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Introduction -----------This paper has the objective of presenting a through description of the client/server protocol that is embodied in MySQL. Particularly, this paper aims to document and describe: - manner in which MySQL server detects client connection requests and creates connection - manner in which MySQL client C API call connects to server - the entire protocol of sending/receiving data by MySQL server and C API code - manner in which queries are sent by client C API calls to server - manner in which query results are sent by server - manner in which query results are resolved by server - sending and receiving of error messages This paper does not have the goal or describing nor documenting other related MySQL issues, like usage of thread libraries, MySQL standard library set, MySQL strings library and other MySQL specific libraries, type definitions and utilities. Issues that are covered by this paper are contained in the following source code files: libmysql/net.c and sql/net_serv.cc, the two being identical client/libmysql.c (not entire file is covered) include/mysql_com.h include/mysql.h sql/mysqld.cc (not entire file is covered) sql/net_pkg.cc sql/sql_base.cc (not entire file is covered) sql/sql_select.cc (not entire file is covered) sql/sql_parse.cc (not entire file is covered)
Note: libmysql/net.c was client/net.c prior to MySQL 3.23.11. sql/net_serv.cc was sql/net_serv.c prior to MySQL 3.23.16. Beside this introduction this paper presents basic definitions, constants, structures and global variables, all related functions in server and in C API. Textual description of the entire protocol functioning is described in the last chapter of this paper. Constants, structures and global variables -----------------------------------------This chapter will describe all constants, structures and global variables relevant to client/server protocol. Constants They are important as they contain default values, the ones that are valid if options are not set in any other way. Beside that
MySQL source code does not contain a single non-defined constant in its code. This description of constants does not include configuration and conditional compilation #defines. NAME_LEN HOSTNAME_LENGTH USERNAME_LENGTH MYSQL_PORT MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR field and table name length, current value 64 length of the hostname, current value 64 username length, current value 16 default TCP/IP port number, current value 3306 full path of the default Unix socket file, current value "/tmp/mysql.sock" MYSQL_NAMEDPIPE - full path of the default NT pipe file, current value "MySQL" MYSQL_SERVICENAME - name of the MySQL Service on NT, current value "MySQL" NET_HEADER_SIZE - size of the network header, when no compression is used, current value 4 COMP_HEADER_SIZE - additional size of network header when compression is used, current value 3 What follows are set of constants, defined in source only, which define capabilities of the client built with that version of C API. Simply, when some new feature is added in client, that client feature is defined, so that server can detect what capabilities a client program has. CLIENT_LONG_PASSWORD CLIENT_LONG_FLAG CLIENT_CONNECT_WITH_DB CLIENT_COMPRESS CLIENT_ODBC CLIENT_LOCAL_FILES CLIENT_IGNORE_SPACE CLIENT_CHANGE_USER client supports new more secure passwords client uses longer flags client can specify db on connect client can use compression protocol ODBC client client can use LOAD DATA INFILE LOCAL client can ignore spaces before '(' client supports the mysql_change_user() -
What follows are other constants, pertaining to timeouts and sizes MYSQL_ERRMSG_SIZE current value 200 NET_READ_TIMEOUT NET_WRITE_TIMEOUT NET_WAIT_TIMEOUT packet_error TES_BLOCKING RETRY COUNT - maximum size of error message string, - read timeout, current value 30 seconds - write timeout, current value 60 seconds - wait for new query timeout, current value 8*60*60 seconds, that is, 8 hours - value returned in case of socket errors, current value -1 - used in debug mode for setting up blocking testing - number of times network read and write will be retried, current value 1
There are also error messages for last_errno, which depict system errors, and are used on the server only. ER_NET_PACKAGE_TOO_LARGE ER_OUT_OF_RESOURCES ER_NET_ERROR_ON_WRITE ER_NET_WRITE_INTERRUPTED packet is larger than max_allowed_packet practically no more memory error in writing to NT Named Pipe some signal or interrupt happened during write ER_NET_READ_ERROR_FROM_PIPE - error in reading from NT Named Pipe ER_NET_FCNTL_ERROR - error in trying to set fcntl on socket descriptor ER_NET_PACKETS_OUT_OF_ORDER - packet numbers on client and server side differ -
- error in uncompress of compressed packet
Structs and enums struct NET This is MySQL's network handle structure, used in all client/server read/write functions. On the server, it is initialized and preserved in each thread. On the client, it is a part of the MYSQL struct, which is the MySQL handle used in all C API functions. This structure uniquely identifies a connection, either on the server or client side. It consists of the following fields: Vio* vio - explained above HANDLE hPipe - Handle for NT Named Pipe file my_socket fd - file descriptor used for both TCP/IP socket and Unix socket file int fcntl - contains info on fcntl options used on fd. Mostly used for saving info if blocking is used or not unsigned char *buff - network buffer used for storing data for reading from/writing to socket unsigned char,*buff_end - points to the end of buff unsigned char *write_pos - present writing position in buff unsigned char *read_pos - present reading position in buff. This pointer is used for reading data after calling my_net_read function and function that are just its wrappers char last_error[MYSQL_ERRMSG_SIZE] - holds last error message unsigned int last_errno - holds last error code of the network protocol. Its possible values are listed in above constants. It is used only on the server side unsigned int max_packet - holds current value of buff size unsigned int timeout - stores read timeout value for that connection unsigned int pkt_nr - stores the value of the current packet number in a batch of packets. Used primarily for detection of protocol errors resulting in a mismatch my_bool error - holds either 1 or 0 depending on the error condition my_bool return_errno - if its value != 0 then there is an error in protocol mismatch between client and server my_bool compress - if true compression is used in the protocol unsigned long remain_in_buf - used only in reading compressed packets. Explained in my_net_read unsigned long length - used only for storing the length of the read packet. Explained in my_net_read unsigned long buf_length - used only in reading compressed packets. Explained in my_net_read unsigned long where_b - used only in reading compressed packets. Explained in my_net_read short int more - used for reporting in mysql_list_processes char save_char - used in reading compressed packets for saving chars in order to make zero-delimited strings. Explained in my_net_read A few typedefs will be defined for easier understanding of the text that follows.
typedef char **MYSQL_ROW - data containing one row of values typedef unsigned int MYSQL_FIELD_OFFSET - offset in bytes of the current field typedef MYSQL_ROWS *MYSQL_ROW_OFFSET - offset in bytes of the current row struct MYSQL_FIELD - contains all info on the attributes of a specific column in a result set, plus info on lengths of the column in a result set. This struct is tagged as st_mysql_field. This structure consists of the following fields: char *name - name of column char *table - table of column if column was a field and not an expression or constant char *def - default value (set by mysql_list_fields) enum enum_field_types type - see above unsigned int length - width of column in the current row unsigned int max_length - maximum width of that column in entire result set unsigned int flags - corresponding to Extra in DESCRIBE unsigned int decimals - number of decimals in field struct MYSQL_ROWS - a node for each row in the single linked list forming entire result set. This struct is tagged as st_mysql_rows, and has two fields: struct st_mysql_rows *next - pointer to the next one MYSQL_ROW data - see above struct MYSQL_DATA - contains all rows from result set. It is tagged as st_mysql_data and has following fields: my_ulonglong rows - how many rows unsigned int fields - how many columns MYSQL_ROWS *data - see above. This is the first node of the linked list MEM_ROOT alloc - MEM_ROOT is MySQL memory allocation structure, and this field is used to store all fields and rows. struct st_mysql_options - holds various client options, and contains following fields: unsigned int connect_timeout - time in seconds for connection unsigned int client_flag - used to hold client capabilities my_bool compress - boolean for compression my_bool named_pipe - is Named Pipe used? (on NT) unsigned int port - what TCP port is used char *host - host to connect to char *init_command - command to be executed upon connection char *user - account name on MySQL server char *password - password for the above char *unix_socket - full path for Unix socket file char *db - default database char *my_cnf_file - optional configuration file char *my_cnf_group - optional header for options struct MYSQL - MySQL client's handle. Required for any
operation issued from client to server. Tagged as st_mysql and having following fields: NET net - see above char *host - host on which MySQL server is running char *user - MySQL username char *passwd - password for above char *unix_socket- full path of Unix socket file char *server_version - version of the server char *host_info - contains info on how has connection been established, TCP port, socket or Named Pipe char *info - used to store information on the query results, like number of rows affected etc. char *db - current database unsigned int port - TCP port in use unsigned int client_flag - client capabilities unsigned int server_capabilities - server capabilities unsigned int protocol_version - version of the protocol unsigned int field_count - used for storing number of fields immediately upon execution of a query, but before fetching rows unsigned long thread_id - server thread to which this connection is attached my_ulonglong affected_rows - used for storing number of rows immediately upon execution of a query, but before fetching rows my_ulonglong insert_id - fetching LAST_INSERT_ID() through client C API my_ulonglong extra_info - used by mysqlshow unsigned long packet_length - saving size of the first packet upon execution of a query enum mysql_status status - see above MYSQL_FIELD *fields - see above MEM_ROOT field_alloc - memory used for storing previous field (fields) my_bool free_me - boolean that flags if MYSQL was allocated in mysql_init my_bool reconnect - used to automatically reconnect struct st_mysql_options options - see above char scramble_buff - key for scrambling password before sending it to server struct MYSQL_RES - tagged as st_mysql_res and used to store entire result set from a single query. Contains following fields: my_ulonglong row_count - number of rows unsigned int field_count - number of columns unsigned int current_field - cursor for fetching fields MYSQL_FIELD *fields - see above MYSQL_DATA *data - see above, and used in buffered reads, that is, mysql_store_result only MYSQL_ROWS *data_cursor - pointing to the field of above "data" MEM_ROOT field_alloc - memory allocation for above "fields" MYSQL_ROW row - used for storing row by row in unbuffered reads, that is, in mysql_use_result MYSQL_ROW current_row - cursor to the current row for buffered reads unsigned long *lengths - column lengths of current row MYSQL *handle - see above, used in unbuffered reads, that is, in mysql_use_result my_bool eof - used by mysql_fetch_row as a marker for end of data
Global variables unsigned long max_allowed_packet - maximum allowable value of network buffer. Default value - 1MB unsigned long net_buffer_length - default, starting value of network buffer - 8KB unsigned long bytes_sent - total number of bytes written since startup of the server unsigned long bytes_received - total number of bytes read since startup of the server Synopsis of the basic client/server protocol -------------------------------------------Purpose of this chapter is to provide a complete picture of the basic client/server protocol implemented in MySQL. It was felt it is necessary after writing descriptions for all of the functions involved in basic protocol. There are at present 11 functions involved, with several structures, many constants etc, which are all described in detail. But as a forest could not be seen from the trees, so the concept of the protocol could not be deciphered easily from a thorough documentation of minutiae. Although the concept of the protocol was not changed with the introduction of vio system, embodied in violate.cc source file and VIO system, the introduction of these has changed the code substantially. Before VIO was introduced, functions for reading from/writing to network connection had to deal with various network standards. So, these functions depended on whether TCP port or Unix socket file or NT Named Pipe file is used. This is all changed now and single vio_ functions are called, while all this diversity is covered by vio_ functions. In MySQL a specific buffered network input/output transport model has been implemented. Although each operating system may have its own buffering for network connections, MySQL has added its own buffering model. This same for each of the three transport protocol types that are used in MySQL client/server communications, which are TCP/IP sockets (on all systems), Unix socket files on Unix and Unix-like operating systems and Named Pipe files on NT. Although TCP/IP sockets are omnipresent, the latter two types have been added for local connections. Those two connection types can be used in local mode only, that is, when both client and server reside on the same host, and are introduced because they enable better speeds for local connections. This is especially useful for WWW type of applications. Startup options of MySQL server allow that either TCP/IP sockets or local connection (OS dependent) can be disallowed. In order to implement buffered input/output, MySQL allocates a buffer. The starting size of this buffer is determined by the value of the global variable net_buffer_length, which can be changed at MySQL server startup. This is, as explained, only the startup length of MySQL network buffer. Because a single item that has to be read or written can be larger than that value, MySQL will increase buffer size as long as that size reaches value of the global variable
max_allowed_packet, which is also settable at server startup. Maximum value of this variable is limited by the way MySQL stores/reads sizes of packets to be sent/read, which means by the way MySQL formats packages. Basically each packet consists of two parts, a header and data. In the case when compression is not used, header consists of 4 bytes of which 3 contain the length of the packet to be sent and one holds the packet number. When compression is used there are onother 3 bytes which store the size of uncompressed data. Because of the way MySQL packs length into 3 bytes, plus due to the usage of some special values in the most significant byte, maximum size of max_allowed_packet is limited to 24MB at present. So, if compression is not used, at first 4 bytes are written to the buffer and then data itself. As MySQL buffers I/O logical packets are packet together until packets fill up entire size of the buffer. That size no less than net_buffer_size, but no greater than max_allowed_packet. So, actual writing to the network is done when this buffer is filled up. As frequently sequence of buffers make a logical unit, like a result set, then at the end of sending data, even if buffer is not full, data is written (flushed to the connection) with a call of the net_flush function. So that no single packet can be larger than this value, checks are made throughout the code to make sure that no single field or command could exceed that value. In order to maintain coherency in consecutive packets, each packet is numbered and their number stored as a part of a header, as explained above. Packets start with 0, so whenever a logical packet is written, that number is incremented. On the other side when packets are read, value that is fetched is compared with the value stored and if there is no mismatch that value is incremented, too. Packet number is reset on the client side when unwanted connections are removed from the connection and on the server side when a new command has been started. So, before writing, the buffer contains a sequence of logical packets, consisting of header plus data consecutively. If compression is used, packet numbers are not stored in each header of the logical packets, but a whole buffer, or a part of it if flushing is done, containing one or more logical packets are compressed. In that case a new larger header, is formed, and all logical packets contained in the buffer are compressed together. This way only one packet is formed which makes several logical packets, which improves both speed and compression ratio. On the other side, when this large compressed packet is read, it is first uncompressed, and then logical packets are sent, one by one, to the calling functions. All this functionality is described in detail in the following chapter. It does not contain functions that form logical packets, or that read and write to connections but also functions that are used for initialization, clearing of connections. There are functions at higher level dealing with sending fields, rows, establishing connections, sending commands, but those are not explained in the following chapter. Functions utilized in client/server protocol --------------------------------------------
First of all, functions are described that are involved in preparing, reading, or writing data over TCP port, Unix socket file, or named pipe, and functions directly related to those. All of these functions are used both in server and client. Server and client specific code segments are documented in each function description. Each MySQL function checks for errors in memory allocation and freeing, as well as in every OS call, like the one dealing with files and sockets, and for errors in indigenous MySQL function calls. This is expected, but has to be said here so as not to repeat it in every function description. Older versions of MySQL have utilized the following macros for reading from or writing to a socket. raw_net_read - calls OS function recv function that reads N bytes from a socket into a buffer. Number of bytes read is returned. raw_net_write - calls OS function send to write N bytes from a buffer to socket. Number of bytes written is returned. These macros are replaced with VIO (Virtual I/O) functions. Function name: my_net_init Parameters: struct NET *, enum_net_type, struct Vio Return value: 1 for error, 0 for success Function purpose: To initialize properly all NET fields, allocate memory and set socket options Function description First of all, buff field of NET struct is allocated to the size of net_buffer_length, and on failure function exits with 0. All fields in NET are set to their default or starting values. As net_buffer_length and max_allowed_packet are configurable, max_allowed_packet is set equal to net_buffer_length if the latter one is greater. max_packet is set for that NET to net_buffer_length, and buff_end points to buff end. vio field is set to the second parameter. If it is a real connection, which is the case when second parameter is not null, then fd field is set by calling vio_fd function. read_pos and write_pos to buff, while remaining integers are set to 0. If function is run on the MySQL server on Unix and server is started in a test mode that would require testing of blocking, then vio_blocking function is called. Last, fast throughput mode is set by a call to vio_fastsend function. Function name: net_end Parameters: struct NET * Return value: void Function purpose: To release memory allocated to buff
Function name: net_realloc (private, static function) Parameters: struct NET, ulong (unsigned long) Return value: 1 for error, 0 for success Function purpose: To change memory allocated to buff Function description New length of buff field of NET struct is passed as second parameter. It is first checked versus max_allowed_packet and if greater, an error is returned. New length is aligned to 4096-byte boundary. Then, buff is reallocated, buff_end, max_packet, and write_pas reset to the same values as in my_net_init.
Function name: net_clear (used on client side only) Parameters: struct NET * Return value: void Function purpose: To read unread packets Function description This function is used on client side only, and is executed only if a program is not started in test mode. This function reads unread packets without processing them. First, non-blocking mode is set on systems that do not have non-blocking mode defined. This is performed by checking the mode with vio_is_blocking function. and setting non-blocking mode by vio_blocking function. If this operation was successful, then packets are read by vio_read function, to which vio field of NET is passed together with buff and max_packet field values. field of the same struct at a length of max_packet. If blocking was active before reading is performed, blocking is set with vio_blocking function. After reading has been performed, pkt_nr is reset to 0 and write_pos reset to buff. In order to clarify some matters non-blocking mode enables executing program to dissociate from a connection, so that error in connection would not hang entire program or its thread. Function name: net_flush Parameters: struct NET * Return value: 1 for error, 0 for success Function purpose: To write remaining bytes in buff to socket Function description net_real_write (described below) is performed is write_pos differs from buff, both being fields of the only parameter. write_pos is reset to buff. This function has to be used, as MySQL uses buffered
writes (as will be explained more in the function net_write_buff). Function name: my_net_write Parameters: struct NET *, const char *, ulong Return value: 1 for error, 0 for success Function purpose: Write a logical packet in the second parameter of third parameter length Function description The purpose of this function is to prepare a logical packet such that entire content of data, pointed to by second parameter and in length of third parameter is sent to the other side. In case of server, it is used for sending result sets, and in case of client it is used for sending local data. This function foremost prepares a header for the packet. Normally, the header consists of 4 bytes, of which the first 3 bytes contain the length of the packet, thereby limiting a maximum allowable length of a packet to 16MB, while the fourth byte contains the packet number, which is used when one large packet has to be divided into sequence of packets. This way each sub-packet gets its number which should be matched on the other side. When compression is used another three bytes are added to packet header, thus packet header is in that case increased to 7 bytes. Additional three bytes are used to save the length of compressed data. As in connection that uses compression option, code packs packets together,, a header prepared by this function is later not used in writing to / reading from network, but only to distinguish logical packets within a buffered read operation. This function, first stores the value of the third parameter into the first 3 bytes of local char variable of NET_HEADER_SIZE size by usage of function int3store. Then, at this point, if compression is not used, pkt_nr is increased, and its value stored in the last byte of the said local char variable. If compression is used, 0 is stored in both values. Then those four bytes are sent to other side by the usage of the function net_write_buff(to be explained later on), and if successful, entire packet in second parameter of the length described in third parameter is sent by the usage of the same function. Function name: net_write_command Parameters: struct NET *, char, const char *, ulong Return value: 1 for error, 0 for success Function purpose: Send a command with a packet as in previous function Function description This function is very similar to the previous one. The only difference is that first packet is enlarged by one byte, so that the command precedes the packet to be sent. This is implemented by increasing first packet by one byte, which contains a command code. As command codes do not use the range of values that are used by character
sets, so when the other side receives a packet, first byte after header contains a command code. This function is used by client for sending all commands and queries, and by server in connection process and for sending errors. Function name: net_write_buff (private, static function) Parameters: struct NET *, const char *, uint Return value: 1 for error, 0 for success Function purpose: To write a packet of any size by cutting it and using next function for writing it Function description This function was created after compression feature has been added to MySQL. This function supposes that packets have already been properly formatted, regarding packet header etc. The principal reason for this function to exist is because a packet that is sent by client or server does not have to be less than max_packet. So this function first calculates how much data has been left in a buff, by getting a difference between buff_end and write_pos and storing it to local variable left_length. Then a loop is run as long as the length to be sent is greater than length of left bytes (left_length). In a loop data from second parameter is copied to buff at write_pos, as much as it can be, that is, by left_length. Then net_real_write function is called (see below) with NET, buff, and max_packet parameters. This function is the lowest level function that writes data over established connection. In the loop, write_pos is reset to buff, the pointer to data (second parameter) is moved by the amount of data sent (left_length), length of data to be sent (third parameter) is decreased by the amount sent (left_length) and left_length is reset to max_packet value, which ends the loop. This logic was necessary, as there could have been some data yet unsent (write_pos != buf), while data to be sent could be as large as necessary, thus requiring many loops. At the end of function, remaining data in second parameter are copied to buff at write_pos, by the remaining length of data to be sent (third parameter). So, in the next call of this function remaining data will be sent, as buff is used in the call to net_real_write. It is very important to note that if a packet to be sent is less than the number of bytes that are still available in buff, then there will be no writing over network, but only logical packets will be added one after another. This will accelerate network traffic, plus if compression is used, the expected compression rate would be higher. That is why server or client functions that sends data uses at the end of data net_flush function described above. Function name: net_real_write Parameters: struct NET *, const char *, ulong Return value: 1 for error, 0 for success Function purpose: To write data to a socket or pipe, with compression if used Function description
First, more field is set to 2, to enable reporting in mysql_list_processes. Then if compression is enabled on that connection, a new local buffer (variable b) is initialized to the length of total header (normal header + compression header) and if no memory is available, an error is returned. This buffer (b) is used for holding the final, compressed packet to be written over the connection. Furthermore in compression initialization, second parameter at length of third parameter is copied to the local buffer b, and MySQL's wrapped zlib's compression function is run at total header offset of the local buffer. Please, do note that this function does not test effectiveness of compression. If compression is turned on in some connection, it is used all of the time. Also, it is very important to be cognizant of the fact that this algorithm makes possible that a single compressed packet contains several logical packets. In this way compression rate is increased and network throughput is increased as well. However, this algorithm has consequences on the other side, that reads compressed packet, which is covered in my_net_read function. After compression is done, the full compression header is properly formed with the packet number, compressed and uncompressed lengths. At the end of compression code, third parameter is increased by total header length, as the original header is not used (see above), and second parameter, pointer to data, is set to point to local buffer b, in order that the further flow of function is independent of compression. If a function is executed on server side, a thread alarm initialized and if non-blocking is active set at NET_WRITE_TIMEOUT. Two local (char *) pointers are initialized, pos at beginning of second parameter, and end at end of data. Then the loop is run as long as all data is written, which means as long as pos != end. First vio_write function is called, with parameters of vio field, pos and size of data (end - pos). Number of bytes written over connection is saved in local variable (length). If error is returned local bool variable (interrupted) is set according to the return value of the vio_should_retry called with vio field as parameter. This bool variable indicates whether writing was interrupted in some way or not. Further, error from vio_write is treated differently on Unix versus other OS's (Win32 or OS/2). On Unix an alarm is set if one is not in use, no bytes have been written and there has been no interruption. Also, in that case, if connection is not in blocking mode, a sub-loop is run as long as blocking is not set with vio_blocking function. Within the loop another run of above vio_write is run based on return value of vio_is_retry function, provided number of repeated writes is less than RETRY_COUNT. If that is not the case, error field of struct NET is set to 1 and function exits. At the exit of sub-loop number of reruns already executed is reset to zero and another run of above vio_write function is attempted. If the function is run on Win32 and OS/2, and in the case that function flow was not interrupted and thread alarm is not in use, again the main loop is continued until pos != end. In the case that this function is executed on thread safe client program, a communication flow is tested on EINTR, caused by context switching, by use of vio_errno function, in which case the loop is continued. At the end of processing of the error from vio_write, error field of struct NET is set, and if on server last_errno field is set to ER_NET_WRITE_INTERRUPTED in the case that local bool variable (interrupted) is true or to ER_NET_ERROR_ON_WRITE. Before the end of loop, in order to make possible evaluation of the loop condition, pos is increased by the value written in last iteration (length).
Also global variable bytes_sent is increased by the same value, for status purposes. At the end of the functions more fields is reset, in case of compression, compression buffer (b) memory is released and if thread is still in use, it is ended and blocking state is reset to its original state, and function returns error is all bytes are not written.
Function name: my_real_read (private, static function) Parameters: struct NET *, ulong * Return value: length of bytes read Function purpose: low level network connection read function Function description This function has made as a separate one when compression was introduced in MySQL client/server protocol . It contains basic, low level network reading functionality, while all dealings with compressed packets are handled in next function. Compression in this function is only handled in as much to unfold the length of uncompressed data. First blocking state of connection is saved in local bool variable net_blocking, and field more is set 1 for detailed reporting in mysqld_list_processes. A new thread alarm is initialized, in order to enable read timeout handling, and if on server and a connection can block a program, the alarm is set at a value of timeout field. Local pointer is set to the position of the next logical packet, with its header skipped, which is at field where_b offset from buff. Next, a two time run code is entered. A loop is run exactly two times because first time number of bytes to be fetched (remain) are set to the header size, which is different when compression is used or not used on the connection. After first fetch has been done, number of packets that will be received in second iteration is well known, as fetched header contains the size of packet, packet number, and in the case of compression, the size of the uncompressed packet. Then, as long as there are bytes to read the loop is entered with first reading data from network connection with vio_read function, called with parameters of field vio, current position and remaining number of bytes, which value is hold by local variable (remain) initialized at the value of header size, which differs if compression is used. Number of bytes read are returned in local length variable. If error is returned local bool variable (interrupted) is set according to the return value of the vio_should_retry called with vio field as parameter. This bool variable indicates whether reading was interrupted in some way or not. Further, error from vio_read is treated differently on Unix versus other OS's (Win32 or OS/2). On Unix an alarm is set if one is not in use, no bytes have been read and there has been no interruption. Also, in that case, if connection is not in blocking mode, a sub-loop is run as long as blocking is not set with vio_blocking function. Within the loop another run of above vio_read is run based on return value of vio_is_retry function, provided number of repeated writes is less than RETRY_COUNT. If that is not the case, error field of struct NET is set to 1 and function exits. At the exit of sub-loop number of reruns already executed is reset to zero and another run of above vio_read function is attempted. If the function is run on Win32 and OS/2, and in the case that function flow was not interrupted
and thread alarm is not in use, again the main loop is continued as long as there are bytes remaining. In the case that this function is executed on thread safe client program, then if another run should be made, which is decided by the output of vio_should_retry function, in which case the loop is continued. At the end of processing of the error from vio_read, error field of struct NET is set, and if on server last_errno field is set to ER_NET_READ_INTERRUPTED in the case that local bool variable (interrupted) is true or to ER_NET_ERROR_ON_READ. In case of such an error this function exits and returns error. In the case when there is no error, number of remaining bytes (remain) is decreased by the number of bytes read, which should be zero, but in case it is not the entire code is still in while (remain > 0) loop, which will be exited immediately if it is. This has been done to accommodate errors in the traffic level and for the very slow connections. Current position in field buff is also moved by the amount of bytes read by vio_read function, and global variable bytes_received is increased by the same value in a thread safe manner. When the loop that is run until necessary bytes are read (remain) is finished, then if external loop is in its first run, of the two, packet sequencing is tested for consistency by comparing the number contained at 4th byte in header with pkt_nr field. Header location is found at where_b offset to field_b. Usage of where_b is obligatory due to the possible compression usage. If there is no compression on a connection, then where_b is always 0. If there is a discrepancy, then first byte of the header is checked whether it is equal to 255, because when error is sent by the server, or by a client if it is sending data (like in LOAD DATA INFILE LOCAL...), then first byte in header is set to 255. If it is not 255, then an error on packets being out of order is printed. In any case, on server, last_errno field is set to ER_NET_PACKETS_OUT_OF_ORDER and the function returns with an error, that is, the value returned is packet_error. If a check on serial number of packet is successful, pkt_nr field is incremented in order to enable checking packet order with next packet and if compression is used, uncompressed length is extracted from a proper position in header and returned in the second parameter of this function. Length of the packet is saved, for the purpose of a proper return value from this function. Still in the first iteration of the main loop, a check must be made if field buff could accommodate entire package that comes, in its compressed or uncompressed form. This is done in such a way, because zlib's compress and uncompress functions use the same memory area for compression and uncompression. Necessary field buff length is equal to current offset where data are (where_b which is zero for non-compression), plus the larger value of compressed or uncompressed package to be read in a second run. If this value is larger than the current length of field buff, which is read from field max_packet, then field buff has to be reallocated. If reallocation with net_realloc function fails, the function returns an error. Before a second loop is started, length to be read is set to the length of expected data and current position (pos) is set at where_b offset from field buff. At the end of function, if alarm is set, which is the case if it is run on server or on a client if a function is interrupted and another run of vio_read is attempted, alarm is ended and blocking state is restored from the saved local bool variable net_blocking. Function returns number of bytes read or the error (packet_error). Function name: my_net_read Parameters: struct NET *
Return value: length of bytes read Function purpose: Highest level general purpose reading function Function description First, if compression is not used, my_real_read is called, with struct NET * a first parameter, and pointer to local ulong complen as a second parameter, but its value is not used here. Number of bytes read is returned in local ulong variable len. read_pos field is set to an offset of value of where_b field from field buff. where_b field actually denotes where in field buff is the current packet. If returned number of bytes read (local variable len) does not signal that an error in packet transmission occurred (that is, it is not set to packet_error), then the string contained in read_pos is zero terminated. Simply, the end of the string starting at read_pos, and ending at read_pos + len, is set to zero. This is done in that way, because mysql_use_result expects a zero terminated string, and function returns with a value local variable len. This ends this function in the case that compression is not used and the remaining code is executed only if compression is enabled on the connection. In order to explain how a compressed packet logically is cut into meningful packets, the full meaning of several NET fields should be explained. First of all, fields in NET are used and not local variables, as all values should be saved between consecutive calls of this function. Simply, this function is called in order to return logical packets, but this function does not need to call my_real_read function everytime, because when a large packet is uncompressed, it may, but not necessarily so, contain several logical packets. Therefore, in order to preserve data on logical packets local variables are not used. Instead fields in NET struct are used. Field remain_in_buf denotes how many bytes of entire uncompressed packets is still contained within buff. field buf_length saves the value of the length of entire uncompressed packet. field save_char is used to save the character at the position where the packet ends, which character has to be replaced with a zero, '\0', in order to make a logical packet zero delimited, for mysql_use_result. Field length stores the value of the length of compressed packet. Field read_pos as usual, points to the current reading position. This char * pointer is used by all functions that call this function in order to fetch their data. Field buff is not used for that purpose, but read_pos is used instead. This change was introduced with compression, when algorithm accommodated grouping of several packets together. Now that meanings of all relevant NET fields are explained, we can proceed with the flow of this function for the case when compression is active. First, if there are remaining portions of compressed packet in a field buff, saved character value is set at the position where zero char '\0' was inserted to enable the string to be zero delimited for mysql_use_result. Then a loop is started. In the first part of the loop, if there are remaining bytes, local uchar *pos variable is set at the current position in field buff where a new packet starts. This position is an (buf_length remain_in_buf) offset in field buff. As it is possible that next logical packet is not read to the full length in the remaining of the field buf, several things had to be inspected. It should be
noted that data that is read from net_real_read contains only logical packets containing 4 byte headers only, being 4 byte headers prepared by my_net_write or net_write_command. But, when written, logical packet could be so divided that only a part of header is read in. Therefore after pointer to the start of the next packet has been saved, a check is made whether number of remaining bytes in buffer is less than 4, being 3 bytes for length and one byte for packet number. If it is greater, then the length of the logical packet is extracted and saved a length field. Then a check is made whether entire packet is contained within a buf, that is, a check is made that the logical packet is fully contained in the buffer. In that case, number of bytes remaining in buffer is decreased by the full length of logical packet (4 + length field), read_pos is moved forward by 4 bytes to skip header and be set at a beginning of data in logical packet, length field is saved for the value to be returned in function and the loop is exited. In the case that the entire logical packet is not contained within the buffer, then if length of the entire buffer differs from remaining length of logical packet, it (logical packet) is moved to the beginning of the field buff. If length of the entire buffer equals the remaining length of logical packet, where_b and buf_length fields are set to 0. This is done so that in both cases buffer is ready to accept next part of packet. In order to get a next part of a packet, still within a loop, my_real_read function is called and length of compressed packet is returned to a local len variable, and length of compressed data is returned in complen variable. In the case of non-compression value of complen is zero. If packet_error is from my_real_read function, this function returns also with packet_error. If it is not a packet_error, my_uncompress function is called to uncompress data. It is called with offset of where_b data from field buff, as it is the position where compressed packet starts, and with len and complen values, being lengths of compressed and uncompressed data. If there is no compression, 0 is returned for uncompressed size from my_real_read function, and my_uncompress wrapper function is made to skip zlib uncompress in that case. If error is returned from my_uncompress, error field is set to 1, if on server last_errno is set to ER_NET_UNCOMPRESS_ERROR and loop is exited and function returns with packet_error. If not, buf_length and remain_in_buf fields are set to the uncompressed size of buffer and the loop is continued. When the loop is exited save_char field is used to save the char at end of a logical packet, which is an offset of field len from position in field buff pointed by field read_pos, in order that zero char is set at the same position, for mysql_use_result. Function returns the length of the logical packet without its header.
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