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# ES 311: Heat and Mass Transfer

Assignment 11
1. Consider an opaque horizontal plate that is well insulated on its back side. The irradiation
on the plate is
, of which
is reflected. The plate is at 227 C and
has an emissive power of
. Air at
flows over the plate with a convective
heat transfer coefficient of
. Determine the emissivity, absorptivity, and
radiosity of the plate. What is the net heat transfer rate per unit area?
2. Consider a small surface of area
hemispherical emissive power of

.

## a) At what rate is the emission intercepted by a small surface of area

which is oriented as shown?
on ?

3. According to its directional distribution, solar radiation incident on the earths surface may
be divided into two components. The direct component consists of parallel rays incident at a
fixed zenith angle, while the diffuse component consists of radiation that may be
approximated as being diffusely distributed with . Consider clear sky conditions for which
the direct radiation is incident at
, with a total flux (based on an area that is normal
to the rays) of
, and the total intensity of the diffuse radiation is
sr. What is the total solar irradiation at the earths surface?

## 4. To initiate a process operation, an infrared motion sensor (radiation detector) is employed to

determine the approach of a hot part on a conveyor system. To set the sensors amplifier
discriminator, the engineer needs a relationship between the sensor output signal, S, and the
position of the part on the conveyor. The sensor output signal is proportional to the rate at
which radiation is incident on the sensor. For
, at what location
will the sensor

signal S1 be
?

## of the signal corresponding to the position directly beneath the sensor, S0

5. The spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by a diffuse surface may be approximated
as follows.

## a) What is the total emissive power?

b) What is the total intensity of the radiation emitted in the normal direction and at an angle
of
from the normal?
c) Determine the fraction of the emissive power leaving the surface in the directions
.
6. The dark surface of a ceramic stove top may be approximated as a blackbody. The
burners, which are integral with the stove top, are heated from below by electric
resistance heaters.

## a) Consider a burner of diameter D = 200 mm operating at a uniform surface temperature

of

in ambient air at

## . Without a pot or pan on the burner, what

are the rates of heat loss by radiation and convection from the burner? If the efficiency
associated with energy transfer from the heaters to the burners is
what is the
electric power requirement? At what wavelength is the spectral emission a maximum?
7. The energy flux associated with solar radiation incident on the outer surface of the earths
atmosphere has been measured to be
. The diameters of the sun and the earth
are
and
respectively, and the distance between the sun and the
earth is 1
a) What is the emissive power of the sun?
b) Approximating the suns surface as black, what is its temperature?
c) At what wavelength is the spectral emissive power of the sun the maximum?
d) Assuming the earths surface to be black and the sun to be the only source of energy for
the earth, estimate the earths surface temperature.
8. The directional total emissivity of non-metallic materials may be approximated as
, where
is the normal emissivity. Show that the total hemispherical emissivity
for such materials is
of the normal emissivity.