You are on page 1of 5

Laboratory Guide for Teachers

Chapter

Activity

Rate of Reaction
1.1

Slow and fast reactions

1. 2 mol dm hydrochloric acid is prepared by diluting


170 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid with
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Activity

1.6

2. 0.1 mol dm3 sodium thiosulphate solution is prepared


by dissolving 24.8 g of solid Na2S2O3. 5H2O in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.
3. 1 mol dm3 lead(II) nitrate solution is prepared by
dissolving 331 g of solid Pb(NO3)2 in distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.

Activity

1.2

Method of measurement of rate of


reaction

1. 0.1 mol dm hydrochloric acid is prepared by


diluting 8.5 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid
with distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. Remind students to remove the oxide layer on the
surface of the magnesium ribbon by rubbing it using
sandpaper.

1.3

1. 20-volume hydrogen peroxide is prepared by diluting


200 cm3 of 100volume hydrogen peroxide with
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Guided
Experiment

1.7

Effect of the amount


of

catalyst
on the rate of reaction PEKA

1. 10-volume hydrogen peroxide is prepared by diluting


500 cm 3 of 20volume hydrogen peroxide with
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.
OR

Guided
Experiment

Effect of catalyst on the rate of


reaction

Effect of total surface area


on the rate of reaction PEKA

10-volume hydrogen peroxide is prepared by diluting


100 cm3 of 100volume hydrogen peroxide with
distilled water and make it to 1 dm3.

Chapter

Activity

Carbon Compounds
2.1

Properties of alkanes and alkenes

1. 0.1 mol dm 3 hydrochloric acid is prepared by


diluting 8.5 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid
with distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

1. Bromine solution is prepared by adding 6 cm3 of


liquid bromine into 200 cm3 of 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane
in a reagent bottle. The mixture is shaken well.

2. Use crushed marble chips and not marble powder.

2. 1 mol dm3 sulphuric acid is prepared by diluting


56 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid with distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Guided
Experiment

1.4

Effect of concentration

on

the
rate of reaction PEKA

1. 0.2 mol dm3 sodium thiosulphate solution is prepared


by dissolving 49.6 g of solid Na2S2O3. 5H2O in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. 1.0 mol dm3 sulphuric acid is prepared by diluting
55.0 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid with distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Guided
Experiment

1.5

Effect of temperature

on

the
rate of reaction PEKA

4. Remind pupils to stay further away when the


liquids hexane and hex-1-ene are burnt in the
porcelain dishes. Use only 1 cm3 of each liquid for
combustion.

Activity

2.2

Preparation of ethanol, C2H5OH,


through fermentation

1. Use fresh yeast in this activity.

1. 0.2 mol dm3 sodium thiosulphate solution is prepared


by dissolving 49.6 g of solid Na2S2O3. 5H2O in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. 1.0 mol dm3 sulphuric acid is prepared by diluting
55.0 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid with distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

3. Potassium manganate(VII) solution is prepared by


dissolving 3 g of solid potassium manganate(VII) in
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

2. Ensure that the fermentation process is carried out


at a uniform temperature of about 30C.
3. Lime water is prepared by dissolving calcium
hydroxide powder in distilled water until the white
powder cannot be dissolved anymore. The mixture is
then filtered to obtain a saturated colourless solution
(lime water).

TC 16

Activity

2.3

3. 2 mol dm3 ammonia solution is prepared by diluting


135 cm3 of concentrated ammonia with distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Chemical properties of ethanol,


C2H5OH

1. Use absolute ethanol (pure ethanol) in this activity.


2. Remind pupils to be careful when burning the
ethanol.
3. Potassium dichromate(VI) solution is prepared by
dissolving 6 g of solid potassium dichromate(VI) in
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.
4. Remind pupils to be careful when handling
concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 because it is
corrosive.
5. Bromine water is prepared by adding 6 cm3 of liquid
bromine into 200 cm3 of distilled water in a reagent
bottle. The mixture is shaken well.
6. Remind pupils to heat the porcelain chips first until
they become very hot before the glass wool soaked
in ethanol is heated.

Activity

2.4

Chemical properties of ethanoic


acid, CH3COOH

Activity

1. Use fresh latex in this activity.


2. A solution of disulphur dichloride in methylbenzene is
prepared by dissolving 5 cm3 of disulphur dichloride
in 100 cm3 of methylbenzene. This preparation must
be carried out in the fume chamber.
3. Remind pupils to be careful when handling disulphur
dichloride because its vapour is poisonous.

Guided
Experiment

3. Remind pupils to take all necessary precautions


when heating the mixture in a boiling tube because
butan-1-ol is flammable.

Preparation of ester

1. Use absolute ethanol and glacial ethanoic acid in


this activity.
2. Remind pupils to be careful when handling the
corrosive concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4.
3. Ensure that hot oil bath is used to boil the mixture
in order to distill the ethyl ethanoate and to heat the
mixture uniformly.

Activity

2.6

Physical properties of ethyl


ethanoate, CH3COOC2H5

Chapter

2. Liquid ethyl ethanoate floats on the surface of water


but dissolves in propanone.

2.7

Comparison of the elasticity


of unvulcanised and vulcanised
rubber PEKA

Activity

Oxidation and Reduction


3.1

Combustion of metal in oxygen gas,


O2

1. Ensure that pupils remove the oxide layer on the


surface of the magnesium ribbon by rubbing it using
sandpaper.

Activity

3.2

Heating of metal oxide with carbon

1. Remind pupils to mix copper(II) oxide, CuO with


carbon powder thoroughly.
2. Ensure that carbon and copper(II) oxide, CuO used
are in powder form.

3.3

Change of iron(II) ions, Fe2+ to


iron(III) ions, Fe3+ and vice-versa

1. 0.5 mol dm3 iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4 solution is


prepared by dissolving 140 g of solid FeSO4. 7H2O and
100 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. 0.5 mol dm3 iron(III) sulphate, Fe2(SO4)3 solution is
prepared by dissolving 200 g of solid Fe2(SO4)3 in
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Coagulation of latex

1. Use fresh latex in this activity.


2. 2 mol dm3 ethanoic acid is prepared by diluting
114 cm3 of glacial ethanoic acid with distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.

Activity

1. Propanone is poisonous. Be careful when handling


it.

Activity

2.9

1. Use the unvulcanised and vulcanised rubber strips


from Activity 2.8.

2. Remind pupils to be careful when handling the


corrosive concentrated sulphuric acid and glacial
ethanoic acid.

2.5

Vulcanisation of rubber

2. Remind pupils to measure again the length of each


rubber strip after the removal of the weight.

1. Use glacial ethanoic acid and pure butan-1-ol in this


activity.

Activity

2.8

3. Bromine water is prepared by adding approximately


6 cm 3 of liquid bromine into a reagent bottle
containing 200 cm3 of distilled water. The bottle is
stoppered and the mixture is then shaken well.

TC 17

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

4. Chlorine water is prepared by mixing the same ratio


of volume of sodium chlorate(I), NaClO solution with
dilute sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in a reagent bottle.

4. 0.5 mol dm3 potassium iodide, KI solution is prepared


by dissolving 83.0 g of solid KI in distilled water and
then make it to 1 dm3.

5. 2 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide solution is prepared


by dissolving 80.0 g of solid sodium hydroxide, NaOH
in distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

5. 0.2 mol dm3 acidified potassium dichromate(VI)


solution is prepared by dissolving 58.8 g of solid
K2Cr2O7 and 500 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid in
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Activity

6. 50 g dm3 potassium thiocyanate, KSCN solution is


prepared by dissolving 50 g of solid KSCN in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

3.4

Displacement of metals

1. 0.5 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate solution is prepared


by dissolving 125 g of solid CuSO4.5H2O in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. 0.1 mol dm3 silver nitrate is prepared by dissolving
17.0 g of solid AgNO3 in distilled water and then
make it to 1 dm3.
3. Ensure that pupils remove the oxide layer on the
surface of the zinc and copper strips by rubbing
them using sandpaper.

Activity

3.5

Displacement of halogens

1. 0.5 mol dm3 potassium chloride solution is prepared


by dissolving 37.25 g of solid KCl in distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. 0.5 mol dm3 potassium bromide solution is prepared
by dissolving 59.5 g of solid KBr in distilled water and
then make it to 1 dm3.
3. 0.5 mol dm3 potassium iodide solution is prepared
by dissolving 83.0 g of solid KI in distilled water and
then make it to 1 dm3.
4. Bromine water is prepared by adding approximately
6 cm 3 of liquid bromine into a reagent bottle
containing 200 cm3 of distilled water. The bottle is
stoppered and the mixture is then shaken well.
5. Chlorine water is prepared by mixing the same ratio
of volume of sodium chlorate(I), NaClO solution with
dilute sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in a reagent bottle.
6. Iodine solution is prepared by dissolving 25 g of
solid iodine in 1 dm3 of 50 g dm3 potassium iodide
solution.
7. Remind pupils that chlorine water, bromine water
and iodine solution are poisonous.

Activity

3.6

7. 1% starch solution is prepared by dissolving 1 g


of starch powder in a little cold water in a beaker
and then add 1 dm3 of boiling water into the beaker.
Stir the mixture well.
8. Ensure that pupils clean the carbon electrodes with
sandpaper before using them.

Guided
Experiment

1. 2.0 mol dm3 sulphuric acid is prepared by diluting


110.0 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid with distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Effect of other metals on


rusting

1. 50 g dm3 of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution


is prepared by dissolving 50 g of solid K3Fe(CN)6 in
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. A hot jelly solution containing potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III) solution and phenolphthalein
indicator is prepared by adding 5 g of jelly into 100
cm3 of boiling water. Then, a few drops of potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III) solution and phenolphthalein
indicator are added into the jelly solution.
3. Ensure that pupils clean the iron nails, magnesium
ribbon, copper strip, zinc strip and tin strip with
sandpaper before using them.

Activity

3.8

Reactivity series of metals with


oxygen

1. Remind pupils to heat the metal strongly first before


heating the solid potassium manganate(VII).
2. Remind pupils not to mix the metal powder with
solid potassium manganate(VII) because the mixture
of the two substances will cause explosion when
heated.

Activity

Transfer of electrons at a distance

3.7

3.9

The position of carbon in the


reactivity series of metals with
oxygen

1. Remind pupils to mix the metal oxide with carbon


powder thoroughly before heating the mixture.

2. 0.5 mol dm3 iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4 solution is


prepared by dissolving 140 g of solid FeSO4.7H2O and
100 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Activity

3. 0.2 mol dm3 acidified potassium manganate(VII)


solution is prepared by dissolving 32 g of solid
potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 and 500 cm3 of
dilute sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in distilled water and
then make it to 1 dm3.

1. 1 mol dm3 sulphuric acid is prepared by diluting


55.0 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid with distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

TC 18

3.10 The position of hydrogen in the


reactivity series of metals with
oxygen (Demonstration by teacher)

2. 1 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate solution is prepared


by dissolving 250 g of solid CuSO4.5H2O in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

2. 0.5 mol dm3 silver nitrate solution is prepared by


dissolving 85 g of solid silver nitrate in distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.

3. Ensure that the flow of hydrogen gas is continuous


throughout the activity.

3. Remind pupils to stir the reacting mixture throughout


the activity using the thermometer until the highest
temperature is obtained.

Activity

3.11 Oxidation and reduction in


electrolytic cells

1. 1 mol dm potassium iodide solution is prepared


by dissolving 166 g of solid KI in distilled water and
then make it to 1 dm3.
3

2. 1% starch solution is prepared by dissolving 1 g of


starch powder in a little cold water in a beaker and
then add 1 dm3 of boiling water into the beaker. Stir
the mixture well.
3. Ensure that pupils clean the carbon electrodes with
sandpaper before using them.

Activity

3.12 Oxidation and reduction in


chemical cells

1. 1 mol dm zinc sulphate solution is prepared by


dissolving 161 g of solid ZnSO4 in distilled water and
then make it to 1 dm3.
3

2. 1 mol dm copper sulphate solution is prepared


by dissolving 250 g of solid CuSO4.5H2O in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.
3

Guided
Experiment

4.3

Heat of displacement of
copper

PEKA

1. 0.2 mol dm3 copper(II) sulphate solution is prepared


by dissolving 50.0 g of CuSO4.5H2O in distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.
2. Use fresh zinc powder and magnesium powder
because old stocks may contain zinc and magnesium
that have been oxidised respectively.
3. Ensure that the reacting mixture is continuously
stirred with the thermometer until the highest
temperature is obtained.

Guided
Experiment

4.4

Heat of neutralisation for


reactions between strong acids
and strong alkalis PEKA

1. 1.0 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide solution is prepared


by dissolving 40.0 g of solid sodium hydroxide in
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

3. 1 mol dm iron(II) sulphate solution is prepared by


dissolving 280 g of solid FeSO4.7H2O in distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.

2. 1.0 mol dm 3 potassium hydroxide solution is


prepared by dissolving 56.0 g of solid potassium
hydroxide in distilled water and then make it to
1 dm3.

4. 1 mol dm3 lead(II) nitrate solution is prepared by


dissolving 331 g of solid Pb(NO3)2 in distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.

3. 1.0 mol dm 3 hydrochloric acid is prepared by


diluting 85 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid
with distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Chapter

Activity

4. 1.0 mol dm3 nitric acid is prepared by diluting 65


cm3 of concentrated nitric acid with distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.

Thermochemistry
4.1

5. Ensure that the reacting mixture is continuously


stirred until the highest temperature is obtained.

Exothermic and endothermic


reactions

1. 2 mol dm hydrochloric acid is prepared by diluting


170 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid with
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.
3

2. Remind pupils to be careful when handling solid


sodium hydroxide because it is caustic. Avoid skin
contact.

Activity

4.2

Heat of precipitation of silver


chloride

1. 0.5 mol dm3 sodium chloride solution is prepared by


dissolving 29.25 g of solid sodium chloride in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Guided
Experiment

4.5

Heat of neutralisation for


reactions between acids and
alkalis of different strengths
PEKA

1. 2.0 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution


is prepared by dissolving 80.0 g of solid sodium
hydroxide in distilled water and then make it to
1 dm3.
2. 2.0 mol dm3 ethanoic acid is prepared by diluting
116 cm3 of glacial ethanoic acid with distilled water
and then make it to 1 dm3.
3. 2.0 mol dm 3 ammonia solution is prepared by
diluting 135 cm3 of concentrated ammonia with
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

TC 19

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

4. 2.0 mol dm 3 hydrochloric acid is prepared by


diluting 170 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid
with distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

Chapter

Chemicals for Consumers

5. Remind pupils that the reacting mixture must be


stirred continuously with the thermometer until the
highest temperature is obtained.

Activity

Guided
Experiment

1. 5 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide solution is prepared


by dissolving 200.0 g of solid sodium hydroxide in
distilled water and then make it to 1 dm3.

4.6

Heat of combustion of alcohols


PEKA

1. The copper can can be replaced by an aluminium


can.
2. Use pure methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan1-ol.
3. Ensure that the water in the copper can is
continuously stirred using the thermometer.
4. During the combustion of alcohol, make sure that
the flame touches the bottom of the copper can (i.e.
no gap between the can and the flame).
5. Cover the surroundings with a windshield to avoid
disturbance by wind.
6. Remind pupils to weigh the spirit lamp containing
alcohol immediately before and after the
combustion.

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

5.1

Preparation of soap through


saponification

2. Remind pupils to be careful when handling sodium


hydroxide solution because it is very caustic.

Guided
Experiment

5.2

Effectiveness of cleansing
action of soap and detergent
PEKA

1. Soap solution is prepared by dissolving a small piece


of soap in distilled water.
2. Detergent solution is prepared by mixing 100 cm3 of
dish washing liquid with 100 cm3 of distilled water.
3. 1 mol dm3 magnesium sulphate solution is prepared
by dissolving 246 g of solid MgSO4.7H2O in distilled
water and then make it to 1 dm3.

TC 20