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Maths Quest 7 Algebra

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You are on page 1of 36

8a Using rules

8b Finding a formula

8C Substitution

8D Terms, expressions and equations

8E Simplifying and the distributive law

8F

The associative

law

number

AnD AlgebrA

WhAT Do yoU kNoW ?

Algebra

Create a concept map to show your list.

2 Share what you know with a partner and

then with a small group.

3 As a class, create a large concept map

that shows your classs knowledge of

algebra.

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Chapter 8

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oPENiNG QUESTioN

the tower?

Chapter 8 Algebra

251

Try the questions below. If you have difficulty with any of them, extra help can be obtained by

completing the matching SkillSHEET located on your eBookPLUS.

eBook plus

Digital docs

SkillSHEET 8.1

doc-6499

eBook plus

Digital docs

SkillSHEET 8.2

doc-6500

eBook plus

Digital docs

SkillSHEET 8.3

doc-6501

Number patterns

1 For each of the following sequences of numbers, describe the pattern in words and then write

a 7, 9, 11, 13, . . .

b 28, 24, 20, 16, . . .

c 3, 6, 12, 24, . . .

d 100 000, 10 000, 1000, . . .

Worded operations

2 Use 8 as your starting number in each case and find the result when you follow each

instruction.

a Multiply by 2

b Add 15

c Subtract 6

d Divide by 4

Describing a number pattern from a table

3 Describe each number pattern shown in the tables.

a

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Digital docs

SkillSHEET 8.4

doc-6502

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Digital docs

First number

Second number

10

11

First number

Second number

15

21

27

4 Rewrite each of the following as a mathematical sentence (that is, rewrite each using numbers

a The sum of 3 and 5

b The product of 7 and 8

c The difference between 6 and 2

d 9 more than 5

5 a Complete the table shown, using the diagrams below as a guide.

SkillSHEET 8.5

doc-6503

1 square

2 squares

3 squares

Number of squares

Number of sides

252

8A

Using rules

Each number in the sequence is called a term.

A sequence has a rule that describes the pattern.

Worked Example 1

Describe the pattern in words and then write the next three numbers in the pattern.

Think

Write

the second term. Check to see if this works for the

remaining terms.

Worked Example 2

aConstruct a table to show the relationship between the number of shapes in each figure and the

bDevise a rule in words that describes the pattern relating the number of shapes in each figure and

cUse your rule to work out the number of matchsticks required to construct a figure made up of

20such shapes.

Think

a

for 2 triangles and 9 matches for 3 triangles.

Construct a table. If there was a fourth triangle, it

would need 12 matches.

Write

Number of

triangles

Number of

matchsticks

12

and number of matchsticks.

thenumber of triangles.

3times the number of triangles for 20 triangles.

20 3 = 60

To construct 20 triangles, 60 matchsticks

would be required.

Chapter 8 Algebra

253

A rule can be used to produce a set of output numbers from a set of input numbers.

We can think of this as a machine that takes any input number and changes it

according to a given rule. In this case, 5 is added to each input number. Any number

can be used as an input number. The machine might print out a table like this:

Input

Output

3

8

5

10

89

94

222

227

The rule can involve more than one step; for example: multiply each input number

by 1 and then add 5.

Worked Example 3

rules to work out the correct output numbers.

a Rule: Subtract 3 from each input number.

b Rule: Divide each input number by 2.

Input

Output

Think

a

the rule; that is, subtract 3.

apply the rule; that is, divide by 2.

10

38

144

Write

a

4-3=1

10 - 3 = 7

38 - 3 = 35

144 - 3 = 141

Input

Output

4

1

10

7

38

35

144

141

4

2

10

5

38

19

144

72

42=2

10 2 = 5

38 2 = 19

144 2 = 72

Input

Output

Worked Example 4

work out the correct output numbers in each case.

Rule: Multiply each input number by 8, then subtract 2.

Think

1

254

rule.

Note: First multiply the input number by 8 and

then subtract 2 from the answer.

Input

Output

Write

1 8 = 8 then 8 - 2 = 6

24

3 8 = 24 then 24 - 2 = 22

5 8 = 40 then 40 - 2 = 38

24 8 = 192 then 192 - 2 = 190

Input

Output

1

6

3

22

5

38

24

190

WoRkED ExAmPLE 5

Use the rule given below to work out the missing input and output numbers.

Rule: Add 4 to each input number.

Input

Output

ThiNk

25

6

38

190

WRiTE

apply the rule; that is, add 4.

and perform the opposite operation; that is,

subtract 4.

table.

1+4=5

5+4=9

25 + 4 = 29

6-4=2

38 - 4 = 34

190 - 4 = 186

Input

Output

1

5

5

9

25

29

2

6

34

38

186

190

remember

produced.

2. In algebra, a rule can be used to produce a set of output numbers from a set of input

numbers.

ExERCiSE

8A

iNDiViDUAL

PAThWAyS

eBook plus

Activity 8-A-1

Using rules

doc-1821

Activity 8-A-2

doc-1822

Activity 8-A-3

doc-1823

Using rules

fLUENCy

1 WE1 Copy the patterns below, describe the pattern in words and then write the next three

a 2, 4, 6, 8, . . .

c 27, 24, 21, 18, . . .

e 128, 64, 32, 16, . . .

b 3, 8, 13, 18, . . .

d 1, 3, 9, 27, . . .

f 1, 4, 9, 16, . . .

2 WE2 For each of the sets of shapes at the top of the next page:

i Construct a table, as shown on the previous page, to show the relationship between the

number of shapes in each figure and the number of matchsticks used to construct it.

ii Devise a rule in words that describes the pattern relating the number of shapes in each

iii Use your rule to work out the number of matchsticks required to construct a figure

Chapter 8 Algebra

255

a

b

3 WE3 Copy and complete the following tables. Use the rule given in each case to work out the

a Subtract 4 from each input number.

Input

10

14

Output

Input

13

107

Output

Input

10

51

60 144

Output

Input

12

21

66

141

Output

4 WE4 Copy and complete the following tables. Use the rule given in each case to work out the

a Multiply each input number by 2, then

add 5.

Input

subtract 4.

2

10

17

Output

Input

20

100

Output

multiply by 5.

Input

3

12

43

Output

Input

25

Output

then add 4.

Input

10

Output

Input

12

Output

5 WE5 Copy and complete the following tables. Use the rule given in each case to work out the

a Add 2 to each input number.

Input

Input

27

Output

256

55 193

Output

25

56

20

94 1773

Input

15

Input

96

Output

321

Output

12 104

28 412

UNDERSTANDiNG

6 a Multiply each input number by 2, then

add 2.

Input

subtract 7.

3

13

Input

21

Output

Input

Input

2

21

subtract 6.

Output

18

93

17

Output

54

Input

16

15 273

Output

Output

22 102

19

Output

54 174 214

49 144

then divide by 4.

Input

15

31

5

12

15

REfLECTioN

What strategies can you use to

work out the input rule from a

table of input and output values?

finding a formula

8b

By using algebra, we can use a letter or symbol in place of a number.

When a rule is written using a letter or a symbol, it is called a formula.

A letter or symbol in a formula is called a variable because its value can change. (It is also

called a pronumeral.)

If a letter is used in place of a number, the value is not determined by its position in the alphabet.

If we use b for a number, this does not mean that it has to be a smaller number than x or c.

When multiplying numbers and variables, we do not need to show the multiplication sign, and

the number is written in front of the variable, so h = k 5 is written as h = 5k.

WoRkED ExAmPLE 6

a m=q4+3

b b = (m + 2) 5

c g = (2 w - 6) 3

ThiNk

a

write the number being multiplied with the variable,

in front of the variable.)

WRiTE

a

m=q4+3

m = 4q + 3

Chapter 8 Algebra

257

b

to write the number being multiplied in front of

the bracket.)

to write the number being multiplied in front of

the respective variable and bracket.)

b = (m + 2) 5

b = 5(m + 2)

g = (2 w - 6) 3

g = 3(2w - 6)

Worked Example 7

by inserting a number in the gap.

g = f + __

13

20

10

15

22

Think

Write

formula and try to guess the number which must be

added to 3 to get 5.

5=3+2

2works again.

8=6+2

every time.

10 = 8 + 2

15 = 13 + 2

22 = 20 + 2

g=f+2

Worked Example 8

table at right.

Think

258

13

21

Write

example, a = 4 and a = 5, and compare the difference

between their corresponding b values.

5-3=2

numbers in the top row, for example, a = 6 and a = 7.

9-7=2

one in step 2, use it along with the basic operations

(+, -, , ) or a combination of operations to obtain

the correct result.

Note: The b-value increases by 2 for every increase of

1 in the a-value. This means the formula will contain

a 2. Therefore possible rules may be Multiply a by

2 and add a number to obtain b or Multiply a by 2

and subtract a number to obtain b.

Attempt 1

a = 4 and b = 3

Attempt 2

a = 4 and b = 3

a number

4 2 = 8, 8 + any

number does not

equal3

Multiply a by 2 and

subtract a number

4 2 = 8, 8 - 5 = 3

works for the other number pairs.

Note: If the rule does not work for all pairs of

values in the table further attempts must be used.

a = 5 and b = 5

a = 6 and b = 7

a = 7 and b = 9

a = 13 and b = 21

correct variables in the right places. Remember

when the rule is written using variables, it is called

a formula.

b = 2a - 5

5 2 = 10, 10 - 5 = 5

6 2 = 12, 12 - 5 = 7

7 2 = 14, 14 - 5 = 9

2 13 = 26, 26 - 5 = 21

remember

2. When a rule is written using variables it is called a formula.

3. When multiplying numbers and variables we dont need to show the multiplication

sign, and we place numbers being multiplied in front of variables.

ExERCiSE

8b

iNDiViDUAL

PAThWAyS

eBook plus

Activity 8-B-1

Finding a formula

doc-1824

Activity 8-B-2

More finding a

formula

doc-1825

Activity 8-B-3

Advanced formulae

doc-1826

finding a formula

fLUENCy

1 WE6 Rewrite the following formulas, leaving out the multiplication () sign.

a b=4h

b m=f4

c r=a5

d m=t4

e x = (k + 4) 5

f k=6w-2

g t = 4 (20 - g)

h b = 10 a - 5

i d=6f+7

j h = (x + 5) 9

k y = (b 3 + 6) 8

l y=8p-6

m g = 2 (3 r + 17)

n j = (h 5 - 4) 18

2 WE7 Look at the following tables and complete the formula for each table by inserting a

a

0

1

f

9

10

g

3

12

6

15

8

17

g = f + ____

c

k

t

1

3

a

g

1

6

3

7

5

11

6

13

12

25

12

50

p

w

0

2

4

18

6

26

9

38

m

p

1

2

7

4

8

5

11

8

x

y

1

2

3

16

5

30

8

51

11

72

m

t

1

20

3

38

4

47

11

110

7

27

9

37

12

52

6

53

7

63

12

113

2

29

t = 9m + ____

4

14

5

17

6

20

13

41

w = ____ p + 2

i

4

1

y = 7x - ____

g = 4a + ____

g

3

0

b = a - ____

t = 2k + ____

e

a

b

2

5

p = 3m - ____

t

x

2

2

3

7

x = ____ t - 8

4

11

7

20

15

44

s

b

1

3

5

43

b = s ____ - 7

Chapter 8 Algebra

259

3 WE8 Look at the following tables and use the variables given to write a formula for each table.

a

a

b

2

5

4

7

5

8

8

11

12

15

t

w

1

6

2

7

3

8

8

13

15

20

m

a

4

0

5

1

7

3

11

7

12

8

s

t

0

3

1

5

2

7

5

13

12

27

f

g

1

1

3

5

4

7

6

11

11

21

s

c

1

4

3

10

7

22

9

28

12

37

d

a

2

5

4

13

5

17

7

25

12

45

s

g

1

1

2

6

5

21

6

26

10

46

f

e

2

2

3

13

4

24

8

68

11

101

p

q

1

24

2

44

5

6

104 124

12

244

b

t

20

80

55 60 75 100

220 240 300 400

u

p

5

14

10

29

20

59

100 7000

299 20999

Understanding

For questions 4 to 12, a formula has been used by an algebra machine to produce each table.

4 MC

a

b

0

2

1

3

3

5

6

8

36

38

a b = a + 5

b b = 3a

D b = a - 2

E b = a - 5

C b = a + 2

1

0

2

1

4

3

18

17

56

55

a k = g + 1

b k = 2g

D k = 2g - 2

E k = 2g + 2

C k = g - 1

5

0

6

1

8

3

9

4

17

12

a w = r + 5

b w = 5r

D w = r - 5

E w = r + 6

C w = 2r - 5

0

0

6

12

7

14

9

18

21

42

a m = p

b m = p + 6

D m = 12p

E m = 2p

C m = p + 2

1

8

2

9

5

12

7

14

98

105

a w = 8m

b w = 2m + 6

D w = 2m + 5

E w = 2m

C w = m + 7

2

8

3

11

4

14

11

35

78

236

a t = p + 6

b t = 2p + 3

D t = 3p + 2

E t = 3p + 1

C t = 4p

2

10

3

15

4

20

11

55

78

390

a k = 5g

b k = 4g + 2

D k = 2g + 6

E k = 4g - 2

C k = g + 8

5 MC

g

k

6 MC

r

w

7 MC

p

m

8 MC

m

w

9 MC

p

t

10 MC

g

k

260

11 mC

b

a

1

9

2

11

9

25

14

35

65

137

a a = 8b + 1

b a = 3b + 5

D a = 2b + 7

E a=b-8

C a=b+8

12 mC

a e = m + 78

b e = 10m + 11

C e = 12m + 1

D e = 6m + 43

E e = 10m 11

13 Breanna was having some friends over after school. She needed enough biscuits so that they

could have 3 biscuits each. Her sisters would also be home. She needed 9 extra biscuits for

herself and her sisters. If she wants to have n friends over, write a formula to decide how many

biscuits she would need.

m

e

2

25

3

37

5

61

7

85

11

133

REASoNiNG

14 Look at the following tables and use the variables given to write a formula for each table.

a

b

eBook plus

Digital docs

WorkSHEET 8.1

doc-1819

10

24

99

11

15

10

32

200

REfLECTioN

What strategies can you use to

help you find a formula?

Substitution

8C

If we know the rule or formula for a particular table, we can take on the role of an algebra

machine and find the numbers that are needed to fill any gap.

When a variable in a formula is replaced by a number, we say that the number is substituted

into the formula.

WoRkED ExAmPLE 9

If x = 3t - 6, substitute the given values of t into the formula to find the value of x in each case.

a t=5

b t = 12

ThiNk

a

WRiTE

x = 3t - 6

Substitute 5 for t.

x=35-6

x = 15 - 6

x=9

Substitute 12 for t.

x = 3 12 - 6

x = 36 - 6

x = 30

If

t=5

x = 3t - 6

If

t = 12

Chapter 8 Algebra

261

WoRkED ExAmPLE 10

Find the value of m by substituting the given value of x into the formula below.

m = 3(2x + 3), x = 4

ThiNk

WRiTE

m = 3(2x + 3)

Substitute 4 for x.

If

(a) Multiply 2 by 4 (remember that 2x means

2 x).

(b) Add 3 to the above result.

m = 3(8 + 3)

m = 3(11)

m = 3 11

x=4

m = 3(2 4 + 3)

= 33

remember

substituted into the formula.

ExERCiSE

8C

iNDiViDUAL

PAThWAyS

eBook plus

Activity 8-C-1

Substitution

doc-1827

Activity 8-C-2

More substitution

doc-1828

Activity 8-C-3

Advanced

substitution

doc-1829

262

Substitution

fLUENCy

1 WE9 Substitute the given values into each formula to find the value of m in each case.

a m=g-2

i g=4

ii g = 5

iii g = 2

iv g = 102

b m = 2t - 3

i t=7

ii t = 2

iii t = 100

iv t = 8

c m = 12h + 7

i h=1

ii h = 0

iii h = 5

iv h = 20

d m = 25 - 4w

i w=1

ii w = 3

iii w = 6

iv w = 0

2 WE10 Find the value of m by substituting the given value of the variable into the formula.

a m = 2(g + 1)

i g=1

ii g = 0

iii g = 12

iv g = 75

b m = 5(x - 2)

i x=6

ii x = 10

iii x = 11

iv x = 2

c m = 4(12 - p)

i p=2

ii p = 3

iii p = 12

iv p = 11

d m = 5(2g - 3)

i g=2

ii g = 14

iii g = 5

iv g = 9

e m = 2(d + 2) - 3

i d=3

ii d = 0

iii d = 7

iv d = 31

f m = 3(f - 1) + 17

i f = 1

ii f = 3

iii f = 6

iv f = 21

g m = 4s - s

i s = 3

ii s = 1

iii s = 101

iv s = 72

h m = 3(y + 5) - 2

i y = 1

ii y = 5

iii y = 0

iv y = 12

ii v = 7

iii v = 1

iv v = 8

m = 50 - 6v

i v = 4

Understanding

3 Most tinned and packaged foods that we buy have labels which list the nutritional content

of the food. Most of the energy (measured in calories or kilojoules) in food comes from fat,

protein and carbohydrates.

It is estimated that there are 9 calories in each gram of fat and 4 calories in each gram of

protein and each gram of carbohydrate. Hence, if a particular food contained 1.6 grams of fat,

2.1 grams of protein and 16.3 grams of carbohydrate, it would be equal to 1.6 9 = 14.4 calories

of fat, 2.1 4 = 8.4 calories of protein and 16.3 4 = 65.2 calories of carbohydrate. The total

number of calories would be 88 (that is, 14.4 + 8.4 + 65.2).

a From the label shown, write the number of grams of fat, protein and carbohydrate in

100 grams of baked beans.

b Estimate how many calories there would be in 100 grams of baked beans using the

I f we wanted to look at a wide variety of foods, it would be more convenient to have a

rule or formula into which we could substitute numbers to easily obtain our answer.

c Clearly explain how you obtained your answer in question b.

d Choose a variable for each of the following quantities:

i number of grams of fat

ii number of grams of protein

iii number of grams of carbohydrate

iv number of calories.

e Using the variables you have chosen, write a formula to calculate the number of calories.

f The table below contains data on the fat, protein and carbohydrate content of selected

foods. Copy this table into your workbook and write in your chosen variables in the first

row within the brackets. Use your formula to work out the calorie content of each of

these foods. (The last column will be completed later on.)

Chapter 8 Algebra

263

Food

1 hot cross bun

100 grams of chocolate cake

100 grams of roast chicken

70 grams of bacon

2 grilled sausages

1 piece of fish (flake), no batter

10 grams of sultanas

25 grams of dried apricots

1 banana

1 apple

1 serve of carrots

1 serve of potatoes

250 millilitres of milk

210 grams of tinned tomato noodle soup

Number

of grams

of fat

3

16

14

8

17

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

0.8

Number

Number of Number Number

of grams

grams of

of

of

of protein carbohydrate calories kilojoules

3

19

56

4

0

26

0

21

15

13

0

21

6

0

17

0

20

1

0

17

0

5

0

17

8

12

2.6

14.9

g Which quantity of food in this list has the highest number of calories? Is this what you

expected?

h What types of food in this list generally have a lower number of calories?

A calorie is an energy measurement unit in the imperial system. Nowadays we mostly use

the metric system unit of kilojoules to measure energy. It is estimated that the number of

kilojoules is equivalent to the number of calories multiplied by 4.2.

i Use a variable to represent each of

the quantities number of calories

and number of kilojoules and write

a formula connecting them.

j Convert the calories you calculated

in b to kilojoules (rounding to the

nearest kilojoule). Compare this to

the value on the label.

k Complete the final column of your

table by using the formula to find the

number of kilojoules for each listed

food. (Round your answers to the

nearest kilojoule.)

Reasoning

4 The dining tables at the Trio theatre restaurant are triangular in shape. Diners are seated at the

The manager of the restaurant has received a booking from a large party. She sets out a row

of 24 tables. How many diners can be seated at this row of tables?

264

a Draw a table with a row for the number of tables (T) and another row for the number of

diners (D). Using the diagrams above, write in the pairs of numbers.

b Draw a diagram to work out the number of diners who could sit at a row of 4 tables. Now

draw another diagram to show the number of diners who could sit at a row of 5 tables.

Write these pairs of values in your table.

c Work out the formula which connects the number of diners and the number of tables.

Write the formula in the form D = ...

d Substitute T = 24 into the formula to find out how many guests could be seated at the row

of 24 tables.

5 Jane is tiling the floor in her bathroom. She has decided to use blue and white tiles in the

following pattern:

Number of blue tiles = 2

Number of blue tiles = 3

Number of white tiles = 4

Number of white tiles = 6

Number of white tiles = 8

Find out how many white tiles Jane would need to complete the pattern for a row of 10 blue

tiles by following the steps below:

a Draw a table with two rows; one headed B showing the number of blue tiles and one headed

W showing the number of white tiles required. Count the numbers of blue and white tiles

from each of the tiling patterns above and put them into the table in the correct row.

b Draw a diagram of the tiling pattern for a row of 4 blue tiles and work out the number of

white tiles needed to complete the pattern. Then draw another pattern for a row of 5 blue

tiles. Add these two sets of values for B and W into the table.

c Look carefully at the table and work out the formula that connects W and B. Write the

formula in the form W = ...

d Substitute B = 10 into the formula to find out how many white tiles would be needed for a

row of 10 blue tiles, using Janes tiling pattern.

6 Michael is constructing a timber fence at his stud farm. The sections of fence are shown below:

1 section, 4 pieces

2 sections, 7 pieces

3 sections, 10 pieces

Michael calculates that he will need 220 sections to fence off his first paddock.

How many pieces of timber will Michael need? Find the cost of the fence if each piece of

timber costs $3.85.

Follow the steps below.

a Draw a table with 2 rows, one headed S showing the number of sections and one headed

c

d

e

P showing the number of pieces of timber required. Write in the numbers from the

diagrams above.

Draw a sketch of the fence with 4 sections, following the same pattern. Count the number

of pieces of timber required. Draw a sketch for 5 sections and count the pieces required.

Enter both pairs of numbers into your table in the correct columns.

Use trial and error to find the formula connecting P and S. Write the formula in the form

P = ...

Substitute S = 220 into the formula to find out how many pieces of timber Michael needs.

Find the cost of the fence.

Chapter 8 Algebra

265

7 A T-shirt shop uses the letter T as its logo. The company wishes to make up a large advertising

sign from square lights. Several small T-shirt shop signs are shown below:

Arm length = 1

Arm length = 2

Arm length = 3

Number of lights = 4

Number of lights = 7

Number of lights = 10

Find out how many square light panels would be needed to make up a large sign with an arm

length of 75. Follow the steps below.

a Draw a table with rows headed A (arm length), and L (number of lights needed).

b Write in the values of A and L from the diagrams above.

c Complete the diagrams showing the number of lights needed for a sign with an arm

length of 4, and a sign with an arm length of 5. Add these values to your table.

d Look at the table to determine the formula which connects L and A. Write the formula in

the form L = ...

e Substitute A = 75 into the formula to find the number of lights needed for the large

display sign.

8 Karl Frederick Gauss, when he was a young man, discovered the sum S of the first n natural

n( n + 1)

.

numbers is given by the formula S =

reflection

2

What strategies could you use

Using this formula, find the answer to

to check that your answer is

a 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + 46 + 47 + 48 + 49

reasonable?

b 54 + 55 + 56 + 57 + ... + 85 + 86 + 87 + 88.

8D

The number in front of a variable is called the coefficient. The coefficient of 7x is 7. The

coefficient of 6xyz is 6. The coefficient of p is 1.

Expressions are made up of variables and numbers. Some expressions are 3k - 8, 3t + 4,

6(g - 9), 9p - 3y + 5.

Worked Example 11

Write expressions to represent the total number of coins in each of the following situations where

represents a full moneybox and

coins in a moneybox.

a Mary fills one moneybox and has two coins left over.

bValentino and Loris decide to combine their coins. Valentino has three moneyboxes with four coins

left over and Loris has two moneyboxes with six coins left over. That is,

Valentino has

Loris has

Think

a

266

The total number of coins will be found by adding the number of coins in

one moneybox plus two coins left over.

Write

a

1c+2

= c + 2

b

(3c + 4) + (2c + 6)

+

= (3c + 2c) + (4 + 6)

+

= 5c + 10

Simplify.

Worked Example 12

Think

Write

The expression is T + G or G + T.

equations are: y = 4t - 6, m + 3 = y - 8, 2(g + 5) = 5, y = 6t, w = e - 87, 9 = 7 + 4r.

Expressions and equations are made up of terms. Terms are separated by + or - signs.

Terms can contain a combination of numbers and one or more variables, or may consist of a

number only. Examples of terms are 3t, 2y, 7, 5gh, m, brt.

The letter, or symbol, is called a variable because its value can change.

Because the value of a number cannot change, if a term contains only a number, it is called a

constant.

The definitions for this section can be summarised as shown below.

Coefficient

Variable

Variable

Constant

y = 3x - 2

Term

Term Term

Expression Expression

Equation

Worked Example 13

a5 times that number

b 2 less than that number

c 8 more than that number

d the number divided by 4 (or the quotient of Y and 4)

e the next consecutive number (that is, the counting number which comes after Y).

Think

and the order in which they occur.

a When multiplying we dont show the multiplication

sign. Remember to put the number first.

Write

a 5 Y or 5Y

Chapter 8 Algebra

267

b An expression with 2 less means subtract 2.

b Y-2

c Y+8

e Y+1

(fraction).

number.

Y

or Y 4

4

Worked Example 14

aTake a number and add another number.

bMultiply 2 numbers.

cAdd 2 numbers and multiply the answer by 6.

dTake a number and multiply it by 4, then subtract 8 from that answer.

Think

1

Write

unknown number.

In each case think about which operations are

being used and the order in which they occur.

a B + G or G + B

b xy

brackets. Multiply by 6.

(Remember to write the numbers first.)

c 6(t + f)

d 4b - 8

Worked Example 15

aIf 15 is added to a number the result is 21.

bThe quotient of a number and 7 is equal to 5.

Think

a

268

sign followed by 21.

number.

fraction) then place an equals sign followed

by 5.

Write

a

x + 15 = 21

z

=5

7

remember

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

A number in front of a variable is known as a coefcient.

Expressions are parts of a rule made up of variables and numbers.

Equations always contain an equals sign whereas expressions do not.

Expressions and equations are made up of terms.

When writing expressions, think about which operations are being used, and the order

in which they occur.

7. If variables are not given in a question, you can choose any letters you like.

ExERCiSE

8D

iNDiViDUAL

PAThWAyS

eBook plus

fLUENCy

1 WE11a, b Write an expression for the total number of coins in each of the following, using c to

Activity 8-D-1

Terms and

expressions

doc-1830

Activity 8-D-2

expressions

doc-1831

Activity 8-D-3

Advanced terms

and expressions

doc-1832

b

e

2 Christie and Jane both had two full moneyboxes and seventeen coins each. They combined

2(

b Christie opened the first moneybox and counted 52 twenty-cent pieces inside. Use your

expression to calculate how many coins the girls had in total, assuming that all the

moneyboxes held the same number of coins.

c What is the total amount that the girls spent on their day out?

3 Luke has three macadamia nut trees in his backyard. He saves takeaway containers to store

the nuts in. He has two types of containers, rectangular

and round

. Using m to

represent the number of nuts in a rectangular container and n to represent the number of nuts in

a round container, write expressions for the following.

a

b

c

d

where

e

4 Luke found that a rectangular container holds 17 nuts and a round container holds 12 nuts.

Calculate how many nuts Luke would have for each part in question 3 by substituting the

Chapter 8 Algebra

269

eBook plus

Weblink

Algebraic

expressions

game

a The sum of B and 2

b 3 less than T

c 6 added to D

d 5 taken away from K

e The sum of G, N and W

f D increased by H

g N increased by N

h H added to C

i G subtracted from 12

j D multiplied by 4

k 6 added to H

l The difference between Z and G

m B multiplied by F

n Y added to the product of 3 and M

6 WE13 If A, B and C represent any 3 numbers, write an expression for each of the following.

a The sum of all 3 numbers

b The difference between A and C

c The product of A and B

d The product of all 3 numbers

e The quotient of B and C (that is, B divided by C )

f The sum of A and C, divided by B

g 3 more than A

7 WE14 Write expressions for the following rules.

a The number of students left in the class if X students leave for the canteen out of a total

group of T students

b The amount of money earned by selling B cakes where each

c The total number of sweets if there are G bags of sweets

d The cost of one concert ticket if 5 tickets cost $T

e The number of students in a class that contains

f The number of insects if there are Y legs altogether

g The cost of M movie tickets if each ticket costs $11.00

h The total amount of fruit sold if A apples and

The number of cards left in a pack of 52 cards if

J cards are removed

j The total number of floor tiles if there are

B boxes of tiles with 12 tiles in each box

k The average of B and G

l The total runs scored by 3 batsmen

if they have scores of A, H and K respectively

m The total number of legs if there are R chairs

8 WE15 Write equations for the following rules.

a If 8 is added to a number the result is 11.

b If 11 is subtracted from a number the result

is 63.

c The product of a number and 8 is equal

to 128.

d The quotient of a number and 7 is equal to 5.

e The total cost of A apples and H bananas

is $6.49.

f When Q cards are removed from a pack of

52 cards only 19 remain.

g The total cost of M concert tickets at $99 each

was $792.

h The total number of legs if there are R chairs

and D tables is 164.

i

270

Understanding

9 Answer True or False for each of the statements below.

a 3x is a term.

b 3mn is a term.

c g = 23 - t is an expression.

d g = 5t - 6 is an equation.

e rt = r t

f 5 + A = A + 5

g 3d + 5 is an expression.

h 7 - B = B - 7

i 3x = 9 is an expression.

j The expression g + 2t has two terms.

k 2f + 4 = 4 + 2f

l 5a - 7t + h is an equation.

10 MC In each of the following, the letter N has been used to represent a number. For each

expression written in words, choose the answer that you think matches:

a five times the number

a N + 5

b 5N

c N - 5

d N 5

e 5 - N

a 52 - N

b 52N

c N + 52

d N - 52

e N 52

a O

b 2N

c N - 1

d N + 1

e 12N

a N + T

b N S

c N + 4

d NS

e N - 5

a 2N

1

2

d N - 2

e 2 + N

c N - 4

d 4 - N

e N 4

d 2N + D

e N + T

b N 2

a N + 4

b 4N

c N +

a N + 2D

b D(N + 2)

c 2N + 2B

a the number 5 more than x

b the number 8 less than x

c the number twice as large as x

d the number one quarter of x

e the next largest number after x

f the number of cents in x dollars

g the number of metres in x centimetres

h the number of days in x weeks

i the (mean) average of x and 20

j how much it costs to rent a tennis court for x hours at $10 per hour

k the average of 5, 18 and k.

12 MC a John is x years old. In 5 years his age will be:

b 17

a 5x

c x - 5

d x + 5

e 10

b Chris is 2 years older than Jenny. If Jenny is x years old then Chriss age is:

a x - 2

b 2x

c x + 2

d 2

x

2

c Duy earns $5 per week more than Ben. If Duy earns $x, then Ben earns:

a x + 5

b 5x

c x - 5

d 5 + x

e 5 - x

c 4

a x + 1

b 2x + 2

d 2x

e x + 2

c 3

a x + 1

b x + 2

d 2x + 1

e 2x + 2

f Gian is half Carlas age. If Gian is x years old, then Carlas age is:

1

x

b x + 2

c 2x

d 1 x

e x - 1

2

2

2

13 aAli earns $7 more per week than Halit. If Halit earns $x, find their total earnings per week.

b Sasha is twice as old as Kapila. If Kapila is x years old, find their total age.

c Frank has had 3 more birthdays than James. If James is 2x years old, find their total age.

Chapter 8 Algebra

271

d If x is the smaller of 3 consecutive whole numbers, find the sum of the 3 numbers.

e If x is the smallest of 3 consecutive odd numbers, find the sum of the 3 numbers.

f If x is the smallest of 3 consecutive even numbers, find the sum of the 3 numbers.

Reasoning

14 aWrite a rule to describe how you would calculate the total cost of 3 items, two hamburgers

b Let h represent the cost of a hamburger. If the drink costs $3.75 and the total cost is

15 To hire a windsurfer, there is a $50 deposit, and you are charged $12 per hour.

ii 2 hours?

iii 3 hours?

Write a rule that could be used to calculate the cost of hiring a windsurfer for n hours.

Use the rule to calculate the cost of hiring a

windsurfer for 8 hours.

reflection

d You have $100 to spend. Write an equation to

What strategies can you use to

help you work out the number of hours for

check that your formula is correct?

which you could hire a windsurfer.

a

b

c

8E

i 1 hour?

Simplifying expressions containing like terms

Terms containing exactly the same variables, regardless of order, are called like terms.

Examples of like and non-like terms are:

Like terms

Non-like terms

5e and 6e

5x and 5y

x and 13x

12xy and 21x

2bc and 4cb

15abc and 4bcd

3g2 and 45g2

16g and 45g2

When simplifying expressions, we can add or subtract like terms only.

272

6b + 4b = 10b

5xy + 8xy = 13xy

12y + 3y - 5y = 10y

4t - 3t = t

7t - 5t = 2t

Some expressions that cannot be simplified are:

5g + 5c cannot be simplified

4t - 4 cannot be simplified

3xy + 4x cannot be simplified

14abc - 6bc cannot be simplified

45b - 43 cannot be simplified

4g - 4n cannot be simplified.

Worked Example 16

Where possible, simplify the following expressions by adding or subtracting like terms.

a 4g + 6g

b 11ab - ab

c 6ad + 5da

d 4t + 7t - 5

e 8x + 3y

Think

a The variables are the same. The terms can be

Write

a

4g + 6g = 10g

11ab - ab = 10ab

= 11ad

4t + 7t - 5 = 11t - 5

8x + 3y cannot be simplified.

added.

b The variables are the same. The terms can be

c Although the order of the variables is different, the

Note: Variables may be rearranged in alphabetical

order.

d The variables are the same and the first two terms

e The variables are not the same. These are not like

Worked Example 17

Simplify the following expressions first, then find the value of the expression if a = 4.

a 5a + 2a

b 7a - a + 5

Think

a

Write

a

5a + 2a = 7a

expression.

If a = 4

Evaluate.

7a = 7 a

=74

= 28

expression.

If a = 4

Evaluate.

6a + 5 = 6 a + 5

=64+5

= 24 + 5

= 29

7a - a + 5 = 6a + 5

Chapter 8 Algebra

273

3(a + b) = 3a + 3b.

We can think of 3(a + b) = (a + b) + (a + b) + (a + b).

Collecting like terms,

3(a + b) = a + a + a + b + b + b = 3a + 3b.

An expression containing a bracket multiplied by

a number can be written in expanded or factorised

form.

factorised form

expanded form

3(a + b) = 3a + 3b

a+b

The distributive law is the name given to this process because the number out in front is

distributed to each of the terms in the brackets.

a(b + c) = ab + ac

The distributive law can be used when the terms inside the brackets are either added or

subtracted.

a(b - c) = ab - ac

The distributive law is not used when the terms inside the brackets are multiplied or divided.

You can see this with numbers 2(4 5) = 2 4 5 not (2 4) (2 5).

When simplifying expressions, you can leave the result in either factorised form or expanded

form, but not a combination of both.

Worked Example 18

a 4(2a + d)

b a(3x + 2y)

c 3(k + 4a - m)

Think

a

b

distributed to both the 3x and the 2y.

Write

a

4(2a + d) = 4 2a + 4 d

= 8a + 4d

a(3x + 2y) = a 3x + a 2y

3(k + 4a - m) = 3 k + 3 4a - 3 m

= 3ax + 2ay

= 3k + 12a - 3m

Worked Example 19

a 4(2s + 3k) - 2k

b a(3 - c) + a

Think

a

274

Write

= 8s + 12k - 2k

= 8s + 10k

= 3a - ac + a

= 4a - ac

4(2s + 3k) - 2k = 4 2s + 4 3k - 2k

a(3 - c) + a = a 3 - a c + a

remember

2. The process of adding or subtracting like terms is called simplifying.

3. Substituting known values for variables in an expression allows us to evaluate the

expression.

4. Using the distributive law, expressions in factorised form can be written in expanded form.

5. a(b + c) = ab + ac.

6. a(b - c) = ab - ac.

ExERCiSE

8e

iNDiViDUAL

PAThWAyS

eBook plus

Activity 8-E-1

doc-1833

Activity 8-E-2

More of the

distributive law

doc-1834

Activity 8-E-3

Advanced use of

the distributive law

doc-1835

fLUENCy

1 WE16 Where possible, simplify the following expressions by adding or subtracting like terms.

a 3a + 2a

b 9y + 5y

c 3c + 12c

d 4u - 2u

e 7e + 13e

f 7t - 2t

g 12ab + 2ab

h 8fg - 2fg

i 4e - e

j 6t + t

k f + 4f

l 6y - 6y

m 4x + 14x

n 3m + 16m - 7m

o 6a + 4a - 2a

2 Simplify the following expressions if possible.

a 24ab + ab - 7

b 5y + y - 3y

d 18i + 12i - 2

e 4t + 8t - 3 + 2t

g 2x + 2y

h 7y + 6

j 4 + 3g - g

k 6t - 5t

m 13mno - 11mno

n 11pq + 3qp

p 9e - 9t - 1

q 7t + 4t - 5

s 11aw - 3aw

t 7xy - 7x

v 5t - t + 3

w 3g + 7g - 2

c

f

i

l

o

r

u

x

a 3t - 3t

b 18r - 18r

d 5x - 5x + 8

e 6t + 7 - 6t

g 13xyz - 13xyz

h 5x + 7 - 5x

c 12ab - 12ab

f 9g - 9g + 2

i 5y + 2y - y

5t + 5s

7r + 2r + 5r - r

18f - 2f + 5

18bg - 18bg

6pr + 2 + 5rp

32t - 31t

5t + 6t - 8

5r + 17r + 4 + 2

4 WE17 Simplify the following expressions first, then find the value of the expression if a = 7.

a 3a + 2a

b 7a + 2a

c 6a - 2a

d 9a + a

e 13a + 2a - 5a

f 3a + 7a

g 17 + 5a + 3a

h 6a - a + 2

i a+a

j 7a - 6a

k 7a - 7a

l 12a + 5a - 16

5 WE18 Use the distributive law to write the following expressions in expanded form, then

simplify.

3(a + 2b)

10(2g + 3h)

2c(8d - q)

x(9a + 7b)

a

c

e

g

b

d

f

h

5(x - 4z)

b(2c - 3a)

3b(3b - 2g)

7k(t + 3m)

6 WE19 Write the following expressions in expanded form, then simplify if possible.

a 5(a + 2b) - 3a

b 4(n - 2c) + n

c 9(b + 2c) - 9b

d x(a - b) + x

e y(3 + 2z) + 2y

f 3x(d - 3) + 4x

g 6u(2f - 1) + 20u

h 7n(10 + 3h) - 50n

Chapter 8 Algebra

275

UNDERSTANDiNG

7 Answer True or False to each of the following statements.

a 4t and 6t are like terms.

b 3x and x are like terms.

c 5g and 5t are like terms.

d 7t and 5i are like terms.

e 5a and 6a are like terms.

f 4a and 4ab are like terms.

g 9fg and 4gf are like terms.

h 6gh and 7gk are like terms.

i 6r and 5r are like terms.

j yz and 45zy are like terms.

k 3acd and 6cda are like terms.

l 5g and 5fg are like terms.

m 8gefh and 3efgh are like terms.

n 6ab and 3ba are like terms.

o 8xy and 5xy are like terms.

p 12ep and 4pe are like terms.

q 7eg and 7g are like terms.

r 7y and 18yz are like terms.

8 mC a Which one of the following is a like term for 7t?

C 2

a 7g

b 5tu

D 6f

E 5t

a 5ab

b 6a

C 3w

D a+2

E 6a

a 6abe

b 4b

C 2ba

D 5

E 5abe

a 7t

b 4gt

C 2gb

D btg

E b+g+t

a fg + k

b 5fg

C 2fgk

D 12f

E 12p

D m+2

E 20

D xzy

E 9z

a 11m

b 20mn

C 20f

g Which one of the following is a like term for 9xyz?

a 9x

b 2yz

C 8xz

f

a The equation y = 4x + 3x can be simplified to y = 7x.

b The equation k = 8y + 4y can be simplified to k = 10y.

c The equation y = 4x + 3 can be simplified to y = 7x.

d The equation b = 3a - a can be simplified to b = 2a.

e The equation k = 7a + 4d can be simplified to k = 11ad.

f The equation y = 5x - 3x can be simplified to y = 2x.

g The equation m = 7 + 2x can be simplified to m = 9x.

h The equation p = 3x - 2x can be simplified to p = x.

i The equation t = 3h + 12h + 7 can be simplified to t = 15h + 7.

j The equation y = 16g + 6g - 7g can be simplified to y = 15g.

10 Expand each of the following and then simplify.

a 3(x - y) + 5( y + 2x)

b 5(a - 2y) + a(7 + 6y)

c 6c(g + 3d ) + g(3c + d )

d y(6d - r) + 2y(3d + 2r)

REASoNiNG

eBook plus

Digital docs

WorkSHEET 8.2

doc-1820

276

a 4x + 2

b ab + 3a

c 12ay + 9ab

d 3bd - 6bc + 9ab

REfLECTioN

What strategies will you use to

identify like terms?

8F

can see that (9 + 3) + 7 = 12 + 7 = 19 and 9 + (3 + 7) = 9 + 10 = 19.

The associative law for multiplication is: (a b) c = a (b c) = a b c. Using

numbers we can see that (2 3) 5 = 6 5 = 30 and 2 (3 5) = 2 15 = 30.

The associative law does not hold for subtraction and division. Using numbers for subtraction,

(8 - 3) - 2 = 5 - 2 = 3, but 8 - (3 - 2) = 8 - 1 = 7. Using numbers for division,

(24 6) 2 = 4 2 = 2, but 24 (6 2) = 24 3 = 8.

Worked Example 20

a2 w + 8 d +

b x

)=(

) 4g =

+ 8d + 5h

( d 4 g)

Think

Write

) (

2 w + 8d + 5h = 2 w + 8d + 5h

( x d ) 4g = x

from the left-hand side and 2w is missing from the

right-hand side.

regrouped. d is missing from the left-hand side and

x is missing from the right-hand side.

(d 4g)

The commutative law for addition is: a + b = b + a. Using numbers we can see that

5+3=8 and 3 + 5 = 8.

The commutative law for multiplication is: a b = b a. Using numbers we can see that

2 3 = 6 and 3 2 = 6.

The commutative law does not hold for subtraction and division. Using numbers, we can see

that 5 - 3 3 - 5 and 6 2 2 6.

Worked Example 21

a4 r + 6 t +

) = 5g + (

ba 3 t 2 w = 2 w

Think

Write

4r + 6t + 5g = 5g + 4r + 6t

a ( 3t 2 w ) = 2 w 3t a

missing from the left-hand side. Both 4r and 6t are

missing from the right-hand side.

the numbers can be regrouped and rearranged.

3t and a multiplication sign are missing from the

right-hand side.

Chapter 8 Algebra

277

remember

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

ExERCiSE

8F

iNDiViDUAL

PAThWAyS

eBook plus

Activity 8-F-1

doc-1836

Activity 8-F-2

More of the

associative law

doc-1837

The associative law for multiplication is: (ab)c = a(bc) = abc.

The associative law does not hold for subtraction or division.

The commutative law for addition is: a + b = b + a.

The commutative law for multiplication is: ab = ba.

The commutative law does not hold for subtraction or division.

fLUENCy

1 WE20 Use the associative law to complete the following.

a

c

w+ r

) (

6y =

( 9 y + ) + 3w =

6t 4r

+ ( 2r + 3w )

( z + 2 p) +

6t + 3w +

)=

( 3c + w ) +

= d+

+ ( 6t + 7v )

int-2349

278

+ 6t

3s

b

d

) = 2c ( )

) 2y = 2y (3b )

s 9r

(g

3 State whether the following are True or False. (Hint: If youre not sure, try substituting values

2s + (3w + 5z) = (2s + 3w) + 5z

g( jk) = (gj)k

3g + (k m) = (3g + k) m

3r + (a + 4c) = a + (3r + 4c)

Interactivity

Associative and

commutative

laws

=z

4r

UNDERSTANDiNG

a

c

e

g

eBook plus

) = (6

2 WE21 Use the associative and commutative laws to complete the following.

Activity 8-F-3

Advanced use of

the associative law

doc-1838

) + 6y

b

d

f

h

x (d + y) = (x d ) + y

4 (a c) = (4 a) c

4t - ( p + 2b) = (4t - p) + 2b

a + (b c) = (a c) + b

4 Find the values of the following expressions and comment on the results if a = 3, b = 8, c = 2.

a i 3a + (2b + 4c)

ii (3a + 2b) + 4c

b i 9a - (2b - 5c)

ii (9a - 2b) - 5c

c i a (b c)

ii (a b) c

d i 4a (3b 2c)

ii (4a 3b) 2c

REASoNiNG

5 Janet and Judy want to buy a set of DVDs. Janet has $47 less than the purchase price, and Judy

has $2 less. If they pool their money, they still do not have enough to buy the DVDs. If the set

costs a whole number of dollars, what is its price?

6 The associative law refers to the order in which three numbers may be added, subtracted,

multiplied or divided, taking two at a time. It always holds true for addition and multiplication. So:

12 + (6 + 2) = (12 + 6) + 2 and

12 (6 2) = (12 6) 2.

Generally it does not hold true for subtraction and

division. So:

REfLECTioN

a - (b - c) (a - b) - c and

Does the associative law

a (b c) (a b) c.

hold when you are adding

Investigate to find values for a, b and c that would

fractions? How do you know?

make the associative law true for subtraction and division.

Summary

Using rules

By observing number patterns, we can discover the rules by which a pattern is produced.

In algebra, a rule can be used to produce a set of output numbers from a set of input numbers.

Finding a formula

When a rule is written using variables it is called a formula.

When multiplying numbers and variables we dont need to show the multiplication sign, and

we place numbers being multiplied in front of variables.

Substitution

When a variable in a formula is replaced by a number, we say that the number is substituted

into the formula.

Terms, expressions and equations

A number in front of a variable is known as a coefcient.

Expressions are parts of a rule made up of variables and numbers.

Equations always contain an equals sign whereas expressions do not.

Expressions and equations are made up of terms.

When writing expressions, think about which operations are being used, and the order in

which they occur.

If variables are not given in a question, you can choose any letters you like.

Simplifying and the distributive law

The process of adding or subtracting like terms is called simplifying.

Substituting known values for variables in an expression allows us to evaluate the expression.

Using the distributive law, expressions in factorised form can be written in expanded form.

a(b + c) = ab + ac.

a(b - c) = ab - ac.

The associative law

The associative law for multiplication is: (ab)c = a(bc) = abc.

The associative law does not hold for subtraction or division.

The commutative law for addition is: a + b = b + a.

The commutative law for multiplication is: ab = ba.

The commutative law does not hold for subtraction or division.

Homework

book

Using terms from the summary above, and other terms if you wish, construct a concept

map that illustrates your understanding of the key concepts covered in this chapter.

Compare your concept map with the one that you created in What do you know? on this

chapters opening page. Have you completed the two Homework sheets, the Rich task and

two Code puzzles in your Maths Quest 7 Homework book?

Chapter 8 Algebra

279

Chapter review

D g = 10a

E g = 5a - 10

fluency

1 Copy and complete the tables below. For each

numbers.

a Multiply each input number by 4.

1

3

4

Input

Output

b Add 7 to each input number.

Input

Output

13

15

subtract 3.

4

10

4

11

11

32

1

5

4

32

7

59

8

68

23

203

16

p

q

20

0

6

3

15

5

21

6

24

12

42

q = ___ p + 6

Input

Output

15

16

33

3

table.

a

Input

Output

15

22

106

by 2.

Input

Output

6

18

96

Input

Output

11

15

21

71

1

11

4

14

5

15

6

16

a g = 5a + 6

b g = a - 10

C g = a + 10

Maths Quest 7 for the Australian Curriculum

10

13

12

13

23

17

22

32

47

117

11

15

19

23

43

a y = x - 1

subtract 5.

280

3

8

y = 9x - ___

and output numbers.

a Subtract 7 from each input number.

a

g

x

y

2

5

13

1

2

t = 3m

t = 3m - 1

t=m+5

t = 3m + 1

t = 3m - 2

a

b

C

D

E

Input

Output

m

t

each table by inserting a number into the gap.

Input

Output

23

33

x

y

105

12

b d = 3x

x

d

c h = 6 - x

x

h

d n = 11x + 3

x

n

Sanitys city store fills 35 boxes with 18 CDs

left over.

a Write an expression to represent the Sanity

order, using the variable x to represent a full

box of CDs.

b If each full box contains 30 CDs, use your

expression to calculate how many CDs the

store ordered.

10

11

12

13

8 Write expressions for the following:

a the difference between M and C

b money earned by selling B cakes for $3 each

c the product of X and Y

d 15 more than G

e 1 more than D

f the cost of 12 bananas at H cents each

g T multiplied by 5.

9 Simplify the following expressions by adding or

a 3g + 4g

b 8y - 2y

c 4h + 5h

d 7ag - 2ag

e 6gy - 3yg

f 8r - 8r

6y - 2y + y

4t + 6 + 3t

12gh + 6hg

8t - 2m + 3t

3m + m

7g + 8g + 8 + 4

7h + 4t - 3h

2b + 7c + 8b

11axy - 3axy

Simplify the following expressions first, then find

the value of the expression if x = 5.

a 7x + 3x

b 2x + 3x - 4

c 11x + 12x

d x + 2x

e 4x - x

f 3x - 2x + 16

g 21x - 13x + 7

h 11 + 2x + 5x

i 7x - 4x + 3x

Use the distributive law to expand the following.

a 7(m - 3k)

b w(g + 9a)

c 2y(8h - 7)

d 10m(7r - 2p)

e 3g(2a + 2c)

f 4j(6x - 3y)

Expand the following and simplify if possible.

a 5(t - 2s) - 3t

b 4(a + 3g) - 2g

c d(3f + 9) - 2d

d 4z(2 - a) + 7z

e 3p( f - 2q) + 7p

f 10b(a + 6) + 5b

Use the associative law to complete the following.

=

+

+ 5c

a a + 3b +

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

1

b

+ 2b +

a

) (

)=(

)

+ 2b )

z=

(

(

( d 3y )

a

d c

b

7g

a g+

+ 2k = 2k +

) (

( w + ) + 4r =

2

2d

3

d (3z 5b)

c

) + 3m

+ ( 5g + w )

) = ( r 2d )

=

(6m 5b)

Chapter 8 Algebra

281

PRoBLEm SoLViNG

1 Johanna (a landscape architect) is installing

common side length.

which are surrounded by wooden sleepers, are

arranged in rows as shown below:

1 triangle, 3 side lengths

1 bed, 6 sleepers required

2 triangles, 5 side lengths

2 beds, 11 sleepers required

3 beds, 16 sleepers required

How many wooden sleepers will Johanna need to

install a row of 12 flowerbeds? Follow the steps

below:

a Draw a table with columns headed B (the

number of flowerbeds), and S (the number of

sleepers needed). Write in the numbers from

the diagrams above.

b Complete a diagram showing the number of

sleepers needed for a row of 4 flowerbeds, and

a row of 5 flowerbeds. Add these values to your

table.

c Look at the table to determine the formula

which connects S and B. Write the formula in

the form S = . . .

d Substitute B = 12 into the formula to find the

number of sleepers needed for the row of

flowerbeds.

single rafter if each rafter contains 25 triangles?

Follow the steps below:

a Draw up a table with columns headed T (the

number of triangles), and S (the number of side

lengths needed). Write in the numbers from the

diagrams above.

b Complete a diagram showing the number of

side lengths needed for a rafter containing

4 triangles. Add these values to your table.

c Look at the table to determine the formula

which connects S and T. Write the formula in

the form S = . . .

d Substitute T = 25 into the formula to find the

number of side lengths needed for each ceiling

rafter.

3 The diagrams below show the number of struts

huts, which are to be built in rows.

1 hut, 6 struts

end as shown. The number of triangle side lengths

required in each rafter depends on the total number

282

2 huts, 11 struts

3 huts, 16 struts

row of 34 beach huts at Golden Beach. Based on

the plans above, how many struts will be required

for the back walls of this row of beach huts?

Follow the steps below to solve this problem.

a Draw a table with rows headed H (the number

of huts), and S (the number of struts needed).

Write in the numbers from the diagrams above.

b Following the same pattern, complete a diagram showing the number of struts needed for a row of 4 huts

c Look at the table to determine the formula that connects S and H. Write the formula in the form S =

d Substitute H = 34 into the formula to find the number of metal struts needed for the row of huts.

The engineers at Surfside Constructions have advised builders that only one of the metal strut cross bracings

is required. Only 5 struts are required for the back wall of each hut. The diagram below is the amended plan

for the huts struts.

1 hut, 5 struts

2 huts, 9 struts

e Draw a diagram showing the number of struts needed for a row of 3 huts.

f Repeat steps a to c for a beach hut containing 5 struts as illustrated in the diagram above.

g How many metal struts will now be required for the back wall of a row of 34 beach huts?

4 A seed you have planted in a pot is starting to grow. When you first notice the seedling, you measure it to be

2.4 centimetres high. Each day after this you continue to measure its height.

6.6 cm

5.2 cm

3.8 cm

2.4 cm

First measurement

1 day later

2 days later

3 days later

Chapter 8 Algebra

283

a If the seedling continues to grow at the same

b

c

d

e

f

g

How tall will it be 5 days later?

Write a formula connecting the height of the

plant with the number of days after the plant

height was first measured. Remember to

identify what each variable represents in your

formula.

Check your formula by calculating the height

of the plant after 7days.

What is the height of the plant after 18days?

What would be the height of the plant after

25days?

Challenge: Use your formula to estimate

when the plant would be approximately

32centimetres high.

Discuss and give reasons why this formula may

not be accurate to predict the plant height after

a period of time.

20people. You have tables that seat 4 people. You

notice that when you push two tables together

you can seat 6 people. Do you see a pattern that

will help you to work out how many tables will be

needed to seat 20 people?

cousin Paul is 8 years older than Bianca. His age

today is m + 8 years old.

as Tom has. Write down an expression, in terms of

y, for the number of books that Cindy has.

i Biancas sister Kate is 5 years younger than

Bianca.

Biancas age.

b If Bianca is 7 years old today. Work out the

order from youngest to eldest.

c If Bianca is 13 years old today. Work out the

ages of her relatives and write their names in

order from youngest to eldest.

6 Use the variable x to make a general statement of

the form

4

284

1

4

= 1, 30

1

30

= 1, 1.2

1

1.2

=1

numbers:

3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, ...

What is the 50th number in this set?

10 A couple spends $x on developing eighty small

photos. How much do they need to spend if they

want an extra dozen photos of each size?

13 A birds head is

1

3

as long as its head and body combined. If the total

length of the bird is 24 cm, how long is its head?

3

all the tickets go for half price. Develop a formula

in terms of x to calculate how much it will cost for

a family of 2 adults and 3 children on family night.

12 You have four friends to whom you gave some

1

money. To the first friend, you gave 3 of your coins.

You then gave 12 of the coins that you had left to

your second friend.

Then you gave your third friend 1 of the coins that

4

you had left. Finally you gave your fourth friend

2

of your remaining coins. At this point you had

3

7 coins remaining.

How many coins did you begin with?

6

age. Toms father is 6 years older than his mother.

How old is Toms sister?

15 Imagine that a new mathematical operation is being

used. Its symbol is #. See the following equations.

1#1=2

3 # 5 = 34

6 # 9 = 117

10 # 14 = 296

Find the value of 15 # 19, and

eBook plus

explain your reasoning.

Weblink

Algebra puzzle

eBook plus

Interactivities

Test yourself

Chapter 8

int-1820

Word search

int-2597

Crossword

int-2598

Chapter 8 Algebra

285

eBook plus

ACTiViTiES

Chapter Opener

Digital docs

(page 251)

are you ready?

Digital docs (page 252)

SkillSHEET 8.1 (doc-6499) Number patterns

SkillSHEET 8.2 (doc-6500) Worded operations

SkillSHEET 8.3 (doc-6501) Describing a number

pattern from a table

SkillSHEET 8.4 (doc-6502) Alternative expressions

used to describe the four operations

SkillSHEET 8.5 (doc-6503) Using tables to show

number patterns

8a

Using rules

Activity 8-A-1 (doc-1821) Percentages and

fractions

Activity 8-A-2 (doc-1822) More percentages and

fractions

Activity 8-A-3 (doc-1823) Advanced percentages

and fractions

8b

Finding a formula

Digital docs

(page 259)

Activity 8-B-2 (doc-1825) More finding a formula

(page 259)

Activity 8-B-3 (doc-1826) Advanced formulae

(page 259)

WorkSHEET 8.1 (doc-1819) (page 261)

8C

Substitution

Activity 8-C-1 (doc-1827) Substitution

Activity 8-C-2 (doc-1828) More substitution

Activity 8-C-3 (doc-1829) Advanced substitution

286

8D

Activity 8-D-1 (doc-1830) Terms and expressions

Activity 8-D-2 (doc-1831) More terms and expressions

Activity 8-D-3 (doc-1832) Advanced terms and

expressions

Weblink (page 270)

Algebraic expressions game

8E

Digital docs

(page 275)

Activity 8-E-2 (doc-1834) More of the distributive

law (page 275)

Activity 8-E-3 (doc-1835) Advanced use of the

distributive law (page 275)

WorkSHEET 8.2 (doc-1820) (page 276)

8F

Activity 8-F-1 (doc-1836) The associative law

Activity 8-F-2 (doc-1837) More of the associative law

Activity 8-F-3 (doc-1838) Advanced use of the

associative law

Interactivity

(page 278)

Chapter review

Weblink

Interactivities (page 285)

Test yourself Chapter 8: (int-1820) Take the end-ofchapter test to test your progress.

Word search (int-2597)

Crossword (int-2598)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to

www.jacplus.com.au

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