~I.

Power Plant Engineering

, The path 1-2-3-4 hi Fig, 2.19.(b) represents the states of a decreasing mass
of fluid. For I kg of steam, the path would be represented by 1-2-2'-3'-3"4'
as shown in Fig. 2.20, from Eq, (2.24), .
JPTe h, - h2 + (I - m,) (h1- h3) + (I - rn - m2) (il3- h.)

... . ..

= (II, - h,) + (112' - h3,) + (h3"- h.,)


,

(2,28)

'

where (I -m,)(h2-/I-)=
l(h2,-h3,) and (l-m,-m2)("3-".)=
I(")"-h.,)
The heat released by steam' condensing from 2 to 2', is utilized in heating up
, the water from 8 to 9.
I (h2- h2') = 1("9- h8)
(2.29)

Similarly, 1("3'-IT),') = l(h7 - h6)


From Eqs (2:27) to (2,29)
, IJIr= (h,-1I4)-(",-1I2.)-(h3,-h3,,)
,

,,

,= (h,-

"4') - (h9- h8) - (",- h6)

(2.30)

The similarity of Eq. (2,23) and (2,30) can be noticed, It is seen that the
stepped' 'cycle 1-2-2'-3'-3"-4'-5-6-7-8-9-10
approximates tbe ideal
regenerative cycle in Fig, 2. I 8, and a greater number of stages would give a
. closer approximation, :
.
The heat rejected Q2 in the cycle decreases from (114- lis) to ("4'- "5)' There
is also a loss in' work output by the amount (Area under 2-2' + area under
3' -3" - area under 4 - 4'), as shown by the hatched area in Fig. 2.20, So, the
steam rate increases by regeneration, i.e, more steam has to circulate per bour to
produce unit shaft output It increases the boiler size and hence the capital cost.
It reduces the operating cost due to bigher cycle efficiency.

Loss. in

work output

Fig. 2.20

Regenerative cycle for unit mass of fluid'

From Eqs (2,26) and (2,27). 1, and ~ can be evaluated, Eqs (2.26) and'
(2.27) can also be written alternatively as
'
Energy given off by extracted steam in condensation = energy gain. of
feedwater
or
m,(h2 - "?) = (I - m,Xh?- h8)
11I,(h)- "7) = (I -111,-111,) (h7- h6)
Heaters bave been assumed to be adequately insulated so that there is no
heat loss to the surroundings.
'
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Analysis of Steam Cycles

16I!

The effects of regenerative feedwater heating for the same turbine output
may be summarized as follows:
1. It significantly increases the cycle efficiency and reduces the heat rate
(reducing operating cost).
2. It increases the steam flow rate (requiring bigger boiler).
3. It reduces the steam flow to the condenser (needing smaller condenser).
4. If there is no change of boiler output, the turbine output drops.

2.9

FEEDWATER HEATERS

Feedwater heaters are of two types, viz., open heaters and closed heaters. In an
open or contact type heater, the extracted steam is allowed to mix with feedwater
and both leave the heater at a common temperature (Fig. 2.19a). In a closed
heater, the fluids are kept separate and are not allowed to mix together
(Fig. 2.21). Closed heaters are shell-and-tube heat exchangers where the
feedwater flows through tbe tubes and the extracted steam condenses outside
the tubes in the shell. The heat released by condensation is transferred through
the walls of the tubes. The condensate (saturated water at the steam extraction
pressure), sometimes called the heater drip, then passes througb a trap into the
next lower pressure heater. This, to some extent, reduces the steam required by
that heater. The trap passes only liquid and no vapour. The drip from the lowest
pressure heater could similarly be trapped to the condenser, but this would be
throwing away energy to the condenser cooling water. To avoid this waste, a
drip pump feeds the drip directly into the feed water stream.
If the Fig. 2.19 and 2.21 are compared, it may be noted that the feedwater
inlet temperature, Q" Q2' WT and so on would be marginally affected with the
heaters being either open or closed. For the heaters, the energy balance gives
Ikg

p"/,

Boiler

H.P.

closed
heater

(a)

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1621

Power Plant Engineering


" I

ir-'-::_-'-'<:'f2
\

Fig. 2.21

I-m}

P2 _n12

P3

Regenerative feedwater heating with two closed heaters


l(h,z-hlO)= ICpw(t,z-llO)

m,(h2-hll)~

m2(") -"8) + m,(h" - hs) = (I - m,- m2) (h, -"6)

= (1- m,- m2) Cpw(1,-16)


(2.31)
where cpw is the specific heat of water.
Considering the I - P heater of Fig. 2.21, wet steam at state 3 is used to heat
up the h.p. subcooled feedwater at state 6. The temperature-length diagram is
shown in Fig. 2.22(a). The water ex.it temperature at 7 cannot reach the inlet
bled steam temperature at 3. A terminal temperature difference (lTD) is defined
for all closed feedwater heaters as
TID = saturationtemperatureof bled steam - exit water
temperature

(2.32)

The value of TID varies with heater pressure. For 1- p heaters receiving wet
steam, the TID is positive and often of the order of 3 C. Too small a value,
although good for plant efficiency, would require a larger heater. Too large a
value would reduce the cycle efficiency.
If the extracted steam upon condensation gets subcooled, a drain cooler may
be used. The heater would then have two sections, a condensing section and a
draincooler section (Fig. 2.22(b).
Steam

Steam

FIV

Bled steam

FIV

Condensate

1.

Sled steam

j_

___---JT

____""'7T

T
~

61- __

C'----oj

Lor n

LorH
(a)

----I

(b)

Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

16~.!

!Stearn

FW--1'I=o~c~~c~=t~o~sJ~W
f

Condensate
T

- TTD =Terminal
temperature

II

difference
C = Condenser
9

-! DC f-I

--

c
(c)

Fig. 2.22 Temperature-length


heaters

OS

DC" Drain-cooler
OS = Desuperheater

LorH

diagram for l.p. and h.p>.feedwater


.

For the h.p. heater receiving superheated steam [Fig. 2.22(c)] bled from the
turbine at state 2, the steam is first dcsuperhcaied, then condensed and finally
subcooled to state II, whereas the feedwater gets heated from 9 to 12. It may be
noted that the exit water temperature (t12) is higher than the saturation
temperature at P2' and the TID is here negative. The heater is then composed of
a desuperheating section, a condensing section and a drain cooler section.
The advantages of the open heater are simplicity, lower cost, and high heat
transfer capacity. The disadvantage is the necessity of a pump at each heater to
handle the large feedwater stream.
A closed heater requires only a single pump for the main feedwater stream
regardless of the number of heaters. The drip pump, if used, is relatively small.
Closed heaters are costly and may not give as high a feedwater temperature as
do open heaters. In most steam power plants, closed heaters are favoured but at
least one open heater is used, primarily for the purpose offecdwater deaeration.
The open heater in such a system is called the deaerator, Closed heaters are
mostly horizontal. Sometimes, they are made vertical to reduce the floor areas
needed for their installations.

2.101 CARNOTIZATION OF RANKINE CYCLE


Figure 2.23 shows the flow diagram of a condensing steam power plant worked
with saturated stearn at the turbine inlet and four steam extractions. In the T-'S
diagram, abscissa represents the total entropy of the turbine steam. Without

Copyrighted material

!:I

Power Plant Engineering

l3oiJe,r

, Condenser

CW

[lCO
I

cw

I
I
I

,
I
I

I
I

'-G)

->- - --'

(a)

G B

s
(b)

Fig. 2.23

Regenerative feed cycle with four extractions

extraction the ideal cycle is AFCDA. After the throttle steam bas expanded
from A to I, some steam is extracted so that the total entropy is reduced from 1
to 2. The heat given up by this steam is added to the feedwater, heating it from
II to 12. This process is continued in four steps to the last extraction which
heats the feedwater from D to 9. With an infinite number of extraction stages,
AD would be parallel and equal in length to DE. The irreversible process DEthe heating from condenser to boiler saturation temperature-could thus be made
reversible. The area of the parallelogram CEAG, which represents the cycle
output, would be equal to the area of the rectangle AFGE which represents the
output of'thd Carnot cycle. Regenerative feedwater beating by turbine extraction
is, therefore, also termed the carnotization oj the Rankine cycle. A regenerative
feed heating cycle with an infinite number of feedwater heaters has thus an
efficiency equal to that of Carnot cycle.
Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

l~.;lllOPTIMUM

11551

DEGREE OF REGENERATION

Complete carnotization of Rankine cycle is not possible with a finite nwnber of


heaters. If there is one feedwater heater used, m kg of steam is extracted from
the turbine for each kg of steam entering it to heat the feedwater from state 5 to
state 6 (Fig. 2.24) so that by energy balance,

I kg

8
I-m

(I-m)kg

Fig. 2.24

Optimization of regenerative feedwater heating

Therefore, the thermal efficiency of the cycle is


( t -',<; - h4) (h -h4)
h= 1- (l-m)(h3-h.) = 1_
'., -h.
3
h, -ho
h, -h6
=

1- (h, -h6)(h, - h4)


(h, - ".)(", - II,,)

(2.33)

Following Salisbury [4], Horlock [I] and Haywood [5], it may be


approximately assumed that the turbine expansion line follows a path on the
diagram such that (" - "r) = constant = p, where" is the local enthalpy on the
expansion line at a given pressure, and
is the enthalpy of saturated water at
that pressure. Therefore, as seen in Fig. 2.24, hi - hs =
= h3 - h4 = f3 =
constant. Let the enthalpy rise of feedwater in the heater is y, which is equal to
(h.-hJ.

"f

"2- "6

"6 "6- "4

Now,
II, -h. = h,- +
= f3 + y
If the total enthalpy rise of fecdwater is equal to ex = hs -

h, -

"6

h"

then

= hi -hs + "s -h. + ", _."6 = {3 + IX- Y

Therefore, Eq. (2.33) can be written in the form

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1661

Power Plant. Engineering

/32

7)=1-

(2.34)

(/3+y)(a+/3-y)

Here, a and /3 are fixed and y is variable. So, there is an optimum value of y
for which 7) is a maximum. On differentiation,

a
d'1
,
- =tJ'[(a+{3-y)-({3+y)]=O
)'
=
-2 (2.35)
dy
The cycle efficiency is maximum when the total enthalpy rise of fecdwatcr
(hs - h.) from the condenser temperature to the boiler saturation temperature is
divided equaUy between die feedwater beater and the economiser (i.e. "s = h6 - "4) in a single bleed cycle. So, the temperature rise of fcedwater in the
beater is

"6

/)J;::;-

2: (tboi1ct saturation -

tcondenser)

and the corresponding cycle efficiency is


'1=1-

{32

a=l-

({3+2)(a+tJ-"2)

tJ'
({3+ ~)'

a2 + 4a{3

,=

(2.36)

(a+2tJr

For a non-regenerative cycle,


7)=1-,
I)

Now,

h) - h,
h4
I~ -

h3-h, = tJand h,-h. =h,-hs+ "s-h.


7)0=1-

tJ _
a+{3

= {3+

(2.37)

a+{3

The efficiency gain due to regeneration


/}.'I = 7)- '10 =

a2 + 4a{3
(a + 2{3)2

a
a'{3
=
a + {3 (a + {3Xa + 2{3)2

(2.38)

This is positive. This shows that the cycle efficiency has improved due to
regeneration.
In the heater train, the feedwater enters the economiser section of the boiler
at state F (Fig. 2.25), where feedwater is heated to the saturation temperature
(G) at the boiler pressure. Assuming the econorniser also as a fecdwater heater
(where feedwater is heated by the outgoing flue gases, instead of by the bled
turbine steam, the Iotal enthalpy rise (110- h3) or temperature rise from the
condenser to the boiler saturation is divided equally among the feedwater
heaters for maximum gain in the efficiency. The enthalpy rise per heater
(including the economiser) is thus,

Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

161

I kg

Turbine
Boiler

I - Inli
i

Eeonomiser

(0)

'rw

I- In'i
;

s
(b)

Fig. 2.25 Heater train oj a steam power plant

t.h"" h.. ",

1'0 - h~
n+ I

(r = ~)
(2.39)

where n is the number of heaters and I stands for the economiser, Therefore,
the total enthalpy rise of feedwater for II heaters by regenerative feedheating is
(2.40)

Thus, the total temperature rise of feedwater, t. Ir... due to regeneration for
the maximum cycle efficiency is given by

t.I",=

II

II +

t.I(JA

(2.41)
Copyr grted mater al

1681

Power Plant Engineering

where the overall temperature difference,

AloA = boiler saturation temperature-condenser temperature


More is the number of heaters, more is the total temperature rise of
feedwater, 6trw, by regeneration, less becomes the heat addition to water in the
boiler, more becomes the mean temperature of heat addition, and more is the
cycle efficiency. From Eq. (2.41),
Ifn=O,

AttwO =

If n = I,

Afrwl

Ifll=2,

tlIr..~
-=

If" = 3,

&1\'",

I
= - AloA
2
2
-3 Alo A
3

a/OI\ and soon.


4
By the use of the first heater, the gain is
Q

I
Atrwl - Alrwo = - AloA
2
By the usc of the second heater, the gain over the first heater would be
AI(w2 - AI(wl

610A -

I
2

610A =

610A

By the use of the third heater, the gain over the second hearer would be

.11fwJ - ~t(w2;:; -

12

.1/0}\ - - IlfoJ\ :;::-

fl.tof\

Employing the fourth heater, the gain over the third healer becomes
61",., - 6/',d = ~ 610A -

610A ~

2~

610A

and so on.

Since the gain in cycle efficiency is proportional 10 the gain in feedwarcr


temperature, the efficiency gain follows the law of diminishing return with the
increase in the number of heaters. In fact, the greatest increment in efficiency is
brought by the first heater. The increments for each additional healer thereafter
successively 'diminish (Fig. 2.26). The number of heaters is fixed up by the
energy balance of the whole plant when it is found that the COSI of adding
another healer docs not justify the saving in heat supply Q, or the marginal
increase in cycle efficiency, An increase io feedwater temperature tfw reduces
the beat absorption from the outgoing flue gases in the economiser and may
cause a reduction in boiler efficiency. The number of heaters and hence, the
degree of regeneration thus get optimized. five to seven points of extraction
are often used ill practice. SOl11e cycles use as many as nine.

Copyrighted material

16,91

Analysis of Steam Cycles


J

0,05

0:45

OAO

E 0.35

"
"
c

'5

"

.l!

o
Q

0.30

0.20

0.15

0.10

A--

0.25

J-;:
I

Number of heaters (n)

Fig. 2.26 Efficiency gain (611)successively diminishes

with the

increase in the number of heaters


Figure 2.27 shows the optimum locations of the heaters for a non-reheat
steam power plant.
T
T

s
(a)

(b)

(c]

of healers (a) For one heater,


.11;" = 1 L1toA; [b] For two heaters, Llt,w~ j ItOA; and
Ie) For three heaters, L1ljW = 1Ito..

Fig. 2.27 OptiTTlUm locations

Copyrighted material

1101

Power Plant Engineering

Figure 2.28 shows the reduction in heat rate by regenerative feedheating


with different number of extractions for the same throttle steam conditions.
With the use of four extractions the gain in heat rate is about II %. The
temperatures at which the heaters operate for maximum.reduction in heat rate
have been indicated in the figure and joined by a dotted line. The curve for a
single feedwater heater peaks at a temperature rise of about halfway or 120 C.

- - - Optimum values (If'" )

o 1L__

o
Fig. 2.28

L __ ...L__ .L__
50

_j_....'::::::irN'-'!u.mbcr of extraction stages

150
100
200
Total rise in FW temperature
(6Jf\v) , C (above 33 C)

250

Reduction of heat rate by regenerative feedu/ater heating

For two feedwater heaters, the peak occurs at

t x 220 or about 142 C and so on.

Small departures from the optimum values have no serious effect on the heat rate.

12:121 SUPERCRITICAL

PRESSURE CYCLE

Figure 2.29 shows the plant arrangement and T-s diagram for a supercritical
steam cycle. Steam is generated in a "once-through" boiler at a pressure above
the critical pointof22 1.2 bar. If the plant incorporates reheat and several stages
of feedheating, there is about a 2% gain in thermal efficiency compared with
the corresponding subcritical cycle. However, such an increment is gained only
at the expense of increased cost and complexity of the plant Double reheat
needs to be incorporated to prevent the l.p. turbine exhaust wetness from being
excessive.

@!!!I STEAM POWER PLANT APPRAISAL


Table 2.2 shows the past improvements in performance of steam power plants.
These have been brought about by increasing the maximum pressure and
temperature of the cycle, lowering the minimum pressure and introducing
reheat and feedwater heating.
Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles


~

Table 2.2 Approximate performance data of various steam


power plants (Aschner)
Watt's

lMW
2MW
beam
loaomotive marine
engine steam
steam

engine
Thermal efficiency (%)

2
2
100

7
15
300

Initial pressure (bar)


Initial temperature eC)
Reheat pressure (bar)
Reheat temperature (DC)
Exhaust pressure (bar)
near I
1.2
Exhaust condition
wet near sat
Feedwater heaters

30 WV(eJ660 MlV(e)
power

steam
power.

engine

plant.

plant

20
15
250

35
40
450

SI'8am

44

160
540
40
540
0.045
0.9, dry
7

0.045
0.9, dry
4

0.1
wet

IP
turbine

cw
Condenser

pump

Boiler feed pump


(0)

s
(b)

Fig. 2.29

Supercritical steam cycle with double reheat


Copyrighted material

1721

Power PIa"t Engineering

Units above 150 MW output are now most frequently built for h.p. steam
conditions of 142 bar, 538C or 170 bar, 538C with reheating up to 538 C.
AI supercritical pressures for more than 600 MW size, h.p. steam is often at 270
bar, 538C with double reheating to 538 C. H.P. steam and reheat
temperatures up to 565C have also been used. A landmark station, built in
1959, is the 325 MW Eddystone, Unit Iof Philadelphia Electric Company, a
double reheat plant with supercrirical steam (325 bar, 610 C/565 C/565 C)
which had the highest steam conditions and lowest heat rate for any plant in the
world.
Common unit size of a steam power plant is now 500 MW(e). Plant sizes,
however, will continue to increase and 1300 MW(e) turbo generators arc likely
to be the standard unit sizes in the power station in ncar future. Large
improvements through raising the metallurgical limit are unlikely in the near
future because it would then have to use prohibitively expensive austenitic
steels or complicated turbine blade cooling. The thermodynamic design of the
steam cycle for a 1300 MW(e) turbo generator would have steam conditions
similar to those of the present generation of660 MW(e) sets, but the plant sizes
would be correspondingly larger. Even larger unit sizes of 2000 and 3000
MW(e) have been proposed but the physical construction and operation of such
plants would pose serious problems like the tlexibility of the longer rotor shafts,
construction of the huge generator stator, effect on ihe electricity grid system
due to shutdown of one of these very large sets, and high loss of revenue due to
a shutdown.

~I DEAERATOR
One of the feedwater heaters is a contact-type open heater, known as deaerator,
others being closed heaters. It is used for the purpose of deaerating the
fcedwater.
The presence of dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide in water
makes the water corrosive, as they react with the metal to form iron oxide. The
solubility of these gases in water decreases with increase in temperature and
becomes zero at the boiling or saturation temperature. These gases are removed
in the deacraror, where fccdwater is heated 10 the saturation temperature by the
steam extracted from the turbine. Feedwater, after passing through a beat
exchanger, called vent condenser, is sprayed from the top so as to expose large
surface area, and the bled steam from the turbine is fed from the bottom
(Fig. 2.30). By contact the steam condenses and the feedwater is heated to the
saturation temperature. Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide gases get released
from the water and leave along with some vapour, which is condensed
back in the vent condenser, and the gases are vented OUI.
To neutralize the effect of residual dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide
gases in water, sodiwn sulphite (Na2S03) or hydrazine (N2H.) is injected in
suitable calculated doses into tbe feedwater at the suction of the boiler teed
pump (BPP).
Copyrighted material

Analysis oj Steam Cycles

11~1

02 and C~ gases
vented out
FW from
J.p. healer

t++++

Venl
conde-nser

....:: '..
.. '... ,. .

:',:;

Deaerator storage
rank

Water level

Indicator
To the

N.1SOJ or
BFP N2H. injected

h.p. heater......-!'-../

Pressure = Pse, + Pr gH

Fig. 2.30

BFP = Boiler feed pump

Deaerator with storage tank

During suction of the BFP, some of the saturated feedwater may flash into
vapour due to reduction in pressure causing vapour lock and cavitation
problems in the pump. To prevent this from occurring and to provide a net
positive suction head (NPSH) for the pump, the deaerator is located at a
sufficient height (H) from the basement where the pump is installed so that the
pressure before suction is (P,., + PrgH). When this water is sucked by the pump,
the pressure docs not fall below Psa' and there is no flashing of any water into
vapour, which protects the BFP from any damage due to vapour lock and
cavitation.
The deaerator is usually placed near the middle of the feedwater system so
that the total pressure difference between the condenser and the boiler is shared
equitably between the condensate pump and boiler feed pump. The feedwater
heaters before the deaerator are often termed as high pressure (h.p.) heaters and
those after the deaerator are termed as low pressure (l.p.) heaters.
The deaerator is not used in water-cooled-and-moderated nuclear power
plants because of the concern regarding radioactivity release with deaeration.

Copyrighted material

1741

Power Plant Engineering

2.15

TYPICAL LAYOUT OF STEAM POWER


PLANT

Figure 2.3 I(a) shows the typical layout ofa steam power plant demonstrating all
the relevant components in it. The heat balance diagram of a 215 M \V reheat
power plant is shown in Fig. 2.31 (b).

.~
I.:J

- r\

L_

+--+__+-__~

I /

l<J

..
1t
c

-e
c
0

"

7 e;! ~
.

"
0

"0

.\

.-"

I~

1<
<:S

-..
s

<>.

sE
<:S

s.,
d

'0>
~

"

.s'"

-.~
~

--...
I

..'".
~

'"
~

Copyrighted material

Analysis oj Steam Cycles

..

...NX~c01I

!l

'"

.!o( -

e ...
r--

or.

~ 5i:
E:;; ....
oS
..,. VI

'"

:<l

!;

~
~

E_

.!

...B

ee

Il!l

~
'" ...,<

iii

e-,

'"

e,
e-

.,;

<_

..

!:!

:t:
I

;;

...

.U'

'"

....
~

-]

eco

""
'"
"'.
..,

."

",'

-" -"
"
u

,"
,X

.-.:

.,.,

"l:?
'"

c
I')~
L-L I

.."

.SLI

!l

:t:
~

.(Ill

!;;

S'ttf"t

" 13

00

1')'Ioot

........
0

It

.1
"'I

'2

ii
:I:

i!, ,...
I

;:!i

'"
-e '"
'"
I"'~ttL

.~oor~

I !:!

~
q

"~

"

I
~Ul
I

II

:t:

,.......

"
"&
s

e
._g>
't!

!!

:t:

..:

'"

-e

-.,"
::!

'"l~

c,

1!
1!
...
.><
'"
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.:

I! 00
<5

=IU

g.

....
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"0

e-,
CO

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....
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....

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u
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I
en_
u

11~1

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~.:-: .;.:
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I~Ot:

':::opyr grted mater al

1761

Power Plant Engineering

@!!I

EFFICIENCIES

IN A STEAM POWER PLANT

A steam power plant is a bulk energy coverter from fuel 10electricity (Fig. 2.32).
The overall efficiency of a power plant is defined as
Exhaust
gas

(4)

'BY

P~

furnace
(source) I--Q-I--J c&T-'fu

Fuel

f---=--.-j
Q2

Sink

Air
Power consumed
to drive the

auxiliaries

Gross power (MWc)


Net power (MWe)

Fig. 2.32 Apower plant converts energy in fuel. to electricity

1)."era11=

power available at the generator tenninals


rate 0fl'energy re case by the COmbu$IIOn
0f'fmel
MWexl()"
Wf

(2.42)

xC.Y.

where wf is tbe fuel burning rate and C.Y. is the calorific value of fuel.
The boiler (or the steam generator) efficiency is defined by
_ rate of energy absorption by'water to form steam
1100"" - rate of energy release by the combustion offuel
(hl-h4)
wr x C.V.

= ",

(2.43)

where w. is the steam generation rate.


The cycle efficiency is given by
I)<,/<Ie =

", - h2
I I
'l - '4:

(2.44)

The pump work bas here been neglected.


The mechanical efficiency of the turbine will be
I) M.in"""h)

brake output of the turbine


= internal output of the turbine

Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles


=

brake output
10,(", -/'2)

I!i

(2.45)

The generator efficiency of the electric alternator is


electrical output at generator teoninals
brake output of the turbine
" ",",'''Of =
'MWex103
brake output in kWe

_ :--:-.:._:_c_:__:_:_:_:,..:-.,--,.,-,-

(2.46)

Multiplying Eq. (2.43) to Eq. (2.46),

71 boiler

7J cycle X 'T1lwbine(mi::(:h) X 1] generator


=

1V,(hl-h.)
Wr X C. v.

w,("'1 -h,)
-

"',(", - h.)

brake output

MWexl<Y

X ~:-'__:-'--

lV,(I" - "2)

brake output

MWex 103

w,

C ,V .

:::I

11overall

Therefore,
110,'era11= "boil X "cy<k X """Oint(m"b) X 'IS"""IO<

(2.47)
There are certain auxiliary equipment in Ibe power plant like F.O. and 1.0.
fans, pulverizers. crushers, conveyors and so on which are driven by electricity
taken from the generated power of the plant. The net power transmitted from
the generator will be tbe gross power produced minus the power consumed by
the internal auxiliaries of the plant. The efficiency of the auxiliaries, 7laux> is
given by
1),,,,, = nel power transmitted by Ibe generator
gross power produced by tbe plant

(2.48)

Therefore, the overall efficiency of the plant is the product of five


component efficiencies as given by
11.vcra 11= 'Ibonc, x 'Icydc X 'Itu,binc(.,ceb) X

7lgm:mt<>c x 7l.ux

(2.49)

For a modem power plant, the typical values are


'Iboil" = 0.92, ''I,yd. = 0.44,

7l.wt

7llu<bOnm,eh) = 0.95, '1_",,,,, = 0.93,

= 0.95, 'Iovcral' = 0.92 x

0.44

0.95

0.93 x 0.95 = 0.34

Only 34% of the energy in fuel is converted to electricity and 660/0 of the
energy is lost. The maximum loss of energy takes place in the condenser where
heat is rejected to cooling water. This is the loss due to heat to work energy
conversion in the cycle or the loss due to the second law.
The parameter which readily reflects the fuel economy is tbe beat rate, which
is inversely proportional to the efficiency and hence, the lower its value the
better. It broadly indicates the beat added per unit of work produced. There are
various beat rates corresponding to tbe work used in the denominator. Thus,
Copyrighted material

11s1

Power Plant Engineering

heat
(HR) rate of heatadditionto cycle
Net eye Ie eat rate . =
net cycleworkoutput
G rosscyceI HR =

:I

Q.

H'.",

rate of beat addition Q,


=turbineoutput
JIlT

. (HR) rate ofbcat addition 10 boiler


=
=
Net station

net stationoutput

Gross station (HR) =

Q,.

gross generation output

Q,
---""'----

net stationoutput
(2.50)

COGENERATION OF POWER AND


PROCESS HEAT
There arc several industries such as paper mills, textile mills, chemical
factories, jute mills, sugar factories, rice mills and so on where saturated steam
at the desired temperature is required for heating, drying etc. For constant
temperature heating (or drying), steam is a very good medium since isothermal
condition can be maintained by allowing saturated steam to condense at that
temperature and utilizing the latent heat released for heating purposes. Apart
from the process heat, the factory also needs power to drive various machines,
for lighting and other purposes.
Earlier, steam for power purposes was generated at a moderate pressure and
saturated steam for process work was generated separately at a pressure which
gave the desired heating temperature. Having two separate units for process
heat and power is wasteful, for of the total heat supplied to the stearn generator
for power purposes, a greater part.will normally be carried away by the cooling
water in the condenser.

2.17.1

Back Pressu.re Turbine

By modifying the initial steam pressure and exhaust pressure, it is possible to


generate the required power and make available the required quantity of
exhaust steam at the desired temperature for process work. In Fig. 2.33, the
exhaust steam from the turbine is utilized for process heating, the process heater
replacing the condenser of the ordinary Rankine cycle. The pressure at exhaust
from the turbine is the saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature
desired in the process heater. Such a turbine is called a back pressure turbine.
A plant producing both electrical power and process heat simultaneously is
called a cogeneration plant. When tbe process steam is the basic need, and the

Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

17.91

Q,
Boiler

IVp

Fig. 2.33

Cogeneration plant with a back pressure turbine

power is produced incidentally as a by-product, the cycle is often called a byproduct power cycle. Figure 2.34 shows the T-s plot tor such a cycle. If rVT is
the turbine output in kW, QH is the process heat required in kJ/h, and lV, is the
steam now rate in kglh.

II'T

QH
S

Fig. 2.34

By-product power cycle with a back pressure turbine


and

or,

(2.51)

Of the total energy input Q, (as heat) to the cogeneration plant, WT part of it
only is converted into shaft work or electricity. The remaining energy
(Q, -1fT), which would otherwise have been a waste, as in the Rankine cycle,
by second law, is utilized as process heat.
The cogeneration P.J.Ft efficiency Tic. is given by

'700 =

Wr +Q"

Q,

(2.52)

Copyrighted material

III

Power Plant Engineering

For separate generation of electricity and steam, the heat added per unit total
energy output is
I

1-e

''1.

11h

-+-

where e = electricity fraction of total energy output

If;'
fVT + QH

= ,----"-,-

11.

electric plant efficiency

11h = steam (or process heat) generator efficiency


The combined efficiency 11. for separate generation is therefore given by
I

'1.= e

J-e

'1.

11h

(2.53)

-+-

Cogeneration is beneficial if the efficiency of the cogeneration plant,


Eq. (2.52), is greater than that of separate generation, Eq. (2.53).
Back pressure turbines are quite small with respect to their power output
because they have no great volume of exhaust to cope with, the density being
high. They arc usually single cylinder and hence, cheap in terms of cost per
MW compared to condensing sets of the same power. Besides their use in
process industries and petrochemical installations, back pressure turbines are'
used for desalination of sea- water, district heating, and also for driving
compressors and feed pumps.

2.17.2

Pass-Out Turbine

In many cases, the power available from the back pressure turbine through
which the whole of the heating steam flows is appreciably less than that
required in a factory. This may he due to relatively high back pressure, or small
heating requirement or both. Pass-out turbines are employed in these cases,
where a certain quantity of steam is continuously extracted from the turbine at
an. intermediate stage for heating purposes at the desired temperature and
pressure (Fig. 2.35).

Copyrighted m ateria'

Analysis of Steam Cycles

!.1!

Pass-out
turbine

(a)

s
(b)

Ftc. 2.35

Cogeneration plant with a pass-out turbine

Qt = w, <ht - "g);

Q2 = (IV, - w) (h3 - ".)

QIt = >1("2 - "6);

JI'T = 1V,(hI -

W. = (w, - w) ("$ - ",) +

w(",- "6);

"0 + (IV, -

}
IV)("2 -: h'l)

(2.54)

wh, + (IV, - w)h5 = IVJ.S

where \Y, is the boiler capacityand IV is the steam flow rate required at the
desired temperature for process beating.
. .

2.17_3

Proce .. Beat Uait ToppiDg.the


Cycle

Power

In some plants, sucb as a high temperature cement kiln; the primary beat is used
directly for process requirements. The low grade waste heat from tbe process
heater is then used to generate electricity, obviously at low efficiency.'Such a
cycle bas a combined efficiency tying 'below tbat given by Eq, (2.S3) and
tDerefore,isof less acwltotlynamic or economic interest.
Copyrighted material

1821

Power Plant Erlgineering

A cogeneration plant is only advisable from an economic viewpoint if the


cost of electricity generated by it is less than that purchased from a utility
system. If a utility is not available cogeneration becomes necessary irrespective
of the cost of generation. In general, very low fraction of electric to total energy
(e) are not considered economical for cogeneration.
~.,ampll 2.1 Steam at 40 bar; 500 C flowing at the rate of 5500 kg/h expands in
a h.p, turbine to 2 bar with an isentropic efficiency of83%. A continuous supply of
steam at 2 bar, 0.87 quality and a flow rate of 2700 kglh is available from a
geothermal energy source. This steam is mixed adiabatically with the h.p. turbine
exhaust Steamand the combined flow then expands in a I.p. turbine to 0.1 bar with
an isentropic efficiency of 78%. Determine the power output and tbe thermal
efficiency of the plant. Assume that 5500 kglh of steam is generated in the boiler at
40 bar, 500 C from the saturated feedwater at 0.1 bar.
Had tbe geothermal steam not been added, what would have been the power
output and efficiency of the plant? Neglect pump work.
Solution

With reference to Fig. E2.1


h, ~ 3445.3 kJ/kg, $, =7.0901 kJ/kgK
X2, '"

5.5600
5.5970

1.5301 + Xl., x 5.5970

= 0.9934

Ira = 504.7 + 0.9934 x 2201.9 = 2692.04 kJ/kg K


h, - hz = 0.83(3445.3 - 2692.04) ~ 625.21 kJ/kg
h2 ~ 3445.3 .: 625.21 = 2820.09 kJ/kg
h) = 504.7 + 0.87 x 2201.9 = 2420.4 kJ/kg
2700113+ 5500h2 = (2700 + 5500)1t4
It, = 2700 x 2420.4 + 5500 x 2820.09
8200
= 2688.48 kl/kg

796.96 + 1891.52

c.

(a>

Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam. Cycles'

IS31

2 bar
3
0.1 bar
6

s
(b)

Fig. E2.1
2183.78
h. = 504.7 + x. X 2201.9 = 2688.48; x. = 2201.9 = 0.9917
S4

= 1.530 I + 0.9917 x 5.5970 = 7.0806 kJlkg-K

= '$, = 0.6493 + xs. X 7.5009


xs, = 0.8574; hs. = 191.84 + 0.8574

2392.8

= 2243.44

kJlkg

h4- hs = 0.78(2688.48 - 2243.44) = 347.! kJlkg


h6

= 191.83 kJ/kg

W = 5500(11,-"2) + 8200 (h4- lis) = 5500 x 625.21 + 8200 X 347.1

= 6284875 kJ/h = 1745.8 kW

(Ans.)

Q, = 5500{1I,-"6) = 5500 (3445.3 - 191.8) X 3:00 =4970.63 kW


'Icyd, = 1745.8 = 0.353

or

4970.63

35.3.v.

Without geothermal heat supply:


IVr = 5500 (ii, - il2) = 955.18

Q, n 5500 (h, - "6)

r-

kW

(Ails.)

4970.63 kW

955.18

'1"",. - 4970.63 = 0.1922 or

19.22%

(Ans.)

Example 2.2 A steam power plant with inlet steam to the h.p. turbine at 90 bar
and 500 C, and condensation at 40 C produces 500 M\V, It bas one stage
of reheat optimally placed which raises the steam temperature back to 500 C. One
closed feedwater heater with drains cascaded back to the condenser
receives bled steam at the reheat pressure, and tbe remaining steam is rebeated and
tben expanded in tbe I.p. turbine. The b.p. and I.p. turbines have isentropic
efficiences of 92% and 90%, respectively. The isentropic efficiency of the
pump is 75%. Calculate (a) the mass flow rate of steam at turbine inlet in kg/s,
(b) the cycle efficiency, and (c) the cycle work ratio. Use TID 0 - 1.6 C.
Copyrighted material

Ii

Power Plant Engineering

So/ut;01l The now.and T-s diagrams are shown in Fig. E2.2. The optimum reheat
'pressure is taken to be 20"/0 of the boiler pressure. which becomes 0.2 x
.90 = 18 bar. Now, h, = 3386.1 kJ/kg, $, = 6.6576 kl/kg-K = 52", Jrlo = 2915 kJlkg.
h3'= 3469.8 kJlkg.

5, = 7.4825 =s", =sr+x.,Srg


:.

X4,

7.4825 - 0.5725
7.6845
= 0.8992

Jr" = 167.57 + 0.8992

h$ = 167.57 kJlkg.

x 2406.7 = 2331.7 kJlkg

"7 = 883.42 kJ/kg

W",= J v dp = 0.001008

x 90 x

10 = 9.072 kJ/kg

Jr6s= 176.64 kJ/kg

h, - h2

0.92 (3386 - 2915) = 433.3 kJ/kg,

or

h2 = 3386.1 - 433.3

= 2952.8 kJlkg
h, - h. = 0.9(3469.8. - 2331.7) = 1024.29. kJlkg
h. = 3469.8 - 1024 = 2445.5 kJ/kg

= 179.67 kJ/kg
:. '9=207.15 + 1.6=208.75 C

' ... at i8bar-207.15C


h9 = 875 kJlkg

. 875 --179.67
m = 2952.8 _ 883.4 = 0.336 ~g
WT = (h,- hl) + (I ~ m)(I1,-Jr.)

= 433.3 + 0.664 x 1024.3

= 1113.435 kJlkg

'1'.",= WT- Wp= 1113.435-12.1 = 1101.3351cJIkg


. 3
\v=

500 x 10

1101.335

..
:: 454 k"g/'
S

....

(.)

Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

1851

I kg
90 bar, 500 C

.---..lr--~

(a)
3
i
i
I
i
i
I
I
i
I

I kg
90 bar
m
18 bar

\
\
\
\

2s

I
i
I

\
\
\
\

40C

500C

i
i

4$ 4

8
s
(b)
Fig. E2.2

Copyrighted material

1861

Power PlaTt! Ellgilleerirlg

= 3386.1 - 875 + 0.664(3469.8 - 2952.8) = 2854.3 kJlkg


1101335

11.yd< = 2854.3 = 0.3858, or 38.58%


",nOr k rano
. -- Wn~
= 1101.335 -- 0 .989
WT

1113.435

AlIs.(b)

AilS. (e)

An ideal steam power plant operates between 70 bar, 550C and


0.075 bar. It bus seven feed water heaters. Find the optimum pressure and
temperature at which the heaters operate.
Solution

With reference to Fig. E2.3,

_L

30.7 C

5
6

Tc

s
Fig. E2.3

10 = saturation temperature at 70 bar = 285.9 C


Tc = saturation temperature at 0.075 bar = 40.3 C
The temperature rise per heater for maximum cycle efficiency
= 285;:

140.3 = 30.7 0C

Heater I: I, = 285.9 - 30.7 = 255.2 C


p, = 4.33 MP. (from steam table)

Heater 2: t2 = 255.2 - 30.7


Heater' 3: t) = 193.8 C;
Heater 4: t.= 163.1 C;
Healer S: I, = 132.4 C;
Heater S: 1.= 101.7 C;
Heater 7: tJ = 71.0 C;

= 224.5 C;
P2 = 2.5318 MPa
P3 = 1.367 MPa
1'4 = 0.6714 MPa
Ps = 0.2906 MPa
p(o=0.108MPa
p, = 32.65 kPn
Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

1871

In a power plant, the efficiencies of the electric generator, turbine


(mechanical), boiler, cycle and the overall plant are 0.97, 0.95, 0,92, 0.42 and 0.33,
respectively. What percentage of tbe total electricity genernted is consumed in
running the auxiliaries?

Solution

1]plruu::; 7JOoi.lct X 1JTurbine(medI) X l1Cenl:l".:dotx fJ(':~1eX 1]Auxil,i;uiq

033
'IAu,ill",i.,; 0.97 x 0.95 x 0.92 x 0.42 = 0.9268
I - 0.9268 ; 0.0732
or 7.32% of total electricity generated is consumed by the auxiliaries.

.-.xanIJ' If..'
and an
L'

1... :"1

A steam generator comprises a boiler, a superheater, all economiser


air preheater, The
feedwater
enters
the econorniser at

140 C and leaves as saturated liquid. Air is preheated from a temperature of25 C
to 250C. Steam leaves the boiler drum at 60 bar, 0.98 dry and leaves the
superheater at 450C. When using coal with a calorific value of 25.2 MJlkg,
the rate of evaporntion is 8.5 kg steam per kg coal and the air fuel ratio is 15 : 1
by mass. Neglecting heat losses and pressure drops, estimate the heat transfer
per kg fuel in each component and the efficiency of the steam generator. v,'bat
are the percentages of the total beat absorption taking place in the economiser,
boiler and the superheater, respectively'! Assume cp of air and water as 1.005
and 4.2 kJlkg K, respectively.
With reference to Fig. E2.5,

Solution

III = 140 x 4.2 ; 588 kJlkg

T
4

450'

,,
,
60 bar \
3 \

,,
,

,,

Eco

Boiler

SH

,,
,

__

"-___

,,
,,

.!;

L-

-'--_--'-

'-

"0
.j)J>

Fig. E2.5
h(= 1213.35 kJlkg,
h. = 3301.8 kJlkg,

1Ifj;= 1571.0 (at 60 bar)

Copyrighted material

Iss!

Power Plant Engineering


h) = 1213.35 + 0.98 x 1571.0 = 2752.93 kJlkg

I1s"",=

W,(l14~~)=~;27:=0.9154
wr x

. xI

..

or

91.54%

Heal transfer in the economiscr


~

(h - h)

,"2

= 8.5 x 625.35 x 10-3= 5.3155 MJlkg

Wr
Heal transfer in the boiler
=

w, (11;)-1'2) = 8.5 x 1539.58 x 10-3 = 13.086 MJlkg

Wr
Heal transfer in the superheater
(h. - ~) = 8.5 x 548.87 x Io-i = 4.665 MJlkg
wr
Heat transfer in the air pre-heater
=

'=

lV,

IV.

c (t2 - I, )

a p.

= 15x 1.005x (250-25) x 10,3Q3.392 MJlkg

Wf

Percentage of total beat absorbed in the economiser


=

hz

-h

h, - hi

625.35

xlOO=

2713.8

x 100=23.04%

Percentage of total heal absorbed in the boiler

h -h
ee

2 X

I00 ~

1539.58

x 100 = 56.73%

h. -",
2713.8
Percentage of total heat absorbed in the superheater
Q

h4 -I'J x 100= 548.87 x 100


h. -I~
2713.8

20.23%

Stearn at 150 bar, 550 C is expanded in an h.p. turbine 10


20 bar when it is reheated 10 500 C and expanded in i.p. and I.p. turbines to
condenser pressure of 0.075 bar. There are five feedwater beaters, one
extraction from h.p. turbine at 50 bar, 3 from i.p. turbine at lObar, 5 bar and 3 bar,
and one from I.p. turbine at 1.5 bar. Tbe middle heater is the deaerator and all
others are closed heaters. Assuming ideal conditions, determine (a) the cycle
efficiency, (b) the feedwater temperature at inlet to the steam generator, (c) the
steam rate, (d) the heal rate, (e) the quality of steam at turbine exhaust, and (I)
the power output if the steam flow rate is 300 tIh. Take T'I'D = 0 for all the healers.
E:IIII lc 2.6

Solution

\Vith reference to Fig. E2.6,


hi = 3448.6 kJlkg,

s 1 = S2 = sJ ~ 6.5199 kJJkg K

h. a 3467.6 kJlkg,

s, ass CSt, =s mss as.= 7.4317 kJJkg K


Copyrighted material

ee
--

~~
dd
~~
.c.c

~c.:
:e"j

.!.J

\
;!;:o
,.to

00
~'-'

o .
0-'

~o:

,,'"
.---+:;;=

o
'"~.
'"
.to

'"

00

"C"""~
~
"'"

Co.
o

""'_
(.)0

~,.-L---_J

ct~
.,.--,

~
d

.to

Analysis of Steam Cycles

18',

-iii"

Copyrighted material

Iggi

Power Plant Engineering

13

= 245 "C,

"C,
(6 = 300 "C,
15 = 400

o = 225 oe,
IS = 160 "C,

"3 = 2890 kJlkg


"5~ 3250 kJlkg
"6

"1 = 2930 kJ/kg


"s 2790 kJIkg
=

= 0.5764 + x9 x 7.6751

7.4317
X9

3050 kJ/kg

= 0.8932

1 kg

ISO bar
."

50 bar
P,'h

10bar

17

5 bar
3 bar

In

20 bar

1113

'''4
nls

0.075 bar

10

Fig. E2.6 (bl

"9 = 168.79 + 0.8932 x 2406.0 ~ 2317.83 kJlkg

"10 = 168.79 kJlkg

168.79 + 0.001 x 5 x 100 = 169.29 kJ/kg


~ 467.11 kJlkg, = 11.1.37, h,. = 467 kJlkg

"" =

h"

t,.

"'2 = "13= "'4 = "'5 = 467 kJlkg


10'6 = "" = 561.47 kJlkg, Io,S 640.23 kJlkg
"'9 = 640.23 + 0.001 x 145 x 100 = 654.63 kJ/kg
a

"11, ~ 762.8 kJlkg = "-;.,. II);].


= h);]. = "-;.,e 1154.23 kJlkg

Healer 1

111'("2 - "22)~ 1("23- "2')


1154.23 - 762.8 391.43
In, = 3112 -1154.23 = 1957.77 = 0.2 kg
Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

1911

Healer 2
IIIz(lIj-IIw)+

1II,(1I2Z-lIz0)= 1(/'2' -11'9)

1112(3250-762,8) + 0,2(1154,23 - 762,8) = (762,8 - 654,6)


IIIZx 2487,2 + 78.29

tn,

l08,2

0,012 kg

Healer 3
IIIl!'6 - II,s) + (m, + 1112)
(1120- h '8) = (I - Ill, - 1112
- 1113)(11'8- "17)
IIIl3050 - 640,2) + 0,212(762,8 - 640,2) = (0,788 - 111) (640,2 - 561.5)
Tn)

x 2409,8 + 26,00 = 62,02 - 78,7mJ

1113

= 36,0212488.5 = 0.0145

kg

Heater 4

mij.,- "'6)

= (I - 111,-1112-1113)(hl7 - II,s)

111.(2930- 561.5) = 0.7735(561.5 - 467) = 73.096


III. = 0,031 kg

Heater 5
Ins(lIg- "12) + 1II.(h'6 - "12) = (I - Ill, -IIIZ -"'3 -Ill. - IllS) (h,. - "11)
1115(2790- 467) + 0.031(561.5 - 467) = (0,7425 - m5) (467 - 169,3)

ms x 2323 +2.93
218.11

1115= 2620,7

221.04 - 297,7 Ins

= 0.0832

kg

11'= l(h,-"!l+(I-III,)(1I2-hJ)+(I-m,)(h.-hs)

+ (I -m,-III,)

(115-"6)+

(I -111,-

tn,- In) (h6-h,)

+(I-m,-III,-1II3-1II.)(h7-118)
+(I-m,-mZ-m3-1114-mS)(hs-II?)
= (3448,6 - 31(2) + 0,8(3112 - 2890) + 0,8(3467,6 - 3250)
+ 0.788(3250 - 3050) + 0,7735(3050 - 2930)

+ 0.7425(2930 - 2790) + 0.6593(2790 -2317.8)


= 336,6+ 177,6+ 174.1 + 157,6+92.8+ 104,0+311.3
= 1354.0 kJlkg
Wp = 0.5 + J 4.5 + 0, J 5 = 15.15 kg
Woe<= 1354 - 15,I 5 = 1338,85 kJlkg
Q, = I(h, - h23) + (I - m,) (II, - h3)
= 3448.6 - 1154.2 + 0.8(3467,6 - 2890) = 2756.48 kJlkg

1338,85
nC)<,. = 2756.48 = 0.4857,

or

48.570/0

Ans, (a)

Copyrighted material

1921

Power Plant Engineering


'23 ~ feedwater temperarure at inlet to the steam generator
=

Steam rate

Heat rate

264 DC
3600
Wn..

Ans.(b)
3600

= 1338.85 = 2.69 kJlkWh

i?Lx3600~

0.4857

1338.85 x 300 x
3600

= x9 = 0.8932

IIY

(c)
Ails. (d)

3600 =7412kJIkWh

IV...

Quality of steam at turbine exhaust


Power output

Ans.

Ans. (e)

k\V = 111.57 MW

Ans. (I)

Fumplc 2.7 A textile factory requires J 0 tlb of steam for process heating
at 3 bar saturated and 1000 kW of power, for which a back pressure turbine of 70"10

internal efficiency is to be used. Find the steam condition required at inlet


of the turbine.

Fig. E2.7

Solution

Ifw = mass flow rate of steam,

",h,- hi)= 1000kW

", _ "2 = 10~ ,~oo = 360U/kg


\Vitb reference to Fig. 82.7, h2

:.
Now,

= 2725.3

", = 3085.3 kJlkg


360
h, - h15 = 0.7

514.286 kl/kg

h,. = 3085.3 - 514.286 = 2571.014 kJlkg


h,. = hr+ xl> htV = 561.47 + x" x 2163.8 = 257),014

x"

= 0.9287
Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles


S1< ~

1.6718 + 0.9287(6.9919 - 1.67[8)

= 6.6125

1931

kJ/kg K

Corresponding to hi = 3085.3 kJ/kg and


$, = 6.6125

kJ/kg K, from the Mollierdiagram,

P, = 37.3 bar,

I,

= 344 C, which is the state of steam at


turbine inlet.

ElImplc 2.8 In a cogeneration plant, the power load is 5.6 M\V and the heating
load is 1.163 MW. Steam is generated at 40 bar and 500C and is expanded
isentropically through a turbine to a condenser at 0.06 bar. The
beating load is supplied by extracting steam from the turbine at 2 bar, which
condensed in the process beater to saturated liquid at 2 bar and then pumped
back to the boiler. Compute (a) the steam generation capacity of the boiler in
tilt, (b) the heat input to the boiler in k\V, (c) the fuel burning rate of the boiler
in tilt if a coal of calorific value 25 MJ/kg is burned and the boiler efficiency is
88%, (d) the heat rejected to the condenser, (e) the rate of flow of cooling water
in the condenser if the temperature rise of water is 6C. Neglect pump work.
Solution

With reference to Fig. E2.8,


h, = 3445.3 kJ/kg,
7.0901 ~ 1.5301 + X2

-'I

= 7.0901 = $2 = S3

5.5970

or

X2 ~

5.56
5.597 = 1.0

IV

2 bar

tVs

lVS -

tV

",1

0.06 bar

.'

Fig. E2.S

If w is the rate of steam extraction for process heating,


w{h2-h6)Q
l-V=

1.163 x 103
1l63xlol
2201.9

= 0.528 kg/s

1901.4 kg/h

Copyrighted material

Power Plat'! Engineering


S, ~

7.0901 ~ sr+x, $(iI = 0.52 + x, x 7.815

x, = 0.84
II,

149.79 + 0.84 x 2416 = 2180.59 kJ/kg

Total work output, WT = IV,(/" -/'-2) + (w,- w) (h1- ",)


5.6 x 10' = IV, x 738.6 + w, x 526.11 - 277.8
5877.8

w, = 1264.7 = 4.648 kgls = 16731 kglh = 16.73 t/h


II, = 504.7 + 1.061 x
lIs

I()"' C40-

Ans.(a)

2) x 100 = 508.73 kJ/kg

149.79 + 1.006 x 1.00x 40 X 10-3 = 153.8 kJ/kg

Q, = (lV, -w) (h, - lis) + w(II,- h,)


= (4.648 - 0.528) (3445.3 - li3.8) + 0.528 (3445.3 - 508.73)

= 4.120 x 3291.5 + 0.528 x 2936.57 = 15111.5 kIls


=15.11I~!W
llboiler

Ans.(b)

Q,
= 15.111 = 0:88
C.V. II'r x 25

Wrx

Wre 0.687 kgls = 2473.2 kglh ~ 2.473 tIh

Ans.(c)

Q2 = (lV, - IV) ("3 - II,,)= 4.12 x 2030.8 = 8367 kW


= 8.367 M\V

If

lVc:=

water flow rate in the condenser,

Q2 = we cp(t.z-

...

IV, =

Ans. (d)

tIl

8367
= 333.05 kgls QO.333 mlls
4.187 x 6

AlIS.

(e)

In a combined power and process plant the boiler generates 21,000


kglh of steam at a pressure of 17 bar and temperature 230C. A part of
the steam goes to a process heater which consumes 132.56 kW, the steam leaving
the process heater 0.957 dry at 17 bar being throttled to 3.5 bar. The remaining
steam flows through an h.p, turbine which exhausts at a pressure of 3.5 bar. The
exhaust steam mixes with the process steam before entering the Lp. turbine
which develops 1337.5 kW. At the exhaust, the pressure is 0.3 bar and the steam
is 0.912 dry. Draw the line and T-s diagrams of the plant and determine (a) the
steam quality at the exhaust of the h.p. turbine, (b) the power developed by the
h.p, turbine, and (c) the isentropic efficiency oftbe b.p. turbine.

Copyrighted m ateria'

Analysis

Solutio"

oJ Steam Cycles

1951

The flow and Tr-sdiagrams of the plant arc shown in Fig. E2.9.
ltls = 21,000 kglb
17 bar, 230 C

H.P.
Turbine

Boiler

QII = 132.56kW

0.3 bar,
0.912 dry

ltls

(a>

230C

T
17 bar "-

I
I
I

t~_ 3
I
~

3.5 bar
0.3 bar

6., 6

s
(b)

Fig. E2.9
h, 2869.7 kJlkg,
"2 ~ 870.44

$,

+ 0.957

6.5408 kJlkg K

X 1924.7 ; 2712.38 kJlkg

h2= h3
IV,(hs-h6)=

"S-"6=

1337.5 kW
1337.5 x 3600 =229.29kJlkg
21000

Copyrighted material

\961

Power Plant Engineerirl9

"6 = 289 23 + 0.912 x 2336. I = 2419.75 kJ/kg


"5 = 2649.04 k.1/kg

...

$, ee s.s = 6.5408 = 1.7275 + x"" x 5.2130

x.s = 0.923
= 584.33 + 0.923 x 2148.1

I,.,

= 2567.03 k1/kg

w(It, - h2) = 132.56 k\V

132.56
IV = 2867.7 _ 2712.38
21000

w, = 3600
wit]

+ (w.- w) It,

= 0.843

= 5.833 kg/so

kg/s

w,-

= 4.990 kg/s

= wi's
0.843 x 2712.38 + 4.99

x ", = 5.833 x 2649.04

2286.54 + 4.99 h. = 15451.85


II,= 2638.33 k1/kg= 584.33 + x, x 2148.1
x, = 0.956

AilS.

(a)

(Wr),I1'= (w,- w) ("'- It,) = 4.99 x 231.37 = 1154.54 kW Ans. (b)


\ _ h, - h, _ 2869.7 - 2638.33
(I "$I)W -

h, - h4'

= 0.7644

2869.7 - 2567.03
or,

76.44%

231.37
302.67
AilS.

(c)

2. I What do you understand by externally irreversible and internally irreversible


Rankine cycle?
2.2 Wbat is a pinch point? What is its effect on the size and efficiency of the
steam generator?
2.3 What is the mean temperature of heat addition? What is its effect on cycle
efficiency?
2.4 Explain the different methods by which the mean temperature of heat addition
can be increased.
2.5 How is the maximum pressure of a steam cycle fixed up?
2.6 When does reheating of steam become necessary? Explain the effect of reheat
on cycle output and efficiency.
2.7 How is the optimum reheat pressure arrived at?
2.8 Why are more than two reheats not used io practice?
2.9 Why is the thermal efficiency of a condensing steam power plant less in a
warm region than in a cold region?
2.10 Why is the ideal regenerative cycle not practicable?
Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

!97!

2.11 Explain the effect of regeneration on steam cycle output and efficiency,
2.12 The use of regnerative feedwater heating increases the capital cost but
reduces the operating cost of a steam power plant. Explain.
2.1~ Give a comparative estimate of open and closed feedwater heaters.
2.14: Whai is heater drip?
2.15 What is the function of a steam trap?
2.16 What do you understand by terminal temperature difference? Can it be
negative? Explain.
2.17 What is the effect of ITO on heater size and cycle efficiency?
2.18 Wbat is a drain cooler?
2.19 Why is one of'the feedwater heaters always an open heater? What is it called?
2.20 Explain the function of the deaerator, Why is deaerator installed at a large
height from the basement?
2.21 Why is hydrazine injected at the suction of the boiler feed pump?
2.22 Explain the optimum degree of regeneration. How is it arrived at?
2.23 Show that regenerative feedwater heating improves the cycle efficiency.
2.24 What is a supercritical steam cycle?
2.25 What is the common unit size of a steam power plant? What will be its
projected size in the next decade?
2.26 What is boiler efficiency?
2.27 Show that the overall plant efficiency is a product of five component
efficiencies.
2.28 What do you understand by the efficiency of the auxiliaries, n.",,?
2.29 What is heat rate? What is the difference between net cycle heat rate and
gross cycle heat rate?
2.30 What do you understand by cogeneration of power and process heat? Explain
its thermodynamic advantage.
2.31 What is a baek pressure turbine? What are its applications?
2.32 Explain cogeneration plant efficiency.
2.33 What is a pass-out turbine and when is it used?

2.1 A cyclic steam power plant is to be designed for a steam temperature at


turbine inlet of 360 C and an exhaust pressure of 0.08 bar. After isentropic
expansion of steam in the turbine, the moisture content at the turbine exhaust
is not to exceed 15%. Determine the maximum allowable steam pressure at
the turbine inlet, and calculate the Rankine cycle efficiency for these steam
conditions. Estimate also the mean temperature of beat addition.
[Ans. 16.83 bar, 31.7%,187.5 C]
2.2 A steam power station uses the following cycle: Steam at boiler outlet: 150
bar, 550 C. Reheat al 40 bar to 550 C. Condenser at 0.1 bar. Assuming
ideal processes find (a) tbe quality at turbine exhaust, (b) the cycle efficiency.
and (c) the steam rate.

Copyrighted material

tal

Power Plant Engineering


(Ails. (a) 0.88, (b) 43.9%, (c) 2.18 kglkWb]

2.3 In a single-heater regenerative cycle the steam enters tbe turbine at 30 bar,
40() "C and the exhaust pressure is 0.10 bar. The feedwater heater is a direct
contact type which operates at 5 bar. Find (a) the efficiency and the steam rate
of the cycle, and (b) the increase in mean temperature of beat addition,
efficiency and steam rate, as compared to the Rankine cycle (without
regeneration). Neglect pumpwork.
[AilS. (a) 35.36%,3.93

kg/kWh, (b) 27.4 C, 1.18%,0.47 kglk'Nb]

2.4 A simple steam power cycle uses solar energy for the beat input. Water in the
cycle enters the pump as a saturated liquid at 40 C, and is pumped to 2 bar.
It tben evaporates in the boiler at this pressure, and enters the turbine as
saturated vapour. At the turbine exhaust tbe conditions are 40 C and 10%
moisture. The How rate is 150 kglb. Determine <a) the turbine isentropic
efficiency, (b) the net work output, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (d) the area of
the solar collector needed if the collectors pick up 0.58 kW/m2.
[An,. (a) 76.7%, (b) 15.5 kW, (c) 12.78%, (d) 182 m21
2.5 In a nuclear power plant heat is transferred in the reactor to liquid sodium.
The liquid sodium is then pumped to a beat exchanger where heat is
transferred to steam. The steam leaves this heat exchanger as saturated vapour
at 50 bar, and is then superheated in an external gas fired superheater to
600C. The steam enters the turbine, which bas One extraction point at4 bar,
where steam flows to an open feedwater heater. The turbine efficiency is 75%
and the condenser temperature is 4() C. Determine the beat transfer in the
reactor and in the superheater to produce a power output of 80 MW, and the
thermal efficiency.

[AilS. 178.5 M\V, 71.1 MW, 0.32J


2.6 In a reheat cycle.the initial steam pressure and the maximum temperature are
150 bar and 550 C respectively. If the condenser pressure is 0.1 bar and tbe
moisture at the condenser inlet is 15%, and assuming ideal processes,
determine (a) the reheat pressure, (b) the cycle efficiency, and (c) the steam
rate.
[AIlS. (a) 13.5 bar, (b) 43.6%, (c) 2.05 kglkWhJ
2.7 In a reheat steam cycle, the maximum steam temperature is limited to 500 C.
The condenser pressure is O.J bar and the quality at turbine exhaust is 0.8778.
Had there been no reheat the exhaust quality would have been 0.7592.
Assuming ideal processes, determine (a) the reheat pressure, (b) the boiler
pressure, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (d) the steam rate.

[AilS. (a) 30 bar, (b) J 50 bar, (c) 50.51 %, (d) 1.9412 kglkWbJ
2.8 In a reheat cycle steam at 500 C expands in an h.p, turbine till it is saturated
vapour. It is reheated at constant pressure to 400C and then expands in an
l.p. turbine to 40 C. If the maximum moisture content at the turbine exhaust
is limited to 15%, find (a) the reheat pressure, (b) the boiler pressure, (c) the
net specific work output, (d) the cycle efficiency, and (c) the steam rate.
Assume all processes ideal.

Copyrighted material

Analysis of Steam Cycles

1.~91

What would have been the quality at turbine exhaust, the net work output and
tbe cycle efficiency, without tbe reheating of steam?
2.9 A regenerative cycle operates with steam supplied at 30 bar and 300C, and
the condenser pressure is 0.08 bar. The extraction points for two heaters (one
closed and one open) arc 3.5 bar and 0.7 bar, respectively. Calculate the
thermal efficiency of the plant neglecting pump work.
[Ails. 36%J
2.10 The net power output of an ideal reheat regenerative steam cycle is 80 M\V.
Steam enters the h.p. turbine at SO bar, 500 C and expands till it becomes
saturated vapour. Some of the steam then goes to an open feed water heater
and the balance is reheated to 400C, after which it expands in an I.p. turbine
to 0.07 bar. Compute (a) the reheat pressure, (b) the steam flow rate to the
h.p. turbine, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (d) the rate of tlow of cooling water
in the condenser iftbe temperature rise of water is 8 "C, (e) If the velocity of
steam flowing from the turbine to the condenser is limited to 130 mis, find the
diameter of the connecting pipe.
[AilS. (a) 6.5 bar, (b) 5S.4 kg/s. (c) 43.7% (d) 3146.5 kg/s, (e) 2.97 rn]
2.11 Stearn is generated at 70 bar, 500C and expands in a turbine to 30 bar with
an isentropic efficiency of 77%. At this condition, it is mixed with steam
twice its mass at 30 bar, 400C. The mixture then expands with an isentropic
efficiency of80% to 0.06 bar. At a point in the expansion where the pressure
is 5 bar, steam is bled for fcedwatcr healing in a direct contact heater, which
raises the feedwater to the saturation temperature of the bled steam. Calculate
the mass of steam bled per kg of'high pressure steam and the cycle efficiency.
Assume that the L.P, expansion condition line is straight.
[AilS. 0.53 kg, 31.9%)
2.12 A certain chemical plant requires beat from process steam at 120C at the
rate of5.S3 MW and power at the rate of I MW from the generator terminals.
Both tbe heal and power requirements are met by a back pressure.turbine of
80% brake efficiency (brake output/isentropic output) and 85% internal
efficiency. which exhausts steam at 120 e, dry and saturated. All the latent
heat released during condensation is utilized in the process heater. Find the
pressure and temperature of steam at inlet to the turbine. Assume 900/0
efficiency for the electric generator.

(AilS. 22.5 bar. 360 Cl


2.13 A 10 MW steam turbine operates with steam 8140 bar, 400 Cat the inlet and
exhausts at 0.1 bar. 10,000 kglb of steam at 3 bar are to be extracted for
process work. The turbine has 75'y. isentropic efficiency throughout. Find the
boiler capacity required.
[Alls.13.74kg/s=49.46Ifh]
2.14 A pass-out two-stage turbine receives steam at 50 bar, 350 C. At 1.5 bar, the
h.p. steam exhausts and 12,000 kg of steam per hour are taken at tbis stage for
process purposes. The remainder is reheated at 1.5 bar to 250C and then
Copyrighted material

!10e!

Power Plant Engineering


expanded ihrough the J.p. turbine to a condenser pressure of 0.05 bar. The
power output from the turbine unit is 3750 kW. Take isentropic efficiency for
h.p. and i.p. stages as 0.84 and 0.81 respectively. Calculate the boiler capacity
required.
[Ails. 18.5 tJb]

2.15 A 850 MW steam power plant operates with turbine inlet at 100 bar, 550 C
and condenser pressure at 0.05 bar. There are three feedwater heaters placed
optimally as follows: (i) the b.p. heater is of the closed type witb drains
cascaded backward, (ii) the i.p heater is of the open type, and (iii) the J.p.
heater is of the closed type with drains pumped forward. Each of the turbine
sections has the same isentropic efficiency of 90"10. The pumps have
isentropic efficiencies of 80%. Calculate (a) the mass flow rate of steam at
turbine inlet, (b) the mass flow rate of cooling water in the condenser, if it
undergoes a 10C temperature rise, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (e) the cycle
beat rate.
2.16 A coal-fired power plant has a turbine generator rated at 1000 M\V gross.
The plant requires 9% of tbis power for its internal operations. It uses 9800
tonnes of coal of beating value 26 MJ/kg per day. The steam generator
efficiency is 86%. Calculate the gross and net station heat rates and
cfliciencies.
(AIlS. 10.616 MJ/kWh, 11.667 MJIk\Vh, 33.9%, 30.86%)

2.17 Steam is supplied to pass-out turbine at 40 bar, 400C and dry saturated
process steam is required at 4 bar. The l.p. stage exhausts at 0.1 bar and the
condition line for the turbine expansion may be assumed to be straight, If the "
'.
power load is 1000 k\V and the maximum process load is 1.4 kW, estimate
tbe maximum steam flow through tbe high and low pressure stages. Assume
that the steam just condenses in the process plant.
[Ans. 3837.6 kglh, 3635.3 kglh]
2.18 A steam power plant bas the boiler efficiency of92%, turbine (mechanical)
efficiency of 96%, and electric generator efficiency of 97%. If 7% of the
power generated is consumed in running the auxiliaries of the plant and tbe
overall plant efficiency is 34%, find the percentage of energy lost in the
condenser.
(Ails. 57.4%]
2.19 An ideal steam power plant operates between 150 bar, 550C and 0.075 bar.
It has seven fecdwater heaters. Find the optimum pressures and temperatures
at wbich the heaters operate.
2.20 In a cogeneration plant, 106 kg/h of steam at 80 bar, 480 C expands in tbe
h.p. turbine to lObar. From the exhaust 4 x 105 kg/h of steam is extracted for
process beating. Tbe remairting steam expands in tbe l.p, turbine to 0.08 bar.
Saturated liquid at 0.08 bar leaving tile condenser is pumped to 9.5 bar where
it mixes with the condensate from the process beater leaving at 9.5 bar,
120C. The entire flow is then pumped to 80 bar. The isentropic efficiencies
of the turbines and tbe pumps are 86% and 80%, respectively. Detenuine (a)
Copyrighted

m ateria'

Analysis of Steam Cycles

11911

the heating load. in kJIh, (b) the power developed by the turbines, in kW, and
(c) the rate of heat transfer in the steam generator, in kJIb.
[Ans. (3) 9.53 kJIb, (b) 236500 kW, (c) 3.032 X 109 kJlb]
2.21 In a reheat-regenerative steam cycle, steam enters the h.p. turbine at 80 bar,
480C and expands to 7 bar. The steam is then reheated to 440C before
entering the l.p. turbine, where it expands to the condenser pressure of 0.08
bar. Steam extracted from the h.p. turbine at 20 bar is red to a closed
feedwater heater, from which the drain at 205C is cascaded to an open
feedwater heater through a trap. Steam extracted from the l.p. turbine at 3 bar
~salso fed into tbe open feedwater heater, fr~ which the total flow is pumped
onto the steam generator. The net power output of the cycle IS 100 M \V.
Assuming ideal processes. determine (3) the cycle efficiency, and (b) the rate
of steam generation in kglh.
[AilS. (a) 43%, (b) 2.8 x lOSkglh]
2.22 A pressurized water reactor power plant operates at pressures and
temperatures as shown in Fig. P2.22. The steam leaving the heat exchanger is
at 50 bar, dry saturated and the condensate is saturated to the saruration
temperature of the bled steam at 5 bar in an open feed heater. Assuming all
processes to be ideal and neglecting pump work estimate (a) the ratio of the
working fluids in the two circuits, (b) the fraction of the steam supply which
is bled from the turbine, and (c) the cycle efficiency.
[AilS. (a) 10 :1, (b) 0.22, (c) 3<)<>I.J
Steam50 bar
\Vater

Steam
turbine

t60 bar,
314.6C
Heat

exchanger

5 bar

Reactor

Feed

healer

-i::;_j

Condenser

C.W.

0.05 bar

275.6 C

Fig. P2.22

Copyrighted material

Ittbi!ll

Power Plant Engineering

1. R. \V. Haywood, Analysis of Engineering Cycles, Pergamon Press, Oxford,


1975.
2. 1.H. Hor1ock, Combined Heal all" Power, Pergamon Press. Oxford, 1984.
3. M.J. Moran and H.N. Shapiro, Fundamentals Q( Engineering
Thermodynamics, Jobn Wiley, New York, 1988.
4. P.K. Nag, Engineering Thermodynamics, Tata McGraw-Hili New Delhi,
Second Edition, 1995.
5. J.K. Salisbury, Steam Turbines will Their Cycles, John Wiley, New York,
1950.

Copyrighted material