You are on page 1of 202

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR

“TOURISM MANAGEMENT IN HERITAGE CITIES”

 

Organised

by:

UNESCO

VENICE

OFFICE

 

ERASMUS

UNIVERSITY

ROTTERDAM

UNIVERSITY

OF VENICE

“CA’ FOSCARI”

18-19 December

1998 - Venice,

Italy

Edited

by

J. van

der Borg

and

A.

I’. Russo

Regional

Office

UNESCO VENICE OFFICE for Science and Technology

for Europe

(ROSTE)

1262/A

Dorsoduro,

Venice,

Italy

30123

Tel. +39-41-522-5535

- Fax +39-41-528-9995 - E-mail: roste@unesco.org

0 Copyrights

UNESCO

Venice Office

- 1999

Stampa

Cierre

Grafica

- Verona

“The authors are responsible

for

the choice

and

presentation

of

the facts contained

in

this

book

and

for

the opinions

expressed

therein,

which

are not

necessarily

those of UNESCO

and

do

not

commit

the Organization.”

 
CONTENTS V
CONTENTS V
CONTENTS
V
CONTENTS V

CONTENTS

PREFACE

 

(V. Kouzminov)

VII

WORDS

OF WELCOME

CH. Barr4

 

IX

FOREWORD

AND

STRUCTURE

- A.P.

Russo)

OF THIS

REPORT

(J. van der Borg

XIII

1.

INTRODUCTORY TOPICS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE MEETING

 

1

1.1

Tourism Management

in European

Heritage

Cities:

 

Networking

Practices

and Sharing

Experiences

 

3

 

1.2

~e~~~~~%

fl?B%~~’ ,

23

2.

FIRST SESSION: EXPERIENCES WITH SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN EUROPE

 

35

2.1

Turning

the Tide.

The Future

of the Historic

 

Seaside Resort

of Dinbych

y Pysgod

(Tenby)

(1. Jenkins - A. Jones)

41

 

2.2

Tourism

in Sintra

and the Preservation

of Local

Culture

 

(M. F. Fernandes)

63

 

2.3

Urban Planning

in Bruges

(W. Desimpelaere)

69

 

3. SECOND

SESSION:

NEW

MARKETS,

 

OLD

PROBLEMS

81

3.1

Tourism

Development

in Sochi: Expanding

 

the Envelope

of Heritage

Conservation.

Sorting

Out

the Past, Planning

the Future

CR. Bentley)

87

VI CONTENTS
VI CONTENTS
VI
CONTENTS
VI CONTENTS
  • 3.2 of Urban

Tourism

Management

 

The Challenge in a Historic

City

and a Pilgrimage

Centre:

Nazareth

as a Case Study

(N. Shoval)

97

  • 4. THIRD SESSION: NEW APPROACHES FOR EMERGING ISSUES

 

111

  • 4.1 Organising Sustainable Tourism Development in Heritage Cities (A.P. Russo)

117

  • 4.2 Meeting Needs in Heritage Cities (I’. Boniface)

137

  • 4.3 Museum Professions in Heritage Management:

the Case of Slovenia (B. Ravnik-Tomad

 

161

  • 4.4 The AVEC Network:

Joining

Efforts

to Promote

Sustainable Heritage and Tourism Management in European Cities CR. Souchier)

167

  • 5. THE CHALLENGE OF “TOURISM MANAGEMENT

IN HERITAGE CITIES”: CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX

AND

PLAN OF ACTION FOR INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION

 

175

LIST

OF PARTICIPANTS

187

VII
VII
VII
VII

Preface

Vladimir

Kouzminov

 

This

Technical

Report of the UNESCO

Venice Office

is

the

result

of a Preparatory

Meeting

for

the Project

“Tourism

Man-

agement

in Heritage

Cities”

organised

 

by

the UNESCO

Venice

Office

in collaboration

with

the European

Institute

for

Compar-

ative

Urban

Research (EURICUR)

of the Erasmus

University

of

Rotterdam

and the Faculty of Economics

of

the

University

of

Venice

- Ca Foscari

from

18 - 19 December

1998 in Venice,

Italy.

This

preparatory

meeting

was held

as a follow-up

of

the pro-

ject “Art

Cities and Visitors

Flow”

 

implemented

by the UNESCO

Venice

Office

and

is a new

project

aimed

at extending

an existing

network

of

art

cities

into heritage

cities

in

Europe

and

the

Mediterranean

in order

to facilitate

the sharing

of knowledge

and

skills

related

to the management

 

of tourism in such places.

The report

contains

the different

contributions

 

pants

in the preparatory

meeting,

some of which

of the partici- are theoretical

research

into

cultural

and

urban

tourism

in heritage

cities,

and

others

are case studies

on this phenomenon

in heritage

cities.

It

is expected

that

the

report

will

serve to shape the future

directions of the “Tourism Management

in

Heritage

Cities”

project,

and

that

the included

Plan

of

Action

which

resulted

from the

Meeting

will

help

to

develop

this

interdisciplinary

 

project

through

constructive

and

creative

partnership

with

dif-

ferent heritage cities in the world.

 

For additional

information

on the project,

 

please contact

Ms.

A. Takahashi,

Programme

Specialist

of the UNESCO

Venice

Of-

fice

- Liaison

 

Office

for

the Safeguarding

 

of Venice

(UVO-LO),

63 St. Mark’s

Square,

Venice,

Italy

30124, tel. +39-041-520-9989,

fax. +39-041-520-9988, Email : uhvni@unesco.org

IX

Words

of Welcome

 

Herd

Barr6

Prof.

Costa,

Mr

Chairman,

Ladies

and Gentlemen,

 

Colleagues,

 

It

is a pleasure

for

me

to

be here

to discuss

this

very

promising

project

on

“Tourism

Management

in

Heritage

Cities”

and

I

wish

to thank

Prof.

Paolo

Costa,

the University

of Venice

my

colleagues,

Mr.

Vladimir

 

Kouzminov,

Deputy

Director

of

the

UNESCO

Venice

Office,

and

Mr.

Jan Van

der

Borg

for

taking

this

initiative.

I would

also like

to thank

the

academics

of

the

Erasmus

University

of Rotterdam,

the Italian

National

Research

Council

and

to all the participants

for being

here to share views

on how

this project

should

address

the most

relevant

issues and

define

a proper

agenda

 

of

activities

with

the aim

of improving

the management

of tourism

in heritage

cities.

 

We should remember

 

that

this

project

comes

after

the

“Art

Cities

and

Visitor’s

Flow”

project

supported

by

UNESCO

 

and

which

was

a seminar

of experience

sharing,

research

and publi-

cations.

These results

will

 

be useful

for our

project.

 

The Ca’ Foscari

University

has now

a leading

position

in

the

field

of tourism

development

in a sensitive

urban

environment.

This

new

step should

consolidate

and

further

expand

this

posi-

tion,

in co-operation

with

 

the European

Centre

for Comparative

Urban

Research

of the Erasmus

University

of Rotterdam,

and

-

it

is hoped

-with

other

universities.

 

The project

submitted

 

to

us

is timely

and

relevant.

It

is

a fi-

X H. BARRY
X H. BARRY
X
H. BARRY
X H. BARRY

nal

break

with

an attitude

prevailing

until

recently,

the belief

that

tourism

does not

need management

and

develops

as a nat-

ural

phenomenon.

We now

know

that

such

an approach

is

ob-

solete,

and

that

tourism,

thanks

to such

projects,

is gradually

 

taking

on

the

status

of

a serious

activity

whose

development

should

move

forward

on scientific

bases and be managed

with

appropriate

 

tools.

 

An

increasingly

interdependent

and globalised

world

needs,

as never

before,

to

share

experiences

on

common

challenges

 

and

to draw

up guidelines,

conventions,

charters,

general

poli-

cy principles

of a universal

scope. Beyond

local

specificities,

it

is

indeed

possible to identify

similar

issues being

faced

 

in

all

her-

itage

cities

and

make

it possible

to draw

general

policy

princi-

 

ples based

on case-studies.

It

is UNESCO’s

mission

to make

a

contribution

 

to this endeavour.

 
 

There

is

a strong

demand

from

UNESCO

Member

States for

guidelines

on development

strategies

concerning

complex issues

such

as urban

cultural

tourism.

It

is characteristic

of

our

time

that

the most

important

issues

are complex

and

need

an inter-

disciplinary

 

approach

to be dealt

with

properly.

 
 

Decision-makers

need

knowledge,

to

tackle

properly

the

new

challenges

of today,

and

challenges

linked

to tourism

de-

velopment,

 

in particular.

 
 

A

recent

report

of

the

World

Bank

on

the

theme

“Knowl-

 

edge

for

Development”

closely

links

the gap between

rich

and

poor countries

to

similar

gaps

between

the

quality

 

of

their

knowledge.

 

The report

draws

a distinction

between

knowledge

 

and

information.

The difference

is vast:

information

consists

of

a bunch

of

files,

reports

and

statistics

 

lying

on

a desk,

while

knowledge

is analysed,

culled,

and

organised

to facilitate

deci-

sion-making.

 
CONTENTS XI
CONTENTS XI
CONTENTS
XI
CONTENTS XI
 

Tourism

is one

of

the most

information-rich

but

knowledge-

starved

of all activities.

UNESCO

proposes

conventions:

on

cul-

tural

heritage

 

conservation,

with

 

the

1972 World

Heritage

List

Convention;

 

on the Means

of Prohibiting

and Preventing

the II-

licit

Import,

Export

 

and

Transfer

of Cultural

Property

with

the

1970 Convention;

 

we are working

 

with

ICOMOS

on an Interna-

tional

Cultural

Tourism

Charter

of

a general

scope.

However,

we

proposed

 

nothing

 

on

specific

issues

like

this

of

tourism

management

in heritage

cities.

This

project

should

fill

this

gap.

 

Our

project

must

then

aim

to create knowledge

and dissemi-

nate it

throughout

 

the

world,

especially

to

the

parts

of

the

world

where

it

is

the

most

needed.

Even

more,

the aim

of

this

project

should

be

to

create

new

tools

for

new

situations

proper

to help

decision-makers

and the concerned

populations

 

to make

appropriate

 

decisions

for

the

tourism

 

management

of

their

cities.

 

This

is a stimulating

task

and

I

am

sure

that,

all together

we

will

be able

to

take

up

this

challenge

and

respond

to

the

de-

mand.

 

I

am

also glad

for

the opportunity

to work

in close co-opera-

tion

with

my

colleagues

of the UNESCO

Office

in Venice,

espe-

cially

Mr.

Vladimir

 

Kouzminov

 

and

Ms.

Akatsuki

 

Takahashi,

and

to offer

all

support

from

UNESCO.

 

I

hope

-

or

better

I

am

sure

-

our

seminar

will

be useful

in

exchanging

views

and ideas for finalising

the project

proposal.

XIII
XIII
XIII

Foreword

and

structure

of this report

Jan van der Borg, Antonio

Paolo Russo

 

From

various

studies

 

undertaken

by

the University

Ca’ Fos-

cari

of Venice

regarding

the

impact

of tourism

 

in

art

cities, it

has emerged

that

many

of them

presently

suffer

from

an exces-

sive volume

of visitors.

In

fact, not

only

are the inhabitants,

 

eco-

nomic

activities

and

heritage

threatened

by

mass

tourism,

 

but

even tourism

itself

is eventually

hurt

by the congestion

and pol-

lution

generated

by visitors.

 

Only

recently,

rigorous

 

methods have been developed

to

properly

utilise

the opportunities

that

tourism

offers

to heritage

cities,

guaranteeing

at the same time the sustainability

 

of

tourism

development.

Soft instruments

-

such

as marketing

techniques

and

booking

systems,

the

creation

 

of alternative

routes

in and among

cities

of art, information

 

systems

-

have

been suggested

to overcome

these problems.

 
 

Already

in

1991, UNESCO

Venice

Office

and

the University

Ca’ Foscari

of Venice,

in the context

of

the

“Art

Cities

and

Visi-

tors

Flow”

project,

established

an open,

non-exclusive

network

of

-

mostly

West

European

-

heritage

cities.

This

network

 

has

served

on several

occasions

for

the exchange

 

of

ex-

periences

and

know-how

as a vehicle concerning

the

specific

 

problems

of

tourism management in sensitive urban environments

 

with

which such cities are confronted. That project made the UN-

ESCO Venice

Office

and the University

 

Ca’ Foscari

of Venice

as-

sume a leading position

 

in

the field

of tourism

management

in

sensitive urban environments.

 
 

The

new

project

“Tourism

Management

in

Heritage

Cities”

intends to consolidate

and further

expand

this

position,

extend-

ing and strengthening

the

existing

network

 

in

collaboration

XIV

JANVANDERBORG,ANTONIOPAOLORUSSO

with

the UNESCO

Venice

Office,

the University

Ca’ Foscari

of

Venice,

and

the

European

Centre

for

Comparative

Urban

Re-

search (EURICUR)

of the Erasmus

University

of Rotterdam.

 
 

A

first

step

of

the

new

activities

has already

been made

with

the preparatory

meeting for Tourism Management

in Heritage

Cities,

held

in Venice,

Italy

from

18th to 19th December

1998.

 
 

This

preparatory

meeting

has been

the

occasion

for

repre-

sentatives

of

city

authorities,

academic

institutions,

internation-

al co-operation

 

institutions

 

and

NGO’s

to share

ideas

and

ex-

amine

the crucial

issues

regarding

the sustainability

of tourism

in heritage

cities,

and

to develop

together

a framework

 

for

the

analysis

of the related

problems.

 
 

Moreover,

it has enabled

the participants

to agree

on a series

of

activities

of

international

research

and

co-operation

in

the

field

of tourism

management

in heritage

cities,

to be undertak-

en

by

the

network

developed

through

the

project

“Art

Cities

and

Visitors

Flow”,

which

will

be strengthened

and

expanded

along

the directions

indicated

by

the plan

of action

for

interna-

tional co-operation.

 
 

This

report

contains

all

the

essential

information

about

the

discussion

and

the conclusions

of such preparatory

meeting,

as

well

as an outline

of the proposed

agenda

activities

of

the net-

work.

 
 

In Chapter

 

1, the introductory

speeches

to the Venice

Meet-

ing

are presented.

The

first

section

is

a review

of the principal

issues

that

regard

tourism

management

in

heritage

cities,

and

provides

some technical

suggestions,

 

a methodology

and

a pro-

posal

for

the

continuation

 

of

the

networking

practices

in

this

field.

The

considerations

contained

there

have

been

presented

as a technical

 

document

to

the

meeting,

and

have

been

thor-

oughly

discussed.

In the second

section,

the keynote

speech ad-

dresses

the

contents

of the technical

 

documents

and

translates

them

in specific

policy

statements

and considerations

that

have

to become

the framework

of

the future

programme

of activities

FOREWORDAND STRUCTUREOF THIS REPORT xv
FOREWORDAND STRUCTUREOF THIS REPORT xv
FOREWORDAND STRUCTUREOF THIS REPORT xv
FOREWORDAND STRUCTUREOF THIS REPORT
xv

to be undertaken

by the “Network

 

on Tourism

Management

in

Heritage Cities in Europe and the Mediterranean”.

 
 

In Chapters

2, 3

and

4, the different

working

sessions

of

the

meeting

are

presented,

with

the

most

interesting

issues

emerged

from

the presentation

and discussion

of theoretical

in-

 

sights

and

various

case studies

-

concrete

projects

of

tourism

management

in heritage

cities

who

candidate

themselves

to

be

executed

under

the general

framework

of this

new

co-operation

programme.

 
 

Chapter

5 contains

the conclusions

of the meeting,

including

the recommendations

of

UNESCO

 

for

this

new

project

for

the

expansion

and

consolidation

of

the

network

of heritage

cities,

an agenda

of future

activities

to be undertaken

by

the group

of

institutions

interested

and the approved

plan

of action

for inter-

national co-operation.

 
 

This

volume

has been edited

by

Jan van

der

Borg

(Universi-

ty

Ca’ Foscari

of Venice),

Antonio

 

Paolo

Russo

(Erasmus

Uni-

versity

Rotterdam)

and Rosanna

Santesso (UNESCO

Venice

Of-

fice).

Given

the character

of

this

technical

report

-

the proceed-

ings

of an international

seminar

 

-

the

contributions

have

been

adjusted

only

marginally

merely

to present

a common

format.

The authors

remain

therefore

responsible

for the contents.

 

The editors

intend

to thank

for

constant

technical

and practi-

cal assistance,

Ms.

Akatsuki

Takahashi

of the UNESCO

Venice

Office

- Liaison

Office

for

the Safeguarding

of Venice,

and

the

members of the Coordinating

 

Committee

of

the

project

“Tourism

Management

in

Heritage

Cities”

for

their

precious

guidance

and

advice:

Mr.

Gerard

Bolla,

Prof.

Paolo

Costa,

Mrs.

Tullia

Carettoni,

Dr.

Vladimir

Kouzminov

and

Mr.

Her&

Barr-6

for

their

support

and enthusiasm

 

in starting

this

new

project

of

co-operation.

 

1. INTRODUCTORY TOPICS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE MEETING

3
3
3
3

1.1 Tourism

Management

in

European Heritage Cities:

Networking Practices and Sharing Experiences

Jan van der Borg, Antonio

Paolo Russo

The sustainability

of tourism

in

the

cities

of

a&

The

impacts

of tourism

activities

on urban

areas have

been

the

subject

of

a considerable

amount

of

research

(Briassoulis

and

Van

der

Straaten

1992, UNESCO/ROSTE

1993).

Most

of

these studies

 

focus

on the process

of crowding-out

of

the

func-

tions

for residents

caused by the huge

pressure

of tourism-relat-

 

ed activities.

Models

of urban

land

use yield

the optimal

num-

ber

of

visitors

that

leaves

unviolated

the

carrying

capacity

of

the sub-system

of which

the city

consists,

or the optimal

mix

be-

tween

categories

of visitors

characterised

by

different

budgets

and mobility

patterns

(Costa

and Canestrelli,

1991). In a dynam-

ic setting,

they

the optimal

side-payment

associated

with

a restriction

can predict to the visits

(Batten

1991).

 

However,

 

it

is common

observation

that

economic

research

finds

a bottleneck

in translating

its results

into

policy

practices.

The recognition

that

demand-side

measures

are often

useless or

easily

side-stepped

 

led

to an increasing

interest

towards

sup-

ply-side

measures,

due

to increase

the added

value

of tourism,

while

at the

same time

minimising

the negative

impact

on other

economic

and social

functions

of the town.

 
 

Often,

though,

even supply

policies

have

proved

ineffective,

because

of

lack

of control

of

the local

governments

over

the

fi-

nancial

resources

or

lack

of co-ordination

between

the different

4 JANVANDERBORC,ANTONIOPAOLORUSSO
4 JANVANDERBORC,ANTONIOPAOLORUSSO
4
JANVANDERBORC,ANTONIOPAOLORUSSO
4 JANVANDERBORC,ANTONIOPAOLORUSSO

actors

determining

the outcome

of policy

efforts.

In

the

largely

prevailing

-

context

of administrative

fragmentation

and

scarce

participation

in the decision-making

process,

it

is very

difficult

 

to pursue

autonomous

tourism

policies

and

to

develop

ade-

quate

incentives

for

the local

actors

to move

in accord

with

the

urban

strategy.

 

Hence,

the

necessity

of

moving

from

the

analysis

of

the

tourism

sector,

as “isolated”

or

“opposed”

 

to other

sectors,

to

explore

the feasible

synergies

of

a sustainable

tourism

sector

on

the local

economy

and society.

The studies

which

explicitly

and

thoroughly

try

to evaluate

the

impact

of

tourism

on

the

local

economy’

adopt

a static

approach:

a qualitative

 

assessment

of

the capacity

of tourism

to positively

impact

on the urban

devel-

opment

is absent,

though

comparative

static

studies

and input-

output

analyses

(like

Fletcher,

1989) of

the local

economy

are by

no means

useful

to judge

upon

the potentialities

of the system.

 

The

socio-economic

impact

 

of

tourism

in

an area

is strictly

linked

with

the characteristics

of the demand

and the organisa-

tion

of

the

supply.

The

demand

side

of

the

tourism

market

is

characterised

by

the place

of origin

of the visitors,

their

motiva-

tions,

and the mode

of

use of

the

place

of

each of

the

segments.

The number

of overnight

stays, their

distribution

 

and the diver-

of

gence

between

the

region

of imposition

 

of

costs

(extension

the

area visited)

and

the region

of benefits

(where

the visitors

spend

their

budgets)

represent

 

good

indicators

of the economic

impact

of tourism.

 

In

areas

where

such

divergence

is large,

the

tourism

pres-

sure becomes

unsustainable.

Common

features

of such

scenario

are boosting

central rents,

a high

share

of excursionists

on

the

visitors’

flow

and

the start

of an unrecoverable

 

urban

and fiscal

’ See

for

an extensive

review

of

methodologies

 

Yzewyn

and

De

Brabander

(1993)

TOURISMMANAGEMENT IN EUROPEANHERITAGE CITIES 5
TOURISMMANAGEMENT IN EUROPEANHERITAGE CITIES 5
TOURISMMANAGEMENT IN EUROPEANHERITAGE CITIES
5
TOURISMMANAGEMENT IN EUROPEANHERITAGE CITIES 5

crisis.

The resources

destined

to the maintenance

 

of monuments

are drained

from

the regional

 

centre,

and

this

compounds

the

crisis

of the tourism

sector

 

itself,

due

the decline

in

the quality

of

the

product.

The

structure

of

the

visitors’

flow

- charac-

terised

by their

distribution

 

in

the region

and their

mobility

pat-

tern

- determines

how

 

heavy

is the pressure

of

the

tourist

de-

mand

on

the

site. Tourism

changes

a local

society

and

sustain-

ability

is closely

connected

with

 

such

changes

or, more

precise-

ly,

with

“acceptable”

change.

Not

only

does

the

local

society

continuously

undergo

changes,

but

also tourism

in the destina-

tion itself

tends

to change

 

over

time.

 
 

The dynamic

relation

of

tourism

demand

with

the

perfor-

mance

of the tourism

system

is well

described

by the “theory

of

the life-cycle

of tourism

destinations”:

the attractiveness

of

the

resort

is thought

to follow

 

a cyclical

path.

Cities

that

are able

to

reach

the critical

mass

in terms

of tourist

attractiveness

take off

and

reach

maturity;

then,

when

 

the

costs imposed

 

by

tourism

activities

taking

place

in

the

area begin

to outweigh

the benefits,

tourism

- if unmanaged

-

may

eventually

decline.

 

Each of those

stages is associated

with

a specific

spatial

dis-

tribution

of

costs and

benefits

from

tourism

(Russo,

1998

: lo),

and with

a well-defined

 

composition

of the visitors’

 

flows

(Van

der Borg,

1991).

 
 

Growth

in tourism

demand

will

positively

affect

income

and

employment

levels

of a relevant

 

part

of the population.

At the

same

time,

 

increasing

numbers

of visitors

will

generate

nega-

tive

effects,

or

“costs”

borne

by

the physical

and

cultural

envi-

ronment,

the

local

population

and

the

visitors

themselves.

By

comparing

benefits

and

costs in each heritage

city,

it

is possible

to determine

whether

tourist

flows

are either

insufficiently

vo-

luminous

or excessive.

In reality,

the assessment

of the benefits

and

the

costs

of tourism

 

is difficult,

because

there

are several

parties

involved,

perceiving

benefits

and

costs

in

a different

manner.

 
6 JAN VAN DERBORGANTONIOPAOLORUSSO
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6 JAN VAN DERBORGANTONIOPAOLORUSSO
 

The

share

of day-trippers

 

in

the visitors’

flow

is of decisive

importance,

because they

impose

a huge

amount

of costs on

the

town

with

contributing

for

very

little

part

to their

coverage.

 

Since

the importance

of their

share is associated

with

the first

and

the

maturity

stages

of

the

urban

life

cycle,

a successful

 

management

of

this

segment

is the

key

issue

to spur

up

the de-

velopment

of tourism

and to prevent

its decline

in

a later

stage.

 
 

However, the information

 

about

the

excursionists’

flow

is

scarce and not

systematically

 

collectable.

Excursions

do

not

im-

ply

an overnight

stay

in

the

accommodations;

the visit

is

con-

centrated

in

one single

day.

An

art

city

can be the destination

 

of

up

to 8 million

excursionists

every

year,

as in

the

case of Venice,

where

they

represent

the

80% of the overall

mass of visitors.

 
 

In

general,

pro-active

policies

-

aiming

at ensuring

in

ad-

vance

the conditions

for

the sustainability

of each forthcoming

 

stage and

at minimising

the

conflicts

that

emerge

in

the

differ-

ent

stages -

are required

to

maintain

a stable

path

of tourism

 

development.

When they are missing, the danger of an unsus-

tainable

tourism

development

 

is high.

Tourism

activities

 

even-

tually

decline

due to the increasing

costs and the decay

in quali-

ty,

and

the

urban

economy

-

at

that

stage

transformed

in

a

tourist mono-culture - is damaged beyond repair.

 

Management

models

and

significant

experiences:

the

case of “Culturul Capitals of Europe”

 
 

It should

be clear

from

the above

that

a management

model

for

the tourist

city

which

considers

the tourist

sector

as an

“iso-

lated”

sub-system,

with one-way

interrelations

with

the

other

urban

functions,

can be profitable

to the tourism

businesses

in

the medium

term,

but

may

prove

unsustainable

for

the urban

economy

on the whole.

 
 

We