Foundations Course

expectations
• To develop an understanding of concepts which serve as a foundation to understanding and implementing Six Sigma • Awareness with respect to origin and history of Six Sigma. • The utility and benefits • Introduction to Six Sigma as methodology • The Six Sigma organization

Contents
What is a process? Processes at different leve`ls Process health indicators – Measures The dashboard Baking better cakes – DMAIC Conceptually Six Sigma – What, History, Organizational Charts

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Processes
A process is a naturally occurring or designed sequence of steps or events which produces some outcome. A step in a process is a specific task

Pre-heat Oven

Gather ingredients

Prepare Batter

Prepare frosting ‘or’ icing

Bake batter in Oven for xx mins.

Process Step 1

Process Step 2

Process Step 3

Process Step 4

Process Step 5

The Baking Process

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Processes
Processes are critical constituents of any organization. When processes in an organization are in sync and each process is performing efficiently and effectively – then the organization is working at its best performance.

In other words, to improve the performance of any organization, department or function you need to improve the processes and ensure that all processes work in sync. L0
Leadership H. R Management Support / Enabling Operation / Production

Develop Organizational Goal
Process 1

Develop Employees

Set team goals

Provide resources and infrastructure
Process 4

Monitor Performance and make corrections
Process 5

Process 2

Process 3

A basic organizational process

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Processes at different levels
Processes are found at all levels of an organization. Processes may have sub processes within them and processes may come together to form a larger process L1
Employee Services Behavioural Training

Recruitment

Administration

L2 Indent Source Screen Interview Hire

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Processes at different levels
L2 Indent Source Screen Interview Hire

L3

L4

Maybe, Need based

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Is our process healthy?
So you have a process in place, How do you know it works? Is it effective and is it efficient?

To determine if your process is working properly you should measure to see if each process step is producing the right output.

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Metrics
The Baking Process

Pre-heat Oven

Gather ingredients

Prepare Batter

Prepare frosting ‘or’ icing

Bake batter in Oven for xx mins.

Process Step 1

Process Step 2

Process Step 3

Process Step 4

Process Step 5

Measure

Some other Metrics
Temperature in Celsius Speed – km/hr Customer Service Rep’s Productivity – Calls/day Car’s Mileage – km/ltr Train Arrival On-time – Yes/No; Oven Temp Average Train Delay – minutes; hours…

Metrics

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Dashboard
A set of metrics, that provide an instant summary of a processes health. Dashboards are usually implemented using graphs.
Wastage
8% 5% 3% 4% 2% Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 4% 2% Week 8 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 93% 7% 91% 88%

Customer Satisfaction Scores
94% 96% 94% 95% 92%

Week 1

Overhead Expense
55 68 65 66 76 56 62 60

The Dashboard is a key requirement in identifying improvement opportunities for Six Sigma Projects. Without a dashboard you can’t tell.

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Week 8

000 $

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DMAIC?
DMAIC is a Six Sigma methodology for improving existing processes.
Define

Define – What’s the problem? Practical Problem

Measure

Measure – Quantifying the problem Statistical Problem Analyze – What causes the problem to occur?

Analyze

Statistical Solution
Improve

Improve – Finding a solution to the problem Practical Solution

Control

Control – Keeping the problem ‘fixed’

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Conceptual Summary
L2

Indent

Source

Screen

Interview

Hire

93% 91%

94%

96% 94% 88%

95% 92%

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week Week 5 6

Week Week 7 8

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

6 Sigma Projects

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