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GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 1
(i)

electricity is conducted by the movement of ions

(ii)

cryolite

(iii)

aluminium is a very reactive metal

(iv)

carbon

(v)

oxygen

(vi)

I 2O2- - 4e
I Al3+ + 3e

O2
Al

(1-equation, 1-balance)
(1-equation, 1-balance)

(vii) carbon reacts with the oxygen formed, to give carbon dioxide

4
2
TOTAL 11

QUESTIONSHEET 2
(i)

I
II

substance which conducts electricity into a liquid


a compound that conducts an electric current when molten or in aqueous solution

(ii)

to melt the lead bromide

(iii)

Pb2+

Br

(iv)

brown/ red-brown

(v)

Pb2+ +

(vi)

chlorine sodium
sulphur lithium

2e

Pb

(1-equation, 1-balancing)

2
TOTAL 10

GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 3
(a)

zinc and copper


or other suitable metals

(b)

in batteries/cells

(c)

voltage reading (size)


gives distance between metals in series

or sign of voltage reading


shows order of reactivity

1
1

(d)

one of the metals gets used up

(e)

increase concentration of salt solution


raise temperature
use metals further apart in reactivity series

1
1
1

TOTAL 9

QUESTIONSHEET 4
(a)

NaCl

(b)

(i)
(ii)

chlorine
hydrogen

1
1

(c)

(i)
(ii)

2Cl- Cl2 + 2e2H+ + 2e- H2

2
2

(d)

(i)

2.3 g Na from 1/10 mole electrons


35.5 / 10
3.55 g

1
1
1

(ii)

1 mole chlorine occupies 24 dm3


3.55 g = 3.55 /71 = 0.05 mol Cl2
volume = 24 0.05 = 1.2 dm3

1
1

TOTAL 12

GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 5
(a)

Gas A = Chlorine
Gas B = Hydrogen

(b)

Na+, Cl-, H+, OH-

(c)

Anode
Cathode

1
1
( each, max 2)

2Cl- Cl2 + 2e2H+ + 2e- H2

2
2
TOTAL 8

QUESTIONSHEET 6
(a)

Na+
Cl-

(b)

(i) anode
(ii) cathode

(c)

high temperature/ hot liquid

1
1
2Cl- Cl2 + 2eNa+ + e- Na

2
2
1

TOTAL 7

QUESTIONSHEET 7
(a)

Ni2+, NO3-, H+, OH-

(b)

Ni2+ + 2e- Ni

coulombs = amps time = 0.1 60 60 = 360 C


59 360
coulombs =
0 .1
= 212400 C

(c)

(i)
(ii)

( each, max2)

1
1
TOTAL 6

GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 8
(a)

Al2O3

(b)

melting point of aluminium oxide is too high

(c)

Al3+ + 3e- Al

(d)

as it is liquid (molten)

(i)

oxygen (gas)

(ii)

carbon anodes burn in oxygen


produces carbon dioxide instead

1
1

Two from:
cooking foil, milk bottle tops, window frames, aeroplanes, power cables, saucepans

(e)

(f)

TOTAL 9

QUESTIONSHEET 9
(a)

(i)
or could
have bulb

aluminium

(ii)
(b)
(c)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

copper & graphite conductors, polythene & sulphur non-conductors

strong electrolyte bulb bright, weak electrolyte bulb dim

silver
negative
Ag+ + e

1
1
1

Ag

TOTAL 9

QUESTIONSHEET 10
(a)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

copper or silver
sulphur/molten wax
molten aluminium oxide
copper
carbon

1
1
1
1
1

(b)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

cell
bulb lights up
bubbles of gas

1
1
1
TOTAL 8

GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 11
(a)

(i)

sodium (or other alkali/ alkaline earth metal)

(ii)

chlorine (or other halogen)

(iii)

sodium chloride (or suitable equivalent)

(b)

ionic solids do not conduct


melting P allows electricity to flow

1
1

(c)

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl (or equivalent)

TOTAL 7

QUESTIONSHEET 12
(a)

(b)

(c)

(i)

cathode negative
anode positive

1
1

(ii)

cathode

(iii)

because they go to the anode

(i)

electrolytes

(ii)

conducts electricity/contains ions

(i)

bromine

(ii)

potassium

TOTAL 8

QUESTIONSHEET 13
(i)

impurity

(ii)

any copper solution e.g. copper sulphate

(iii)

Two from:
negative electrode gets bigger, copper deposited
positive electrode gets thinner, copper dissolved
impurities under positive electrode, impurities not transferred

(iv)

no change

(v)

jewellery/ornaments

1
TOTAL 6

GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 14
(a)

(i)

fuel is a gas
electricity produced directly

1
1

(ii)

water

solar cells/panels

(i)

run out too quickly/low power

(ii)

too heavy

(iii)

low current/power

(b)
(c)

TOTAL 7

QUESTIONSHEET 15
(a)
cell
A
B
C
D
E

electrolyte
sodium chloride solution
dilute sulphuric acid
Copper(II) chloride
molten lead(II) bromide
magnesium sulphate solution

anode product
chlorine
oxygen
chlorine
bromine
oxygen

cathode product
hydrogen
hydrogen
copper
lead
hydrogen
6

(b)

(c)

hydrogen below sodium in reactivity series


hydrogen discharged in preference to sodium

1
1

(i)

electrolysis

(ii)

splitting up substances with electricity

TOTAL 10

QUESTIONSHEET 16
(a)

(b)

(c)

appearance
protection

1
1

(i)

nickel
other metals would contaminate solution

1
1

(ii)

metals ions are positive


go to cathode

1
1

jewellery / cutlery
steel plate
car fittings

silver
zinc
chromium

1
1
1

TOTAL 9

GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 17
(a)

ions need to be able to move


need liquid to allow them to flow

1
1

carbon/ graphite
zinc

1
1

(c)

arrow drawn to show flow from negative to positive terminal

(d)

one component used up

(e)

Two from
torches, tape recorders, calculators, games, clocks etc

(b)

(i)
(ii)

TOTAL 8

QUESTIONSHEET 18
(a)

needs two different metals


in this case both are lead

(b)

anode

(i)

12 volts

(ii)

Two from
lights, radio, wipers, starter, heater etc

more power used


for lights, heater etc

1
1

acid spillage

(c)

(iii)

(d)

TOTAL 8

QUESTIONSHEET 19
(a)

(b)

The following paired together for one mark each


dry cell personal stereo
mercury cell hearing aid
lead-acid cell - invalid car
rechargeable cell mobile phone
lithium cell - heart pacemaker
solar cell - space station

(i)

reliable for a long time

(ii)

uses the sun's energy

1
TOTAL 8

GCSE CHEMISTRY

ELECTRICITY IN CHEMISTRY
ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 20
One mark for each of
metals
graphite / carbon
cathode
anode
metals
hydrogen
non-metals
electrolyte
ions
dissolve
water
melt
TOTAL 12