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Model D-CEM1000/1001

Opacity Monitor

Installation, Commissioning, Operation


and Maintenance Manual

OPS. 108
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CODEL

CODEL

Total Solutions Total Confidence

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CODEL
CODEL International Ltd is a UK company based in the heart of the Peak
District National Park in Bakewell, Derbyshire. The company specialises in the
design and manufacture of high-technology instrumentation for monitoring
combustion processes and atmospheric pollutant emissions.
The constant search for new products and existing product improvement keeps
CODEL one-step-ahead. With a simple strategy, to design well-engineered,
rugged, reliable equipment, capable of continuous operation over long periods
with minimal maintenance, CODEL has set standards both for itself and for the
rest of the industry.
All development and design work is carried out in-house by experienced
engineers using state-of-the-art CAD and software development techniques,
while stringent assembly and test procedures ensure that the highest standards
of product quality, synonymous with the CODEL name, are maintained.
High priority is placed upon customer support. CODELs dedicated team of field
and service engineers will assist with any application problem to ensure that the
best possible use is derived from investment in CODEL quality products.
If you require any further information about CODEL or its products, please
contact us using one of the numbers below.

CODEL International Ltd


Station Building, Station Road
Bakewell, Derbyshire DE45 1GE
England
Tel
Fax
e-mail
web site

:
:
:
:

+44 (0) 1629 814 351


+44 (0) 8700 566 307
CODEL@CODEL.co.uk
www.CODEL.co.uk

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Contents
1. System Description

1.1. Opacity Measurement

1.2. About this Manual

2. Installation

2.1. Unpacking the Equipment

2.2. Siting the Equipment

2.3. Duct Work

2.4. Air Purge

2.5. Transmitter & Receiver Units

2.6. Air Supply

2.7. Signal Processor and Power Supply Units

2.8. AC Supplies

2.9. Outputs

2.10. Normalising Inputs

2.11. Cable Requirements

2.12. Plant Status Input

2.13. Connection Schedule

3. Commissioning

11

3.1. Introduction

11

3.2. Turning the Power On

11

3.3. Key Pad Operation


3.3.1. Mode Key
3.3.2. Arrow Keys
3.3.3. Enter Key
3.3.4. LED Indication

12
12
12
13
13

3.4. Alignment

13

3.5. Gain Adjustment

15

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3.6. Basic Calibration
3.6.1. Initial Calibration

15
16

3.7. Operating Parameters


3.7.1. Setting Parameters after Initial Calibration
3.7.2. Example 1 : Smoke Monitor
3.7.3. Example 2 : Dust Monitor

16
17
20
21

3.8. Calibration Data

24

4. Operation

25

4.1. Introduction
4.1.1. Measurement
4.1.2. Calibration

25
25
25

4.2. Operating Modes

25

4.3. Program Tree

26

4.4. Operating Mode

28

4.5. Parameter Mode


4.5.1. Identification
4.5.2. Parameters
4.5.3. Averages
4.5.4. Outputs
4.5.5. Alarms
4.5.6. Plant Status

28
29
29
30
30
30
31

4.6. Normalisation
4.6.1. Display Format

31
32

4.7. Diagnostic Mode


4.7.1. Detector Outputs
4.7.2. Rx Gain
4.7.3. Calibration Data
4.7.4. Opacity Data
4.7.5. Fault Condition

32
34
34
34
35
35

4.8. Set-up Mode


4.8.1. Security Code Entry
4.8.2. Averages

36
37
39

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4.8.3. Configure O/P1
4.8.3.1. Output
4.8.3.2. Average
4.8.3.3. Units
4.8.3.4. Span
4.8.3.5. Fault Condition
4.8.3.6. Set mA Output
4.8.4. Configure O/P2
4.8.5. Alarm 1
4.8.5.1. Source
4.8.5.2. Units
4.8.5.3. Level
4.8.5.4. Exit
4.8.6. Alarm 2
4.8.7. Parameters
4.8.7.1. Security Number
4.8.7.2. Identity Number
4.8.7.3. Measurement Path Length
4.8.7.4. Dust Factor
4.8.7.5. Auto Zero
4.8.8. Normalisation
4.8.8.1. Setting the Normalising Parameters
4.8.8.2. Temperature
4.8.8.3. Oxygen
4.8.8.4. Pressure
4.8.8.5. Water Vapour

40
41
41
41
41
42
43
44
44
44
45
45
45
45
45
46
46
47
47
47
48
50
50
51
51
51

4.9. Calibrate
4.9.1. Set Detectors
4.9.2. Set Rx Gain
4.9.3. Calibrate

52
52
53
53

4.10. Calibration for Dust Measurement


4.10.1. Estimate of a Dust Factor

54
55

5. System Description

56

5.1. Transmitter

56

5.2. Receiver

56

5.3. Signal Processor Unit

56

5.4. Power Supply Unit

57

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6. Routine Maintenance

58

6.1. Cleaning Windows

58

6.2. Clean Flue Condition Available

58

7. Basic Fault Finding

59

7.1. Initial Checks

59

7.2. Data Valid LED Out

60

8. Specifications

61

Appendix A - Optical Transmissivity Measurement & Solid Content

63

Extinction Coefficient and Beer Lambert Relationship

64

Optical Density & Extinction

64

Mass Emission

65

Opacity/Ringelmann Correlation

65

Temperature Correction

67

Table of Figures

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1. System Description
1.1. Opacity Measurement
Smoke and solid emissions have for a long time been recognised as major
atmosphere pollutants, particularly since such emissions from stacks are clearly
visible to an observer. There has been a requirement for monitoring and
quantifying these emissions for some time, and a variety of instruments have
been marketed throughout the world for this purpose.
Instruments in the past have, however, generally proved to be either unreliable
falling rapidly into disuse or to be so expensive and complex as to only be
affordable by the very large users, such as power stations. The CODEL Model
DCEM1000/1001 Opacity Monitor seeks to overcome these problems by
providing a reliable, simple to use instrument with low maintenance
requirements.
1.2. About this Manual
This manual details the installation, commissioning, operation, routine
maintenance and basic fault finding for the CODEL Model DCEM1000/1001
Opacity Monitor.

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2. Installation
2.1. Unpacking the Equipment
After the equipment has been unpacked, unless specifically requested by the
customer, the following equipment items should be found :
transmitter with 10m of cable (standard length)
receiver with 10m of cable (standard length)
signal processor
power supply
site mounting flange (2 off)
air purge (2 off)
2.2. Siting the Equipment
The equipment is designed for mounting on boiler ducting or stacks in position
open to the weather. It is fully sealed to IP65 and requires no further enclosures
or protection. The specific location of the instrument will depend upon the
application and user requirements, but the following points should be
considered when choosing a site :
the site must be accessible at both sides of the duct for servicing
the transmitter and the receiver.
the site should be as free as possible from extremes of
temperatures and vibration. Permissible ambient temperature
ranges are -20oC to 800C for the transmitter and receiver and 20oC to 70oC for the signal processor.

At low temperatures, condensation might occur on the lens of


the instrument causing an incorrect (high) opacity reading.
there must be an uninterrupted sight path between the transmitter
and the receiver.
the signal processor and power supply units are normally mounted
close to the transmitter and receiver, both of which are supplied
with 10m of cable as standard.

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3.6 mg

CODEL

160

Signal Processor Unit


3kg

DCEM TX Head
With purge 5.5kg

CODEL

Site Flange
A

165

15

Power Supply Unit


3kg

CODEL

160

100
CODEL

DCEM RX Head
With purge 5.5kg

160

340

CODEL

Figure 1 : General Arrangement

75

165

280

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2.3. Duct Work
The transmitter and receiver units are mounted on opposite sides of the duct,
and interface with the site mounting flange. To protect operators, it is
recommended that an isolating valve is used for ducts that operate higher than
atmospheric pressure.
A stand-off pipe (not supplied), nominal bore 75mm should be used between
the duct and the site mounting flange. The pipe should be long enough to keep
the equipment clear of any duct lagging, and it also helps to insulate the
equipment from any high duct temperatures.
A hole should be cut, either side of the duct, to accept a slip fit with the stand-off
pipe. A stand-off pipe should now be welded to each hole and a mounting
flange welded to each pipe with the tapped holes four-square (it may be easier
to weld the pipe and the flange together before they are fixed to the duct). To
avoid vibration and movement, it may be necessary to fit spreader plates or
bracing fillets.

Figure 2 : Site Mounting Flange Details

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2.4. Air Purge
The purges mount directly onto the site mounting flanges. Separate the front
flange from the air-purge by unscrewing the four retaining nuts. This should
now be bolted to the site mounting flange with a rigid gasket fitted between
them, using the four countersunk screws provided.

Before mounting the air purges, ensure that air is supplied to


the air purge unit. If this precaution is not observed then the air
purge and the optical surfaces may be severely contaminated.

The rear (adjustable) flange is then offered up to the front flange on to the
protruding studs, taking care that the O ring seal on the flange locates
smoothly into the central aperture. This is then re-secured by the four nuts
which screw down onto the rear flange. The arrangement should now appear
as below.
rigid gasket
front flange
site mounting
flange

rear (adjustable) flange

retaining nuts

air purge

Figure 3 : Adjustable Mount and Air Purge Details

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2.5. Transmitter & Receiver Units
By means of three M6 hexagon head screws, the transmitter and receiver may
be attached to the equipment mount with the flexible gasket supplied, fitted
between them. Take care to locate the dowel.

CODEL

flexiible gasket

retaining
screws

Transmitter
(or Receiver)

Figure 4 : Transmitter/Receiver and Air Purge

Before mounting the air purges and the transmitter and receiver,
ensure that compressed air is supplied to the air purge unit. If
this precaution is not observed, then the air purge and the
optical surfaces may be severely contaminated.

2.6. Air Supply


The purpose of the air purges is to keep the windows of the transmitter and the
receiver clean. Air may be supplied by one of two methods :
Compressed Air : An air supply of 1.5bar is required, and the
consumption is 0.25l/s.
Blower Air : A blower may be used to provide the air to the air
purge. Customers may specify their own blower; it should be able
to deliver 1.5l/s against the working pressure of the duct.
CODEL can specify a blower if required.

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2.7. Signal Processor and Power Supply Units
To mount the signal processor first remove the cover by loosening the four
captive screws, unplug the ribbon cable at the connector on the lid PCB. The
case is then secured to a firm support by use of the four mounting holes found
in the four corners of the case, outside the sealing rim. Since the mounting
holes are located outside the seal of the case, it is not necessary to seal the
mounting holes after installation, nor is it necessary to remove the circuitry from
the case for installation.
If commissioning is not to be carried out immediately, reattach the lid to the
processor. Dimensions and mounting details are shown in Figure 5.
Installation of the power supply unit is carried out similar to the above.
Mounting holes
for M6 bolts

160
140

160

110

CODEL

Figure 5 : Signal Processor/Power Supply Mounting Details


2.8. AC Supplies
The instrument may be powered from an AC supply (50 or 60Hz) at voltages
ranging from 88V to 264V. No voltage selection is necessary.

When connecting the cores of the mains cable into the power
supply unit, ensure that the cable is disconnected from the
mains power supply.

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2.9. Outputs
Three forms of output are provided :
two selectable current outputs (normally 4 to 20mA). Maximum
load is 500.
single pole changeover relays for :
two alarm relays triggering at a threshold set in the signal
processor.
data valid indication, operating under power failure and any
equipment fault condition - see the Basic Fault section for
further details.
2.10. Normalising Inputs
The dust measurement may be normalised to standard conditions. Normalising
data can be brought into the instrument in one of two ways :
entering a fixed value via the keypad.
using the 4 to 20mA output from pressure, oxygen and
temperature transducers (Model 1001 only).

Normalisation data is only required if the instrument is being used


as a dust monitor.

2.11. Cable Requirements


Cable requirements from the customer are as follows :
Current Loop Output : Any suitable 2-core cable. Maximum
length depends upon keeping output load within the 500
maximum load requirement.

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Contact Outputs : Any 2-core cable capable of supplying the
power to the warning device/relay etc. (1A @ 30V DC, 0.3A @
120V AC, max. power resistive load 30W).
AC Power : Any suitable 3-core power cable capable of carrying
50VA.
Analogue Inputs : Any suitable 2-core cable. Maximum length
depends upon keeping the load within the specification of the
measurement transducer.
2.12. Plant Status Input
Two terminals (34 & 17) are available within the processor to receive a plant
status contact input (optional). This facility is to prevent the rolling averages
being diluted by measurements made during periods where the plant is shut
down.
In normal operation (plant operating) these terminals should be left open circuit,
if the terminals are shorted together, the averaging stacks will not be updated.

For normal operation, terminals 34 & 17 must not be linked


together, if this facility is not to be used.

2.13. Connection Schedule


The overall connection schedule is shown in Figure 6.
Cable glands are available to accept the cables - remove the blanking plugs
before threading the cable through.

Ensure that the transmitter and receiver are connected to the


correct terminals otherwise damage may result.
When initialised, the 'DATA VALID' relay is automatically
switched to 'Normally Closed' to accept valid data.

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RED
GREEN
BLUE
WHITE
YELLOW
BLACK

RED
GREEN
BLUE
WHITE
YELLOW
BLACK

PVC COPPER
BRAID SCREEN
0.5mm2
8 CORE

PVC COPPER
BRAID SCREEN
0.5mm2
8 CORE

RED
BLUE
WHITE
YELLOW
GREEN
BLACK

RED
BLUE
WHITE
YELLOW
GREEN
BLACK

+V
-V
D-R
0VR
0V
GAIN
RXT
RXS

EXTERNAL EARTH STUD

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

+ mA
mA OUTPUT 2
0V

32
33

LOW POWER
VOLTAGE OUT

34
17

POWER
INPUT

HIGH ALARM
TWO

HIGH ALARM
ONE

DATA
VALID

1
18
2
19

48
48
0V(48)
0V(48)

11
12
13
28
29
30
35
36
37

P NI 1A
NI 1B
+V1
T NI 2A
NI 2B
+ V2
NORMALISATION 02 NI 3A
NI 3B
+V3
H20 NI 4A
NI4B
N/C

PLANT
PSB
STATUS
0VB
(OPTIONAL)

DCEM
SIGNAL
PROCESSOR

+ mA
mA OUTPUT 1
0V

+V
-V

+V
-V
D-T
0VT
0V
LED
TXT
N/C

15
16

14
31

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

FROM POWER
SUPPLY

WATER
VAPOUR

OXYGEN

TEMP.

PRESS.

Model 1001 only


via plug-in card

SCREEN TERMINATED
IN CABLE GLAND

DCEM
RECEIVER

+V
0V
-V
O-P
0V-SIG
GAIN
T O-P
SATUR

SCREEN TERMINATED
IN CABLE GLAND

DCEM
TRANSMITTER

+V
0V
-V
O-P
0V-SIG
1200
T O-P

CODEL

Figure 6 : Connection Schedule

10

CODEL
3. Commissioning
3.1. Introduction
Commissioning the instrument can takes up to a couple of hours and is
conducted as follows :
Power Supply Voltage Selection : No selection is necessary.
Applying Power : Switching the power on and observing the
power supply rail indications.
Alignment : Optically aligning the transmitter and receiver units
using the integral adjustable mount.*
Gain Adjustment : Adjusting the gain within the receiver head
and the signal processor.*
Calibration : Calibrate to a zero, or a known opacity level.*
Operating Parameters : Setting the operating parameters within
the micro-processor to provide correct instrument operation.
Recording the Set-up and Calibration Data : It is strongly
recommended that the operating parameters are recorded in the
table at 3.7.3. Example 2 : Dust Monitor and the calibration data in
the table at 3.8. Calibration Data.
* Preferably conducted when a clean stack condition exists.
These commissioning procedures are now examined in detail.
3.2. Turning the Power On
Switch the power on. Ensure that the power indication LEDs illuminate. If not,
check the fuse and the supply.
Replace the lid of the processor but do not fully tighten the signal processor
screws until after commissioning. The instrument will automatically select the
normal display mode.

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3.3. Key Pad Operation
Each mode is accessed sequentially by each push of the MODE key. Figure 7
illustrates the display and keys of the signal processor. After a mode has been
selected, the ARROW keys will select the various options within these modes.
The ENTER key will input the displayed value, and may step the cursor to the
next option, if this is applicable.

Figure 7 : Illustration of Signal Processor Unit display and keypad


3.3.1. Mode Key
The MODE key will take the instrument to the next mode of operation, or take
the instrument out of the current mode and back to mode 1.
3.3.2. Arrow Keys
Pressing the ARROW keys will do one of two things, depending on the position
in the program :
it will increase or decrease the displayed value. If the key is
held down it will scroll quickly to the desired value, or
it will step through the available options within a mode or sub
mode.

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3.3.3. Enter Key
Pressing the ENTER key will do one of two things depending on the position in
the program :
it will input the displayed parameter value, or
it will select the displayed mode or option from within a mode or
sub mode.

Allow time for the instrument to respond to a key instruction,


otherwise a double key entry may be recorded.

3.3.4. LED Indication


The two LEDs (Data Valid & Alarm) indicate correct instrument operation and a
high dust, opacity, Ringelmann level. They mirror the operation of the two
contact relays.
3.4. Alignment
The transmitter and receiver unit need to be in reasonable alignment in order for
the instrument to operate satisfactorily. Some optical redundancy has been
built in to the design, and this allows normal duct movements not to affect
instrument operation. Carry out this alignment as follows :
Press MODE 4 times to enter the SET UP MODE menu.
Press ENTER 4 times to enter 0000 for the security code (this will
be reset later).
Press the DOWN ARROW to reach the CALIBRATE menu.
Press ENTER to access Set Detectors option. The detector
levels are now displayed in the LCD. Leave the display for the
time being.
Remove the receiver from its purge by removing the four M6
hexagon head bolts.

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Adjust the alignment of the transmitter flange until the bright glow
of the transmitter LED can be fully seen when viewed down the
receiver orifice. Alignment is achieved by loosening the four
locking nuts and adjusting the four adjusting nuts located between
the front and the adjustable flanges - see Figure 8.

Figure 8 : Adjustable Mount Details


When the LED is seen clearly through the receiver orifice, lock the
assembly into position by tightening the four locking nuts.
Re-attach the receiver to its purge and set the receiver gain - see
below.
Adjust the alignment of the receiver until a maximum level is given
at the detector (Dr) - see bottom line of LCD.
Once a maximum level at Dr has been found, secure the
alignment by tightening the locking nuts on the adjustable flange at
the receiver.
Press ENTER to leave Set Detectors option.
The alignment is now complete. Once this adjustment has been
made there is rarely any need for further alignment adjustment.
The optical design is capable of accommodating normal duct
movements without any effect on the operation of the device.

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3.5. Gain Adjustment
The receiver (Rx) gain has two stages. The first, adjustable via the keypad, is in
the receiver head and consists of a low (x1) or high (x10) setting. The second
stage is a variable gain within the signal processor (SP) and is adjustable using
VR1 (VR2 is for Dt level). After the equipment has been aligned, the gain may
be set as follows :
Enter the SET-UP mode (mode 5) CALIBRATE menu - Set Rx
Gain option.
Rx gain can be scrolled HIGH or LOW by the UP and DOWN
arrow keys and entered by the ENTER key.
SP gain is adjusted using VR1.
View the detector levels from set detectors within the CALIBRATE
menu and progressively increase the gain until a detector level
between 10,000 and 20,000 is obtained.
Note : Always try the RX gain HIGH setting first. If the caption Rx
Det Saturated appears, then switch to Rx LOW to remove the
saturation.

Should the instrument be commissioned when a high opacity is


present in the duct, reduce the level of Dr to between about
6,000 and 10,000. This is to prevent overloading if the opacity
level reduces.
Press ENTER to return to the CALIBRATE sub mode. Press
MODE to return to the unit to operating condition, i.e. MODE 1.

3.6. Basic Calibration


Before the instrument can calculate the correct opacity within the duct, a basic
calibration routine must be conducted.
Select the set up mode and conduct a basic calibration, detailed below. Section
4.9. Calibrate contains a fuller description. Record the calibration data in the
table at 3.8. Calibration Data.

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Ideally the flue/ duct should be operating under clean conditions (zero opacity)
for commissioning. If this is not practical, however, a target calibration opacity
can be assumed, in which case, should a clean flue become available, the
instrument must be re-calibrated.

Before completing commissioning and leaving equipment


operational, ensure that the air supply to the purges is
operating.

Allow enough time for each key press to action otherwise double keystrokes
may be entered.
3.6.1. Initial Calibration
Press MODE 4 times, to access SET UP mode.
Press ENTER 4 times, to enter 0000 for the security code.
Press DOWN arrow 8 times and ENTER once, to access
CALIBRATE option.
Press DOWN arrow twice and ENTER once to access
CALIBRATE.
Set opacity Target to zero (for clean duct) or assumed opacity. Do
this by using the UP and DOWN arrow keys.
Press ENTER, the menu will now enter the Cycles option. Set this
to the required number (30 is recommended for this initial
calibration).
Press ENTER twice and the calibration will start, the calibration
factor will be given at the end of the process and the instrument
will return to normal operating mode.
3.7. Operating Parameters
For the instrument to function as required, all operating parameters must be
entered into the microprocessor within the signal processor. The operating
parameters of the instrument are set from the set-up mode, they are then held
in non-volatile memory and retained in the event of a power loss.

All operating parameters are entered in the set-up mode - see


the Operation section for details.

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To aid commissioning, and to record any subsequent changes to the operating
parameters, the table at 3.7.3. Example 2 : Dust Monitor, displays all the
options available and can be used as a record. Two example set-ups are also
shown in this table. (Details at the end of this section).
3.7.1. Setting Parameters after Initial Calibration
This is a step by step, keystroke by keystroke description of setting the
parameters in the signal processor. All definitions of parameters are given in the
operation section. It is strongly recommended that the operation details are
read, and all required parameters for the process in hand determined before
entry into the signal processor. The table at 3.7.3. Example 2 : Dust Monitor can
be used to make a note of which parameter settings are to be used.
1. Press MODE until SET UP is displayed in the top left of the LCD
(4 times).
2. Press ENTER (4 times). The security code has not yet been set,
so it is still at the default factory setting of 0000. When the code
has been set, after this section has been completed the 4 digit
security code must be entered.
3. The first sub menu is AVERAGES.
4. Press ENTER to access this menu and the first option is seconds.
5. Press ENTER to access the values. Use the UP and DOWN arrow
keys to select the average required. These can be chosen from 10
to 60 seconds in 10-second intervals.
6. When the required value is displayed press ENTER. The value
has now been entered into memory.
7. The menu will automatically scroll down to the next option, which
is the minutes average (minutes).
8. Press ENTER to access values for this average. It is set in the
same way as for seconds.

Remember that when ENTER is pressed after a value has been


selected this value is now set in the memory.

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9. Ranges for the averages are :
minute 01 to 60 in 1 minute intervals
hour 01 to 24 in 1 hour intervals
day 01 to 30 in 1 day intervals
10.When days has been entered the LCD will read RESET, select
YES and the display will prompt SURE. Select YES and after the
averages are reset the display will read EXIT. Press ENTER and
the processor will return to the SET UP mode menu option
AVERAGES.
11.Use DOWN arrow to show CONFIGURE O/P 1 (configure output
1). Press ENTER to access the menu. The first option is Output.
12.Press ENTER to access this option and use the UP and DOWN
arrow keys to select either 0 or 4mA as the origin for current at the
outputs. Press ENTER when the correct one has been selected.
13.The OUTPUT option is exited and the AVERAGES option is
selected. Press ENTER to access the option and use UP and
DOWN keys to select which average is to be displayed in the
operating mode.
14.Press ENTER and Units is the next option. Press ENTER to
access the option and use the UP and DOWN keys to select which
units are displayed. The choices are:
%OP
Optical Density
mg/m3
mg/Nm3
Ringelmann
15.Press ENTER and Span is displayed. Press ENTER and select
the span value required.
16.The first digit is selected by using the UP and DOWN arrow keys
and pressing ENTER, the cursor then moves to the second and
third digits in turn.
17.When all have been selected press ENTER.
18.The Span menu is exited and Fault Cond (condition) is viewed.
19.Press ENTER and select either :
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ZERO
HOLD
F.S.
MEAS
by using the UP and DOWN keys. Press ENTER.
20.Set mA Output is the next option accessed. This option may not
need setting as the output calibration will have been set at the
factory - skip this and go to point 22 if preferred. Press ENTER
and set zero appears on the LCD. Press and hold the UP or
DOWN arrow keys to adjust until 0mA reads on the ammeter - see
5.9.3.6 for detail.
21.Press ENTER when the correct value is read. Similarly set span
value for 20 mA.
22.Press ENTER and EXIT is shown. Press ENTER to return to
MODE 5 menu.
23.Use the DOWN arrow key to access CONFIGURE O/P 2 and
repeat points 11 to 21 (above) for output 2 of the signal processor.
24.Use the DOWN arrow key to access the ALARM 1 sub menu.
Press ENTER and Source is shown on the display.
25.Select the averaging stack which is to be the source for the alarm
for output 1. Use the arrow keys to select either seconds, minutes,
hours or days and press ENTER.
26.The menu scrolls down to Units, similarly to above select the units
for the alarm using the arrow keys, press ENTER when selection
has been made.
27.The menu now scrolls down to Level. Select the level required for
alarm 1. Press ENTER and the menu scrolls to EXIT. Press
ENTER and use the down arrow key to move to ALARM 2.
28.Set the parameters for ALARM 2 (output 2) as in points 23 to 26
(above).
29.Use the DOWN arrow key to select the PARAMETERS sub
menu, press ENTER.
30.The first option in this menu is SECURITY. Press ENTER and use
the UP and DOWN arrow keys to adjust each digit in turn from left
to right. Press ENTER when each digit is correctly selected. After
the fourth digit is set the menu will return to SECURITY.
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!

Make a note of this number; this is the security code required


every time the SET UP MODE is entered in the future.
31.Press the DOWN arrow key to select Identity, press ENTER. Use
the arrow keys to scroll the device identity number between 01 to
255.
32.Press ENTER and the DOWN arrow to select Pathlength. Press
ENTER.
33.As before alter each digit individually using the arrow keys; press
ENTER when the correct value is selected. After the fourth digit
the menu will return to Pathlength.
34.Use the DOWN arrow to select Dust Factor sub menu.
35.Press ENTER to access the option and use the arrow and ENTER
keys as usual to select the value required.
36.Press ENTER when complete.
37.Use the DOWN arrow to access Auto Zero option. Set the figures
to the required value.
38. Press the DOWN arrow and the EXIT option is accessed on the
LCD. Press ENTER to leave the PARAMETERS menu. Use the
DOWN arrow key to select the NORMALISATION menu.
39. Use the same key combinations to select all normalising
parameters, if required. EXIT this menu to return to SET UP mode.
40. Use the DOWN arrow key to access the CALIBRATE menu.
Press ENTER.
41. Use the DOWN arrow to select the CALIBRATE option. Proceed
as described previously. See section 3.6. Basic Calibration.
42. Note the new Cal Factor and detector levels.

43. The unit is now fully commissioned.


3.7.2. Example 1 : Smoke Monitor
The parameters shown below illustrate some typical settings to use the
instrument as a smoke monitor. The salient settings are described below :
Averages
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10-second, 10-minute, 1-hour and 30-day rolling averages are setup.
Output 1
The analogue output (4 - 20mA) represents Ringelmann 0 to 5,
with a fast response time 10 seconds. Also, should a system fault
occur, the instrument will still attempt to measure the Ringelmann
value.
Parameters
As the instrument is not being used as part of an integrated
system, the device identity is not required.
The 1hour rolling average is used to provide an alarm at
Ringelmann 2, where the change-over contact relay will operate.
Neither a pathlength, nor a dust factor are required for the
calculation of a Ringelmann value.
The plant is in continuous operation so the auto zero facility
cannot be used.
Normalising
Normalising parameters are not required for the calculation of a
Ringelmann value.
3.7.3. Example 2 : Dust Monitor
The parameters shown below illustrate some typical settings to use the
instrument as a dust monitor, as part of an integrated system. The salient
settings are described below :
Averages
30-second, 10-minute, 1-hour and 7-day rolling averages are setup.
Output 1
The analogue output (4 - 20mA) represents 0 to 250mg/Nm3, and
is a 1-hour rolling average. Should a system fault occur, the
instrument will drive the analogue output full scale.
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Parameters
As the instrument is being used as part of an integrated system,
the device identity has been set to 4. This value must be unique
from other monitors in the system.
The 1-hour rolling average is also being used to provide an alarm
at 50 mg/Nm3, where the change-over contact relay will operate.
A dust factor has been estimated at 5000 (2500/0.5m) until isokinetic sampling can be conducted.
The plant is shut down daily, so the auto zero facility can be used
to reset the zero of the instrument during these periods of
inactivity. This value should be set as low as possible. 1%/day
should be set initially, then if window fouling still causes a
problem, increase this figure.
Normalising
The data is being normalised to standard conditions, 0oC, 3%
oxygen, 101kPa pressure.
Normalising data for oxygen and pressure is relatively constant
(11% and 104kPa respectively) and each is entered into the
instrument via the keypad.
The temperature within the duct, however, is variable, and is being
measured with a transducer that provides a 4 to 20mA output
proportional to 0 to 400oC.

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Parameter
Averages
seconds
minutes
hours
days
Output 1
0 or 4mA base
units
span
average
fault condition
Output 2
0 or 4mA base
units
span
average
fault condition
Alarm 1
source
units
level
Alarm 2
source
units
level
Parameters
security
identity number
pathlength
dust factor
auto zero
Normalisation Temperature
standard level oC
analogue i/p @ 4mA
analogue i/p @ 20mA
keypad i/p oC

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30
10
1
1
4
%Op
100
30s
FS
4
%Op
100
30s
FS
30s
%Op

Site

30s
%Op
100
01
1000
2500
0%/day
0

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Oxygen
standard level %
analogue i/p @ 4mA
analogue i/p @ 20mA
keypad i/p
Pressure
standard level kPa
analogue i/p @ 4mA
analogue i/p @ 20mA
keypad i/p kPa
Water Vapour
standard level %
analogue i/p @ 4mA
analogue i/p @ 20mA
keypad i/p %

3
101

101
Dry

3.8. Calibration Data


As a record of the instrument's initial calibration data, enter the diagnostic mode
and record the levels of the calibration and measurement variables. This will
then serve as a reference should a system complication occur, for future fault
finding exercises.
Detector Outputs
D receiver
D transmitter

Site

Calibration Data
kcal
kwkg

Site

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4. Operation
4.1. Introduction
After the instrument has been commissioned, it will measure the transmissivity
between the transmitter and receiver, and produce an output proportional to
either the opacity, dust, Ringelmann or extinction level. An integral 32-character
display also shows the calculated levels.
The instrument allows the operator to interrogate the micro-processor to
observe the system parameters, and to change them if required.
A menu based program is used and access is gained by four keys mounted on
the lid of the signal processor.
4.1.1. Measurement
To calculate the opacity, an LED light source is positioned on side of the duct,
and a detector at the other. The light from the LED is modulated (to avoid
interference from ambient light) and the level from the detector is a measure of
the opacity in the duct. In addition, a detector within the transmitter constantly
monitors the intensity
to provide a reference.
4.1.2. Calibration
During the commissioning procedure a calibration is conducted, which sets the
system gain to produce a zero or known opacity. An automatic zero facility
allows the instrument to compensate for a slow build-up
of optical contamination.
4.2. Operating Modes
The instrument has six modes of operation which are identified by a number in
the top left-hand corner of the display :
1. Operating Mode - display average opacity, extinction, dust
density or Ringelmann level.
2. Parameter Mode - display operating parameters.
3. Normalisation Data - display normalisation data.
4. Diagnostic Mode - investigate instrument operation.
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5. Set-up Mode - set operating parameters. The mode can only be
accessed using a security code.

The outputs of the instrument are unaffected by key operation in


all modes except the set-up mode.

4.3. Program Tree


Figure 9 illustrates the main program of the instrument. Where an operating
mode is complex, an extra program tree is given in this section.

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Enter
Press Enter on Exit option or
Enter on the final option
Operating Mode - 1

Measurement units
Averaging time

Mode
Parameter Mode - 2
Mode

Normalisation Mode - 3
Mode

Diagnostic Mode - 4
Mode

Set-Up Mode - 5
(accessed after entering
a security code)
Mode

Indentification
Parameters
Averages
Output
Alarm
Plant status

Temperature
Oxygen
Pressure
Water vapour
Detector levels
A to D levels
Rx gain
Calibration data
Sensor temperature
Opacity data
Averages
Configure O/P 1
Configure O/P 2
Alarm 1
Alarm 2
Parameters
Normalisation
Calibrate

Modes 1-4 change the display only

Figure 9 : Program Tree

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4.4. Operating Mode
From this mode of operation the four averaging times, seconds, minutes, hours
and days, may be displayed. The four concentration units, opacity, extinction,
dust density and Ringelmann levels, may be altered and the
measured/normalised measurements for dust density observed.
When in this mode, the display will appear similar to that shown below. If the
display is not similar to this, press the MODE key until number 1 appears in the
top left corner of the display.

To change the data displayed, press the ENTER key and a flashing cursor will
appear at the beginning of each of the four concentration units. The ARROW
keys will now change the highlighted parameter. Each push of the ENTER key
will select another of the parameters, in the following order :

Concentration Units -

opacity, optical density, dust


density (mg/m3 or mg/Nm3),
Ringelmann.

Averaging Time

seconds, minutes, hours, or days.

Once the display configuration is as required, press the ENTER key when the
cursor is flashing on the averaging time, and the cursor will disappear from the
display. The ENTER key may be pressed again if required to bring the cursor
back onto the display.
4.5. Parameter Mode
In this mode, the parameters set within the set-up mode may be examined, but
not changed. Press the MODE key until the number 2 appears in the top left
corner of the display, then press the ENTER key. The ARROW keys will now
scroll through the available options, press the ENTER key to display the
selected option. Press the ENTER key again to exit from each option.
See the set-up mode for further details of the display information, and how to
change the held parameters.

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4.5.1. Identification
From this option, the analyser type, its program number, and the device identity
of the instrument may be displayed.
Instrument type -

Model DEM1000 (1001) OPACITYMONITOR

EPROM number -

will display the communications EPROM ID

Identity

for factory set-up only

4.5.2. Parameters
The following parameters are examined from this option, selected using the
ARROW keys :
Measurement Path Length
The path length between the transmitter and receiver. This value is not used
within the current program and is for reference only.
Dust Factor
A 'Dust Factor' is used to calculate the dust density; see section 5.12.
Output Fault 1
Should a fault condition occur on output 1, the analogue output can be set from
one of four options see the set-up mode. The selected option may be examined
here.
Output Fault 2
As above for output 2.
Auto Zero
The auto zero facility compensates for any optical contamination.
Compensation ranges from 0.1% - 8% and can be displayed here. INHIBIT is
displayed if the option is not selected.

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4.5.3. Averages
Selecting this option will display the times set for each of the four averaging
stacks.
4.5.4. Outputs
Output 1
The base, span and averaging of analogue output 1 are displayed from this
option.

Output 2
As above for analogue output 2.

4.5.5. Alarms
Alarm 1
A contact output is available within the processor to indicate high opacity,
extinction, dust and Ringelmann levels. The level at which this output (analogue
o/p1) is operated, and the averaging stack from which the concentration value is
obtained, may be examined from this display.

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Alarm 2
As above for alarm 2, analogue output 2.

4.5.6. Plant Status


On entering this option the plant status condition is displayed, i.e. ON or OFF.
Minutes, hours and days rolling averages are held and current outputs set to
zero, with alarms deactivated.

4.6. Normalisation
From this mode, the normalisation parameters that are currently being used can
be displayed. Press the ENTER key to enter the routine, and use the ARROW
keys to select which of the normalising parameters to display.
Press the MODE key until the number 3 is seen in the top left corner of the
display. When the required normalising parameter is displayed, press the
ENTER key to display the normalisation data. Press the ENTER key again to
exit the parameter.
The available parameters are :
temperature
oxygen (wet or dry measured input)
pressure
water vapour

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4.6.1. Display Format
For each of normalising parameters the display will appear similar to that shown
below.

4.7. Diagnostic Mode


The detector levels, Analogue to Digital (A-D) levels, receiver gain, calibration
and opacity data may be examined from this mode. Press the MODE key until
number 4 appears in the top left corner of the display, and push the ENTER key
to enter the mode.
The ARROW keys will now select from the following, press the ENTER key to
select the displayed option. Figure 10 illustrates a program tree for this mode.

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Enter
Press Enter on Exit option
Detector Outputs

Detector output levels


within the transmitter &
receiver

Receiver Gain

Receiver gain - high or low

Calibration Data

Calibration gain &


working factors

Opacity Data

Raw & smooth opacity levels

Fault Condition

Fault status

Exit
Figure 10 : Illustration of the Diagnostic Program

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4.7.1. Detector Outputs
The output levels from the detector within the receiver and within the transmitter
are displayed here. Dt is the detector level at the transmitter and Dr is the
detector level at the receiver. The level of Dr is typically between 15,000 and
25,000, and will vary according to duct width, the gain setting and the opacity in
the duct, Dt (set by the transmitter pot) is typically similar to Dr.

4.7.2. Rx Gain
The receiver gain factor is displayed here. This can be either high or low and is
set during the commissioning procedure according to the duct width.

4.7.3. Calibration Data


Kcal is the calibration gain factor calculated during the calibration routine.
Kwkg is the gain factor including any auto zero adjustment that may have taken
place.

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4.7.4. Opacity Data
This display indicates the raw (Op0) and the 60 second average (Op60) opacity
values. The 60 second smoothed value is used to generate the minutes, hours
and days rolling averages.

4.7.5. Fault Condition


To display the current fault condition, press the ENTER key while this is
displayed.

This display mode is automatically selected by the instrument should a fault


condition occur. The following fault conditions are recognised by the instrument:
Tx Det. Low - Dt is less than 4096.
Tx Det. Saturated - the detector level within the transmitter is too
high for the current duct conditions. Dt is greater than 24,000.
Rx Det. Saturated - the detector level gain within the receiver is
too high for the current duct conditions. Dr is greater than 24,000.
Dirty optics - the lens of either the transmitter or receiver are
contaminated. Kwkg is approximately equal to twice Kcal.
Kcal too high - calibration has produced a Kcal value >32,767
due to incorrectly set detector levels.
All Clear - no fault condition.
Also, the previous fault may be displayed by pressing the down arrow key.

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4.8. Set-up Mode
All system parameters can be changed and a basic calibration initiated from this
mode. To prevent any unauthorised changes, the user must enter a four
number security code before the mode can be accessed.

After this mode has been selected, the instrument will suspend
its operation. If no key is pressed within 5 seconds after
selection of this mode, the instrument will revert to the normal
operating mode.

Press the MODE key until the number 5 is displayed in the top left-hand corner.
After the security code has been correctly entered, there are 8 sub-modes of
operation, (see Figure 11), from which the set-up parameters may be changed;
these are :
Set Averages
The four averaging stack times (seconds, minutes, hours & days) may be set as
required. The averages may also be reset from this menu.
Configure O/P 1
The first analogue output is configured from this sub mode.
Configure O/P 2
As above for analogue output 2.
Alarm 1
The source, units and level of the alarm for output 1 are set here.
Alarm 2
As above set for output 2.
Parameters
The following are set from this mode : security #, identity #, pathlength, dust
factor, auto zero and plant status.
Normalisation
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All normalisation parameters may be set up from this mode.
Calibrate
The outputs of the detectors and the basic calibration of the instrument can be
set.
After the correct code has been entered, the user may access each of the eight
sub-modes (listed above) by using the ARROW keys and pressing ENTER
when the required option is displayed.

When a parameter has been altered and ENTER has been


pressed to exit the option, the changed parameter has been
altered in the memory. There is no confirm option for changed
parameters.

4.8.1. Security Code Entry


Once this display is shown, to gain access to the set-up mode, press the
ENTER key. The cursor will now flash over the first digit of the presented code
number, select the required first digit with the arrow keys and press ENTER.
Repeat this procedure for the remaining three numbers. If the code is correct
after the ENTER key is pressed on the last digit, then the sequence will be
continued, if it is not correct, the instrument will return to the operating mode.

The code number will be set to 0000 by CODEL at the factory,


this should be changed by the user from within the set-up
mode.

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Enter
Press Enter
on Exit option
Set Averages

Seconds
Minutes
Hours
Days
Reset

10 to 60s @ 10s intervals


01 to 60m @ 01m intervals
01 to 24h @ 01h intervals
01 to 30d @ 01d intervals
Reset the 4 stack averages

Configure
O/P 1 & 2

Output
Average
Units
Span
Fault Condition
Set mA O/P

0 or 4-20mA
Take average from secs, mins, hours or days stack
Opacity, extinction, dust density or Ringelman
0 to 9999 span (units depend on above)
Measured, zero mA, FS (20mA) or hold last value
Set up current output levels

Alarms 1 & 2

Source
Uinits
Level

Select averaging stack for alarms 1 & 2


Opacity, extinction, dust density or Ringelman
Set alarm level for 1 & 2 (depends on units)

Parameters

Security No.
Identity No.
Path Length
Dust Factor
Auto Zero

4-digit code
01 to 30 (unique number for serial data, I/Ps & O/Ps)
Gas path length in mm
Dust density calibration
Automatic compensation for window contamination

Normalisation

Temperature
Oxygen
Pressure
Water Vapour

Set up normalisation I/P & std. levels for temp.


Set up normalisation I/P & std. levels for O2
Set up normalisation I/P & std. levels for pressure
Set up normalisation I/P & std. levels for H2O

Calibrate

Set Detectors

Displays transmitter level (Dt) in any fault condition


Displays receiver level (Dx) in any fault condition
Sets the Rx gain factor - high or low
Conduct a basic calibration

Set Gain
Calibrate
Exit options not shown

Figure 11 : Program Tree for the Set-up Mode

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4.8.2. Averages
Four separate averages are calculated within the instrument. These are defined
in units of seconds, minutes, hours and days. Any of these four averaging
stacks can be used to provide the analogue output of the instrument.
Each averaging time is set within pre-defined limits.

Press the ENTER key when this display is shown, the display will now show
seconds. Use the ARROW keys to select the average time that requires
changing, and press the ENTER key to access it. The value can now be
changed using the ARROW keys and input by pressing the ENTER key.

Set the seconds averaging stack to the required value. This is limited from 10 to
60 seconds in 10-second intervals.

Set the minutes averaging stack to the required value. This is limited from 1 to
60 minutes in 1-minute intervals.

Set the hours averaging stack to the required value. This is limited from 1 to 24
hours in 1-hour intervals.

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Set the days averaging stack to the required value. This is limited from 1 to 30
days in 1-day intervals.

The average values currently held in the four averaging stacks can be reset
using this option. This will erase the current averages that are held in all of the
stacks.
Select either YES or NO using the arrow and enter keys. If YES is selected
confirmation is requested before the averages are reset.
If this option is selected, all data in the averaging stacks is reset and the data
for as much as 30 days will be lost.
4.8.3. Configure O/P1
The analogue current loop output for output 1 is set up from this mode. Press
the ENTER key while this display is shown, then press the ARROW keys to
step through the available options. Press the ENTER key to enter each option;
change the displayed parameter by using the arrow keys.

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4.8.3.1. Output
An origin of 0 or 4mA can be set for the current loop output. The ARROW keys
will toggle between these two options. Press the ENTER key to enter the new
value.

4.8.3.2. Average
Any of the four averaging stacks (seconds, minutes, hours or days) may be
used for the analogue output. They are selected by the ARROW keys and
entered using the ENTER key.

4.8.3.3. Units
The analogue output can represent either a measure of: opacity, Ringelmann,
extinction or dust. The ARROW keys will scroll through these options, press the
ENTER key to chose the correct units. The dust is represented as either mg/m3
or mg/Nm3 the latter normalised to standard conditions.

4.8.3.4. Span

Both the zero and span values default to zero one second after
being displayed - these must always be re-configured for the
instrument to function properly.

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Press the ENTER key and the Zero value will need to be entered. Select using
the ARROW keys for each digit. The ENTER key is pressed to enter the value
of each digit. The units displayed will depend on what has been selected above.

The current value will be displayed for 1 second then the value will clear to zero.
This must always be reset for the instrument to be configured correctly.
When the zero value has been correctly selected press the ENTER key to
access the next display which is Span.
The upper limit of the span is set here in a similar manner to the zero and its
value will depend on the maximum emission of the process being monitored.
Once again the current value will be displayed for 1 second and will clear to
zero. This must be reset for the instrument to be configured correctly.

4.8.3.5. Fault Condition


Should a fault condition occur, the current output of the instrument may be set
to any of the following options.
Set the output at 0mA - ZERO.
Adjust the output to the measured concentration even though a
fault condition exists MEAS
Hold the last measurement - HOLD.
Set the output to full scale (20mA) - F.S.

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One of these options can be selected by pressing the ARROW keys, when the
desired option is displayed press the ENTER key.
4.8.3.6. Set mA Output

This will already have been configured at the factory - do not alter
unless the calibration is suspected to be wrong.

The current levels of the analogue output are set up in this option. Press the
ENTER key to access the option and set the current levels at 0 and 20mA as
prompted.

When this is displayed, the current output should be set to 0mA as measured
with a calibrated current meter across the analogue current loop terminals (47
and 48). Nothing else should be connected to these terminals when the output
is being set up. The UP and DOWN arrow keys will take the current up and
down respectively. Press the ENTER key when the correct output current is
displayed on the ammeter.
The limits for the display value are 0 to 4095. A typical value will be 40.

Zero milliamps should be set up, irrespective of the selection for


the base of the current output.

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In a similar manner as above, the current output level should now be set to
20mA using terminals 47(+mA) or 48(0V).

The limits for the display are 0 to 4095. A typical value will be 3700.
4.8.4. Configure O/P2
This menu sets analogue output 2. Proceed as in section 4.8.3. Configure O/P1
For this output use terminals 23(+mA) and 24(0V) to set 0mA and 20mA
outputs, if necessary.

4.8.5. Alarm 1
The alarm parameters for analogue output 1 are set in this sub menu.

4.8.5.1. Source
Press ENTER and this option is displayed. Select the averaging source
(averaging units) required for this source. These are selected in a similar
manner as for Configure Outputs; see section 4.8.3. Configure O/P1 & 4.8.4.
Configure O/P2 When the source is selected press ENTER to access the next
option.

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4.8.5.2. Units
This option is entered after Source has been completed. Select the units
required for the alarm as in section 4.8.3.3. Units. When these have been
selected press ENTER and the Level option is accessed.

4.8.5.3. Level
Select the required level for ALARM 1. Note that the current value is displayed
for 1 second, but then it defaults to zero and so must be re-entered for the
alarm level to be properly configured.

4.8.5.4. Exit
After the alarm level has been set press ENTER to reach this display. Press
ENTER and the display exits to the ALARM 1 option.

4.8.6. Alarm 2
Use the DOWN arrow key to select this after ALARM 1 has been completed.
The parameters for the alarm for analogue output 2 are selected here in a
similar manner as for ALARM 1.

4.8.7. Parameters

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Select this option by pressing the ENTER key. The ARROW keys will now
display the available options from within this sub-mode, when the option that
requires changing is displayed, press the ENTER key. When all required
changes have been made, select the EXIT option and press ENTER.

4.8.7.1. Security Number


To prevent any unauthorised-authorised tampering with the set up information,
it is important that the security code is changed from the factory setting. Each
digit is selected with the ENTER key and changed with the ARROW keys.

It is important to make a note of this number otherwise it will not


be possible to change the instrument set up.

4.8.7.2. Identity Number


This facility is only intended for factory set-up and testing.

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4.8.7.3. Measurement Path Length

When this option is accessed the value defaults to zero after 1


second.

The path length entered is used for reference purposes only and should
represent the length of the actual dust measurement, not the flange-to-flange
dimension between the source and receiver. The current value is displayed for
1 second and then defaults to zero.

4.8.7.4. Dust Factor


If the instrument is being used as a fine dust monitor, a dust factor is required to
convert the opacity level to a measure of dust. A value up to 9999 may be
selected.

4.8.7.5. Auto Zero


To compensate for a slow build up of contamination on the lens of the receiver
and the transmitter, the micro-processor can adjust the gain factor of the
instrument effectively moving its zero position. This feature may be set from
0.1% to 8% opacity per day, or it may be inhibited by setting to 0%.

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4.8.8. Normalisation
All of the normalisation inputs and parameters are set up from this mode. Press
ENTER to access the mode and the ARROW keys will select which of the
normalising inputs are to be changed, they are :
Temperature.
Oxygen.
Pressure.
Water Vapour.

Normalising parameters are only required for the calculation of the


dust density.
After selecting the normalising parameter, the user may set the standard levels
to which the measurement is to be normalised, and how the instrument reads
the value, i.e., fixed keypad input (or 4 - 20mA input Model 1001). Figure 12
illustrates the program tree for entering the normalisation parameters.

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Enter

Enter

Press Enter
on Exit option

Press Enter
on Exit option

Temperature

Set std. levels


Set values
Exit

Value to which parameter is to be normalised


Analogue I/P - use a 4-20mA input
Keypad I/P - set a fixed value from the keypad
Exit

Oxygen

Set std. levels


Set values
Exit

Value to which parameter is to be normalised


Analogue I/P - use a 4-20mA input
(wet or dry measurement)
Keypad I/P - set a fixed value from the keypad
Exit

Pressure

Set std. levels


Set values
Exit

Value to which parameter is to be normalised


Analogue I/P - use a 4-20mA input
Keypad I/P - set a fixed value from the keypad
Exit

Water Vapour

Set std. levels


Set values
Exit

Value to which parameter is to be normalised


Analogue I/P - use a 4-20mA input
Keypad I/P - set a fixed value from the keypad
Exit

Figure 12 : Normalising Set-Up Program Tree

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4.8.8.1. Setting the Normalising Parameters
After selecting the parameter to be set up, the ARROW keys will select between
entering the standard levels, and how the normalisation data is to be brought
into the instrument.
Set Standard Levels
Each normalising parameter normalises the measured dust concentration to
standard conditions of temperature, oxygen, pressure and water vapour. These
levels are set from within this option and are typically 00C, 3% Oxygen, 101kPa
pressure, dry water vapour. Use the ARROW keys to change each displayed
normalising standard value. Refer to the process guidance notes for the
application in which this unit is being used, to determine the best normalisation
values.

Set Values
The normalising data can be brought into the instrument in one of 3 ways :
by entering a fixed value via the keypad. This is suitable where
the value is stable to about 5%,

using the 4 - 20mA inputs within the processor to receive a


measurement transducer data. The values at 4mA and at
20mA will be requested should this option be selected.

4.8.8.2. Temperature

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Enter the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the across the duct
measurement. This value is used to normalise the dust measurement.
4.8.8.3. Oxygen
To correct the data to standard levels of oxygen, an estimate of the oxygen at
the point of measurement is required. If no normalisation for oxygen is required,
then a fixed value should be used and the standard level brought to the same
value.
If the oxygen level is being continuously measured, connect the analogue
output of the oxygen analyser into the CODEL analyser, and select the
analogue input.
A keypad input is assumed to be a DRY oxygen level. An analogue input level
can be selected for a WET or DRY oxygen measurement instrument. Note that
mode 4 displayed oxygen is always expressed as oxygen % DRY for the
normalisation calculations.
4.8.8.4. Pressure
To correct the data to a standard pressure normally 101kPa, the pressure at the
point of measurement needs to be determined. If the flue pressure is relatively
constant through all firing conditions, then a fixed input should be used. If the
pressure is not constant, it should be measured and bought into the instrument
via the 4 - 20mA input within the processor.
With an integrated system the pressure data can be taken to the instrument via
the serial data line.
If no normalisation for pressure is required, then a fixed value should be used
and the standard level brought to the same value.
4.8.8.5. Water Vapour
The standard level is set to wet or dry. For the set values option the percentage
water vapour in the flue gas needs to be determined and entered. This has a
range of 0.0 to 30.0%. If the vapour concentration is relatively constant a fixed
input should be used. If it is not it should be measured and brought into the
instrument via the 4 - 20mA input in the processor.
If no normalisation for water vapour is required, a fixed value should be used
and the standard set to dry.

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4.9. Calibrate
From this option the levels of the detector within the receiver and within the
transmitter may be displayed. The basic calibration of the instrument is set by a
Gain Factor which can be calculated during a calibration routine.

Press the ENTER key while this is displayed and the following options are
available :
4.9.1. Set Detectors
Dt is the level from the detector within the transmitter, and Dr is the level from
within the receiver. Fault conditions are displayed for each detector. Once
aligned correctly increase receiver gain until the fault condition 'Rx saturated is
displayed', then decrease receiver gain by one.

If the receiver signal is extremely high, saturation of the


analogue to digital converter (ADC) within the processor may
occur. As a result the fault condition 'Rx saturated' is displayed.
If this fault should appear, then the receiver Gain should be
reduced accordingly.

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4.9.2. Set Rx Gain
Set the receiver gain initially to low. Changing to high will give an approximate
tenfold (10x) increase in Dr.

4.9.3. Calibrate
The basic calibration of the instrument can be calculated from this routine. It is
preferable to conduct this operation with the plant shut down to ensure a zero
opacity within the duct. If this is not possible, however, the instrument can
calibrate to an estimate of the opacity the calibration target.
Set the calibration target either to an estimate of the opacity or to zero, and set
the desired number of cycles over which the calibration factor is determined (a
minimum of 16 is recommended). The calibration should now be run and the
display will show a count down during its execution. When the calibration is
complete the instrument will exit the calibration routine.

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!

The calibration routine must be run during commissioning,


otherwise the instrument will not be able to calculate the true
level within the duct. DO NOT run the calibration routine unless
reasonable conditions exist in the duct. If it is not the initial
calibration, it is recommended that the Gain Factor is recorded
from the parameters option, before the calibration is run.

4.10. Calibration for Dust Measurement


For Opacity Monitors to provide a measure of the dust density, the relationship
between opacity and the dust density needs to be established. For a particular
measurement point in a particular flue, duct, or chimney, this can only be
accomplished accurately by iso-kinetic sampling over a defined period. Over the
same period, the opacity monitor will calculate the corresponding average
extinction, which is directly proportional to the dust density
The relationship between extinction and dust density may be described as the
Dust Factor.
Dust Density = Fine Dust Density/Extinction
Where :

fine dust density

mg/m3 of dust by
iso-kinetic sampling

extinction

average extinction
for the same period.

This Dust Factor is input and held within the instrument to convert extinction to
fine dust density. Some important points to note when calibrating the from isokinetic sampling results are given below.

Take care to ensure that the normalisation parameters


temperature, oxygen, pressure & water vapour) are set to sensible
values, and establish to what standard conditions the sampling
results will be normalised to. Iso-kinetic results are automatically
brought to ambient temperature as the flue sample cools through
the sample line, and in general these are then normalised to 0C
(273K). Normalisation to the other parameters is variable, and
depends largely upon whether they are being measured at the
same time as sampling.
It is reasonable to start with an estimate of the dust factor see the
next page and ensure that at least the correct temperature is held
within the instrument, entered via the keypad. If it is uncertain

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whether the sampled data will be normalised to the other
conditions, they may be taken out of operation by bringing the
measured values to the standard levels, e.g., O2 standard level
3%, value fixed at 3 %, Pressure standard level 101kPa, value
fixed at 101kPa, Water Vapour standard level DRY, value fixed at
0 %.

While the sampling is being conducted, record the minutes


average and normalised dust value mg/Nm3 preferably from a
chart recorder, if used, (making sure of course, that the current
output has been correctly configured). If not available, however,
the displayed normalised dust value should be recorded regularly
for comparison.

After the sampling has been conducted, the two results may be compared, and
the dust factor adjusted if necessary, to bring the calibration to that measured
by iso-kinetic sampling.

Important, take care to compare only like with like with regard to the
normalising data.
4.10.1. Estimate of a Dust Factor
For the model DCEM1001 to calculate the dust density from the opacity data,
the Dust Factor needs to be determined by iso-kinetic sampling. However, if
there is a delay before sampling can be conducted, an estimate of the dust
factor may be used.
Estimated Dust Factor

2500 / pathlength in metres

It must be emphasised that this approximation of the dust factor cannot be


accurate and that it might be as much as a factor of 2 in error, particularly if the
particle size is large.

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5. System Description
5.1. Transmitter
The transmitter uses a high intensity light emitting diode (LED) as the light
source. An internal detector monitors the transmitted light intensity. A lens in the
front of the enclosure focuses the light from the LED across the duct.
Current to the LED is modulated at a frequency of 512Hz. The wavelength of
the light emitted is 637 nanometres which is in the red part of the visible
spectrum and the source intensity is sufficient for duct widths up to six metres to
be accommodated.
A fully-sealed (to IP65) epoxy-coated aluminium enclosure houses the
transmitter.
5.2. Receiver
The receiver consists of a silicon cell detector and its associated electronics
housed in an identical enclosure to the transmitter. A lens focuses the light
received onto the detector.
Because the light from the transmitter is modulated, the receiver is able to
measure ambient light levels, and the levels compensated for within the signal
processor.
5.3. Signal Processor Unit
The signal processor unit is a remotely mounted and provides power for the
transmitter and receiver, and produces an output of opacity from the receiver
output signal. The following functions are provided by the processor:

It accepts power, 48V DC from the power supply unit, and


provides the DC voltage rails required by the transmitter, receiver
and micro-processor circuitry.
A measurement of Opacity is obtained from the receiver signal to
provide a 0 or 4 to 20mA current output, proportional to either
dust, Ringelmann, opacity or extinction.
Change-over contact relays are provided to warn of a high opacity
level, and of a system complication.

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The processor is housed in a fully-sealed (designed to IP65) epoxy-coated
aluminium enclosure.
5.4. Power Supply Unit
The power supply unit receives mains power, 88V to 264V AC, and provides
48V DC to the signal processor unit.
The power supply is housed in a fully-sealed (designed to IP65) epoxy-coated
aluminium enclosure.

Remember that mains voltages are present within the power supply
unit.

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6. Routine Maintenance
The equipment is designed to keep the levels of maintenance to an absolute
minimum.
6.1. Cleaning Windows
It is important that the optical windows of both the transmitter and the receiver
be kept reasonably clean and any mounting tubes free from build-up of dust and
fly ash. This can be accomplished by removing the transmitter and receiver and
wiping their windows with a soft, dry cloth. If the windows are cleaned, a
calibration is advised afterwards.
6.2. Clean Flue Condition Available
Should a clean flue condition become available and the instrument was
commissioned with an opacity offset, it is recommended that a calibration be
conducted to take advantage of this situation.

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7. Basic Fault Finding
7.1. Initial Checks
The electronics require no routine maintenance. They are all solid state and
undergo a rigorous factory burn-in procedure. If there is any doubt about the
equipment performance, the signal processor may be interrogated from the
keypad to determine whether or not the equipment is functioning normally. The
typical display modes and the initial variable values shown will act as a guide to
determine correct performance. This can be done at any time without
interrupting or disturbing the analogue output of the equipment. Some points to
note are explored below :

Detector Levels

Check the detector levels via the keypad see the diagnostic mode.

Check window contamination

Remove the transmitter and receiver from the duct and inspect the optical
surfaces - clean with a soft dry cloth if necessary.

Optical Alignment

If the units have been knocked out of alignment, re-align them - see the
commissioning section.

Purge Operation

Check that the supply of compressed air is being maintained to the purges, and
that the air-movers are drawing in ambient air they should be felt to suck from
underneath.

Instrument Power Supply

Check that the LEDs within the power supply unit are lit.

Window contamination or misalignment will give positive


opacity readings with the plant off. If this situation arises, clean
windows and realign system before proceeding further.

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7.2. Data Valid LED Out
If one or more fault conditions occur, the data valid LED on the front panel will
extinguish, the data valid relay will operate, and the instrument will automatically
enter the diagnostic mode to display the fault condition. The following fault
conditions are recognised by the instrument :

Transmitter detector saturated (DTH > 24,000), possible cause transmitter signal failure or incorrect gain adjustment.
Receiver detector saturated (DRH > 24,000), possible causes :
high ambient lighting
incorrect detector gain adjustment
instrument calibrated during high opacity conditions which
have now cleared
receiver signal failure

Low transmitter detector level (DT < 4,096), possible causes transmitter signal failure
Window contamination when 2kcal > kwkg and Auto Zero is not
inhibited, possible causes :
calibration conducted during unstable duct conditions
dirty windows

Incorrect signal levels for calibration Kcal >32767

If a fault condition is recognised by the instrument, the minutes,


hours and days averages will not be updated.

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8. Specifications
Span

Fully selectable in terms of dust,


opacity, Ringelmann or extinction

Response Time

Selectable from 10 seconds to 30 day


rolling average

Maximum Path Length

6 metres

Construction

Fully sealed to IP65

Ambient temperature limits

Transmitter and Receiver


-20oC to +80oC
PSU/SPU
20oC to +70oC

Analogue Outputs

0 or 4 - 20mA linear, 500 max.

Contact Outputs

High Opacity/Dust alarm


Data valid
Both rated at 1A @ 30V DC, 0.3A
@ 120V AC, max. power resistive
load 30W

Keypad Inputs

Oxygen
Temperature
Pressure
Water Vapour

Analogue Inputs
(Optional input PCB
required Model 1001)

Oxygen
Temperature
Pressure
Water Vapour
Plant Status

Dust Calibration

By independent analysis (by others)*

Accuracy

0.2% Opacity (with auto zero active)


1.0% Opacity (without auto zero)

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4 20mA
4 - 20mA
4 - 20mA
Optional

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Power consumption

30VA, 88/264V, 50/60Hz

Air purge consumption

0.25l/s @ 1.5bar

In the absence of actual data, assume (250/x) mg/m3 of duct


generates 10% opacity in an x metre wide duct. This is not a
fixed relationship and must be verified by iso-kinetic analysis.

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Appendix A -

Optical Transmissivity Measurement


& Solid Content

Since the aim of all optical transmissivity measurements is to assess the level of
solids emission, it is important to consider the relationship between various
optical measurements and the particulate content of the gas. It must first be
recognised that the optical methods can only be applied if the particulate size is
small enough for the mass of the solids to be considered as spread evenly over
the cross section of the flue. In general this limits the optical techniques to
particles of 20 micron or less diameter.
Providing the particle size criterion is met, there are certain very specific
relationships between the optical measurements and the particulate
concentration.

Figure 13

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Extinction Coefficient and Beer Lambert Relationship
The attenuation of light of a narrow waveband - such as visible or photopic light
by fine particulate matter is very specific and is expressed mathematically by
the Beer Lambert Relationship :
Transmittance T
where :

exp (-k.n.a.l)

k is the extinction coefficient of the particles


n is the number of particles per unit volume
a is mean projected area of the particles
l is the path length through the gas

Thus Opacity

100 [1 - exp ( -k.n.a.l)] %

The extinction coefficient k determines precisely how much light is attenuated


by the particles and depends totally on the physical and chemical nature of the
particles. For a given flue gas, the particulate type and size distribution should
be relatively constant so that the opacity measurement may, for a given path
length l, be related to the particulate concentration n.
Optical Density & Extinction
Optical density and Extinction are different names for the same parameter. This
parameter is useful in that assuming the nature and size distribution of the
particles are constant, for a given path length, it is directly proportional to the
particulate concentration n, and hence to particulate mass emission.
Optical density is expressed :
Optical Density

log10 1/T

and, since T

exp (-k.n.a.l),

Optical density

k.n.a.l loge10

The following table provides a simple conversion from measurements in terms


of opacity or transmittance to optical density/extinction.

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Opacity %

10

20

30

50

70

90

Transmittance

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.1

Opacity (Log10)

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.3

0.52

1.00

Mass Emission
While it is possible to provide an output for opacity monitors in terms of optical
density/extinction, conversion of this parameter into a measurement of mass
flow emission, in mg/m3 for example, requires an empirical calibration to be
made for that particular installation and flue condition. This must be achieved by
calibrating against specific measurements of solids emissions, which would
have to be made by the iso-kinetic sampling technique described earlier. The
resulting calibration would hold only for that particular flue and would need to be
rechecked at least every six months by further sampling comparisons.
Opacity/Ringelmann Correlation
Ringelmann is a measurement of opacity at stack outlet. If the opacity
measurement were also made at stack outlet the measurements would be
exactly equivalent. However, it is normally more practical to measure opacity at
some other point for ease of access. In this situation, the measurements will
differ since the duct diameter at the measurement point will differ from that at
the stack exit, and the measurement depends upon the length of the optical
path.
Opacity at the point of measurement
Om

100 [1 - exp (-k.n.a.lm)] %

where m is the stack diameter at the point of measurement.

Opacity at stack exit


Ox

100 [1 - exp (-k.n.a.lx)] %

where lx is the stack exit diameter.

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Thus,
Ox

100 [1 - (1 - Om/100) exp lx/lm] %

and is directly proportional to the Ringelmann scale range 0 to 5 (equivalent to 0


- 100%Ox)
The following illustration shows typical relationships between opacity and
Ringelmann for various stack exit diameter/measurement path length ratios
(lx/lm).

Figure 14

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Temperature Correction
Usually there is little change in temperature between the measured and exit
points, but where it is appreciable the stack exit opacity will be modified. This is
due to the gases reducing in volume while the particulate volume remains
relatively constant.
This correction is applied by expressing the effect in terms of measurement
path length as follows :
Lm
Where :

Lm
Lmm
Tm
Tx

Lmm (273 + Tx) / (273 + Tm)

=
=
=
=

Temperature-corrected effective path length,


Actual measurement path length,
Temperature oC at measurement,
Temperature oC at stack exit.

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Table of Figures
Figure 1 : General Arrangement

Figure 2 : Site Mounting Flange Details

Figure 3 : Adjustable Mount and Air Purge Details

Figure 4 : Transmitter/Receiver and Air Purge

Figure 5 : Signal Processor/Power Supply Mounting Details

Figure 6 : Connection Schedule

10

Figure 8 : Illustration of Signal Processor Unit display and keypad

12

Figure 7 : Adjustable Mount Details

14

Figure 9 : Program Tree

27

Figure 10 : Illustration of the Diagnostic Program

33

Figure 11 : Program Tree for the Set-up Mode

38

Figure 12 : Normalising Set-Up Program Tree

49

Figure 13

63

Figure 14

66

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