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entering stage 1
positions 1 and 2; stages1.and 2


in equilibrium with bulk concentrationin other phase

1. Davies,T. J.: Adv. Chem Eng., 4, 1 (1963).
2. Garner, F. H., and A. H. P. SkeIland:Ind Eng. Chern.,48, 51 (1956).
3. Goodridge, F., and I. D. Robb: 1nd Eng. Chem Fundam.,4, 49 (1965).
4. Gordon, K. F., and T. K. Sherwood:Chem Eng. Prog. Symp.Ser., 50(10),15 (1954);A1ChEJ.,
1, 129(1955).
5. Kent, E. R., and R. L. Pigford: A1ChEJ., 2, 363 (1956).
6. King, C. J.: A1ChE J., 10,671 (1964).
7. Kremser,A.: Not/. Petro/.News,22(21),42 (1930).
8. Lewis, W. K., and W. G. Whitman: 1nd Eng. Chem.,16, 1215(1924).
9. Murphree, E. Y.: 1nd Eng. Chem.,2.4,519 (1932).
10. Sawistowski,H.: in C. Hanson (ed.), "Recent Advances in Liquid-Liquid Extraction," p. 293,
Pergamon,New York, 1971.
11. Schrage,R. W.: "A TheoreticalStudy of InterphaseMassTransfer," Columbia University Press,
New York, 1953.
12. Scriven,L. E, and R. L. Pigford: A1ChEJ., 4, 439 (1958); S, 397 (1959).
13. Searle,R., and K. F. Gordon: A1ChE J., 3, 490 (1957).
14. Souders,M., and G. G. Brown: Ind Eng. Chem.,2.4,519 (1932).
15. Thompson,D. W.: 1nd Eng. Chem Fundam.,9, 243 (1970).
16. Turner, S. D.: Ind Eng. Chem.,21, 190(1929).
17. Whitman, W. G.: Chem Met. Eng., 29, 147(1923).
18. Wylie, C. R., Jr.: "Advanced EngineeringMathematics," 3d ed., McG1'aw-HillBook Company,
New York, 1966.

5.1 Repeat the calculations for the local mass-transferflux of ammonia in Illustration 5.1 on the
assumptionthat the gas pressureis 2 std atm. The gas massvelocity, bulk-averagegas and liquid
concentration,liquid flow rate, and temperatureare unchanged.
5.2 In a certain apparatus used for the absorption of sulfur dioxide, SO2' from air by means of
water, at one point in the equipmentthe gascontained 10%SO2by volume and was in contact with
liquid containing 0.4%SO2(density = 990kg/m3 = 61.8 Ib/ft3). The temperaturewas 50C and the
total pressure I std atm. The overall mass-transfercoefficient based on gas concentrationswas
~ - 7.36X 10-10kmol/m2. s . (N/m1 = 0.055Ib mol SO2/ft2. h . atm. Of the total diffusional
resistance,47%lay in the gas phase,53%in the liquid. Equilibrium data at sooC are:
kg SO2/IOOkg water





Partial pressureSO2'mmHg






(0) Calculate the overall coefficient basedon liquid concentrationsin terms of mol/vol.
(b) Calculate the individual mass-transfer coefficient for the gas, expressed as kG
mol/(area)(time)(pressure),ky mol/(areaXtime)(mole fraction), and kc mol/(areaXtime)(mole/vol),

and for the liquid expressed as kL mole/(area)(time)(mole/vol)

and kx mol/(area)(timeXmole

(c) Determine the interfacial compositions in both phases.
5.3 The equilibrium partial pressure of water vapor in contact with a certain silica gel on which
water is adsorbed is, at 2,Sc, as follows:
Partial pressure

of water,mmHg
















Ib water/ 100Ib
dry gel

kg/l00 kg

(0) Plot the equilibrium data as i-partial

pressureof water vapor against x - wt fraction
water in the gel.
(b) Plot the equilibrium data as X mol water/massdry gel, Y - mol water vapor/mol dry
air, for a total pressureof 1 std atm.
(c) When 10 Ib (4.54 kg) of silica gel containing 5 wt% adsorbedwater is placed in a flowing
airstreamcontaining a partial pressureof water vapor - 12 mmHg. the total pressureis I std atm
and the temperature25C. When equilibrium is reached,what massof additional water will the gel
have adsorbed?Air is not adsorbed.
(d) One pound mass (0.454 kg) of silica gel containing 5 wt% adsorbed water is placed in a
vesselin which there are 400 ftJ (11.33 m3) moist air whosepartial pressureof water is 15 mmHg.
The total pressureand temperatureare kept at I std atm and 25C, respectively.At equilibrium,
what will be the moisturecontent of the air and gel and the massof water adsorbedby the gel?Am.:
0.0605kg water.
(e) Write the equation of the operating line for part (d) in terms of X and Y. Convert this into

an equation in terms of i and x, and plot the operating curve on i, x coordinates.

(f) If lIb (0.454kg) of silica gel containing 18%adsorbedwater is placed in a vesselcontaining

500 ft3 (14.16m3)dry air and the temperatureand pressureare maintained at 25C and 1 std atm,
respectively,what ~ be the final equilibrium moisture content of the air and the gel.
(g) Repeatpart (f) for a total pressureof 2 std atm. Note that the equilibrium curve in termsof
X and Y previouslyusedis not applicable.
5.4 The equilibrium adsorption of benzene vapor on a certain activated charcoal at 33.3C is
reportedas follows:
Benzenevapor adsorbed,
cm3(STP)fg charcoal









Partial pressurebenzene,mmHg 0.0010 0.0045 0.0251 O.llS O.2SL 1..00 2.81 7.82

(0) A nitrogen-benzenevapor mixture containing I.~ benzeneby volume is to be passed

countercurrentlyat the rate 100 f~ lmin (4.72 X 10-2 m3Is) to a moving stream of the activated
charcoal so as to remove 95% of the benzenefrom the gas in a continuous process.The entering
charcoalcontains 15cm3benzenevapor (at STP) adsorbedper gram charcoal.The temperatureand
total pressureare to be maintainedat 33.3C and I std atm, respectively,throughout. Nitrogen is not
is the leastamount of charcoal which can be usedper unit time? If twice as much is
used,what will be the concentrationof benzeneadsorbedupon the charcoal leaving?
(b) Repeatpart (0) for a cocurrent flow of gasand charcoal.
(c) Charcoalwhich has adsorbed upon it 100cm3 (at STP) benzenevapor per gram is to be
stripped at the rate 100 Iblh (45.4 kg/h) of its benzenecontent to a concentration of 55 cm3
adsorbedbenzeneper gram charcoal by continuous countercurrent contact with a stream of pure
nitrogen gasat I std atm. The temperaturewill be maintained at 33.3C.What is the minimum rate


of nitrogen now? What will be the benzenecontent of the exit gas if twice as much nitrogen is fed?
What will be the number of stages?ADS.:3 th~retical stages.
5.5 A mixture of hydrogen and air, 4 sid atm pressure,bulk-average concentration s~ H2 by
volume, nows through a circular reinforced tube of vu1~~~ rubber with respectiveID and OD of
25.4 and 28.6 mm (1.0 and 1.125in) at an averagevelocity 3.05 mls (10 ft/s). Outside the pipe,
hydrogen-freeair at I std atm flows at right anglesto the pipe at a velocity 3.05mls (IQ ft/s). The
temperature is everywhere 25C. The solubility of hydrogen in the rubber is reported

0.053 cm3

H2 (STP)/(cm3 rubber) . (atm partial pressure),and its diffusivity in the rubber as 0.18 x 10-5
cm2Is. The diffusivity of H2-air - 0.611 cm2Is at Oc, I std atm. &timate the rate of loss of
hydrogenfrom the pipe per unit length of pipe. ADS.:4.5 x 10-11 kmol/(m of pipe length) . s.
5.6 Assuming that the equilibrium curve of Fig. 5.7 is straight, and of slope m, derive the relation
betweenthe Murphree stageefficienciesEME and EMR'
5.7 If the equilibrium-distribution curve of the cross-flowcascadeof Fig. 5.13is everywherestraight,
and of slope m, make a solute material balanceabout stagen + 1 and by following the procedure
usedto derive Eq. (5.51) show that

N, -

log[ (Xo

- Yo/m)/ (XN, los(S+ 1)


whereS is the stripping factor, mEs/ Rs. constantfor all stages,and N, is the total number of stages.
5.8 A single-stageliquid-extraction operation with a linear equilibrium-distribution curve (Y = mX
at equilibrium) operates with a stripping factor S - mEs/ Rs - 1.0 and has a Murphree stage
efficiency ENE 0.6. In order to improvethe extractionwith a minimumof plant alteration,the
effluents from the stagewill both be led to another stageidentical in construction,also of efficiency
ENE - 0.6. The combination, two stagesin series,is in effect a single stage.It is desiredto compute
the overall Murphree stageefficiency EMEOof the combination. A direct derivation of the relation
betweenENE and ENEOis difficult. The result is most readily obtained as follows:
(0) Refer to Fig. 5.7. Defme a stageefficiency for one stageas E - (Y2 - YJ/(Y, - Y1).Fora
linear equilibrium-distribution curve, derive the relation betweenENE and E.
(b) Derive the relation betweenEo. the value for the combined stagesin series.and E.
(c) Compute ENEO.ADS.- 0.8824.

.0; -,
\'r; ..

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