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134 MASS-TRANSFER

0
1,2

OPERAnONS

entering stage 1
positions 1 and 2; stages1.and 2

Superscript

in equilibrium with bulk concentrationin other phase

REFERENCES
1. Davies,T. J.: Adv. Chem Eng., 4, 1 (1963).
2. Garner, F. H., and A. H. P. SkeIland:Ind Eng. Chern.,48, 51 (1956).
3. Goodridge, F., and I. D. Robb: 1nd Eng. Chem Fundam.,4, 49 (1965).
4. Gordon, K. F., and T. K. Sherwood:Chem Eng. Prog. Symp.Ser., 50(10),15 (1954);A1ChEJ.,
1, 129(1955).
5. Kent, E. R., and R. L. Pigford: A1ChEJ., 2, 363 (1956).
6. King, C. J.: A1ChE J., 10,671 (1964).
7. Kremser,A.: Not/. Petro/.News,22(21),42 (1930).
8. Lewis, W. K., and W. G. Whitman: 1nd Eng. Chem.,16, 1215(1924).
9. Murphree, E. Y.: 1nd Eng. Chem.,2.4,519 (1932).
10. Sawistowski,H.: in C. Hanson (ed.), "Recent Advances in Liquid-Liquid Extraction," p. 293,
Pergamon,New York, 1971.
11. Schrage,R. W.: "A TheoreticalStudy of InterphaseMassTransfer," Columbia University Press,
New York, 1953.
12. Scriven,L. E, and R. L. Pigford: A1ChEJ., 4, 439 (1958); S, 397 (1959).
13. Searle,R., and K. F. Gordon: A1ChE J., 3, 490 (1957).
14. Souders,M., and G. G. Brown: Ind Eng. Chem.,2.4,519 (1932).
15. Thompson,D. W.: 1nd Eng. Chem Fundam.,9, 243 (1970).
16. Turner, S. D.: Ind Eng. Chem.,21, 190(1929).
17. Whitman, W. G.: Chem Met. Eng., 29, 147(1923).
18. Wylie, C. R., Jr.: "Advanced EngineeringMathematics," 3d ed., McG1'aw-HillBook Company,
New York, 1966.

PROBLEMS
5.1 Repeat the calculations for the local mass-transferflux of ammonia in Illustration 5.1 on the
assumptionthat the gas pressureis 2 std atm. The gas massvelocity, bulk-averagegas and liquid
concentration,liquid flow rate, and temperatureare unchanged.
5.2 In a certain apparatus used for the absorption of sulfur dioxide, SO2' from air by means of
water, at one point in the equipmentthe gascontained 10%SO2by volume and was in contact with
liquid containing 0.4%SO2(density = 990kg/m3 = 61.8 Ib/ft3). The temperaturewas 50C and the
total pressure I std atm. The overall mass-transfercoefficient based on gas concentrationswas
~ - 7.36X 10-10kmol/m2. s . (N/m1 = 0.055Ib mol SO2/ft2. h . atm. Of the total diffusional
resistance,47%lay in the gas phase,53%in the liquid. Equilibrium data at sooC are:
kg SO2/IOOkg water

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.7

Partial pressureSO2'mmHg

29

46

83

119

"

(0) Calculate the overall coefficient basedon liquid concentrationsin terms of mol/vol.
(b) Calculate the individual mass-transfer coefficient for the gas, expressed as kG
mol/(area)(time)(pressure),ky mol/(areaXtime)(mole fraction), and kc mol/(areaXtime)(mole/vol),

INTERPHASBMASSTRANSFER 135
and for the liquid expressed as kL mole/(area)(time)(mole/vol)

and kx mol/(area)(timeXmole

fraction).
(c) Determine the interfacial compositions in both phases.
5.3 The equilibrium partial pressure of water vapor in contact with a certain silica gel on which
water is adsorbed is, at 2,Sc, as follows:
Partial pressure

of water,mmHg

2.14

4.74

7.13

9.05

10.9

12.6

14.3

16.7

to

15

20

25

30

35

40

Ib water/ 100Ib
dry gel

kg/l00 kg

(0) Plot the equilibrium data as i-partial


pressureof water vapor against x - wt fraction
water in the gel.
(b) Plot the equilibrium data as X mol water/massdry gel, Y - mol water vapor/mol dry
air, for a total pressureof 1 std atm.
(c) When 10 Ib (4.54 kg) of silica gel containing 5 wt% adsorbedwater is placed in a flowing
airstreamcontaining a partial pressureof water vapor - 12 mmHg. the total pressureis I std atm
and the temperature25C. When equilibrium is reached,what massof additional water will the gel
have adsorbed?Air is not adsorbed.
(d) One pound mass (0.454 kg) of silica gel containing 5 wt% adsorbed water is placed in a
vesselin which there are 400 ftJ (11.33 m3) moist air whosepartial pressureof water is 15 mmHg.
The total pressureand temperatureare kept at I std atm and 25C, respectively.At equilibrium,
what will be the moisturecontent of the air and gel and the massof water adsorbedby the gel?Am.:
0.0605kg water.
(e) Write the equation of the operating line for part (d) in terms of X and Y. Convert this into

an equation in terms of i and x, and plot the operating curve on i, x coordinates.

(f) If lIb (0.454kg) of silica gel containing 18%adsorbedwater is placed in a vesselcontaining


500 ft3 (14.16m3)dry air and the temperatureand pressureare maintained at 25C and 1 std atm,
respectively,what ~ be the final equilibrium moisture content of the air and the gel.
(g) Repeatpart (f) for a total pressureof 2 std atm. Note that the equilibrium curve in termsof
X and Y previouslyusedis not applicable.
5.4 The equilibrium adsorption of benzene vapor on a certain activated charcoal at 33.3C is
reportedas follows:
Benzenevapor adsorbed,
cm3(STP)fg charcoal

IS

2S

40

SO

65

80

90

100

Partial pressurebenzene,mmHg 0.0010 0.0045 0.0251 O.llS O.2SL 1..00 2.81 7.82

(0) A nitrogen-benzenevapor mixture containing I.~ benzeneby volume is to be passed


countercurrentlyat the rate 100 f~ lmin (4.72 X 10-2 m3Is) to a moving stream of the activated
charcoal so as to remove 95% of the benzenefrom the gas in a continuous process.The entering
charcoalcontains 15cm3benzenevapor (at STP) adsorbedper gram charcoal.The temperatureand
total pressureare to be maintainedat 33.3C and I std atm, respectively,throughout. Nitrogen is not
adsorbed.What
is the leastamount of charcoal which can be usedper unit time? If twice as much is
I
used,what will be the concentrationof benzeneadsorbedupon the charcoal leaving?
(b) Repeatpart (0) for a cocurrent flow of gasand charcoal.
(c) Charcoalwhich has adsorbed upon it 100cm3 (at STP) benzenevapor per gram is to be
stripped at the rate 100 Iblh (45.4 kg/h) of its benzenecontent to a concentration of 55 cm3
adsorbedbenzeneper gram charcoal by continuous countercurrent contact with a stream of pure
nitrogen gasat I std atm. The temperaturewill be maintained at 33.3C.What is the minimum rate

136 MASS-nANSFER OPER.A110NS


of nitrogen now? What will be the benzenecontent of the exit gas if twice as much nitrogen is fed?
What will be the number of stages?ADS.:3 th~retical stages.
5.5 A mixture of hydrogen and air, 4 sid atm pressure,bulk-average concentration s~ H2 by
volume, nows through a circular reinforced tube of vu1~~~ rubber with respectiveID and OD of
25.4 and 28.6 mm (1.0 and 1.125in) at an averagevelocity 3.05 mls (10 ft/s). Outside the pipe,
hydrogen-freeair at I std atm flows at right anglesto the pipe at a velocity 3.05mls (IQ ft/s). The
temperature is everywhere 25C. The solubility of hydrogen in the rubber is reported

0.053 cm3

H2 (STP)/(cm3 rubber) . (atm partial pressure),and its diffusivity in the rubber as 0.18 x 10-5
cm2Is. The diffusivity of H2-air - 0.611 cm2Is at Oc, I std atm. &timate the rate of loss of
hydrogenfrom the pipe per unit length of pipe. ADS.:4.5 x 10-11 kmol/(m of pipe length) . s.
5.6 Assuming that the equilibrium curve of Fig. 5.7 is straight, and of slope m, derive the relation
betweenthe Murphree stageefficienciesEME and EMR'
5.7 If the equilibrium-distribution curve of the cross-flowcascadeof Fig. 5.13is everywherestraight,
and of slope m, make a solute material balanceabout stagen + 1 and by following the procedure
usedto derive Eq. (5.51) show that

N, -

log[ (Xo

- Yo/m)/ (XN, los(S+ 1)

YO/m)]

whereS is the stripping factor, mEs/ Rs. constantfor all stages,and N, is the total number of stages.
5.8 A single-stageliquid-extraction operation with a linear equilibrium-distribution curve (Y = mX
at equilibrium) operates with a stripping factor S - mEs/ Rs - 1.0 and has a Murphree stage
efficiency ENE 0.6. In order to improvethe extractionwith a minimumof plant alteration,the
effluents from the stagewill both be led to another stageidentical in construction,also of efficiency
ENE - 0.6. The combination, two stagesin series,is in effect a single stage.It is desiredto compute
the overall Murphree stageefficiency EMEOof the combination. A direct derivation of the relation
betweenENE and ENEOis difficult. The result is most readily obtained as follows:
(0) Refer to Fig. 5.7. Defme a stageefficiency for one stageas E - (Y2 - YJ/(Y, - Y1).Fora
linear equilibrium-distribution curve, derive the relation betweenENE and E.
(b) Derive the relation betweenEo. the value for the combined stagesin series.and E.
(c) Compute ENEO.ADS.- 0.8824.

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