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# ENG1020 - Engineering Structures - S1 2013

Engineering
Monash University

## Project 1 The Engineering Carpark Bridge

By
Adam Bell ID 25125370
Andrew Evans ID 25173235
Hayley Miller ID

## Sandrine Perera ID 24222267

Date of Submission:
22 /4 / 2013

Summary:
This report outlines a design for a foot bridge that would be constructed at
Monash University on the Clayton campus connecting engineering
building 72 and the multistorey car park in the North-West corner of the
campus. The bridge uses a simple parallel truss design. The bridge
consists of three equal sections, made up of steel square members. A
three section design was chosen over the single and double design as it
was safest of the options.

(An artists impression of the foot bridge taken from the project sheet)

Contents
Summary
. ii
1.0 Introduction
1
2.0 Assumptions
.. 2
3.0 Geometry
. 2
4.0 Loadings
3
-Required Beams and Member
Choice.. 3
Analysis
. 4
- Wind
Loading
4
Columns
. 5
5.0
Conclusion

Appendices

Introduction:
A single foot bridge is to be constructed over the road between building
72 and the North-West car park, the bridge is to connect both structures
on the second floor and allow people to walk between them. With the
bridge connecting the second floors of each building, it allows students,
staff and all those who use the Carpark walk between the two buildings
while remaining dry during wet weather, the purpose of the bridge. The
bridge spans a total of 45m between the buildings and the bridge is 3.8m
above the ground. Our design for the foot bridge is 45m in length split into
three separate sections each 15 long. The bridge will be constructed with
steel trusses and a concrete slab as the walkway.

The bridges design is shown the form of sketches and scale drawings.

Assumptions
We assume that:

The weight of the steel we use is 20kg per metre (to do initial
calculations)
The weight of the hand rail is 5kg per metre
The roofing weight is 3.97kg per metre
The live load on the walkway is 3k Pascals
The roofing load is calculated by 1.8/A + 0.12 (but not less than .25)
The concretes walkway depth is 0.15m
The width of the walkway is 2m
The Ancillary Steelwork is 20% of truss weight
The Columns receive no lateral restraint from the adjacent
structures.
The columns receive lateral restraint at their top from adjoining
structues.

Geometry
The total length of our bridge is 45 m, to make the bridge safe we
separated the bridge in to three sections, all three being 15m long. Each
section has 10 individual truss squares, 1.5m in depth (height) and span
(length), making the span-to-depth ratio 10, which is in the desired range
of 10-20. With both depth and span being 1.5m the diagonal members are
angled at 45 degrees, which is between the desired 40-50 degrees. The
bridge is 3.8m above the ground supported by columns.

45
degrees

1.5

1.5

Method of
Calculation:

Loadings

Assume Tension to
be +ve
Fx=0
Fy=0
Torque=0

Uprights:
F1=0
F4=76043.7N
F5=16898.6N
F8=76043.7N
F9=0
F12=177435N
F13=16898.6N
F16=177435N
F17=0
F20=211233N

Diagonals:
F3=-107542N
F7=83643.9N
F11=-59745.6N
F15=35847.4N
F19=-11949.2N

Top:

Bottom:

F2=0N
F6=-135189N
F10=-135189N
F14=-202783N
F18=-202783N

F21=16898.6N

The loadings for each support was calculated by hand using, Fx=0,
Fy=0, Torque=0. The Total dead load were 75196.7N, calculated from all
dead weights on the bridge including; roof, concrete, handrail, mass of
beams and ancillary steel (some using assumptions). The total live loads

## were 52500N, calculated using Australian standards and were cautious

values (safer than required). The total failure force for the bridge is
168986N, so 11265N/m.

## Required Beams and Member Choice

Beam for up rights: 20x20x1.6 SHS

Weight= 0.873kg/m

Weight= 6.39kg/m

## Beam for top: 50x50x5.0 SHS

Beam for bottom: 50x50x4.0 SHS

Weight=6.39kg/m
Weight=5.35kg/m

Initially we treated all beams as 20kg/m to find the dead load on the
bridge, because of this our design was conservative as beams were under
weight, making the bridge safer than it needed to be. Using the 20kg/m
the weight is 1344.26kg per 15m truss section, as there are six sections,
total weight of the trusses is 8065.58kg, the actual weight of a 15m
section is 325.97kg and the total of the six trusses weighs 1955.84kg,
which is far less than predicted. The total predicted weight of the bridge
under loading was 169kN but the discovered weight of the bridge under
loading was 158kN, again far less, confirming our design as conservative.

## Hand Calculations found in appendices.

Analysis
The analysis of the loadings and the forces in the members was first
determined by method of joints providing values for members of the truss,
the loadings were then checked by method of sections. The loading
calculations determined the required beams we needed for each part of
the truss.

Wind Loading

Wind loading is not considered to be a critical load case, but it will act on a
footbridge, such as the one proposed, to some extent. Horizontal wind acting on
a member of a truss would be carried along the members of the truss and
directly down the closest column to the ground. Alternatively the load would
travel across the ancillary steel joining the pair of trusses together before making
its way down the members of that truss to a column to the ground.

Columns
The columns are 3.8m high to connect the walkway, through calculation
our design is shown to be safe. (Calculations in appendices). The
calculations show that columns are strong enough to prevent buckling and
support the bridge while under compression.

Conclusion
Our design satisfies all design requirements; its a foot bridge that
stretches the length of the gap between the car park and building 72
while keeping pedestrians dry, our truss design is safe and meets all
requirements, through calculations we find columns are able hold up the
walk way and the walk way itself is strong enough to support its self and
realistic live loads. Our design meets every requirement set out In the
design brief, creating a plan for a bridge that be safe and carry it out the
desired result.